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Now showing items 21-40 of 1900
  • Montovan, Kathryn J.; Couchoux, Christelle; Jones, Laura E.; Reeve, Hudson K.; van Nouhuys, Saskya (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, 2015)
    When there is conspicuous underexploitation of a limited resource, it is worth asking, what mechanisms allow presumably valuable resources to be left unused? Evolutionary biologists have generated a wide variety of hypotheses to explain this, ranging from interdemic group selection to selfishly prudent individual restraint. We consider a situation in which, despite high intraspecific competition, individuals leave most of a key resource unexploited. The parasitic wasp that does this finds virtually all host egg clusters in a landscape but parasitizes only about a third of the eggs in each and then leaves a deterrent mark around the cluster. We first test—and reject—a series of system-specific simple constraints that might limit full host exploitation, such as asynchronous maturation of host eggs. We then consider classical hypotheses for the evolution of restraint. Prudent predation and bet-hedging fail as explanations because the wasp lives as a large, well-mixed population. Additionally, we find no individual benefits to the parasitoid of developing in a sparsely parasitized host nest.However, an optimal foragingmodel, including empirically measured costs of superparasitism and hyperparasitism, can explain through individual selection both the consistently low rate of parasitism and deterrent marking.
  • Kahanpää, Jere; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz (Pensoft Publishers, 2015)
    The recent checklist of the Ephydridae of Finland by Zatwarnicki and Kahanpää (2014) mentioned 13 ephydrid species as new for Finland without further details. This paper presents detailed records for those species and a few other species of interest. Four species are recorded for the first time from Russia. junior synonym of Trimerina microchaeta Trimerina in distincta Krivosheina, 2004 is herein considered as a new Hendel, 1932, syn. nov.
  • Tiittula, Liisa (KAINUUN SANOMAT, 2015)
  • Mustajoki, Arto Samuel; Teeri, Tuula (Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta, 2015)
  • Sorainen, Antu (2015)
    An essay on alternative education: utopias from the Summerhillian education ideals to the Finnish pedagogy's history
  • Weinheimer, Isabel; Jiu, Yaming; Rajamäki, Minna; Matilainen, Olli; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Cuellar, Wilmer; Lu, Rui; Saarma, Mart; Holmberg, Carina I; Jäntti, Jussi; Valkonen, Jari (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE., 2015)
    Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV) infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant) and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA) molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)–mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3) produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are homologous in unrelated RNA and DNA viruses and can be detected in viral genomes using gene modeling and protein structure prediction programs.
  • Jaakko, Pohjoismäki; Antti, Haarto; Kaj, Winqvist; Kahanpää, Jere (Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 2015)
  • Sandberg, Erja; Vuorinen, Kaisa (ADHD-liitto, 2015)
    Positiivinen pedagogiikka, luonteenvahvuudet, ADHD
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Ryvarden, Leif; Miettinen, Otto (Fungiflora, 2015)
    In total, 7 species of heterobasidiomycetes are reported for the first time from St. Helena. A new genus Dendrogloeon (Auricularilaes) is introduced for the new species D. helenae based on both DNA and morphological data. Saccoblastia media, sp. nova, is the sole representative of the Pucciniomycotina, so far found in the study area.
  • Ganelli, Giovanni; Tervala, Juha (International Monetary Fund, 2015)
  • Lehtisaari, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, Aleksanteri-instituutti, 2015)
    Viime aikojen muutokset median sääntelyssä Venäjällä näyttävät johtavan kohti samaa päämäärää, yhä suurempaa valtion ohjailua, kirjoittaa Katja Lehtisaari.
  • Garant, Mikel Del (TAMK, Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu, 2015)
    This paper discusses a recent study trip to St Petersburg, Russia. 21 Finnish and foreign students and 2 instructors visited NCC and Finpro in addition to a full cultural program. Experiential learning or learning-by-doing (see Dewey, 1938; Gibbs, 1988; Kolb & Kolb, 2005) is a fundamental concept in education that is especially useful to describe the experience of the students discussed in this paper. The participants saw firsthand what is going on in St Petersburg, Russia, which broadened their perspectives and enhanced their learning. Such study trips are an excellent way to enhance learning. - See more at:
  • Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Yaniv, Elitsur; Kalendar, Ruslan; Raats, Dina; Bariana, Harbans S.; Reza Bihamta, Mohammad; Schulman, Alan (SPRINGER, 2015)
    Stripe rust (Pucinia striformis f.sp. tritici) is one of the most important fungal diseases of wheat, found on all continents and in over 60 countries. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, which is the tetraploid progenitor of durum wheat, is a valuable source of novel stripe rust resistance genes for wheat breeding. T. dicoccoides G25 accession carries Yr15, a gene on chromosome arm 1BS. Yr15 confers resistance to all known stripe rust isolates; it is also effective in introgressed durum and bread wheat. Retrotransposons generate polymorphic insertions, which can be scored as Mendelian markers with techniques including REMAP and IRAP. Six REMAP and IRAP-derived SCAR markers were developed using 1256 F2 plants derived from crosses of the susceptible T. durum accession D447 with its resistant BC3F9 and BC3F10 (B9 and B10) near isogenic lines, which carried Yr15 introgressed from G25. The nearest markers segregated 0.1 cM proximally and 1.1 cM distally to Yr15. These markers were also mapped and validated at the same position in another independent 500 F2 plants derived from crosses of B9 and B10 with the susceptible cultivar Langdon. SCAR270 and SCAR790, surrounding Yr15 at an interval of 1.2 cM, were found to be reliable and robust co-dominant markers in a wide range of wheat lines and cultivars with and without Yr15. These markers are useful tags in marker-assisted wheat breeding programs aiming to incorporate Yr15 into elite wheat lines and cultivars for durable and broad-spectrum resistance against stripe rust.
  • Korhonen, Elina; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Lähtinen, Katja Päivikki; Ranacher, Lea; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja (2015)
    Despite rapidly increasing global awareness of environmental issues and growing demand for corporate environmental disclosure, little is known regarding how different segments of the European forest industry communicate their sustainability efforts to the general public. This study applies a qualitative content analysis in four forestry-rich European countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia). The existing online communication of 80 companies and industry associations were content analysed using Atlas.ti/MaxQDA softwares during summer-fall 2014 with a focus on eight “core topics of interest” formulated at an international stakeholder meeting. Overall, our results based on about 7000 observations in the content of forest sector online communication show with some exceptions a high conformity in communication both across countries and industry segments. The most commonly communicate topic was Forests and economy (FEC), particularly within large companies and especially in Finland and Austria. Instead, Added Value (AVA) was emphasized especially within family businesses and SMEs operating in Slovenia. In comparison, the least emphasized topics were in our total sample Wood based innovations (WBI) and Forest ecosystem services (FES). This can potentially be a cause of some concern due to the timeliness and strong future orientation of both issues. Furthermore, stakeholder expectations about tailored communication were rarely expressed in explicit terms, making the evaluation of the communication efficacy and effectiveness difficult. Future development needs are arising from a lack of awareness of some topics and the very specialized information requirements of some stakeholder groups. The and increased requirements for social media activity in the future are also discussed.
  • Basso, Alessandra; Marchionni, Caterina (Gruppo di ricerca APhEx, 2015)
    The paper reviews the philosophical literature on the epistemology of modelling in contemporary economics. In particular, it focuses on open questions concerning the epistemic role of models, the validity of inferences from the models to the world, and the legitimacy of their use for purposes of explanation, prediction and intervention.
  • Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Rasehorn, Mira; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha (Public Library of Science, 2015)
  • Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Ylinen, Aarne (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    Background In spinal paired associative stimulation (PAS), orthodromic volleys are induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in upper motor neurons, and antidromic volleys by peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in lower motor neurons of human corticospinal tract. The volleys arriving synchronously to the corticomotoneuronal synapses induce spike time-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. For clinical use of spinal PAS, it is important to develop protocols that reliably induce facilitation of corticospinal transmission. Due to variability in conductivity of neuronal tracts in neurological patients, it is beneficial to estimate interstimulus interval (ISI) between TMS and PNS on individual basis. Spinal root magnetic stimulation has previously been used for this purpose in spinal PAS targeting upper limbs. However, at lumbar level this method does not take into account the conduction time of spinal nerves of the cauda equina in the spinal canal. New method For lower limbs spinal PAS, we propose estimating appropriate ISIs on the basis of F-response and motor-evoked potential (MEP) latencies. The use of navigation in TMS and ensuring correct PNS electrode placement with F-response recording enhances the precision of the method. Results Our protocol induced 186 ± 17% (mean ± STE) MEP amplitude facilitation in healthy subjects, being effective in all subjects and nerves tested. Comparison with existing method We report for the first time the individual estimation of ISIs in spinal PAS for lower limbs. Conclusions Estimation of ISI on the basis of F and MEP latencies is sufficient to effectively enhance corticospinal transmission by lower limb spinal PAS in healthy subjects. Keywords Paired associative stimulation; Neuronal plasticity; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Electrical stimulation therapy; F-response
  • Mõttus, Matti; Takala, Tuure Leo Henrik; Stenberg, Teresa Pauline; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Yang, Bin; Nilson, Tiit (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
  • Bleyer, Ismael Rodrigo; Leitão, Antonio (Publicações matemáticas do IMPA, 2015)