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  • Kohonen, Jukka; Corander, Jukka (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2015)
    An exponential-time exact algorithm is provided for the task of clustering n items of data into k clusters. Instead of seeking one partition, posterior probabilities are computed for summary statistics: the number of clusters, and pairwise co-occurrence. The method is based on subset convolution, and yields the posterior distribution for the number of clusters in O(n 3^n) operations, or O(n^3 2^n) using fast subset convolution. Pairwise co-occurrence probabilities are then obtained in O(n^3 2^n) operations. This is considerably faster than exhaustive enumeration of all partitions.
  • Lambert, David; Solem, Michael; Tani, Sirpa (Routledge, 2015)
    This article provides the theoretical underpinnings for an innovative international collaborative project in the field of geography education named GeoCapabilities. The project attempts to respond in new ways to enduring challenges facing geography teachers in schools. These include the need to find convincing expression of geography's contribution to the education of all young people and coping with the apparent divergence of geography in educational settings and its highly disparate expression as a research discipline in university departments. The project also hopes to contribute to the development of a framework for communicating the aims and purposes of geography in schools internationally, because here, too, there is great variety in definitions of national standards and even of disciplinary allegiances (including, e.g., the social studies, humanities, and biological sciences). GeoCapabilities does not seek to flatten such divergences, for one of geography's great strengths is its breadth. The long-term goal is to establish a secure platform for the international development of teachers' capacities as creative and disciplined innovators. The project encourages teachers to think beyond program delivery and implementation and to embrace their role as the curriculum makers.
  • Khatchatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; CMS Collaboration (Springer, 2015)
  • Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    This article investigates how interpersonal relationships are expressed in medical consultations. In particular, we focus on how modes of address are used in the two national varieties of Swedish: Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish, with the aim to compare the pragmatic routines in the two varieties. Thus the study contributes to the field of variational pragmatics, where national varieties of pluricentric languages are recognised as important research objects. Address practices are analysed in two comparable corpora of video recordings from Sweden and Finland using both a quantitative and a qualitative CA-inspired method. There are several differences between the data sets: the Sweden-Swedish data are characterised by exclusive use of the informal T pronoun (du ‘you’) and an overall higher frequency of direct address compared to the Finland-Swedish data. In some medical consultations in the latter Finland-Swedish data the formal V pronoun (ni) is used. The qualitative analysis confirms these differences and the tendency is that the Sweden-Swedish medical consultations are more informal than the Finland-Swedish ones, which are characterised by more formality and maintenance of social distance between the interlocutors. The different pragmatic orientations at the micro level of communication can also be related to socio-cultural preferences at the macro level in society – the development towards greater informality and intimate language is more pronounced in Sweden than in Finland.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Toivonen, Tuuli (2015)
    Aichi target 11 of the Convention of Biological Diversity promotes the expansion of the global protected area network to cover 17 percent of all terrestrial land and ­10 percent of coastal and marine areas by 2020 ( At the recent World Parks Congress, organized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Sydney, Australia, 12 innovative approaches were promoted as part of the “Promise of Sydney” to help transform decisionmaking, policy, capacity, and financing for protected areas in the next decade ( The first of such approaches includes a list of 20 important recommendations to help reach conservation goals. Many of these ­recommendations are provided for ­single countries to take action individually. In addition, the final recommendation advocates that a more ambitious target of protection (50 percent global protection) should be promoted to more adequately conserve biodiversity. Both points are problematic: recent research shows that facilitating international collaboration among countries is crucial to identifying and implementing a well-connected system of protected areas that can better represent threatened biodiversity, and setting unrealistic and politically challenging global protection targets is unneeded. This Viewpoint presents three main themes of the recommendations that would benefit from greater emphasis and the promotion of the importance of international collaborations.
  • Tahko, Tuomas E. (Oxford University Press, 2015)
    Recent work on Natural Kind Essentialism has taken a deflationary turn. The assumptions about the grounds of essentialist truths concerning natural kinds familiar from the Kripke-Putnam framework are now considered questionable. The source of the problem, however, has not been sufficiently explicated. The paper focuses on the Twin Earth scenario and it will be demonstrated that the essentialist principle at its core (which I call IDENT) – necessarily, a sample of a chemical substance, A, is of the same kind as another sample, B, if and only if A and B have the same microstructure – must be re-evaluated. The Twin Earth scenario also assumes the falsity of another essentialist principle (which I call INST): necessarily, there is a 1:1 correlation between (all of) the chemical properties of a chemical substance and the microstructure of that substance. This assumption will be questioned, and it will be argued that, in fact, the best strategy for defending IDENT is to establish INST. The prospects for Natural Kind Essentialism and microstructural essentialism regarding chemical substances will be assessed with reference to recent work in the philosophy of chemistry. Finally, a weakened form of INST will be presented.
  • Vismantic 
    Xiao, Ping; Linkola, Simo Matias (2015)
    This paper presents Vismantic, a semi-automatic system generating proposals of visual composition (visual ideas) in order to express specific meanings. It implements a process of developing visual solutions from ‘what to say’ to ‘how to say’, which requires both conceptual and visual creativity. In particular, Vismantic extends previous work on using conceptual knowledge to find diverse visual representations of abstract concepts, with the capacity of combining two images in three ways, including juxtaposition, replacement and fusion. In an informal evaluation consisting of five communication tasks, Vismantic demonstrated the potential of producing a number of expressive and diverse ideas, among which many are surprising. Our analysis of the generated images confirms that visual meaning making is a subtle interaction between all elements in a picture, for which Vismantic demands more visual semantic knowledge, higher image analysis and synthesis skills, and the ability of interpreting composed images, in order to deliver more ideas that make sense.
  • Kneifel, Stefan; von Lerber, Annakaisa; Tiira, Jussi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Kollias, Pavlos; Leinonen, Jussi (American Geophysical Union, 2015)
    Recently published studies of triple-frequency radar observations of snowfall have demonstrated that naturally occurring snowflakes exhibit scattering signatures that are in some cases consistent with spheroidal particle models and in others can only be explained by complex aggregates. Until recently, no in situ observations have been available to investigate links between microphysical snowfall properties and their scattering properties. In this study, we investigate for the first time relations between collocated ground-based triple-frequency observations with in situ measurements of snowfall at the ground. The three analyzed snowfall cases obtained during a recent field campaign in Finland cover light to moderate snowfall rates with transitions from heavily rimed snow to open-structured, low-density snowflakes. The observed triple-frequency signatures agree well with the previously published findings from airborne radar observations. A rich spatiotemporal structure of triple-frequency observations throughout the cloud is observed during the three cases, which often seems to be related to riming and aggregation zones within the cloud. The comparison of triple-frequency signatures from the lowest altitudes with the ground-based in situ measurements reveals that in the presence of large (>5 mm) snow aggregates, a bending away in the triple-frequency space from the curve of classical spheroid scattering models is always observed. Rimed particles appear along an almost horizontal line in the triple-frequency space, which was not observed before. Overall, the three case studies indicate a close connection of triple-frequency signatures and snow particle structure, bulk snowfall density, and characteristic size of the particle size distribution.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla; Olsson, Sanna Elina; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies.
  • Ahonen, Pertti Pellervo (ResearchGate, 2015)
    The purpose of this article is an examination informed by neo-institutional political and related research on two foremost aspects of institutionalization, performance and legitimation. Political research published by scholars of the extended Baltic region by late May r 2013 comprises the study topic. The article considers political research in four selected subfields: general political science, international relations/world politics, public policy, and public administration/public management. The results indicate that Denmark and Norway are “great powers” in the region, with a strong presence in strongly legitimate publication arenas of political research. Looking further at the performance suggested by publications and citations to these, Sweden and Finland stand out no less than Denmark and Norway, and Estonia and Lithuania also receive visibility. Examining performance with the bibliometric “h” index suggests that “size matters”, which accentuates German achievements, although Norway, Denmark and Sweden continue to stand out despite their relatively small population size.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R. (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon.
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, Aleksanteri-instituutti, 2015)
    Through its use of the Arctic, Russia tries to fortify the idea that it is a global Energy Superpower
  • Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich; Kazakova, Marina (Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch: Institute Botanic Garden, Yekaterinburg, 2015)
    The records of H. murorum s.l. or H. gentile from the Ryazan Region were found to belong to H. lepistoides (native), H. sylvularum (established alien, new to the Ryazan Region) and an unidentified species of Hieracium (alien). The records of H. vulgatum or H. jaccardii from the Ryazan Region belong to another unidentified alien species. Hieracium lepistoides is reported as new to the Vladimir Region, restricted to the Meshchera Lowlands. Hieracium robustum (new to the Ryazan Region) was found sympatric with H. virosum.
  • Eranti, Veikko Oskari; Lonkila, Markku Kalle (FIRST MONDAY EDITORIAL GROUP, 2015)
    In this paper we study social aspects of using the Like button for purposes of impression management, identity construction, and maintenance of social ties online. On the theoretical level our investigation combines Goffman’s notion of face-work with concepts of social network analysis, shedding light on what we dub ‘nano-level’ interaction and sociality on social networking sites. Our data come from a 2013 classroom survey in which 26 Finnish university students were asked about their motives for and ways of using the Like button. Our results show that though the Like button was designed to allow users to express their positive evaluations of the contents of Facebook posts, comments, and pictures, it was in actual fact used for a wide variety of purposes, from dating efforts to conversation regulation and maintenance of social ties. Our results also reveal that the networked Facebook audience affects the users’ liking behavior, and that users reflect their liking based on previous likes.
  • Cousminer, Diana L.; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Chheda, Himanshu; Surakka, Ida; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ellonen, Pekka; Ripatti, Samuli; Dunkel, Leo; Palotie, Aarno; Widen, Elisabeth (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2) and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79-124 Mb (genome build GRCh37) in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (<6% in the Finnish population) in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu) population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants under linkage regions for complex traits and suggests that advancements in annotation of gene function and regulatory regions of the genome will be critical for solving the genetic background of complex phenotypes like CDGP.
  • Lehtisaari, Katja (Suomen Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2015)
    Idäntutkimus-lehden 2/2015 pääkirjoitus
  • Sennikov, Alexander N.; Barkworth, Mary E.; Welker, Cassiano A. D.; Prado, Jefferson (INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PLANT TAXONOMY, 2015)