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  • Koskennurmi-Sivonen, Ritva (Tekstiilikulttuuriseura, 2015)
    Tekstiilikulttuuriseuran julkaisuja
    Kirsti Kasnio (1937–2014) became a fashion designer at the mature age of over 50 years after having worked as an architect and a scenographer. This study sought answers to the following questions: 1) What is the relationship between fashion and architecture in the designer’s thoughts and work? 2) What was Kirsti Kasnio’s inspiration for her fashion creations, and how did she sketch them? 3) How were the pleated dresses constructed, and what was their shape? In order to answer these questions, I used a case study strategy with several corpora of data and different types of analysis. A brief look into Kirsti Kasnio’s family background and her work as an architect and scenographer helps to understand why her fashion career started so late. One important corpus of data consists of in-depth interviews and other discussions with Kirsti Kasnio. Other corpora of data consist of sketches, pictures used for inspiration, photographs taken by Kasnio herself during her design process, photographs of finished creations taken by professional photographers, media data from newspapers, magazines, and a TV program. The last but not least important corpus consists of her fashion creations. The five analyzed dresses represent well the core of Kasnio’s fashion and her work, as she wanted it to be seen. Tutkimuksessa on kysymys arkkitehti-lavastaja-muotisuunnittelija Kirsti Kasnion (1937–2014) työstä erityisesti sinä aikana, jolloin hän toimi muotisuunnittelijana 2000-luvulla. Kirsti Kasnion suunnittelutyön kohteita olivat ylelliset turkisasusteet sekä ilta- ja muut juhlapuvut, joiden tunnusomainen valmistustekniikka oli pliseeraus. Tutkimus etsii vastausta kysymyksiin: 1) Millainen oli muodin ja arkkitehtuurin yhteys arkkitehti-muotisuunnittelijan ajatuksissa ja töissä? 2) Millainen oli muotisuunnittelija Kirsti Kasnion suunnitteluprosessi ja luonnostelutapa? 3) Millainen on Kirsti Kasnion omaperäisten pliseerattujen pukujen muoto ja rakenne? Tutkimus sivuaa suppeasti myös Kirsti Kasnion perhetaustaa, työtä arkkitehtinä ja lavastajana sekä muotiyrityksen toiminnan periaatteita ja turkissuunnittelua. Kyseessä on tapaustutkimus, jonka aineistoina ovat haastattelut, media-aineisto, konkreettiset puvut sekä arkistoaineisto, johon kuuluu runsaasti suunnittelijan piirtämiä luonnoksia, puvuis-ta otettuja valokuvia sekä kirjoitettuja dokumentteja.
  • Paalasmaa, Joonas; Toivonen, Hannu; Partinen, Markku (IEEE, 2015)
  • Gelman, Vladimir; Appel, Hilary (George Washington University, 2015)
    PONARS Policy Memo Series
  • Fugallo, Giorgia; Aramini, Matteo; Koskelo, Jaakko; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco (American Physical Society through the American Institute of Physics, 2015)
    Understanding and controlling the way excitons propagate in solids is a key for tailoring materials with improved optoelectronic properties. A fundamental step in this direction is the determination of the exciton energy-momentum dispersion. Here, thanks to the solution of the parameter-free Bethe- Salpeter equation (BSE), we draw and explain the exciton energy-momentum map of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in the first three Brillouin zones. We show that h-BN displays strong excitonic effects not only in the optical spectra at vanishing momentum $\mathbf{q}$, as previously reported, but also at large $\mathbf{q}$. We validate our theoretical predictions by assessing the calculated exciton map by means of an inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) experiment. Moreover, we solve the discrepancies between previous experimental data and calculations, proving then that the BSE is highly accurate through the whole momentum range. Therefore, these results put forward the combination BSE and IXS as the tool of choice for addressing the exciton dynamics in complex materials.
  • Gelman, Vladimir (Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies, 2015)
  • Lehtisaari, Katja (Suomen Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2015)
    Idäntutkimus-lehden 3/2015 pääkirjoitus
  • Heinonen, Jussi S.; Kurz, Mark D. (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    The massive outpourings of Karoo and Ferrar continental flood basalts (CFBs) ~180 Ma ago mark the initial Jurassic rifting stages of the Gondwana supercontinent. The origin and sources of these eruptions have been debated for decades, largely due to difficulties in defining their parental melt and mantle source characteristics. Recent findings of Fe- and Mg-rich dikes (depleted ferropicrite suite) from Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, have shed light on the composition of the deep sub-Gondwanan mantle: these magmas have been connected to upper mantle sources presently sampled by the Southwest Indian Ocean mid-ocean ridge basalts (SWIR MORBs) or to high 3He/4He plume-entrained non-chondritic primitive mantle sources formed early in Earth’s history. In an attempt to determine their He isotopic composition and relative contributions from magmatic, cosmogenic, and radiogenic He sources, we performed in-vacuo stepwise crushing and melting analyses of olivine mineral separates, some of which were abraded to remove the outer layer. The best estimate for the mantle isotopic composition is given by a sample with the highest amount of He released (> 50%) during the first crushing step of an abraded coarse fraction. It has a 3He/4He of 7.03 ± 0.23 (2σ) times the atmospheric ratio (Ra), which is indistinguishable from those measured from SWIR MORBs (6.3‒7.3 Ra; source 3He/4He ~6.4–7.6 Ra at 180 Ma) and notably lower than in the most primitive lavas from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (up to 50 Ra), considered to represent the epitome magmas from non-chondritic primitive mantle sources. Previously published trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions do not suggest a direct genetic link to any modern hotspot of Indian or southern Atlantic Oceans. Although influence of a mantle plume cannot be ruled out, the high magma temperatures and SWIR MORB-like geochemistry of the suite are best explained by supercontinent insulation of a precursory Indian Ocean upper mantle source. Such a model is also supported by the majority of the recent studies on the structure, geochronology, and petrology of the Karoo CFBs.
  • Heinonen, Jussi S.; Jennings, Eleanor S.; Riley, Teal R. (ELSEVIER BV, 2015)
    Calculating reliable temperatures of Mg-rich magmas is problematic because melt composition and KD(Fe-Mg)ol-liq, the key parameters of many traditional thermometers, are difficult to constrain precisely. The recently developed Al-in-olivine thermometer [Coogan, L.A., Saunders, A.D., Wilson, R.N., 2014. Aluminum-in-olivine thermometry of primitive basalts: Evidence of an anomalously hot mantle source for large igneous provinces. Chemical Geology 368, 1–10] circumvents these problems by relying on the temperature-dependent exchange of Al between olivine and spinel crystallising in equilibrium with each other. This thermometer is used to re-evaluate the crystallisation temperatures of the most Mg-rich magma type identified from the Karoo large igneous province (LIP), known as the Vestfjella depleted ferropicrite suite. Previous temperature estimates for the suite were based on olivine-melt equilibria and indicated anomalously high crystallisation temperatures in excess of 1600 °C. We also present crystallisation temperatures for another Antarctic Karoo magma type, Group 3 dykes from Ahlmannryggen, which are derived from a pyroxene-rich mantle source. Our high-precision analysis of Al in olivine-spinel pairs indicate crystallisation temperatures from 1391±42 °C to 1481±35 °C for the Vestfjella depleted ferropicrite suite (Fo88–92) and from 1253±64 °C to 1303±40 °C for the Group 3 dykes (Fo79–82). Although the maximum temperature estimates for the former are over 100 °C lower than the previously presented estimates, they are still ~200 °C higher than those calculated for mid-ocean ridge basalts using the same method. Although exact mantle potential temperatures are difficult to estimate, the presented results support elevated sub-Gondwanan upper mantle temperatures (generated by a mantle plume or internal mantle heating) during the generation of the Karoo LIP.
  • Mustonen, Terhi; Kimmel, Jyrki; Hakala, Jussi; Häkkinen, Jukka (SAGE PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2015)
  • Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria; Lattu, Matti Petteri; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (PERGAMON, 2015)
    Accessibility and transportation possibilities are key factors influencing societal conditions and land use patterns in rural areas. Thus, information on the spatial patterns of accessibility and transportation can be of paramount importance in understanding regional differences in development, human livelihood and land use patterns. Analysing spatio-temporal transportation patterns is particularly challenging in areas where everyday transportation is based on unscheduled public transportation and a naturally controlled seasonal transportation network, such as rivers. Here, our aim is to provide information on the seasonal dynamics of riverine transportation and its effects on accessibility patterns in Peruvian Amazonia. We analysed riverine transportation speeds using a low-cost GPS-based riverboat observation system. Spatio-temporal accessibility patterns were generalised from the GPS-observations that were classified according to seasons into the high water season, intermediate season and low water season. We show that navigation along the rivers has a clear seasonal and directional (upstream/downstream) variation, which varies with different types of rivers based on channel morphology. In addition, we conducted interviews with local people to study their perceptions of the seasonal changes in navigation and the accuracy of transportation schedules. As the travel distances in Peruvian Amazonia are generally long, seasonal and directional differences have clear impacts on the overall accessibility patterns in the area and on the livelihoods of riverine inhabitants. Furthermore, the lack of clearly scheduled transportation causes considerable uncertainty about transportation options for local communities. The baseline information of the seasonal and directional variation of riverine transportation and travel speeds provided by our work is usable in further accessibility and livelihood analyses for Peruvian Amazonia, but it may also be useful in other areas relying on riverine transportation.
  • Lehtomäki, Joona Aleksi; Tuominen, Sakari; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina; Leinonen, Antti (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    The boreal region is facing intensifying resource extraction pressure, but the lack of comprehensive biodiversity data makes operative forest conservation planning difficult. Many countries have implemented forest inventory schemes and are making extensive and up-to-date forest databases increasingly available. Some of the more detailed inventory databases, however, remain proprietary and unavailable for conservation planning. Here, we investigate how well different open and proprietary forest inventory data sets suit the purpose of conservation prioritization in Finland. We also explore how much priorities are affected by using the less accurate but open data. First, we construct a set of indices for forest conservation value based on quantitative information commonly found in forest inventories. These include the maturity of the trees, tree species composition, and site fertility. Secondly, using these data and accounting for connectivity between forest types, we investigate the patterns in conservation priority. For prioritization, we use Zonation, a method and software for spatial conservation prioritization. We then validate the prioritizations by comparing them to known areas of high conservation value. We show that the overall priority patterns are relatively consistent across different data sources and analysis options. However, the coarse data cannot be used to accurately identify the high-priority areas as it misses much of the fine-scale variation in forest structures. We conclude that, while inventory data collected for forestry purposes may be useful for forest conservation purposes, it needs to be detailed enough to be able to account for more fine-scaled features of high conservation value. These results underline the importance of making detailed inventory data publicly available. Finally, we discuss how the prioritization methodology we used could be integrated into operative forest management, especially in countries in the boreal zone.
  • Holmström, Anna-Riia; Laaksonen, Raisa; Airaksinen, Marja (Elsevier Science, 2015)
    This study explored factors associated with successful development and implementation of medication error reporting (MER) systems in different healthcare contexts. A descriptive online questionnaire comprising of structured and open-ended questions was responded to by 16 medication safety experts in 16 countries. The present paper describes the rich and multidimensional qualitative data from the experts’ narratives from open-ended questions. Several factors related to the national context of MER systems, i.e., the operational environment, were identified to impact successful development and implementation of these systems. The factors were: awareness of deficiencies in medication safety at local and national levels to justify the need for MER systems; gaining political will for the development and implementation actions together with international and governmental support; creating or reforming legislation and national regulations, guidelines and strategies to support MER; allocation of adequate human and financial resources; establishment of an organisation or centre to coordinate and lead MER; and extending systems approach and safety culture to all parts of the operational environment to facilitate openness on and learning from medication errors. In conclusion, operational environments of MER systems must be constructed to support functionality of these systems, and need to be improved in many countries.
  • Liljestrand, J. M.; Havulinna, A. S.; Paju, S.; Mannisto, S.; Salomaa, V.; Pussinen, P. J. (INTERNATIONAL AND AMERICAN ASSOCIATIONS FOR DENTAL RESEARCH, 2015)
    Periodontitis, the main cause of tooth loss in the middle-aged and elderly, associates with the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The objective was to study the capability of the number of missing teeth in predicting incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, and all-cause death. The National FINRISK 1997 Study is a Finnish population-based survey of 8,446 subjects with 13 y of follow-up. Dental status was recorded at baseline in a clinical examination by a trained nurse, and information on incident CVD events, diabetes, and death was obtained via national registers. The registered CVD events included coronary heart disease events, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke. In Cox regression analyses, having >= 5 teeth missing was associated with 60% to 140% increased hazard for incident coronary heart disease events (P <0.020) and acute myocardial infarction (P <0.010). Incident CVD (P <0.043), diabetes (P <0.040), and death of any cause (P <0.019) were associated with >= 9 missing teeth. No association with stroke was observed. Adding information on missing teeth to established risk factors improved risk discrimination of death (P = 0.0128) and provided a statistically significant net reclassification improvement for all studied end points. Even a few missing teeth may indicate an increased risk of CVD, diabetes, or all-cause mortality. When individual risk factors for chronic diseases are assessed, the number of missing teeth could be a useful additional indicator for general medical practitioners.
  • Holopainen, Jani; Toppinen, Anne; Perttula, Sini (MDPI, 2015)
    The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC) certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011-2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier-client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)) seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.
  • Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Sahle, Christoph J.; Ritschel, Tobias; Geck, Jochen; Hosoda, Masayuki; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold; Fister, Timothy; Gordon, Robert A.; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo (IOP Publishing, 2015)
  • Bourdais, Gildas; Burdiak, Pawel; Gauthier, Adrien Guy Bernard; Nitsch, Lisette; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Idänheimo, Niina Johanna; Hunter, Kerri Alyssa; Kimura, Sachie; Merilo, Ebe; Vaattovaara, Aleksia Fanni Maria; Oracz, Krystyna; Kaufholdt, David; Pallon, Andres; Anggoro, Damar Tri; Glow, Dawid; Lowe, Jennifer; Zhou, Ji; Mohammadi, Omid; Puukko, Tuomas; Albert, Andreas; Lang, Hans; Ernst, Dieter; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael Johan; Durner, Jörg; Borst, Jan Willem; Collinge, David B.; Karpinski, Stanislaw; Lyngkjaer, Michael F.; Robatzek, Silke; Wrzaczek, Michael Alois; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko Sakari (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 (DUF26) in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. In particular, the analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related stress responses, such as regulation of the stomatal aperture, suggests that CRKs participate in ROS/redox signalling and sensing. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. As a whole, the CRKs contribute to specificity in ROS signalling. Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance.
  • Hartl, C.; Schmidt, Alexander; Heinrichs, Jochen; Seyfullah, Leyla; Schäfer, N.; Gröhn, Carsten; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi; Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna (Copernicus, 2015)
    The fossil record of lichens is scarce and many putative fossil lichens do not show an actual physiological relationship between mycobionts and photobionts or a typical habit, and are therefore disputed. Amber has preserved a huge variety of organisms in microscopic fidelity, and so the study of amber fossils is promising for elucidating the fossil history of lichens. However, so far it has not been tested as to how amber inclusions of lichens are preserved regarding their internal characters, ultrastructure, and chemofossils. Here, we apply light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy to an amber-preserved Eocene lichen in order to gain information about the preservation of the fossil. The lichen thallus displays lifelike tissue preservation including the upper and lower cortex, medulla, photobiont layer, apothecia, and soredia. SEM analysis revealed globular photobiont cells in contact with the fungal hyphae, as well as impressions of possible former crystals of lichen compounds. EDX analysis permitted the differentiation between halite and pyrite crystals inside the lichen which were likely formed during the later diagenesis of the amber piece. Raman spectroscopy revealed the preservation of organic compounds and a difference between the composition of the cortex and the medulla of the fossil.
  • Kohonen, Jukka; Corander, Jukka (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2015)
    An exponential-time exact algorithm is provided for the task of clustering n items of data into k clusters. Instead of seeking one partition, posterior probabilities are computed for summary statistics: the number of clusters, and pairwise co-occurrence. The method is based on subset convolution, and yields the posterior distribution for the number of clusters in O(n 3^n) operations, or O(n^3 2^n) using fast subset convolution. Pairwise co-occurrence probabilities are then obtained in O(n^3 2^n) operations. This is considerably faster than exhaustive enumeration of all partitions.
  • Lambert, David; Solem, Michael; Tani, Sirpa (Routledge, 2015)
    This article provides the theoretical underpinnings for an innovative international collaborative project in the field of geography education named GeoCapabilities. The project attempts to respond in new ways to enduring challenges facing geography teachers in schools. These include the need to find convincing expression of geography's contribution to the education of all young people and coping with the apparent divergence of geography in educational settings and its highly disparate expression as a research discipline in university departments. The project also hopes to contribute to the development of a framework for communicating the aims and purposes of geography in schools internationally, because here, too, there is great variety in definitions of national standards and even of disciplinary allegiances (including, e.g., the social studies, humanities, and biological sciences). GeoCapabilities does not seek to flatten such divergences, for one of geography's great strengths is its breadth. The long-term goal is to establish a secure platform for the international development of teachers' capacities as creative and disciplined innovators. The project encourages teachers to think beyond program delivery and implementation and to embrace their role as the curriculum makers.
  • Khatchatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; CMS Collaboration (Springer, 2015)