TUHAT-artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 35784
  • Nagatsu, Michiru; Lisciandra, Chiara (Springer, 2021)
    The interdisciplinary exchange between economists and psychologists has so far been more active and fruitful in the modifications of Expected Utility Theory than in those of Game Theory. We argue that this asymmetry may be explained by economists' specific way of doing equilibrium analysis of aggregate-level outcomes in their practice, and by psychologists' reluctance to fully engage with such practice. We focus on the notion of belief that is embedded in economists' practice of equilibrium analysis, more specifically Nash equilibrium, and argue that its difference from the psychological counterpart is one of the factors that makes interdisciplinary exchange in behavioral game theory more difficult.
  • Es-safi, Imane; Mechchate, Hamza; Amaghnouje, Amal; Kamaly, Omkulthom Mohamed Al; Jawhari, Fatima Zahra; Imtara, Hamada; Grafov, Andriy; Bousta, Dalila (2021)
    Depression and anxiety are major mental health problems in all parts of the world. These illnesses are associated with a number of risk factors, including oxidative stress. Psychotropic drugs of a chemical nature have demonstrated several side effects that elevated the impact of those illnesses. Faced with this situation, natural products appear to be a promising alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the Petroselinum sativum polyphenols in vivo, as well as its correlated antioxidant properties in vitro. Anxiolytic activity of the extract (50 and 100 mg/kg) was evaluated using the open field and the light-dark chamber tests, while the antidepressant activity was evaluated using the forced swimming test. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical test and the FRAP (iron-reducing capacity) test. The phenolic extract showed very powerful anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, especially at a dose of 100 mg/kg, decreasing the depressive behavior in mice (decreased immobility time) and also the anxiolytic behavior (tendency for discovery in the center and illuminated areas) better even than those of paroxetine and bromazepam (classic drugs) concomitant with those results the extract also showed an important antioxidant capacity. These preliminary results suggest that Petroselinum sativum exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant potential for use as a complement or independent phytomedicine to treat depression and anxiety.
  • Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; Boldrini, Chiara; Caldarelli, Guido; Cintia, Paolo; Cresci, Stefano; Facchini, Angelo; Giannotti, Fosca; Gionis, Aristides; Guidotti, Riccardo; Mathioudakis, Michael; Muntean, Cristina Ioana; Pappalardo, Luca; Pedreschi, Dino; Pournaras, Evangelos; Pratesi, Francesca; Tesconi, Maurizio; Trasarti, Roberto (2021)
    The exponential increase in the availability of large-scale mobility data has fueled the vision of smart cities that will transform our lives. The truth is that we have just scratched the surface of the research challenges that should be tackled in order to make this vision a reality. Consequently, there is an increasing interest among different research communities (ranging from civil engineering to computer science) and industrial stakeholders in building knowledge discovery pipelines over such data sources. At the same time, this widespread data availability also raises privacy issues that must be considered by both industrial and academic stakeholders. In this paper, we provide a wide perspective on the role that big data have in reshaping cities. The paper covers the main aspects of urban data analytics, focusing on privacy issues, algorithms, applications and services, and geo-referenced data from social media. In discussing these aspects, we leverage, as concrete examples and case studies of urban data science tools, the results obtained in the "City of Citizens" thematic area of the Horizon 2020 SoBigData initiative, which includes a virtual research environment with mobility datasets and urban analytics methods developed by several institutions around Europe. We conclude the paper outlining the main research challenges that urban data science has yet to address in order to help make the smart city vision a reality.
  • Palmerio, Erika; Kilpua, Emilia; Witasse, Olivier; Barnes, David; Sánchez‐Cano, Beatriz; Weiss, Andreas J.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Möstl, Christian; Jian, Lan K.; Mierla, Marilena; Zhukov, Andrei N.; Guo, Jingnan; Rodriguez, Luciano; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Isavnin, Alexey; Turc, Lucile; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmström, Mats (2021)
    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) are two phenomena that can cause severe space weather effects throughout the heliosphere. The evolution of CMEs, especially in terms of their magnetic structure, and the configuration of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) that influences the transport of SEPs are currently areas of active research. These two aspects are not necessarily independent of each other, especially during solar maximum when multiple eruptive events can occur close in time. Accordingly, we present the analysis of a CME that erupted on May 11, 2012 (SOL2012-05-11) and an SEP event following an eruption that took place on May 17, 2012 (SOL2012-05- 17). After observing the May 11 CME using remote-sensing data from three viewpoints, we evaluate its propagation through interplanetary space using several models. Then, we analyze in-situ measurements from five predicted impact locations (Venus, Earth, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Mars Science Laboratory en route to Mars, and Mars) in order to search for CME signatures. We find that all in-situ locations detect signatures of an SEP event, which we trace back to the May 17 eruption. These findings suggest that the May 11 CME provided a direct magnetic connectivity for the efficient transport of SEPs. We discuss the space weather implications of CME evolution, regarding in particular its magnetic structure, and CME-driven IMF preconditioning that facilitates SEP transport. Finally, this work remarks the importance of using data from multiple spacecraft, even those that do not include space weather research as their primary objective.
  • Solin, Heikki (Suomen Rooman-instituutti, 2020)
    Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae
  • Solin, Heikki; Tuomisto, Pekka (2020)
  • Juuti, Kalle; Kairavuori, Seija; Kallioniemi, Arto (2018)
  • Marsh, Jackie; Blum-Ross, Alicia; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (Routledge, 2020)
  • Roiz, Mikhail; Monakhov, Andrey; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Yakovlev, Yury; Teissier, Roland; Baranov, Alexei (2020)
    In the present paper, we investigate a special type of optical coupling between two electrically pumped semiconductor whispering gallery mode lasers. We fabricate microdisk lasers with a conjunction between the laser cavities, making the coupling stronger. Our experimental results combined with numerical calculations demonstrate a variety of mode families that exist in such systems. Furthermore, we confirm the generation of resonance modes that exist only under simultaneous pumping conditions. These modes are attributed to the collective mode family, which can lead to a single mode operation.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Researchers working on environmental issues are often unprepared to deal with the traumatic potential of their studies. They often face traumatic encounters in their first-hand experiences in fieldwork, for example, by finding animals killed by poachers or seeing the disastrous effects of climate change. However, environmental researchers also suffer from forms of secondary trauma or vicarious trauma related to environmental problems when they become affected by hearing or reading about the suffering of others. Unfortunately, however, very little support structures exist for students and researchers who experience secondary trauma. This article discusses the phenomenon of secondary trauma among researchers and students of environmental science. Through an analysis of existing empirical studies, the article highlights that there are clear signs of traumatic symptoms among environmental researchers. The most common reactions include psychic numbing, compassion fatigue, and burnouts. The article also makes suggestions for recognizing vulnerabilities, and for enhancing resilience through self-care. Since traumatic exposure by environmental researchers has not been systematically studied or discussed in detail in the existing literature, this article makes a significant contribution to the field showcasing ideas for further research, including possible empirical studies on the ways in which trauma and secondary trauma feature among environmental researchers.
  • Rosa, Jose; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Sirkia, Mika; Merdes, Saoussen (2021)
    Y2O3:Eu is a promising red-emitting phosphor owing to its high luminance efficiency, chemical stability, and non-toxicity. Although Y2O3:Eu thin films can be prepared by various deposition methods, most of them require high processing temperatures in order to obtain a crystalline structure. In this work, we report on the fabrication of red Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors and multilayer structure Y2O3:Eu-based electroluminescent devices by atomic layer deposition at 300 degrees C. The structural and optical properties of the phosphor films were investigated using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements, respectively, whereas the performance of the fabricated device was evaluated using electroluminescence measurements. X-ray diffraction measurements show a polycrystalline structure of the films whereas photoluminescence shows emission above 570 nm. Red electroluminescent devices with a luminance up to 40 cd/m(2) at a driving frequency of 1 kHz and an efficiency of 0.28 Lm/W were achieved.
  • Välimäki, Susanna (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura / Kansallisbiografia, 2021)
    Studia Biographica 4
    Historialliseen alkuperäisaineistoon perustuva elämäkerta-artikkeli viulisti, kirjailija ja säveltäjä Kerttu Wanteesta.
  • Tuomola, Kati; Mäki-Kihniä, Nina; Valros, Anna; Mykkänen, Anna; Kujala-Wirth, Minna (2021)
    Bit-related oral lesions are common and may impair horse welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions and their risk factors in a sample of Finnish event horses. The rostral part of the oral cavity (the bit area) of 208 event horses (127 warmbloods, 52 coldbloods, and 29 ponies) was examined in a voluntary inspection after the last competition phase, i.e., the cross-country test. Acute lesions were observed in 52% (109/208) of the horses. The lesion status was graded as no acute lesions for 48% (99/208), mild for 22% (45/208), moderate for 26% (55/208) and severe for 4% (9/208) of the horses. The inner lip commissure was the most common lesion location observed in 39% (81/208) of the horses. A multivariable logistic regression model with data of 174 horses was applied to risk factor analysis. Horses wearing thin (10-13 mm) (OR 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7) or thick (18-22 mm) (OR 3.4, CI 1.4-8.0) bits had a higher risk of moderate/severe lesion status than horses wearing middle-sized (14-17 mm) bits (P = 0.003). Breed was associated with moderate/severe lesion status (P = 0.02). The risk was higher for warmbloods (reference group) and coldbloods (OR 2.0, CI 0.88-4.7) compared with ponies (OR 0.2, CI 0.04-0.87). Mares were at higher risk of moderate/severe lesion status (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.5) than geldings (reference group) (P = 0.03). Bar lesions were more common in horses with unjointed bits (40%, 8/20) than with basic double-jointed (10%, 5/52), formed double-jointed (8%, 6/78) or single-jointed bits (5%, 2/40) (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.002). The results of this study suggest that thin and thick bits and mare sex should be considered risk factors for mouth lesions. In addition, in this sample ponies had smaller risk for lesions than other horse breeds. We encourage adopting bit area monitoring as a new routine by horse handlers and as a welfare measure by competition organizers for randomly drawn horses.
  • Davydov, E. A.; Yakovchenko, L. S.; Galanina, I. A.; Paukov, A. G.; Frolov, I. V.; Ahti, T. (2021)
    Aspicilia subepiglypta, Buellia subdisciformis, Calogaya arnoldii, Flavoplaca flavocitrina, Lecanora swartzii, and Lecidella scabra are reported as new records for the Russian Far East. Rinodina gennarii and Lecidella asema are newly recorded for the mainland of the Russian Far East. Rare lichens Cladonia subconistea and Leptotrema litophila are newly found in coastal habitats; Caloplaca atroflava is new for Sakhalin Island, and Umbilicaria vellea is new for Kuril Islands.
  • Komulainen, Jyri Antero (2011)
    Theology of religions, interfaith dialogue
  • Alshami, Abbas; Einav, Sharon; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Varon, Joseph (2020)
    Objective: Inhalation of noble and other gases after cardiac arrest (CA) might improve neurological and cardiac outcomes. This article discusses up-to-date information on this novel therapeutic intervention. Data sources: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, online published abstracts from conference proceedings, clinical trial registry clinicaltrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant papers were systematically searched from January 1960 till March 2019. Study selection: Preclinical and clinical studies, irrespective of their types or described outcomes, were included. Data extraction: Abstract screening, study selection, and data extraction were performed by two independent authors. Due to the paucity of human trials, risk of bias assessment was not performed DATA SYNTHESIS: After screening 281 interventional studies, we included an overall of 27. Only, xenon, helium, hydrogen, and nitric oxide have been or are being studied on humans. Xenon, nitric oxide, and hydrogen show both neuroprotective and cardiotonic features, while argon and hydrogen sulfide seem neuroprotective, but not cardiotonic. Most gases have elicited neurohistological protection in preclinical studies; however, only hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide appeared to preserve CA1 sector of hippocampus, the most vulnerable area in the brain for hypoxia. Conclusion: Inhalation of certain gases after CPR appears promising in mitigating neurological and cardiac damage and may become the next successful neuroprotective and cardiotonic interventions. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Singh, Pooja; Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Sturmbauer, Christian (2021)
    Background The oral and pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes are a classic example of evolutionary modularity as their functional decoupling boosted trophic diversification and contributed to the success of cichlid adaptive radiations. Most studies until now have focused on the functional, morphological, or genetic aspects of cichlid jaw modularity. Here we extend this concept to include transcriptional modularity by sequencing whole transcriptomes of the two jaws and comparing their gene coexpression networks. Results We show that transcriptional decoupling of gene expression underlies the functional decoupling of cichlid oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus and the two units are evolving independently in recently diverged cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika. Oral and pharyngeal jaw coexpression networks reflect the common origin of the jaw regulatory program as there is high preservation of gene coexpression modules between the two sets of jaws. However, there is substantial rewiring of genetic architecture within those modules. We define a global jaw coexpression network and highlight jaw-specific and species-specific modules within it. Furthermore, we annotate a comprehensive in silico gene regulatory network linking the Wnt and AHR signalling pathways to jaw morphogenesis and response to environmental cues, respectively. Components of these pathways are significantly differentially expressed between the oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Conclusion This study describes the concerted expression of many genes in cichlid oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus at the onset of the independent life of cichlid fishes. Our findings suggest that - on the basis of an ancestral gill arch network-transcriptional rewiring may have driven the modular evolution of the oral and pharyngeal jaws, highlighting the evolutionary significance of gene network reuse. The gene coexpression and in silico regulatory networks presented here are intended as resource for future studies on the genetics of vertebrate jaw morphogenesis and trophic adaptation.
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Kivistö, Ilkka; Sironen, Tarja (2021)
    In order to plan and execute proper preventative measures against COVID-19, we need to understand how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted. It has been shown to remain infectious on surfaces from hours to days depending on surface type and environmental factors. The possibility of transmission through fur animals and contaminated pelts, along with the safety of those working with them, is a major concern. SARS-CoV-2 can infect minks and raccoon dogs and has spread to mink farms in numerous countries. Here, we studied the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on blue fox, Finn raccoon, and American mink pelt, fake fur, cotton, plastic, faux leather, and polyester and tested its inactivation by UV light and heat treatment. We detected infectious virus up to 5 days on plastic, up to 1 day on fake fur, less than a day on cotton, polyester, and faux leather, and even 10 days on mink fur. UV light failed to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 on pelts, most likely due to the mechanical protection by the fur. Hence, it should not be used to inactivate the virus on fur products, and its use for other surfaces should also be considered carefully. Heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 1 h inactivated the virus on all surfaces and is a promising method to be applied in practice. This study helps prevent further spread of COVID-19 by increasing our understanding about risks of SARS-CoV-2 spread through contaminated clothing materials and giving important information needed to improve safety of those working in the production line as well as people using the products.
  • Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T. (2021)
    Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles enter the arterial intima where they bind to the extracellular matrix and become modified by lipases, proteases, and oxidizing enzymes and agents. The modified LDL particles aggregate and fuse into larger matrix-bound lipid droplets and, upon generation of unesterified cholesterol, cholesterol crystals are also formed. Uptake of the aggregated/fused particles and cholesterol crystals by macrophages and smooth muscle cells induces their inflammatory activation and conversion into foam cells. In this review, we summarize the causes and consequences of LDL aggregation and describe the development and applications of an assay capable of determining the susceptibility of isolated LDL particles to aggregate when exposed to human recombinant sphingomyelinase enzyme ex vivo. Significant person-to-person differences in the aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles were observed, and such individual differences largely depended on particle lipid composition. The presence of aggregation-prone LDL in the circulation predicted future cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We also discuss means capable of reducing LDL particles' aggregation susceptibility that could potentially inhibit LDL aggregation in the arterial wall. Whether reductions in LDL aggregation susceptibility are associated with attenuated atherogenesis and a reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remains to be studied.