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  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Ryvarden, Leif; Miettinen, Otto (Fungiflora, 2015)
    In total, 7 species of heterobasidiomycetes are reported for the first time from St. Helena. A new genus Dendrogloeon (Auricularilaes) is introduced for the new species D. helenae based on both DNA and morphological data. Saccoblastia media, sp. nova, is the sole representative of the Pucciniomycotina, so far found in the study area.
  • Ganelli, Giovanni; Tervala, Juha (International Monetary Fund, 2015)
  • Lehtisaari, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, Aleksanteri-instituutti, 2015)
    Viime aikojen muutokset median sääntelyssä Venäjällä näyttävät johtavan kohti samaa päämäärää, yhä suurempaa valtion ohjailua, kirjoittaa Katja Lehtisaari.
  • Garant, Mikel Del (TAMK, Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu, 2015)
    This paper discusses a recent study trip to St Petersburg, Russia. 21 Finnish and foreign students and 2 instructors visited NCC and Finpro in addition to a full cultural program. Experiential learning or learning-by-doing (see Dewey, 1938; Gibbs, 1988; Kolb & Kolb, 2005) is a fundamental concept in education that is especially useful to describe the experience of the students discussed in this paper. The participants saw firsthand what is going on in St Petersburg, Russia, which broadened their perspectives and enhanced their learning. Such study trips are an excellent way to enhance learning. - See more at:
  • Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Yaniv, Elitsur; Kalendar, Ruslan; Raats, Dina; Bariana, Harbans S.; Reza Bihamta, Mohammad; Schulman, Alan (SPRINGER, 2015)
    Stripe rust (Pucinia striformis f.sp. tritici) is one of the most important fungal diseases of wheat, found on all continents and in over 60 countries. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, which is the tetraploid progenitor of durum wheat, is a valuable source of novel stripe rust resistance genes for wheat breeding. T. dicoccoides G25 accession carries Yr15, a gene on chromosome arm 1BS. Yr15 confers resistance to all known stripe rust isolates; it is also effective in introgressed durum and bread wheat. Retrotransposons generate polymorphic insertions, which can be scored as Mendelian markers with techniques including REMAP and IRAP. Six REMAP and IRAP-derived SCAR markers were developed using 1256 F2 plants derived from crosses of the susceptible T. durum accession D447 with its resistant BC3F9 and BC3F10 (B9 and B10) near isogenic lines, which carried Yr15 introgressed from G25. The nearest markers segregated 0.1 cM proximally and 1.1 cM distally to Yr15. These markers were also mapped and validated at the same position in another independent 500 F2 plants derived from crosses of B9 and B10 with the susceptible cultivar Langdon. SCAR270 and SCAR790, surrounding Yr15 at an interval of 1.2 cM, were found to be reliable and robust co-dominant markers in a wide range of wheat lines and cultivars with and without Yr15. These markers are useful tags in marker-assisted wheat breeding programs aiming to incorporate Yr15 into elite wheat lines and cultivars for durable and broad-spectrum resistance against stripe rust.
  • Basso, Alessandra; Marchionni, Caterina (Gruppo di ricerca APhEx, 2015)
    The paper reviews the philosophical literature on the epistemology of modelling in contemporary economics. In particular, it focuses on open questions concerning the epistemic role of models, the validity of inferences from the models to the world, and the legitimacy of their use for purposes of explanation, prediction and intervention.
  • Korhonen, Elina; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Lähtinen, Katja Päivikki; Ranacher, Lea; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja (2015)
    Despite rapidly increasing global awareness of environmental issues and growing demand for corporate environmental disclosure, little is known regarding how different segments of the European forest industry communicate their sustainability efforts to the general public. This study applies a qualitative content analysis in four forestry-rich European countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia). The existing online communication of 80 companies and industry associations were content analysed using Atlas.ti/MaxQDA softwares during summer-fall 2014 with a focus on eight “core topics of interest” formulated at an international stakeholder meeting. Overall, our results based on about 7000 observations in the content of forest sector online communication show with some exceptions a high conformity in communication both across countries and industry segments. The most commonly communicate topic was Forests and economy (FEC), particularly within large companies and especially in Finland and Austria. Instead, Added Value (AVA) was emphasized especially within family businesses and SMEs operating in Slovenia. In comparison, the least emphasized topics were in our total sample Wood based innovations (WBI) and Forest ecosystem services (FES). This can potentially be a cause of some concern due to the timeliness and strong future orientation of both issues. Furthermore, stakeholder expectations about tailored communication were rarely expressed in explicit terms, making the evaluation of the communication efficacy and effectiveness difficult. Future development needs are arising from a lack of awareness of some topics and the very specialized information requirements of some stakeholder groups. The and increased requirements for social media activity in the future are also discussed.
  • Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Rasehorn, Mira; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha (Public Library of Science, 2015)
  • Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Ylinen, Aarne (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    Background In spinal paired associative stimulation (PAS), orthodromic volleys are induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in upper motor neurons, and antidromic volleys by peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in lower motor neurons of human corticospinal tract. The volleys arriving synchronously to the corticomotoneuronal synapses induce spike time-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. For clinical use of spinal PAS, it is important to develop protocols that reliably induce facilitation of corticospinal transmission. Due to variability in conductivity of neuronal tracts in neurological patients, it is beneficial to estimate interstimulus interval (ISI) between TMS and PNS on individual basis. Spinal root magnetic stimulation has previously been used for this purpose in spinal PAS targeting upper limbs. However, at lumbar level this method does not take into account the conduction time of spinal nerves of the cauda equina in the spinal canal. New method For lower limbs spinal PAS, we propose estimating appropriate ISIs on the basis of F-response and motor-evoked potential (MEP) latencies. The use of navigation in TMS and ensuring correct PNS electrode placement with F-response recording enhances the precision of the method. Results Our protocol induced 186 ± 17% (mean ± STE) MEP amplitude facilitation in healthy subjects, being effective in all subjects and nerves tested. Comparison with existing method We report for the first time the individual estimation of ISIs in spinal PAS for lower limbs. Conclusions Estimation of ISI on the basis of F and MEP latencies is sufficient to effectively enhance corticospinal transmission by lower limb spinal PAS in healthy subjects. Keywords Paired associative stimulation; Neuronal plasticity; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Electrical stimulation therapy; F-response
  • Korhonen, Anu (Transcript Verlag, 2015)
  • Stok, Marijn; König, Laura; Nurmi, Johanna; Müller, Andre Matthias (European Health Psychology Society, 2015)
  • Tarasenko, Anna; Kulmala, Meri Susanna (European University at St. Petersburg, 2015)
  • Stevanovic, Melisa (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    Joint planning consists of people making proposals for future actions and events, and others accepting or rejecting these proposals. While proposals convey their speakers’ judgments of some ideas as feasible, however, in anticipation of and in an attempt to pre-empt the recipients’ rejection of their proposals, the speakers may begin to express doubt with the feasibility of their proposals. It is such ‘‘post-proposal displays of uncertainty,’’ and their interactional corollaries, that this paper focuses on. Drawing on video-recorded planning meetings as data, and conversation analysis as a method, I describe three ways for the recipients to respond to post-proposal displays of uncertainty: the recipients may (1) overcome, (2) confirm, or (3) dispel their co-participants’ doubts. Even if the outcome of the proposal, in each case, is its abandonment, the analysis points out to important differences in how these response options treat the first speakers’ ‘‘proximal deontic claims’’ -- that is, their implicit assertions of rights to control the participants’ local interactional agenda. The paper concludes by discussing the idea of proximal deontics with reference to other related notions.
  • Kivinen, Markku (Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunta, 2015)
    Monitieteisyys ja tieteidenvälisyys eivät ole uusia ideoita. Viimeisen parinkymmenen vuoden aikana ne ovat kuitenkin saaneet uutta tuulta purjeisiinsa. Yhdysvalloissa Immanuel Wallerstein analysoi Gulbekianin komission raporttiin yhteiskuntatieteellisten disipliinien kehkeytymistä radikaalissa hengessä: perinteisen tieteenalakohtaisen tutkimuksen sijaan tulisi rikkoa disipliinien rajat ja sillä tavoin lisätä tieteen yhteiskunnallista relevanssia (Wallerstein 1996). Pian sama henki puhkui myös Euroopassa. Suomenkin tiedepolitiikassa on tähdennetty tieteidenvälisyyttä.
  • Nieminen, Pekka J.; Gallardo-Gutiérrez, Eva A. (OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2015)
  • Rosendahl, Ulrika (Historiskarkeologiska föreningen, 2015)
    The medieval hamlet Mankby in Espoo, Southern Finland, excavated from 2007–2013, has revealed a landscape that reflects the complex development of the region – from the initial Swedish colonization to the emergence of an established medieval village, a village that was abruptly dissolved in 1556, when the freeholding peasants were forced to leave their land to the royal demesne that the Swedish king Gustavus Vasa founded on this spot. This study explores this landscape change, and the different layers in the landscape through analyse of historical maps combined with data from archaeological field work. The land use in the area gives a quite stable impression from the end of the middle ages to the enlightenment, even though a drastic change in the experienced landscape appeared when the demesne took over the land. In contrast, the medieval hamlet period from the 13th to the mid-16th century show shifts in the land use and movements within the toftland that reflects the dynamics of the medieval period and shifts in agricultural technique.
  • Biazik, Joanna; Vihinen, Helena; Anwar, Tahira; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa (ACADEMIC PRESS, 2015)
    Both light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) are able to reveal important information about the formation and function of various autophagic compartments. In this article we will outline the various techniques that are emerging in EM, focusing on analyzing three-dimensional morphology, collectively known as volume electron microscopy (volume EM), as well as on methods that can be used to localize proteins and antigenic epitopes. Large cell volumes can now be visualized at the EM level by using one of the two complementary imaging techniques, namely Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SB-SEM) or Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM). These two blockface imaging methods reveal ultrastructural information from all membrane-bound organelles such as autophagic compartments to be visualized in a three-dimensional space, in association with their surrounding organelles. Another method which falls into the volume EM category is dual-axis electron tomography (ET). This method is more suited to reconstructing smaller volumes from areas of interest that require nano-structural detail to be confirmed such as membrane contact sites (MCSs) between autophagic compartments and various organelles. Further to this, to complement the morphological identification of autophagic compartments, immunolabeling can be carried out at the EM level to confirm the nature of various autophagic compartments depending on the localization of various antigens at a sub-cellular level. To determine this, various immunolabeling techniques can be carried out, namely the pre-embedding or the post-embedding immunolabeling methods. Examples of both of these methods will be described in this chapter. Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) can be used to visualize the same autophagic organelles under the LM, followed by high-resolution imaging under the EM. Finally, cryofixation has revolutionized the EM field by allowing rapid immobilization of cells and tissue in the near native state, so samples are no longer prone to artefacts induced by chemical fixation. Collectively, this chapter will discuss the aforementioned capabilities of the EM in more detail, with a particular focus on autophagy, namely the impact of EM in the study of the morphology and biogenesis of the phagophore/isolation membrane (referred to as the phagophore hereafter).
  • Bleyer, Ismael Rodrigo; Leitão, Antonio (Publicações matemáticas do IMPA, 2015)