Recent Submissions

  • Robciuc, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The cornea is the first optical element of the eye and, together with the eyelids, eye socket, tears, and sclera, shares an important part in ocular protection. It is a thin, transparent, avascular tissue with a rigorous layered structure. The continuous contact with the outside environment exposes the ocular surface tissues, such as the corneal epithelium, to pathogens, mechanical traumas, irritants, toxins, allergens, or radiation from the sun. The cellular stress response represents an adaptive reaction to environmental stimuli and defines the health-state of the tissue, the absence/presence of clinical manifestations. We have aimed in this thesis project to study the stress response of the corneal epithelium to environmental stimuli and to determine its contribution to ocular surface diseases such as climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), infection, or dry eye disease. A cell culture model of the corneal epithelium was exposed to environmental stress – UV radiation, LPS, or hyperosmolarity (HO) – to identify macromolecular alterations: mRNA expression, protein localization, enzyme activation, lipid conversions. CDK is a degenerative disease of the cornea with increased prevalence in warm, dry climate. Examination of corneal tissue and tears from patients with CDK suggested an involvement of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the disease-associated tissue degradation. Our cellular model helped reveal the connexion between UV radiation and the unbalanced secretion of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and thus explain in part the pathogenesis of this rare disease. The evaluation of the inflammatory response to UV, initially, and then to LPS, or HO, highlighted IL-8 secretion as an acute stress marker and followed throughout the studies. Human corneal epithelial cells were found also to release lipid-modifying enzymes into the cell culture medium as a response to stress. Of particular importance to us were the enzymes of the sphingolipid metabolism, a lipid signalling pathway of great importance in the stress response. These enzymes were released as part of cell-derived extracellular vesicles, the vesicle-lipids, however, were the mediators of a significant decrease in IL-8 levels. The same sphingolipid enzymes appeared responsible for the intracellular response to HO, controlling the IL-8 production but also the stress-induced neutral lipid loading. We have therefore succeeded to establish a causative link between UV radiation and tissue degeneration in CDK, to determine the role of the sphingolipid signalling pathway in ocular surface stress and to discover more about HO consequences in the corneal epithelium. The stress response at the ocular surface is a thin balance between tissue protection and maintenance of function. Inflammation represents one of the most relevant clinical signs of distress and we aimed to identify targets for therapies that seek to restore tissue homeostasis.
  • Häkkinen, Anu (2017)
    Kawah Ijen is the picturesque crater of the Ijen volcano located in Eastern Java, Indonesia. However, it is not just any volcano crater, as it happens to be the locus of labour-intensive sulphur mining operation. Each day up to 15 tons of sulphur is extracted from the Ijen crater by the 350 men working as manual miners. These men carry even 100 kilogram loads of sulphur out from the crater with bare brawn and the work is with no doubt burdensome. Kawah Ijen’s natural beauty has also caught the interest of tourists’, and the crater has become commodified as a tourism destination, visited by hundreds of international tourists each day. Thus the storyline of this master’s thesis is two-fold. The first research objective scrutinizes the Kawah Ijen sulphur mine from a commodity chain perspective, emphasizing the tough work the sulphur miners have to bear in order to satisfy the needs of the consumers at the end of the chain. The second, and the essential objective of this research in turn interrogates how the presence of the sulphur miners has become also an inevitable part of the Kawah Ijen tourism experience. In this the aspiration is to elucidate how the sulphur miners have become aestheticized as a Global South tourism attraction. In other words, this research aims to interrogate the peculiarity of this reality, by exploring how both trade and culture, and human and commodity mobilities are entangled and enshrouded within the crater of the Ijen volcano. In human geography, a research framework of ‘Follow the thing’ has been adopted by scholars in order to study the geographically far-flung production chains of consumer goods. As a framework it aims to make critical political-economic connections between the consumers and distant, and often also underprivileged, producers. In this Marxist-influenced undertaking emphasis is placed particularly on commodity fetishism. This notion has been mobilized to illuminate how consumers have become alienated from the means of production, in their symbolically-laden everyday consumption. As sulphur is a raw material needed in the production processes of many goods such as white sugar, fertilizers, medicines, and rubber, this research shows how these commodities were ‘followed’ into their origins to this particular sulphur mine. During a period of field work, a method of participant observation was utilized to get contextual understanding of this production site. The initial research objective is therefore to make connections and create awareness of the inequalities within commodity production networks. In the final research objective of this master’s thesis, a postcolonial approach is mobilized to critically interrogate this initial setting, in which the miners are seen as poor and stagnant producers. Thus the Kawah Ijen tourists are taken under lens in order to gain understanding of this touristic encounter nuanced with cross-cultural and socio-economic differences between the tourists and the miners. Therefore the setting of Kawah Ijen will not only be observed as a place of production, but also as a site - and object - of consumption. By analysing blogged travel stories written by the tourists themselves, this research aims to illuminate what the tourism experience of the Kawah Ijen is about in the realm of consumption. Special attention is given to how the encounter with sulphur miners has become a constitutive part of the adventurous and authentic tourism experience of Kawah Ijen. The blog post analysis on the Kawah Ijen tourism narrative shows how the imaginaries of the sulphur miner as the ‘Other’ are adhered to, as the tourists construct their travel identities, make meaning of their experiences and finally represent their experience to the outside world. Finally this research aims to make ruptures to Global South fetishism by elucidating how the Kawah Ijen sulphur mine has become both commoditized and fetishized in its own right. In this fetishzation process the sulphur miners are depicted as poor and primitive, which as categories act as symbols for authentic tourism consumption in the social frameworks of the tourists. However, the aim is not to demonize the tourists, but to give recognition to the nuanced personal and social realities they are embedded in their consumption. Hence, the tourism experience of Kawah Ijen is constructed through a point of view more sensitive to the subjective negotiation of authenticity. It is argued that the Kawah Ijen tourism experience is a process in which the meaning of the experience is negotiated in a wider framework, which is vicariously embedded in postcolonial discourse. Finally, it is concluded that although there is some unequal power relations at presence in the tourism consumption of Kawah Ijen, the tourism can be the means to make more sustainable living for the miners. The leapfrog from the mining to tourism has to be only carried out in a deliberate way with respect to all of the stakeholders.
  • Láng, Ilona (2017)
    Matalapainemyrskyt muodostavat Suomessa suurimman yksittäisen uhan sähkönjakeluverkon vakaudelle. Vuosina 2005-2015 kolmannes kaikista sähkönjakelun keskeytyksistä aiheutui matalapainemyrskyjen voimakkaista tuulista. Sääsuureiden yhdistäminen yhteiskunnallisesti vaikuttaviin suureisiin, kuten sähkövikoihin on ollut eri maiden ilmatieteen laitoksien tutkimuskohteena nouseva suuntaus kautta Euroopan. Tässä tutkielmassa luokitellaan matalapaineiden aiheuttamat myrskyt saapumissuunnan mukaan ja tutkitaan niiden vaikutuksia sähköverkkoihin. Matalapainemyrskyjen luokitteleminen Suomessa on verrattain uusi aihe. Myrskyt luokitellaan tässä työssä kaksivaiheisella menetelmällä saapumissuunnan ja pintamatalan rantautumisen mukaan, sekä selvitetään ominaisuuksia, jotka tekevät niistä tuhoisia sähköverkoille. Myrskyt luokiteltiin kuuteen luokkaan tarkastelemalla menneiden myrskyjen myrskyratoja vuosilta 2005-2015. Aineistoon valikoitui yhteensä 51 myrskyä, joita tutkittiin käyttämällä Ilmatieteen laitoksen tietokannan havaintoja, ERA-Interim uusanalyysejä sekä sähköyhtiöiden sähkövika-aineistoa. Myrskyluokat saivat nimekseen A-SW (maan eteläosaan lounaasta saapuvat), A-SE (maan eteläosaan kaakosta saapuvat), A-NW (maan eteläosaan luoteesta saapuvat), B-SW (maan pohjoisosaan lounaasta saapuvat), B-NW (maan pohjoisosaan luoteesta saapuvat) ja B-NE (maan pohjoisosaan koillisesta saapuvat). Aineiston myrskytapausten perusteella havaittiin, että suurin osa eli noin 60 prosenttia tarkastelujakson myrskyistä saapuu Suomeen lounaasta, mikä tukee hyvin aiempia tutkimustuloksia. Tutkielmassa on pyritty myös löytämään yhteys myrskyjen ja sähkövikatilanteiden välille yhdistämällä meteorologista dataa sähköverkkoyhtiöiltä (Loiste Sähköverkko Oy ja ENEASE Oy) saatuihin vikatietoihin. Myrskyluokille tyypilliset puuskatuulijakaumat on yhdistetty alueellisiin sähköttömien talouksien lukumääriin eli käyttöpaikkojen lukumääriin (kpk). Työssä tutkittiin eri myrskyluokkien ominaispiirteiden vaikutuksia sähköverkkoihin ja määritettiin maantieteellisten alueiden mukaan jakautuvat viat kussakin luokassa. Myrskyluokista tuhoisimpina esille nousivat luokat B-NW-, sekä A-SE-myrskyt. Nämä myrskyluokat ovat eri syistä tuhoisat. B-NW- myrskyistä tuhoisan tekee todennäköisesti niiden nopea kehityskaari, sekä voimakkaan matalapaineen keskuksen aiheuttamat ärhäkät puuskat. A-SE-myrskyt puolestaan ovat hidasliikkeisiä, jolloin puuskien vaikutukset tietyllä alueella kumuloituvat. Kaakosta saapuvia (A-SE) myrskyjä voisi kutsua myös kesämyrskyiksi niiden tyypillisen esiintymisajankohdan mukaan. Tutkielman lopputuloksena saatiin määritettyä yksinkertainen kaava, joka sai nimekseen yhteisvaikutusindeksi. Yhteisvaikutusindeksin avulla pystytään ennen kaikkea havainnollistamaan niin eri voimakkuuksisten puuskatuulien, kuin muidenkin tuhoihin vaikuttavien tekijöiden yhteisvaikutusta. Lopuksi esimerkkitapauksena käsitellään sähköyhtiöiden kannalta merkittävää Valio-myrskyä (2015), joka oli tyypiltään B-NW. Aikaisempiin tutkimuksiin verrattuna tässä työssä uutta oli myrskyjen luokittelu, sekä meteorologisten ja ei-meteorologisten tekijöiden yhdistäminen yhteisvaikutusindeksin laskukaavaksi. Yhteisvaikutusindeksiä voidaan tulevaisuudessa käyttää joko tukena operatiivisten sääennusteiden laadinnassa myrskyjen vaikuttavuutta arvioitaessa tai pohjana algoritmille. Työ sai alkunsa Ilmatieteen laitoksen ELASTINEN- tutkimushankkeesta, jossa selvitettiin sää- ja ilmastoriskien hallintaa ja otettiin ensiaskelia kohti vaikutusvaroittamista Suomessa. Tutkielma liittyy myös Tekes/SASSE- ja H2020/ANYWHERE- hankkeisiin, joissa pyritään selvittämään sääilmiöiden yhteiskunnallista vaikuttavuutta. Tutkielman tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää jatkossa muissakin hankkeissa, joissa selvitetään sähkönjakelun kannalta merkittäviä sääilmiöitä. Aiheen tutkimisesta on apua myös operatiivisessa sääennusteen laatimisessa ja arvioitaessa lähestyvän myrskyn vaikutuksia.
  • Pyykönen, Aura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Optimal care of pregnant women and newborn babies has an immeasurable effect on the well-being of a family, but it also significantly impacts society overall. In Finland, the quality of obstetric and perinatal care is high, but in order to further improve it, sensitive and commonly agreed quality indicators are required. The aim of the thesis was to validate different potential quality indicators for obstetric care, and to assess differences between different hospital size-categories in Finland. To facilitate reliable comparisons for benchmarking, we evaluated the usability of the Robson classification, a system for grouping the parturient population. This was done as an international comparison between the Nordic countries. The thesis also aims to contribute to more unified and high-quality obstetric care by examining the optimal time of labor induction in prolonged pregnancies. This thesis is based on data from the medical birth registries in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. The findings of this thesis indicate true differences in the obstetric management and treatment culture between the Nordic countries and between different-sized birth units in Finland. However, it should be acknowledged that part of the differences may be explained by confounding background factors. The results enforce the existing evidence on the effect of birth centralization on neonatal outcomes, e.g. lower neonatal mortality in large units, but indicate a higher risk for instrumental delivery. Obstetric trauma, a potentially preventable complication of vaginal delivery, showed substantial size-dependent variation between the Finnish birth units; the risk was the lowest in mid-sized birth units. The Robson classification proved to bed usable in the Nordic setting, facilitating more accurate comparisons, but comprehensive interpretations require experience and expertise. In our study on the effect of labor induction in prolonged pregnancy, we found an increased risk for Cesarean section around 41 gestational weeks, but no longer when the gestational age approached 42 weeks. From a neonatal perspective, labor induction resulted in a decreased risk for meconium aspiration syndrome, but only when the intervention took place before 41+5 weeks. Labor induction did not have a significant effect on neonatal mortality. International and inter-unit benchmarking pinpoints the areas needing improvement; e.g. prevention of obstetric trauma or induction protocols among nulliparous women. Some indicators, such as Cesarean section rates within Robson groups, show potential for readily directing obstetric practices, and are therefore of special interest. Like our neighboring countries Denmark and Sweden, we should establish a national quality monitoring program for obstetric care in Finland, to ensure its high-quality care also in the future.
  • Mäihäniemi, Beata (University of Helsinki, 2017)
    The role of information intermediaries has grown significantly in recent years, due to an increased importance of information as an industry input. It seems that posting any information, independently of using a dominant online platform, may be detrimental to one’s business. Such companies can be considered as unavoidable trading partners, which may enable them to manipulate information and possibly exclude or damage effective competition. These intermediaries may block access to, or bias, the quality of information. The main reason why competition law would be interested in regulating the access to information is that where information is controlled by one network-based dominant undertaking — significant competition problems may occur. Firstly, access to the market may be prevented due to indirect network effects, such as consumers preferring a particular network because of its good reputation or everybody else using it and due to the fact that some networks may give preference to its own complementary services. Secondly, companies that control information may also affect the quality of information provided and this may, in turn, affect consumer welfare. Finally, in some cases, where information is created by means of complicated and costly research, but where it is unprotected by an intellectual property right, the danger of free riding may arise. Therefore, competition law should be extremely careful in granting access to information that constitutes a basis for some business models (e.g. trade secrets), even where such information belongs to a dominant company. One of the findings of this study is that special responsibility should not be extended outside competition law to include general fairness considerations in order to allow access to information. Special responsibility should still, as it has been perceived by conventional competition analysis, only be imposed where the company in question is dominant and where it behaves anticompetitively. On the contrary, business justifications could be increasingly used by the dominant company to show that the dominant undertaking competed on merits and did not resort to anticompetitive practices. Abuse of dominance that occurs in digital markets does not always fit into criteria that were crafted for physical inputs, however this does not denote that the conventional way of conducting an analysis of an abuse of dominance should undergo a total makeover. The Commission should not therefore aim at long-term changes; instead, it should acknowledge how characteristics of digital markets affect analysis of competition law. Law on abuse, as applied to situations where access to information is refused or granted on discriminatory terms, should accommodate rapid technological change; preserve incentives to invest and innovate; focus on consumer harm in the analysis of abuse of dominance and grant a larger role to objective (business) justifications provided by dominant companies. The above-mentioned theoretical findings are applied to a case study on one of the most recognised online platforms that is Google Search investigations in the EU which have recently proceeded to the Commission’s decision, however one that is not yet publically available. The initial outcome of the investigations has been as follows: Google has been fined €2.42 billion for abusing its dominant position as a search engine by granting illegal advantage to another of its products - own comparison shopping service. The thesis analyses two of the practices Google has been initially involved in namely, search bias and restrictions on portability of online search advertising campaigns. These are analysed in detail as to whether they are in fact anticompetitive and can be addressed with a valid theory of harm. The thesis in question confirms the Commission’s findings on Google’s dominance, however it offers alternative arguments for the appropriate theory of harm as to the abusive practice of search bias.
  • Kallio, Viivi (2017)
    Sääsatelliittimittausten avulla on mahdollista muodostaa sekä ajallisesti että alueellisesti kattavia estimaatteja auringon kokonaissäteilystä maan pinnalla. Niiden muodostaminen kuitenkin perustuu kokonaissäteilyyn vaikuttavan pilvisyyden määrittämiseen sääsatelliittimittausten perusteella, jolloin menetelmällä saavutettava tarkkuus voi vaihdella pilvisyydestä riippuen. Tässä tutkielmassa verifioidaan sääsatelliittimittauksiin perustuvaa kokonaissäteilyn estimointijär- jestelmää Etelä-Suomessa vertaamalla järjestelmän estimaatteja maanpinnan havaintoihin. Tavoite on selvittää, miten eri tyyppinen pilvisyys vaikuttaa estimaatin tarkkuuteen, ja huonontaako jokin pilvityyppi estimaattia erityisesti. Myös leveyspiirin vaikutusta estimaatin virheisiin tarkastellaan ja järjestelmää vertaillaan muihin vastaaviin. Estimaattien virheiden tarkastelua varten ne jaetaan luokkiin pilvityypin mukaan. Tulosten mukaan estimaatti hieman aliarvioi kokonaissäteilyä pilvettömissä tilanteissa, kun taas pilvisissä tilanteissa kokonaissäteilyä yliarvioidaan kohtalaisen paljon. Harha (MBE) on pilvettömissä tilanteissa -3,44 % (-16,58 W/m 2 ) ja kaikilla tilanteilla 6,45 % (31,04 W/m 2 ). MBE kasvaa leveyspiirin mukaan, tosin myös etäisyydellä rannikosta on vaikutusta. Virheiden odotettiin olevan suuria rikkonaisille ja korkeille pilville, mutta suurimmat virheet ovat läpinäkymättömillä, erityisesti hyvin matalilla, pilvillä (MBE: 16,81 %, 80,90 W/m 2 ). Myös kerrostuneilla pilvillä virheet ovat suuria (MBE: 15,76 %, 75,86 W/m 2 ), mutta rikkonaisten pilvien kohdalla systemaattiset virheet ovat hyvin pieniä (MBE: -0,13 %, -0,62 W/m 2 ). Tämä saattaa johtua osittain epävarmuuksista pilviluokittelussa. Vertailu tehtiin menetelmä- ja aineistoerojen takia vain kahteen muuhun tutkimuksen, joissa virheiden todettiin olevan keskimäärin pienempiä. Virheanalyysin pilviluokittelussa löytyi epävarmuuksia etenkin rikkonaisten pilvien kohdalla, eikä kyseisen pilvityypin todeta olevan täysin ongelmaton. Luokkaan on mahdollisesti luokiteltu hyvin vähäistä, korkeaa pilvisyyttä, mikä laskee luokan virheitä. Vaikeudet hyvin matalissa pilvissä viittaavat ongelmiin laskettaessa pilvien vaikutusta kokonaissäteilyyn, minkä korjaamisen oletetaan parantavan järjestelmän tarkkuutta. Myös pilven vaikutuksen laskentaan käytettyä referenssiaineistoa tulee laajentaa sekä siihen liittyvä tekninen virhe korjata.
  • Faghihi, Farbod (2017)
    The ubiquity of mobile devices with positioning sensors make it possible to derive user's location at any time. However, constantly sensing the position in order to track the user's movement is not feasible, either due to the unavailability of sensors, or computational and storage burdens. In this thesis, we present and evaluate a novel approach for efficiently tracking user's movement trajectories using decomposition and prediction of trajectories. We facilitate tracking by taking advantage of regularity within the movement trajectories. The evaluation of our approach is done using three large-scale spatio-temporal datasets, from three different cities: San Francisco, Porto, and Beijing. Two of these datasets contain only cab traces and one contains all modes of transportation. Therefore, our approach is solely dependent on the inherent regularity within the trajectories regardless of the city or transportation mode.
  • Puikkonen, Tuomas (2017)
    Tutkielma antaa yleiskuvan Internet-sensuurin teknisestä toteutuksesta, siitä miten tietyt maat sensuroivat kansalaisten verkkoliikennettä ja miten kansalaiset kiertävät tätä sensuuria. Tutkielman alussa taustoitamme, miten Internet toimii teknisesti. Esittelemme tutkielmassa viisi erilaista sensurointitekniikkaa. Nämä ovat pakettisuodatus, DNS-järjestelmään perustuva sensurointi, BGP-protokollan manipulointi, avainsanoihin perus- tuva suodatus sekä Internet-yhteyden häiriköinti ja kuristaminen. Osa sensurointitekniikoista ylisuodattaa eli sensuroitavaksi päätyy myös tietoa, jota ei ollut tarkoitus estää. Sensori voi yhdistellä eri sensurointitekniikoita isommaksi kokonaisuudeksi ja saada näin ollen paremman hyödyn sensurointijärjestelmästä. Sensorin ei ole pakko rakentaa sensurointijärjestelmää itse. Alalla toimii yrityksiä, jotka myyvät valtioille järjestelmiä sensuroinnin toteuttamiseen. Tutkimme kymmenen maata Freedom Housen ja Reporters Without Borders’n raporttien pohjalta. Näistä maista tutustumme tarkemmin Kiinan ja Iranin Internet-sensuuriin. Lisäksi esittelemme arabikevään tapahtumat Egyptin ja Libyan osalta. Valotamme tutkimiemme maiden nykytilaa Freedom Housen vuoden 2015 Internetin vapaus -raportin avulla. Internet-sensuurin yleistyessä myös sensuroinnin kiertäminen on yleistynyt. Pohjustamme sensuurin kiertämistä esittelemällä viestintäprotokollien päivitettyjä versioita, erilaisia väli- tyspalvelimia ja tunnelointitekniikoita. Tämän jälkeen esittelemme tarkemmin kolme näiden tekniikoiden päälle rakennettua kierto-ohjelmaa. Esiteltävät ohjelmat ovat Psiphon, Tor ja CovertCast. Kerromme mitä kierto-ohjelmia tutkittujen maiden kansalaiset ovat ottaneet käyttöönsä ja miten sensori suhtautuu kierto-ohjelmien käyttöön. Sensori ja kierto-ohjelman kehittäjä kilpailevat nykyään siitä, kumman tekniikka on toista tehokkaampi. Tämän vuoksi emme näe järkeä ratkaista Internet-sensuurin aiheuttamaa sananvapausongelmaa teknisin keinoin. Ongelman ratkaisemiseen tarvitaan pitkäjänteistä poliittista vaikuttamista kansainvälisellä tasolla.
  • Jussila, Anssi (2017)
    Studies of the last ice age have been made in Finland since the early 20th century. The result is a wealth of information on activities related to the continental ice sheet and the location of the ice margins. The purpose of this thesis was to find out the usefulness of animations when visualizing research results. Animations have the advantage of sharing a large amount of information in a short time and they often are easier to comprehend compared to texts and images. In addition to this the aim was to visualize dynamics of the ice sheet and its ice margin positions. The materials from different studies that were used in visualization contain visual materials from ice sheet in northern Europe and more precisely from Finland. The animations were created by using ArcGis program and Blender 3D graphics software. In ArcGis the GIS-database was modified for suitable format to be used in Blender. Based on the visual materials, objects were formed in Blender from polygons that reflect the geometry of the ice sheet and its environment. The movements and other events were modelled by animating them and their visual look was formed by assigning different materials for different objects. Lastly, the animation was post-processed through composite and then rendered out of the program in the desired format. The results of the study were two animations about the activities related to the continental ice sheet in Northern Europe and Finland. The animation of Northern Europe is a general overview of growth and retreat of the ice sheet between 34–10 ka. The main result of the study is an animation of retreat of the ice sheet during deglaciation in Finland between 14–10 ka. The animation of the Finnish area visualizes ice lobes and stagnant ice areas between them. In addition to the ice sheet the animation also visualizes ice lakes, terminal moraines and calving of the ice sheet, as well as the sub-aquatic and supra-aquatic regions in Finland. The study can be further refined by adding all existing research data of ice margin positions and ice sheet dynamics. The animation regarding the ice sheet dynamics of Finland could be further expanded and refined towards areas in Norway, Sweden and Russia. In addition to that, one could add an elevation model and the development model of Baltic Sea and other water bodies to create a more diverse work. Based on the study, the usability of the animation in glacial geologic studies is significant when it is based on extensive research data and up-to-date glacial geological knowledge. The applications of animations are numerous and they can be used to generalize geological events.
  • Ikonen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel may represent a good solution after a thorough risk assessment. In Finland and Sweden, the host rock for geological disposal is crystalline rock and the repository is based on the Swedish KBS-3 multi-barrier design. When radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel are potentially released into the bedrock, they are then transported by advection along water-conducting fractures. The retardation of radionuclides can occur via molecular diffusion into stagnant pore water and/or via chemical retardation onto mineral surfaces in the rock matrix. When assessing the risk of spent nuclear fuel deposition, it is important to understand the transport behaviour of radionuclides in the bedrock, that is, at the rock–groundwater interface. Most parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient, the distribution coefficient and the rock porosity, associated with radionuclide migration in the rock are obtained from laboratory scale experiments. In order to apply results from laboratory experiments to the full-scale nuclear fuel deposition, in-situ experiments are performed. For example, the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive in-situ experiments at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). During the first in-situ test, tritiated water (HTO), 22Na, 134Cs and 131I, as well as non-radioactive isotopes 127I and 23Na, were circulated in a borehole interval isolated by packers 70 cm apart from each other. The second ongoing Long Term Diffusion (LTD) experiment primarily uses the same radionuclides as well as the non-radioactive element selenium. This thesis presents the laboratory analysis of HTO and iodine from an in-situ diffusion experiment and supporting laboratory studies aimed at determining the sorption and diffusion of caesium and selenium on Grimsel granodiorite (GG). Caesium sorption was studied through batch sorption experiments using crushed rock, while selenium diffusion and sorption relied on batch and block scale experiments using Kuru grey granite (KGG) and GG rock blocks. HTO and iodine diffusion was modelled using the time domain diffusion (TDD) method among in in-situ rock blocks as well as selenium in a laboratory using rock blocks. The outleaching method proved successful for analysing non-sorbing radionuclides from the connected pore network of the GG. TDD modelling of the results lead to an apparent diffusion coefficient of 3 × 10-10 m2/s for both HTO and iodine. No significant difference between the in-situ and laboratory diffusion coefficient was detected. Caesium sorption stood at 0.107 ± 0.003 m3/kg on GG at a 10−8 M Cs concentration. Sorption was highest on biotite at Kd = 0.304 ± 0.005 m3/kg, explaining the in-situ diffusion results of caesium which followed the biotite veins in GG. The sorption of selenium was significantly overestimated when the determination was conducted on crushed rock using the batch sorption method compared to studies conducted on intact rock. The outleaching method proved successful in the analysis of non-sorbing radionuclides, while flexible TDD modelling proved to be a quite useful tool in handling measured data from both block scale experiments and in-situ experiments of weakly and non-sorbing tracers.
  • Ajo, Martti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Sigfrid Sirenius (1877–1961), Doctor of Theology, was a pioneer of the modern social Christian ideas and the founder of the Finnish Settlement movement. The link between God’s kingdom and the labour movement was essential both in Sirenius’ theologic-ideological thinking and in his Christian values based civic activity. Sirenius’ God’s kingdom ideology was a result of a multiphase process. It grew from the soil of both German Württembergian and Anglo-Saxon Pietism. The aiming point of Sirenius’ ideology was to strengthen the connection between the Church and the labour movement and to repress secularism. On the threshold of the General Strike (1905) Sirenius left for seamen’s mission to Antwerp and later to London. In England a cosmopolite seamen’s minister increasingly applied himself to labour question and received heavy influence from the British labour movement. While studying Anglican Church, Sirenius got familiar with the settlement movement, which drew ideas from Christian socialism. Sirenius radical Christian values based civic activity began in 1913, after F. Herbert Stead had paid a visit to Finland. The purpose of visit was to further labourizing SDP. On the factory areas Sirenius agitated on behalf of Christian socialism. He preached for the labourer about earthly God’s kingdom, which could be built by means of Social Democrats. The outbreak of the Civil War meant a setback for his endeavours to labourize the SDP. After the War he was one of the few ministers who stayed in touch with the SDP. In 1918 Sirenius found Finnish Settlement Movement. After the Civil War SDP had their suspicions about the Christian values based civic activity made by Sirenius. Due to his situation, he approached the Agrarian League and the party’s leading figure, Santeri Alkio. In the Northern Finland Sirenius teamed up with the Lapland Trio. Their goal was to spread social Christian ideology among log floaters in Lapland and to fight against materialistic Communism. The international conference of the religious socialists, held in Barchem 1924, became revolutionary to the development of Sirenius’ God’s kingdom ideology. In the conference Sirenius met L. Ragaz. And via Ragaz, Sirenius got familiar with the chiliastic God’s kingdom ideology and apokatastasis-yearning formed by Johann Christoph and Christoph Blumhardt. Blumhardt Jr. was a Social Democrat.
  • Kallio, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The spreading of non-indigenous species by human activities is a growing problem globally. Invasive species are generally assumed to have negative impacts on ecosystems, because they threaten biodiversity and the balance of ecological systems. Other simultaneous changes in the ecosystem can impact, or intensify the effects of, the invasion. The invasive rock shrimp Palaemon elegans, is an invasive species that has spread to the Baltic sea via human introduction in the early 2000’s. There have also been drastic changes in the ecology of Baltic sea, particularly the increase of primary production. A common mesopredator, the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, has greatly increased in number in the Baltic sea in recent years. It is presumed to influence the primary production by predation of zooplankton grazers. P. elegans is an omnivore that both grazes filamentous green algae, as well as preys upon the invertebrate grazers that live amongst the algae. If the invasion of P. elegans influences the populations of stickleback, it might also influence the accumulation of primary production. Recent studies have shown, that P. elegans can potentially influence the reproductive behavior of stickleback, but the effect on the success of reproduction has not been proven. This study was composed of two parts: field monitoring and a mesocosm experiment. In the monitoring, individuals of stickleback and P. elegans were caught, counted and measured in three shallow bays and two depths from May to August of 2015. The differences in number of caught individuals were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and differences in lengths were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. The effect of P. elegans on sticklebacks was analyzed using covariance analysis. The hypothesis was, that the amount of P. elegans and stickleback or their lengths would show negative correlation, which could be a sign of interaction through predation or resource competition. In the mesocosm experiment stickleback fry were exposed to P. elegans or a non-parent stickleback in tanks with filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and associated fauna. The resulting differences in in fry number, fry size and the amount of algae between treatments in the tanks were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Correlations between variables were analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. The hypothesis was that P. elegans would have a negative effect on the amount of fry through predation, or the size of the fry through perceived predation risk. In the field study, no significant correlations were found between P. elegans and sticklebacks, and therefore the results do not suggest a causal link between the two species. Differences between the areas were found, which were attributed to physical differences between the areas. In the mesocosm experiment not enough repetitions were accumulated to provide reliable results. The increase of P. elegans in the Baltic sea is most likely not going to affect the three-spined stickleback via direct predation. P. elegans appears in the shallow bays where sticklebacks reproduce later in the year and it consumes mainly algae and invertebrates. Even though P. elegans will feed on fish eggs if there is an opportunity, stickleback males defend their nests fiercely. The invasion of P. elegans in the Baltic sea is very recent, but it can affect the accumulation of filamentous algae due to their great number. It feeds on invertebrates, but can itself be a potential food item in the diet of ie. cod.
  • Kyllönen, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The thesis explores critically some of the theoretical suggestions offered in the literature of environmental political philosophy to overcome the ecological challenges and suggests some promising ways forward. According to the thesis, complexity of the ecological problems, uncertainty related to them, and vulnerability to disagreements because of this, speak in favour of democratic justification of the authority: no other way of resolving the disagreements in the uncertain and complex world can be claimed to be epistemically and morally superior to democracy. Moreover, because appropriately democratic processes are able to show publicly that the (possibly) disputing interests of people are treated in equal and fair manner, the democratic outcomes are able to gain more legitimacy than those resorting solely to the environmentally grounded epistemic (eco)-authority. While democratic processes remain an essential way to produce legitimately authoritative environmental outcomes, the global and intergenerational scope of the problems requires a justification that transcends the democratic processes themselves. Here the thesis defends a Rawlsian kind of contractualism as a way to justify the authority of some global and intergenerational principles and argues that even in the existing non-ideal circumstances the Rawlsian principle of fairness gives us some guidance about the limits within which our societal institutions, laws, and policies deserve our compliance. In addition, the thesis defends the common sense no-harm principle that holds irrespective of the institutional arrangements between people. ¬Due to vast dispersion of causes and effects, a growing number of environmental ethicists have doubted its applicability in the context of large-scale environmental problems at all. Some others have proposed its application at the collective level. Contrary to these authors, the thesis provides a defence of the individualistic no-harm principle as a common-sense way to justify individuals’ duties to change their environmentally harmful behaviour and to promote more effective collective and institutional ways to prevent environmental harm. Finally, the thesis defends a sufficientarian understanding of social justice as the most plausible and coherent way to connect local, global and intergenerational demands. It is also suggested that the sufficientarian approach is capable of overcoming some theoretical challenges that rise at the intergenerational context, in which our choices have an influence not only on how well- or badly-off people in the future are, but also on who those future people are.
  • Nummela, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Campylobacter cause human campylobacteriosis, a gastroenteritis characterised by symptomps that range from abdominal pain to bloody diarrhea. The most common species behind human infections is Campylobavter jejuni, the infective dose of which has been recognized to be low. Warm-blooded animals are found to be common carriers of Campylobacter in their intestinal tract. As susceptible to environmental stress factors, Campylobacter is unable to multiply outside the host; it spreads to the environment through feces. Cattle has been recognised as an important reservoir of Campylobacter and raw milk the leading cause of Campylobacter outbreaks along with water and poultry. Most commonly, contamination of raw milk derive from fecal contamination during milking. The prevalence of Campylobacter was examined in three dairy farms, of which two, farms B and C, had faced an outbreak carried by raw milk right before the monitoring period of the study commenced. In the third farm A, Campylobacter hadn’t been detected either from raw milk or milk filters, and the prevalence in cattle was found to be low. Cattle were sampled 1-2 times and both milk as well as milk filter samples were obtained weekly during the monitoring period. Furthermore, environmental samples were collected. Samples were examined according to the modified NMKL 119:2007 cultivation method and MPN technique was used to quantify Campylobacter in raw milk samples. C. jejuni isolates were genotyped applying PFGE typing with SmaI enzyme. Moreover, concerning the hygienic control of raw milk, suitability of milk filters in detecting Campylobacter from bulk tank milk was examined in a shelf life experiment, in which milk filters were first divided in two parts, then spiked with four different concentrations of C. jejuni. In order to examine how well C. jejuni survives in storage conditions, spiked milk filters were packed into cool bags stored in room temperature for four different time intervals. Campylobacter was detected in cattle from all three dairy farms, yet the prevalence in control farm A was substantially lower than in the farms of the outbreak B and C, in which more than half of the cattle shed Campylobacter in feces. In farm A as well as farm C Campylobacter was not detected in milk or milk filters during the monitoring period. In outbreak farm C, the milk was most likely to be contaminated due to poor short-term milking hygiene conditions, as the C. jejuni genotype that most of the cattle shed proved to be identical with C. jejuni strain isolated from bulk tank milk during the investigation of the outbreak. Then again, outbreak farm B faced a rare, long-lasting Campylobacter contamination, as milk and milk filters were still found positive for Campylobacter six months after the outbreak. Up to 35 MPN / ml of Campylobacter was quantified from milk. The genotype detected from the milk and milk filters was dominant in the cattle as well. Nevertheless, the source of the contamination remained unclear and hadn’t been eliminated in time for the last sampling in spite of the satination and renovation operations made. Continous fecal contamination, biofilm harboured in the milking machine and direct extraction of Campylobacter to milk due to an udder infection were suspected as potential causes of the long-lasting contamination. In the shelf life experiment of milkfilters the background microflora, which was resistant to the selective supplement of Bolton Broth used in this study, proved a bigger problem for the detection of Campylobacter than its susceptibility to environmental stress. Accordingly, with the protocol used in this study, the experiences gained detecting the samples obtained from farm B suggest that milk is a superior sample matrix over milk filters.
  • Mayer, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Finnish development cooperation in the field of meteorology has continued for nearly 50 years and over 100 countries have been beneficiaries of this aid. Cooperation in this field is complex, it brings together public and private sector actors and experts from different backgrounds. Projects have succeeded in capacity development, but have struggled with sustainability. Local capacity often lowers after projects ends. Data includes interviews (n=56) with experts from the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Vaisala, Ministry for Foreign Affairs and 8 recipient countries. Archive material and policy documents are also included in analysis. Exploratory case study method applying conventional content analysis is used. The objective of the study is to explore the underlying issues influencing the challenge of sustainability. Theoretical framework includes a combination of concepts and theories: governmentality (Foucault) and analytics of government (Dean), power theories (Lukes, Clegg and French & Raven) and approaches regarding patterns of aid behavior (Hydén and Mease, Gibson et al., Burnell and Mosse). Historical analysis shows the various phases of these projects, and reflects them to the history of Finnish aid from the late 1960s to the 2010s. Experts’ experiences from the grass-roots level form an important basis for the analysis. Policy analysis shows that projects have been well-fitting with development policies up until the 2000s, after which the gap between policy and practice has widened. Cooperation is focused more on technology and less to the societal aspects of meteorology. The Ministry is not involved in practice, allowing projects to be driven towards more technology-oriented goals by the experts of meteorology, many of which who have adopted an “apolitical” strategy. This weakens connections between projects and local people. Private sector experts have adopted an opposing strategy, and engage actively with politicians, who are able to make decisions regarding purchasing of meteorological equipment. Analysis shows that all important decisions within the aid system "come from above", bureaucracy is heavy and control is tight. Lack of flexibility and trust within the system lowers the influence of the projects. Differences between the donor stakeholders are found in general approaches to key issues. Power analysis shows that the Ministry holds the most influential forms of power, while FMI and Vaisala hold mainly dispositional power. Recipients of aid lack access to important forms of power, yet they are expected to sustain capacity after projects ends. Several “donor traps” are also found to actualize, which influence outcomes of aid. In order to make projects truly sustainable for the aid recipients, the donor would have to give up some power and through that, also some accountability. This is nearly an impossible choice, since both are highly important for the donor. This study finds that within the current system, there is no one actor who has both motive and power to change aid. For the sake of the future, this is a significant challenge to overcome regarding the role of the developing nations, as well as the renewal of the aid system.