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  • Hilmisdóttir, Helga (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Creating a whole from fragments. On the translation of cohesive elements in Sjón's Steelnight): In this paper, I discuss the Swedish translation of the Icelandic writer Sjón’s debut novel Steelnight: a story (in Swedish Stålnatt – en berättelse). Steelnight is a fragmented novel which is located at the border between poetry and prose. At the beginning of the story, the writer introduces two main plots (with subplots). At first glance, it may seem as though the plots do not share much in common. However, a closer analysis of the text reveals that there are striking parallels between the plots which are created partly by the writer’s use of cohesive elements. Thus, despite the fragmented style, the writer creates cohesion in the text by using stylistic means such as repetition of certain nouns and adjectives and by a frequent use of personal and demonstrative pronouns. This use of cohesive elements creates a challenge for the translator.
  • Schybergson, Anita (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (The socio-onomastic approach and translation): The article adopts an onomastic perspective on the translation, and highlights the challenges posed by the given names. The newer socio-onomastic research has drawn attention to the emotive, appealing, ideological and integrative functions of the names, showing strong links with both the period and with society. In the article this is exemplified with ship names from the nineteenth century, which partly reflect classicism (Argo, Hercules, Juno, Neptunus) and national romanticism (Aallotar, Aino, Sampo, Wellamo). A special challenge is posed by the transparent names that evoke the actual words used, such as Penningdraken ('Money Dragon'), a ship that brought big money, and Människoätaren ('The man killer'), a ship where many sailors lost their lives. Names raise time-bound and culture-bound associations and the translator should be able to interpret the names as an embodiment of the society and the culture from which they originate.
  • Kukkonen, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (The translating subject: Homo significans – homo interpres): A whole discipline, translation studies, is built around the translator’s acts and the translating event. What is the translating subject? How is (s)he working and why? I discuss some aspects of the translating subject, analyzed from literary translators’ descriptions of themselves in anthologies. Within the theoretical framework of semiotics and hermeneutics, I comment on the creative processes of literary translators, where they act as a medium in the translator’s space: an encounter of the author, the translator, and the reader. With respect to reading, interpreting, and translating a text, the translating subject is a homo interpres, i.e. a homo significans producing meaning. The goal of the translating subject is the chiasm of semiosis, the dynamic process when meaning is manifested in the semiosphere. The mission for the translating subject is to deal with the paradox: to create the same but other text. For the complexity of the act of reading, interpreting, and translating texts, I use the concept of palimpsest.
  • Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva; Kukkonen, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
  • Albjerg, Asger (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (A journey through Danish literature translated into Finnish after 1945): Nearly 80 per cent of all literary translations from Danish into Finnish are done after the Second World War. These translations are obviously only a small selection of the Danish national literature, but nevertheless capture important trends and currents in it. Based on a selection of translated works, the article allows a broad introduction to Danish literature available in Finnish. It focuses on children's and youth literature, feminist literature and realistic, magic and civilization critical novels.
  • Rahtu, Toini (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Irony as object of research: Is it possible to explore what is between the lines?): The main concern of this article is the interpretation of irony: how is it brought about and how can it be investigated? The method applied is based on authentic texts and their elicited interpretations − a method referred to in this article response analysis. Interpretation of irony in the approach taken is seen as being crucially dependent on the notion of coherence. A text is perceived as being coherent if it (a) makes sense and if it(b) hangs together. Incoherent texts can result in an ironic interpretation; however, the incoherence must also be perceived as being intentional, and intentionality in turn is a sign of the edge of the ironist. Ironic interpretation is defined as a combination of five factors: (1) an ironic edge that (2) reflects the intention of the ironist, and (3) has a target and (4) a victim too. Essential to irony is its fifth factor, the fact that one or more of these four factors must be inferred from co(n)text. This definition of irony is crucial in distinguishing irony from non-irony, and it also helps to discern the differences as well as the similarities between irony and related phenomena.
  • Kiasm 
    Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva; Kukkonen, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
  • Riikonen, H. K. (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (The history of translations, the history of literature, the history of culture): The article first introduces the extensive exhibition catalogue published in Marbach in 1982, which illustrates the wideranging interest for translations during the epoch of Goethe, and secondly it gives an overview of research on the history of translations conducted in Finland. Furthermore, the relevance of the history of translations both for the history of literature and for the history of culture is discussed. The history of literature is interpreted in terms of four various forms: the history of culture and the history of ideas, or as a part of them; the history of the literary field, or as the history of the change of this field (the sociology of literature); the history of different styles; and as the history of individual authors. In all these fields, translations represent interesting research material: they function as clear indicators of various phenomena in the history of literature. In the history of translation, translators are also highlighted as profound but often forgotten individuals with cultural impact. At the end of the article, a brief case study is presented with focus on a new interest in Spanish literature in 19th century Finland, with a background in the German Romanticism and its interest for Spain.
  • Rosenberg-Wolff, Carita (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Mig or mej, själ or sjel? Problems and solutions in the transcription of Swedish song texts): In this article I am pointing out and discussing problems and solutions concerning phonetic transcription of Swedish song texts. My material consists of 66 Swedish songs phonetically transcribed. The transcriptions were published by The Academy of Finnish Art Song in 2009. The first issue was which level of accuracy should be chosen. The transcriptions were created to be clear at a glance and suitable for the needs of interpretation of non Swedish speaking singers. The principle was to use as few signs and symbols as possible without sacrificing accuracy. Certain songs were provided with additional information whenever there was a chance of misinterpretation. The second issue was which geographic variety of the language should be visible in the transcription, Standard Swedish or Finland-Swedish? The songs in the volume are a selection of well-known works that are also of international interest. Most were composed by Jean Sibelius (1865–1957), a substantial number of whose songs were based on poems written by Finland’s national poet, Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804–1877). Thus I chose to use the variety of Swedish language spoken in Finland, in order to reflect the cultural origin of the songs. This variety differs slightly from the variety spoken in Sweden both on prosodic and phonetic level. In singing, the note-text gives the interpretor enough information about prosody. The differences concern mostly the phonemes. A fully consequent transcript was, however, difficult to make, due to vocal requirement. So, for example, in an unstressed final syllable the vowel was often indicated as a central vowel, which in singing is given a more direct emphasis than in a literal pronunciation, even if this central vowel does not occur in spoken Finland-Swedish.
  • Lassus, Jannika (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (SFL and translation studies): In this paper, the study of translation is seen as a study of texts and discourses. It is argued that systemic-functional linguistics gives both a theoretical framework to discuss variation in text and variation in situational and cultural context, as well as an analytical toolkit to use to compare texts with each other. The same systemic-functional framework can hence be used to analyse both directly written texts and translations.
  • Franzon, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Song translation. Balancing between respect and hit capacity): The article discusses song translation by posing questions relevant to the study, practice, and assessment of translating/translated song: Is song translation really translation? Do non-singable translations count? Can we distinguish between free and faithful song translation? Are there untranslatable (aspects of) songs? etc. Three song translations between Finnish and Swedish are analyzed in the discussion: one made for a booklet to a recording, which in spite of the evident documentary purpose is fairly singable, one that is a national transplantation, which moves the sung story to the target country but even so is fairly faithful, and one that is considered respectful to its source, became a target culture hit, but perhaps because of the subtle changes in content. Changes can be seen as caused by a particular translation brief, as manipulations negotiating a cultural difference, or as examples of how (liberally) the craft of song translation is exercised. An amateur translation of the same song, made by the article’s author, is deemed dysfunctional for having put emphasis merely on semantic accuracy and rhymes, neglecting other aspects of the craft. The article suggests that singability is a relative concept, that stylistic/intertextual values matter a great deal in song and exert significant influence on song translation, and that source and target attentions in this area can be discussed as a much variable vacillation between a stance of respect and an aim for hit capacity.
  • Sorvali, Irma (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Teaching in research ethics): The aim of this paper is to discuss teaching in research ethics. According to the guidelines issued by the National Advisory Board on Research Ethics in Finland (2002) the units providing researcher training have a duty to include good scientific practice and research ethics in this training. Various kinds of materials are needed in teaching in research ethics. One of them is fiction, which has appeared to be helpful in discussions of ethic problems. A number of examples taken from Finnish and Swedish fiction are discussed by referring to the above mentioned guidelines. The presentation is based on a chiasm, i.e. it goes from good scientific practice to fiction and further from fiction to teaching in research ethics.
  • Biström, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Vem vänder vindarna ? – Vem tänder stjärnorna? Methodological choices in the analysis of Eva Dahlgren’s rock lyrics): This article deals with some methods I have found useful in analyzing the lyrics in rock music, particularly the lyrics by the Swedish singer songwriter Eva Dahlgren (born 1960). The article is based on my doctoral thesis in progress, dealing with the relationship between the lyrics (in particular the “I” of the lyrics), and the public persona of Eva Dahlgren, as well as the process of "doing Eva Dahlgren" (the constructing of her artist persona). I take my starting point in the lyrics of Dahlgren’s big hit "Vem tänder stjärnorna" (Dahlgren 1991). First, I discuss the themes of the lyrics, mostly the spiritual or religious themes. Second, I present and discuss the methods in my own work. The first method is inspired by conversational analysis, and is based on a transcription of the performed lyrics, with the aim of grasping the dialogues between the words and the music, more specifically Dahlgren’s use of voice. My other methods are related to my aim to describe Dahlgren’s public persona, and the construction of “Eva Dahlgren”. I have used concepts and models developed by the musicologist Laura Ahonen and literary scholar Karin Strand, in an effort to describe the many levels in Dahlgren’s (performed) “I” as well as the different actors in the process of shaping and reshaping images of Eva Dahlgren.
  • Chesterman, Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract: Research on translation universals has its roots in the need to make generalizations about the features that distinguish translations from non-translations. They go back to the old tradition of negative comments about the failings of typical translations. These comments concern the relations between translations and the target language, and between translations and their source texts. With the rise of descriptive studies, and the use of corpus research methods borrowed from linguistics, the search for the typical features of translations became more systematic. A number of hypotheses about potential universals have been proposed, and tested on different languages and language pairs. Some of them are evidently false; on others, the jury is still out. If some hypotheses continue to be supported by empirical evidence, the question then arises of how they might best be explained. There has been fierce criticism of some of the assumptions underlying the search for universals, including the use of the term 'universal'itself, but the approach has also brought clear methodological benefits.
  • Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (Translation studies and the possibility of future-creating proactivity): Translation researchers often and quite eagerly emphasise the practice-orientedness and usefulness of their field of knowledge as well as the proactive impact which their findings have or will have on modern translation practice. This article adopts, however, a critical view of that kind of a goal for proactive action within translation studies, and advocates a different conception and facet of proactivity. Hence, the question of future-orientedness of translation research is approached and explored from two vantage points: first, from the three Peircean modalities, namely possibility (may-be), (f)actuality (actually-is), and tendenciality (must-be or shouldbe)and second, from a futures semiotic view, according to which a future can be invented, made, or discovered.
  • Kivilehto, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, Suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos, 2010)
    Abstract (How the evaluating commentaries of a translation teacher reflect teacher knowledge): Teachers' knowledge has been found in research to be personal and experiential. In this article I discuss teacher knowledge from the perspective of a specific translation teacher. The aim of my study was to discover what kind of knowledge a translation teacher demonstrates when she evaluates her students’ translations. Focusing on attitude expressions in my qualitative analysis, I concentrate on an interview conducted with one teacher, who talks about her students’ translations. On this basis, one may conclude that the teacher’s knowledge is based on her experiences as both a teacher and a native speaker of Swedish.