Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes

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Atanasova , N S , Bamford , D H & Oksanen , H M 2015 , ' Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes ' , Biochimie , vol. 118 , pp. 333-343 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2015.07.002

Title: Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes
Author: Atanasova, Nina S.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Oksanen, Hanna M.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
Date: 2015-11
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Biochimie
ISSN: 0300-9084
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/173998
Abstract: Hypersaline waters and salt crystals are known to contain high numbers of haloarchaeal cells and their viruses. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent studies indicate that these viruses represent a world-wide distributed reservoir of orphan genes and possibly novel virion morphotypes. To date, 90 viruses have been described for halophilic archaeal hosts, all belonging to the Halobacteriaceae family. This number is higher than that described for the members of any other archaeal family, but still very low compared to the viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. The known haloarchaeal viruses represent icosahedral tailed, icosahedral internal membrane-containing, pleomorphic, and spindle-shaped virion morphotypes. This morphotype distribution is low, especially when compared to the astronomical number (>10(31)) of viruses on Earth. This strongly suggests that only certain protein folds are capable of making a functional virion. Viruses infecting cells belonging to any of the three domains of life are known to share similar major capsid protein folds which can be used to classify viruses into structure-based lineages. The latest observation supporting this proposal comes from the studies of icosahedral tailed haloarchaeal viruses which are the most abundant virus isolates from hypersaline environments. These viruses were shown to have the same major capsid protein fold (HK97-fold) with tailed bacteriophages belonging to the order Caudovirales and with eukaryotic herpes viruses. This proposes that these viruses have a common origin dating back to ancient times. Here we summarize the current knowledge of haloarchaeal viruses from the perspective of virus morphotypes. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Subject: Haloarchaeal virus
Virion morphotype
Viral lineage
Halophilic archaea
Hypersaline
INFECTING HALOBACTERIUM-CUTIRUBRUM
EXTREMELY HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA
AUSTRALIAN HYPERSALINE LAKE
PHAGE-PHI-H
HALOARCULA-HISPANICA
SALINITY GRADIENT
HOST INTERACTIONS
TAILED VIRUSES
THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA
ICOSAHEDRAL VIRUSES
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
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