TUHAT-artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 19368
  • Ellis, L. T.; Amélio, L. A.; Peralta, D. F.; Bačkor, M.; Baisheva, E. Z.; Bednarek-Ochyra, H.; Burghardt, M.; Czernyadjeva, I. V.; Kholod, S. S.; Potemkin, A. D.; Erdağ, A.; Kırmacı, M.; Fedosov, V. E.; Ignatov, M. S.; Koltysheva, D. E.; Flores, J. R.; Fuertes, E.; Goga, M.; Guo, S.-L.; Hofbauer, W. K.; Kurzthaler, M.; Kürschner, H.; Kuznetsova, O. I.; Lebouvier, M.; Long, D. G.; Mamontov, Yu. S.; Manjula, K. M.; Manju, C. N.; Mufeed, B.; Müller, F.; Nair, M. C.; Nobis, M.; Norhazrina, N.; Aisyah, M.; Lee, G. E.; Philippe, M.; Philippov, D. A.; Plášek, V.; Komínková, Z.; Porley, R. D.; Rebriev, Yu. A.; Sabovljević, M. S.; de Souza, A. M.; Valente, E. B.; Spitale, D.; Srivastava, P.; Sahu, V.; Asthana, A. K.; Ştefănuţ, S.; Suárez, G. M.; Vilnet, A. A.; Yao, K.-Y.; Zhao, J.-Ch. (2019)
  • Parhi, Katariina (2019)
    This article analyses interpretations of the causes of children's behavioural problems in early child psychiatry in Finland from the 1920s until the 1950s. The era was pre-psychodynamic, and psychiatrists stressed biological explanations, which were based on hereditary factors. The source material consists of patient records of children diagnosed with psychopathy in Pitkaniemi Hospital, which operated as one of the state mental hospitals. The focus is on the ways in which the causes of behavioural problems were described, paying special attention to mentions of socioeconomic factors, and adopting a present-centred perspective on analysing the past. Although psychiatrists described details like family background and parental occupations, they did not necessarily use them to point out connections between socioeconomic factors and behavioural problems. On the contrary, in many cases, there was no indicated correlation. This is not to say that socioeconomic factors did not exist or were not acknowledged, but rather that they were discussed in a different light. The assumption of biologically oriented psychiatry, namely that behavioural problems were primarily hereditary, is prevalent in the case records. Some children improved while in hospital and subsequently returned home, or were placed with other families, or in children's homes. Those who were perceived to be permanently antisocial were placed in reform schools. The change in a child's behaviour seems to have been crucial in forming a prognosis, which implies that there was a clear belief in the curative atmosphere of the hospital, providing that the child's character was corrigible. The focus on socioeconomic factors contrasts with the ways in which psychiatrists at that time perceived and documented the causes of behavioural problems, and helps explain why something, which seems evident in retrospect, was not apparent at the time.
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Niemelä, Mika (2019)
    Current treatment modalities for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms including surgical clipping and endovascular coiling are invasive and have some treatment risks. Since not all aneurysms rupture, it is critical to detect rupture prone aneurysms. Molecular and cellular analysis of aneurysm tissue may provide understanding about pathobiology of aneurysm rupture and to develop imaging techniques to detect rupture prone aneurysms. For more than 15-years we have collected samples to identify pathological processes in the aneurysm wall itself predisposing to rupture. This has opened a new field of research leading to novel findings and multiple scientific publications. Surgical techniques of sampling the aneurysm dome have never been demonstrated so therefore many neurosurgeons are reluctant to take biopsies for research. Now we demonstrate with an intraoperative video the techniques of sampling the aneurysm dome after clipping an incidental right-sided 5-mm unruptured MCA aneurysm in a 58-year-old hypertensive male with past long history of smoking through lateral supraorbital approach. A focused opening of the Sylvian fissure was performed and the aneurysm was clipped using standard techniques. After placement of a titanium clip, ICG and Doppler were performed to ensure patency of both M2 vessels and the aneurysm was punctured. The aneurysm dome was then held in place with the suction and cut with microscissors for research purposes. Another titanium clip was placed (Video 1). The clinical course was uneventful. This technical note will help young neurosurgeons to contribute actively in aneurysm research also potentially to find non-invasive methods to prevent aneurysms from rupture.
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Koski-Palkén, Anniina; Niemelä, Mika (2019)
    Hydrocephalic patients with abdominal pathologies often need a ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt placement. Cutdown on the internal jugular vein has historically been used to insert a VA shunt. This technique is more time consuming and has greater complications. Less invasive methods, such as ultrasound-guided percutaneous VA shunt placement provides greater comfort for surgeon, is more rapid, and has fewer complications. However, this technique has not been demonstrated on video. Here we demonstrate ultrasound-guided and ECG-aided VA shunt catheter placement in a 70-year-old patient with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The internal jugular vein is punctured under ultrasound guidance with an 18-gauge needle. A guidewire is introduced through the needle, the needle is removed, and a small skin incision is placed at the entry point of the guidewire. A skin dilator with a sheath introducer is advanced to the vein using the guidewire and the guidewire is thereafter removed. An atrial shunt catheter (e.g. Codman (R) Medos (R) Atrial catheter) filled with sterile water is inserted through the sheath. The sheath is removed and a syringe filled with sterile aqua is connected to the catheter with a metal tip. The ECG connection of the right upper limb is connected to the tip of syringe to adjust for the optimal depth of the catheter under ECG guidance (point of highest p-wave amplitude). The catheter is clamped and tunneled to reach the site for the valve on the scalp. The ventricle catheter is placed at the Kocher point and connected to the valve (Video 1). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided VA shunt placement is safe, comfortable, rapid, and has a reduced rate of complications.
  • Mäkelä, Kati; Ollila, Hely; Sutinen, Eva; Vuorinen, Vesa; Peltola, Emilia; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2019)
    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease with a dismal prognosis and an unknown etiology. Inorganic dust is a known risk factor, and air pollution seems to affect disease progression. We aimed to investigate inorganic particulate matter in IPF lung tissue samples. Using polarizing light microscopy, we examined coal dust pigment and inorganic particulate matter in 73 lung tissue samples from the FinnishIPF registry. We scored the amount of coal dust pigment and particulate matter from 0 to 5. Using energy dispersive spectrometry with a scanning electron microscope, we conducted an elemental analysis of six IPF lung tissue samples. We compared the results to the registry data, and to the population density and air quality data. To compare categorical data, we used Fisher's exact test; we estimated the survival of the patients with Kaplan-Meier curves. We found inorganic particulate matter in all samples in varying amounts. Samples from the southern regions of Finland, where population density and fine particle levels are high, more often had particulate matter scores from 3 to 5 than samples from the northern regions (31/50, 62.0% vs. 7/23, 30.4%, p = 0.02). The highest particulate matter scores of 4 and 5 (n = 15) associated with a known exposure to inorganic dust (p = 0.004). An association between particulate matter in the lung tissue of IPF patients and exposure to air pollution may exist.
  • Wetselaar, Peter; Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Johansson, Anders; Aarab, Ghizlane; Papagianni, Chryssa E.; Sevilla, Marisol Reyes; Koutris, Michail; Lobbezoo, Frank (2019)
    Abstract Objectives Tooth wear is a common finding in adult patients with dental sleep disorders. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the possible associations between tooth wear and the following dental sleep disorders: sleep-related orofacial pain, oral moistening disorders, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and sleep bruxism. Methods A PubMed search was performed on June 1, 2018, using MeSH terms in the following query: Tooth Wear AND (Facial Pain OR Temporomandibular Joint Disorders OR Xerostomia OR Sialorrhea OR Gastroesophageal Reflux OR Sleep Apnea Syndrome OR Sleep Bruxism). Results The query yielded 706 reports on tooth wear and the mentioned dental sleep disorders. Several associations between tooth wear and the dental sleep disorders were suggested in the literature. It could be concluded that: 1. tooth wear is associated with dental pain and/or hypersensitivity; 2. oral dryness is associated with tooth wear, orofacial pain, and sleep bruxism; 3. GERD is associated with tooth wear, orofacial pain, oral dryness, OSAS, and sleep bruxism; 4. OSAS is associated with oral dryness, GERD, and sleep bruxism; and 5. sleep bruxism is associated with tooth wear. Conclusions Tooth wear is associated with the dental sleep disorders orofacial pain, oral dryness, GERD, and sleep bruxism. The dental sleep disorders are interlinked with each other, which leads to indirect associations as well, and makes the consequences of each single condition difficult to disentangle. Knowledge of these associations is clinically relevant, but more research is needed to confirm their validity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Björkman, Kajsa; Mustonen, Harri; Kaprio, Tuomas; Haglund, Caj; Böckelman, Camilla (2019)
    Colon cancer represents one of the most common cancers in the world. Despite improved treatment, mortality remains high. In order to improve the assessment of prognosis for colon cancer patients, identifying new prognostic markers remains necessary. We analyzed preoperative serum samples from 148 colon cancer patients surgically treated at Helsinki University Hospital from 1998 through 2002 using a multiplex proximity extension assay (Oncology II panel, Olink Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden), a panel constituting 92 immunological and oncological markers. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses on these patients and calculated the disease-specific survival among patients using the log-rank test for Kaplan?Meier estimates. In the univariate survival analysis of 92 biomarkers, 26 resulted in p?
  • Pietikäinen, Johanna T.; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    In the general population, sleeping problems can precede an episode of depression. We hypothesized that sleeping problems during pregnancy, including insomnia symptoms, shortened sleep, and daytime tiredness, are related to maternal postnatal depressiveness. We conducted a prospective study evaluating sleep and depressive symptoms, both prenatally (around gestational week 32) and postnatally (around 3 months after delivery) in the longitudinal CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort in Finland. Prenatally, 1667 women returned the questionnaire, of which 1398 women participated also at the postnatal follow-up. Sleep was measured with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) and depressive symptoms with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Altogether, 10.3% of the women had postnatal depressiveness (CES-D ≥ 10 points). After adjusting for main background characteristics and prenatal depressiveness (CES-D ≥ 10), poor general sleep quality (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.21-2.88), tiredness during the day (AOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.41-3.38), short sleep ≤ 6 and ≤ 7 h, sleep latency > 20 min, and sleep loss ≥ 2 h were associated with postnatal depressiveness (all p < .050). Postnatally, after the adjustment for background characteristics, virtually all sleeping problems (i.e., difficulty falling asleep (AOR 7.93, 95% CI 4.76-13.20)), except frequent night awakenings per week or severe sleepiness during the day, were related to concurrent postnatal depressiveness. Thus, several prenatal and postnatal sleeping problems are associated with increased depressive symptoms 3 months postnatally. Screening of maternal prenatal sleeping problems, even without depressive symptoms during pregnancy or lifetime, would help to identify women at an increased risk for postnatal depressiveness.
  • Bibi, Faysal; Pante, Michael; Souron, Antoine; Stewart, Kathlyn; Varela, Sara; Werdelin, Lars; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Fortelius, Mikael; Hlusko, Leslea; Njau, Jackson; de la Torre, Ignacio (2018)
    Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at similar to 1.7-1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances. Compositions of the fish and large mammal assemblages support previous indications for the dominance of open and seasonal grassland habitats at the margins of an alkaline lake. Fish diversity is low and dominated by cichlids, which indicates strongly saline conditions. The taphonomy of the fish assemblages supports reconstructions of fluctuating lake levels with mass die-offs in evaporating pools. The mammals are dominated by grazing bovids and equids. Habitats remained consistently dry and open throughout the entire Bed II sequence, with no major turnover or paleoecological changes taking place. Rather, wooded and wet habitats had already given way to drier and more open habitats by the top of Bed I, at 1.85-1.80 Ma. This ecological change is close to the age of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Kenya and Ethiopia, but precedes the local transition in Middle Bed II. The Middle Bed II large mammal community is much richer in species and includes a much larger number of large-bodied species (>300 kg) than the modern Serengeti. This reflects the severity of Pleistocene extinctions on African large mammals, with the loss of large species fitting a pattern typical of defaunation or 'downsizing' by human disturbance. However, trophic network (food web) analyses show that the Middle Bed II community was robust, and comparisons with the Serengeti community indicate that the fundamental structure of food webs remained intact despite Pleistocene extinctions. The presence of a generalized meateating hominin in the Middle Bed II community would have increased competition among carnivores and vulnerability among herbivores, but the high generality and interconnectedness of the Middle Bed II food web suggests this community was buffered against extinctions caused by trophic interactions. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Kiuru, Annika; Ahola, Terhi; Klenberg, Liisa; Tommiska, Viena; Lano, Aulikki; Kleemola, Päivi; Haavisto, Anu; Fellman, Vineta (2019)
  • Kelaranta, A.; Mäkelä, T.; Kaasalainen, T.; Kortesniemi, M. (2017)
    Purpose: To determine fetal doses in different stages of pregnancy in three common computed tomography (CT) examinations: pulmonary CT angiography, abdomino-pelvic and trauma scan with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: An adult female anthropomorphic phantom was scanned with a 64-slice CT using pulmonary angiography, abdomino-pelvic and trauma CT scan protocols. Three different sized gelatin boluses placed on the phantom's abdomen simulated different stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine dose was used as a surrogate to a dose absorbed to the fetus. MC simulations were performed to estimate uterine doses. The simulation dose levels were calibrated with volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) measurements and MC simulations in a cylindrical CTDI body phantom and compared with ten point doses measured with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor dosimeters. Intrauterine volumes and uterine walls were segmented and the respective dose volume histograms were calculated. Results: The mean intrauterine doses in different stages of pregnancy varied from 0.04 to 1.04 mGy, from 4.8 to 5.8 mGy, and from 9.8 to 12.6 mGy in the CT scans for pulmonary angiography, abdomino-pelvic and trauma CT scans, respectively. MC simulations showed good correlation with the MOSFET measurement at the measured locations. Conclusions: The three studied examinations provided highly varying fetal doses increasing from sub-mGy level in pulmonary CT angiography to notably higher levels in abdomino-pelvic and trauma scans where the fetus is in the primary exposure range. Volumetric dose distribution offered by MC simulations in an appropriate anthropomorphic phantom provides a comprehensive dose assessment when applied in adjunct to point-dose measurements.
  • Kimppa, Lilli; Shtyrov, Yury; Hut, Suzanne C. A.; Hedlund, Laura; Leminen, Miika; Leminen, Alina (2019)
    Learning a new language requires the acquisition of morphological units that enable the fluent use of words in different grammatical contexts. While accumulating research has elucidated the neural processing of native morphology, much less is known about how second-language (L2) learners acquire and process morphology in their L2. To address this question, we presented native speakers as well as beginning and advanced learners of Finnish with spoken (1) derived words, (2) inflected words, (3) novel derivations (novel combinations of existing stem + suffix), and (4) pseudo-suffixed words (existing stem + pseudo-suffix) in a passive listening EEG experiment. An early (60 msec after suffix deviation point) positive ERP response showed no difference between inflections and derivations, suggesting similar early parsing of these complex words. At 130 msec, derivations elicited a lexical ERP pattern of full-form memory-trace activation, present in the L2 beginners and advanced speakers to different degrees, implying a shift from lexical processing to more dual parsing and lexical activation of the complex forms with increasing proficiency. Pseudo-suffixed words produced a syntactic pattern in a later, 170 240 msec time-window, exhibiting enhanced ERPs compared to well-formed inflections, indicating second-pass syntactic parsing. Overall, the L2 learners demonstrated a gradual effect of proficiency towards L1-like responses. Advanced L2 learners seem to have developed memory traces for derivations and their neurolinguistic system is capable of early automatic parsing. This suggests that advanced learners have already developed sensitivity to morphological information, while such knowledge is weak in beginners. Discrepancies in ERP dynamics and topographies indicate partially differing recruitment of the language network in L1 and L2. In beginners, response differences between existing and novel morphology were scarce, implying that representations for complex forms are not yet well-established. The results suggest successful development of brain mechanisms for automatic processing of L2 morphology, capable of gradually attaining L1-like functionality with increasing proficiency. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Repo, Juha Petteri; Matschoss, Kaisa Johanna (2019)
  • Kanckos, Annika (2019)
    Gentzen's height measure of the 1938 consistency proof is a cumulative complexity measure for sequents that is measured bottom-up in a derivation. By a factorisation of the ordinal assignment a top-down ordinal assignment can be given that does not depend on information occurring below the sequent to which the ordinal is assigned. Furthermore, an ordinal collapsing function is defined in order to collapse the top-down ordinal to the one assigned by Gentzen's own ordinal assignment. A direct definition of the factorised assignment follows as a corollary. This extraction of an ordinal collapsing function hopes to provide a formal or conceptual clarification of Gentzen's ordinal assignment and its height-line argument.
  • Jutila, Eveliina; Koivunen, Risto; Kiiski, Iiro; Bollström, Roger; Sikanen, Tiina; Gane, Patrick (2018)
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes in charge of elimination of the majority of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. This study focuses on the development of a rapid microfluidic lateral flow assay to study human phase I metabolism reactions mediated by CYP2A6 isoenzyme, the major detoxification route for many known carcinogens and drugs, with coumarin 7-hydroxylation, as the prototype model reaction. Assay fabrication utilizes custom-designed porous functionalized calcium carbonate (FCC) coatings and inkjet-printed fluid barriers. All materials used are novel and carefully chosen to preserve biocompatibility. The design comprises separate zones for reaction, separation and detection, and an absorbent pad to keep the assay wet for extended periods (up to 10 min) even when heated to physiological temperature. The concept enables CYP assays to be made at lower cost than conventional well-plate assays, while providing increased selectivity at equally high speed, owing to the possibility for simultaneous chromatographic separation of the reaction products from the reactants on the FCC coating. The developed concept provides a viable rapid prediction of the interaction risks related to metabolic clearance of drugs and other xenobiotics, and exemplifies a novel coating technology illustrating the opportunity to broaden application functionality.
  • Korhonen, Anssi (2018)
    This paper concerns Bertrand Russell’s changing views on negative judgement. ‘Negative judgement’ is considered in the context of three theories of judgement that Russell put forth at different times: (i) a dual relation theory (judgement involves a two-place relation between a subject and a proposition, which is an objective truth or falsehood); (ii) a multiple relation theory (judging relates a subject to a multiplicity of objects); (iii) a psychological theory of judgement (judgment involves a mental content standing in a relation of objective reference to its truth- or false-maker). Four issues are singled out for a more detailed discussion: (i) quality dualism versus quality monism, that is, the question whether judgement comes in two kinds, acceptance and rejection, or whether there is only one judgement-quality (acceptance/assertion); (ii) the structure of negative judging; (iii) the problem of truth-making for negative facts; (iv) the different roles of ‘fact’ in Russell’s theories of truth. What emerges from the discussion is a rough chronology of Russell’s views on negative judgement during the period from 1903 to 1948.
  • Xu, Xin; Lu, Jiaheng; Wang, Wei (2018)
    It is well-known that the values of symbolic variables may take various forms such as an interval, a set of stochastic measurements of some underlying patterns or qualitative multi-values and so on. However, the majority of existing work in symbolic data analysis still focuses on interval values. Although some pioneering work in stochastic pattern based symbolic data and mixture of symbolic variables has been explored, it still lacks flexibility and computation efficiency to make full use of the distinctive individual symbolic variables. Therefore, we bring forward a novel hierarchical clustering method with weighted general Jaccard distance and effective global pruning strategy for complex symbolic data and apply it to emitter identification. Extensive experiments indicate that our method has outperformed its peers in both computational efficiency and emitter identification accuracy.
  • Morlion, Bart; Schaefer, Michael; Betteridge, Neil; Kalso, Eija (2018)
    Objective: Acute postoperative pain is experienced by the majority of hospitalized patients undergoing surgical procedures, with many reporting inadequate pain relief and/or high levels of dissatisfaction with their pain management. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) ensures patient involvement in acute pain control, a key component for implementing a quality management system. This narrative article overviews the clinical evidence for conventional PCA and briefly discusses new, non-invasive PCA systems, namely the sufentanil sublingual tablet system (SSTS) and the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (FITS). Methods: A Medline literature search (patient-controlled analgesia and acute postoperative pain) was conducted to 1 April 2017; results from the main clinical trials are discussed. Additional literature was identified from the reference lists of cited publications. Results: Moderate to low quality evidence supports opioid-based intravenous PCA as an efficacious alternative to non-patient-controlled systemic analgesia for postoperative pain. However, despite the benefits of PCA, conventional intravenous PCA is limited by system-, drug- and human-related issues. The non-invasive SSTS and FITS have demonstrated good efficacy and safety in placebo- and intravenous morphine PCA-controlled trials, and are associated with high patient/healthcare practitioner satisfaction/ease of care ratings and offer early patient mobilization. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines for acute postoperative pain management support the use of multimodal regimens in many situations. As effective and safe alternatives to conventional PCA, and with the added benefits of being non-invasive, easy to use and allowing early patient mobilization, the newer PCA systems may complement multimodal approaches, or potentially replace certain regimens, in hospitalized patients with acute postoperative pain.
  • Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L.; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. (2018)
    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults.Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen etal. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik etal. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik etal. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen etal. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.