E-thesis

Recent Submissions

  • Nissinen, Antti (2016)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastelen avoimia matemaattisia tehtäviä sekä matematiikan opettamista ja arviointia peruskoulun yläluokilla avoimia tehtäviä käyttämällä. Tehtävä on avoin, kun sen alku- tai lopputilanne ei ole tarkasti määritelty. Ratkaisija joutuu tekemään prosessin aikana valintoja saadakseen tehtävän ratkaistua. Avoimella ongelmatehtävällä voi olla useita oikeita ratkaisuja. Tutkielman alussa kerron avoimista tehtävistä ja esittelen erilaisia avoimia tehtävätyyppejä. Seuraavaksi esittelen oppimiskäsitysten teoriaa ja perustelen avoimien ongelmien käyttöä peruskoulun matematiikan opetuksen osana. Avoimen ongelman ratkaisija käyttää hyväkseen aiemmin oppimaansa tietoa ja kokemuksiaan samantyyppisistä ongelmista. Ratkaisut ovat tekijän näkökulmasta ainutlaatuisia. Avoimet ongelmat mahdollistavat oivaltamisen hetkiä, ja niiden tekeminen tukee oppijan matemaattista minäkuvaa ja kokemusta hyväksynnästä. Neljäs luku sisältää teoriaa ja pohdintaa ongelmanratkaisun ja avoimilla ongelmilla opettamisen keinoista sekä ohjeita avoimien tehtävien laatimiseen. Ongelmanratkaisu on käytännön taito, jossa kehittyminen vaatii runsasta harjoittelua. Opettajan rooli monimutkaistuu avointa ongelmanratkaisua opetettaessa, koska oikeita ratkaisuja ja ratkaisukeinoja on useita. Opetustilanteista tulee vähemmän ennustettavia. Lisäksi kerron opetuskokemuksistani avoimien ongelmien parissa. Lopuksi pohdin oppimisen arviointia muun muassa avoimien ongelmien näkökulmasta ja Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 huomioiden. Kuvailen myös joitakin tutkielman aiheeseen liittyviä haasteita.
  • Nykänen, Annika (2016)
    Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on käydä läpi Riemannin integraali sekä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraali määritelmineen ja perusominaisuuksineen. Tutkielma on rakennettu siten, että ensimmäinen luku on johdantoluku, jossa lukija johdatetaan aiheeseen ja esitellään tutkielmassa käytetyt lähteet. Toisessa luvussa muistutetaan lukijaa Riemannin integraalin määritelmästä, jonka jälkeen esitellään Riemannin integraaliin liittyviä muutamia perusominaisuuksia. Tutkielman ensimmäinen pääluku on kolmas luku, jossa määritellään Riemann-Stieltjesin integraali Riemann-tyyppisten summien avulla. Lisäksi kolmannessa luvussa esitellään lineaariominaisuuksia summille sekä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin kaksi hyödyllistä laskumenetelmää; osittaisintegrointi sekä muuttujanvaihto. Neljännessä luvussa esitellään yksi keskeisimmistä funktioiden luokista, kun on kyse RiemannStieltjesin integraalista, nimittäin porrasfunktiot. Porrasfunktioihin liittyy läheisesti Eulerin summalause, joka käydään myös läpi luvussa. Tutkielman viidennessä luvussa palataan taas Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin vaihtoehtoisiin määritelmiin, mutta tällä kertaa ylä- ja alaintegraalien avulla. Tässä luvussa käsitellään myös Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin erikoistapaus, joka lopulta johtaa reduktioon Riemannin integraaliin. Luvun lopussa käsitellään funktioiden rajoitettua heilahtelevuutta ja sen yhteyttä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraaliin. Kuudennessa luvussa esitellään riittävät ja välttämättömät ehdot Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin olemassaololle. Tutkielman viimeisessä luvussa esitellään muutamia esimerkkejä Riemannin integraalin käytöstä ja esimerkkejä funktioista, joissa Riemannin integraalia ei voida käyttää, mutta Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalia voi. Tällaisia funktioita ovat muun muassa neljännessä luvussa esitellyt porrasfunktiot.
  • Hatakka, Emmi (2016)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään ongelmanratkaisua osana matematiikan opettamista. Aihe on tärkeä, sillä ongelmanratkaisu on taito, jota yksilö tarvitsee elämänsä kaikilla eri osa-alueilla aina arkipäivän ongelmatilanteista työelämän haasteisiin. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on antaa matematiikan opettajille eväitä ongelmalähtöisen oppimateriaalin kehittämiseen ja ongelmalähtöisen opetuksen toteuttamiseen. Tutkimuksessa pyritään kehittämään ratkaisu opettajien kokemaan ongelmaan ongelmanratkaisun ja matematiikan sisältöjen opettamisen irrallisuudesta vastaamalla kysymyksiin ”Miten opettaja voi tukea ongelmanratkaisun oppimista?” ja ”Minkälainen oppimateriaali tukee sekä käsitteen oppimista että kehittää oppilaiden ongelmanratkaisukykyä?”. Tutkimusmetodina käytetään kehittämistutkimusta, jossa teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin perusteella kehitetään käyttökelpoinen opetusmateriaali. Tutkimuksen teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin tavoitteena on myös kehittää syvällinen ymmärrys tutkittavasta aihepiiristä. Teoreettisen osion merkittävinä lähteinä ovat toimineet Haapasalon (2011) ja Pehkosen (1991) teokset ja se koostuu ongelmanratkaisun teoriasta sekä ongelmanratkaisun ja funktiokäsitteen oppimisen teoriasta. Teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin perusteella kehitettyä opetusmateriaalia testataan opetuskokeilulla ja sen jatkokehitysmahdollisuuksia pohditaan. Opetuskokeilun tutkimusmenetelmänä on osallistuva havainnointi. Teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin pohjalta oppimistehtävän ensisijaisiksi tavoitteeksi asetettiin oppilaiden ajattelutaitojen kehittäminen sekä opetettavan uuden käsitteen kytkeminen käytännönläheiseen kontekstiin. Oppimistehtävän empiirisessä testauksessa havaittiin tehtävän toteuttavan sille asetetut tavoitteet, mutta lisäksi havaittiin myös mahdollisia jatkokehitystarpeita. Tehtävä onnistui tavoitteessaan käytännönläheisenä johdantona funktioihin, mutta sen muotoiluun avoimuuden osalta voi olla syytä kiinnittää huomiota riippuen oppilasryhmän tasosta. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella opettajan näkökulmasta ongelmanratkaisun opetus on nähtävissä pitkäaikaisena prosessina, jossa opettajan rooli muuttuu oppilaiden kehittyessä. Aluksi oppilaat tarvitsevat malliesimerkkiä kun he vasta omaksuvat uusia ajatusmalleja. Oppilaiden ongelmanratkaisutaitojen karttuessa opetusta voi muuttaa yhä ongelmalähtöisempään suuntaan ja lopulta heuristiikkojen automatisoiduttua pitkäjänteisen harjoittelun tuloksena, ne voidaan tehdä oppilaille tietoisiksi. Ongelmanratkaisu nähdään yleisesti hyväksyttynä keinona oppilaiden matemaattisen ja kriittisen ajattelun kehityksessä ja sen tulisi olla osa matematiikan opetusta.
  • Ojanen, Silja (2016)
    Matematiikan kielentämisellä tarkoitetaan matemaattisen ajattelun esittämistä sanallisesti tai symbolien ja kuvien avulla. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että opiskelijat kokevat kielentämisharjoittelun auttavan oman ajatteluprosessin jäsentämisessä sekä sen esittämisessä muille, ja pitävät sitä hyödyllisenä. Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään kielentämisharjoittelua matematiikan yliopisto-opintojen alkuvaiheessa erityisesti joukko-opin osalta. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään sitä, miten opiskelijat suhtautuvat kielentämiseen työtapana ja sitä, millaisia joukko-opin kielentämiseen liittyviä ongelmia opiskelijoilla voidaan havaita. Lisäksi tutkittiin kielentämistehtävissä menestymisen yhteyttä opiskelijoiden kurssi-menestykseen. Tutkimus toteutettiin Helsingin yliopiston Johdatus yliopistomatematiikkaan -kurssilla keväällä 2015. Kurssin osanottajista suurin osa oli matematiikan sivuaineopiskelijoita. Kurssin opiskelijat tekivät las-kuharjoitusten yhteydessä yhteensä neljä kielentämistehtävää, jotka pisteytettiin ja joiden avulla tutkit-tiin kielentämiseen liittyviä ongelmia. Opiskelijoiden mielipiteitä kielentämisestä ja matematiikasta kartoitettiin kyselylomakkeella. Aineiston kvantitatiivinen analyysi toteutettiin Excel-ohjelman tilasto-työkaluilla. Opiskelijat suhtautuivat luonnollisen kielen käyttöön matematiikassa pääosin positiivisesti ja kokivat siitä olevan hyötyä. Selkeimpiä ongelmia tutkittaville aiheuttivat joukko-opin merkinnät ja niiden kään-täminen luonnolliselle kielelle. Kielentämistehtävistä saatujen pisteiden ja koepisteiden välillä havaittiin selvä positiivinen korrelaatio, mutta tarvitaan lisätutkimusta selvittämään, miten kielentämisharjoittelu vaikuttaa osaamiseen. Kielentäminen vaikuttaa kuitenkin käyttökelpoiselta työkalulta matematiikan oppimisen tueksi.
  • Rozov, Stanislav (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The histaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus in conjunction with hypocretinergic cells, monoaminergic nuclei of the brainstem and basal forebrain centers, constitute the ascending arousal system that plays a pivotal role in maintenance of wakefulness state. It has predominantly inhibitory reciprocal connections to their sleep-active counterparts, which enables an efficient transition between wakefulness and sleep. In combination with the circadian clock and homeostatic regulation of sleep its forms a network that regulate the sleep-wakefulness cycle. Because of the complex organization, it becomes difficult to estimate the significance of the crosstalk between the individual components of this regulatory network. Therefore, we focused on examination of interactions between the histaminergic system, the circadian and homeostatic components. We used electroencephalography in combination with behavioral analysis to quantify changes in spontaneous locomotion, wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep stages in response to an alterations of pacemaker rhythm. The shortening of the light-dark cycle led to re-distribution of these parameters towards aperiodicity, as well as increased sleep propensity, diminished daily rhythms of power of high θ-, and γ-waves, which are characteristic of an active wakefulness state as well as strengthened the phase-amplitude coupling between these frequencies. We used in vivo microdialysis in combination with sleep deprivation to understand the histaminergic regulation of homeostatic sleep propensity. During 6-hours of sleep deprivation, the histamine release was upregulated and comparable to its level during wakefulness, whereas when the sleep deprivation ceased, the release of histamine immediately dropped to the baseline level. To assess the effects of circadian regulation on histaminergic neurons, we estimated the daily changes of activities of the key enzymes involved in the histamine metabolism, histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase as well as diurnal profile of histamine release. The 24-hour rhythms of production and release of histamine and its metabolite, 1-methylhistamine were detected, whereas activities of the enzymes had no detectable diurnal rhythm. Histamine release was highly positively correlated with changes in the power of the θ-frequency range. In order to understand the possible role of the histaminergic regulation of circadian system functioning we utilized mouse strains that constitutively lack histamine 1 and 3 receptors. The lack of histamine 1 receptor had no effects on the circadian rhythm of spontaneous locomotion, but the knockout of the histamine 3 receptor resulted in a substantial reduction of free-running activity rhythm amplitude. The expressions of the core clock genes, Per1, Per2 and Bmal1, in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, the cerebral cortex and the striatum were not affected in these knockout models. Based on the acquired results we concluded that the circadian process may affect homeostatic regulation, thus indicating an interaction of these processes. The circadian regulation of the histaminergic neurons takes place mainly at the level of histamine accumulation and release. In contrast, alterations in histamine-mediated signal transduction caused only minor alterations in examined circadian rhythms. Finally, we could not find evidence of an involvement of the histamine in homeostatic regulation of sleep-wakefulness cycle.
  • Vaahersalo, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence and neurological outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Finnish intensive care units (ICU). This study also investigated the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH), arterial blood gas (ABG) pressures and different biomarkers association with one-year neurological outcome after OHCA. Materials and methods The FINNRESUSCI study was conducted in 21 out of 22 ICUs in Finland during a one-year study period. All adult patients after OHCA who were treated in ICU were included. Blood samples for biomarker evaluation were collected and neurological outcomes were determined 12 months after CA. All patients were included when evaluated the incidence, the implementation of TH and outcomes. In Study II, all ABG samples obtained from mechanically ventilated patients during the first 24h from ICU admission. In Study III and IV, biomarkers were measured from patients resuscitated from VF/VT. Main results FINNRESUSCI study included 548 patients, of whom 311 (56.8%) had shockable (VF/VT) and 237 (43.2%) non-shockable (PEA or asystole) as an initial rhythm. TH was induced totally in 311 unconscious patients 85.8% in VF/VT and 31.4% in PEA or asystole group. Good neurologic outcome was achieved in 58.0% patients with shockable rhythms and in 19.4% with non-shockable rhythms after TH treatment. The mean PaCO2 tension during the first 24-hour in ICU was an independent predictor of a good outcome with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.054, but the mean PaO2 tension was not. The time spent above PaCO2 45 mmHg was associated with good neurologic outcome and patients with the highest mean PaCO2 and PaO2 values had better neurologic outcome than predicted with an OR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.2). IL-6 and S-100B was associated with time to ROSC and poor neurological outcome (p less than 0.001). Admission IL-6 was associated with extra-cerebral organ dysfunction (p less than 0.001) and was an independent predictor of poor neurological outcome with an OR of 1.006 (95% CI 1.000-1.011). Hs-TnT levels were elevated in all of the patients, higher in patients with poor vs. good neurological outcome 739 vs. 334 ng/l (p=0.028), but there was no statistical difference in mortality. Conclusions TH is well implemented in clinical practice in Finnish ICUs. The majority of OHCA patients with shockable rhythms survive with good neurology, while the outcome of patients with non-shockable rhythms is poorer despite the TH treatment. There was no harmful association between hyperoxia and outcome, but instead mild hypercapnia combined with mild hyperoxia might be beneficial during the first 24 hours. IL-6 was associated with extra-cerebral organ dysfunction and predicted neurological outcome after OHCA-VF/VT, while hs-TnT does not give any additional prognostic information.
  • Kuhlefelt, Marina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Smoking cessation and surgical planning decrease complications and compromised healing in patients undergoing orthognatic surgery Orthognatic surgery is surgery for the correction of discrepancies in the facial skeleton. The main aim of the thesis was to identify factors that increase complications and compromised healing in these patients. Medical records of orthognatic patients treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland were retrieved retrospectively for the first two studies. For the last two studies patients planned for bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) were recruited at the Department before surgery and followed up for one year. The outcome variable in the first study was the removal of one symptomatic titanium miniplate, whereas in the second study it was a surgical site infection. The predictor variables were age, gender, smoking status, duration of operation, general diseases, dimensions of mandibular movement and osteosynthesis supporting material. The main outcome variable in the third study was neurosensory disturbance, whereas in the last study it was temporomandibular disorders at one year post-operative. The main predictor variable in the third study was the degree of manipulation of the mandibular nerve and in the last study TMD before surgery, evaluated by the Helkimo Dysfunction index. Explanatory variables age, gender, smoking status, mandibular advancement and duration of operation were also recorded for the statistical analyses. 19.0% of the inserted miniplates were removed in 153 BSSO patients. Plate-related reasons for removal were infection and screw-loosening. 9.1% of the patients (n= 286) in the second study had a surgical site infection. Smoking was the only significant predictor for infections or removal of osteosynthesis material. 90.2% BSSO patients (n= 41) reported altered sensations in the lower lip one year after surgery. The disturbance tended to increase the more the mandibular nerve was manipulated during surgery. Four patients had a visible nerve laceration and all of them experienced a major burden of the altered sensation. Two of these patients (4.9%) had neuropathic pain. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment, but the four patients with visible nerve lacerations were not. A substantial proportion (42.5%) of the patients in the last study had TMD as one of the reasons for seeking treatment. The TMD did not change after treatment in the majority of patients (60%), 30% improved and for 10% the situation impaired. The main finding was that smoking cessation will reduce infections and the need for removal of osteosynthesis material. Regarding neurosensory complications, the surgical technique does matter, and nerve manipulation and lacerations should be avoided at all costs. TMD symptoms improved for only 30% of patients undergoing BSSO. Thus BSSO is not a predictable treatment for TMD patients.
  • Sandberg, Erja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ADHD in the family - The support provided by the educational, social and health sectors, and the experienced impact The aim of this study was to collect and describe the experiences of families with family members who have ADHD and are in need of support from different bodies such as educational, social and health services. The study also collected and described the co-operation between such bodies over the last six decades. With the assistance of netnography, the research data was collected in 2012 to 2014 from a social network group a nationwide ADHD peer support group. The material includes both questionnaires and interviews. The interviews were used to complement the results of the questionnaires. The main unit of analysis was the family (N = 208), and in each family, one or more members had been diagnosed with or showed symptoms of ADHD. The entire family was included in the study because ADHD affects more than just the individual him/herself. ADHD is often familial, and therefore some of the families in this study had over sixty years experience of ADHD, even though the definitions have changed over the years. Despite the increase in and specification of supportive services, the participants saw the different bodies as too bureaucratic, splintered and regionally differentiated. People showing symptoms of ADHD who had notable functional impairments were not able to find the supportive measures they needed and were not able to endure long wait times due to their worsening situation. Co-operation between the different bodies was seen as a necessity. In the research material, three out of five families described such co-operation as not being realised as it is meant to be according to the law. The difficult situations of the families were demonstrated in the research material in that every third family participating in this study included a socially excluded person or someone at risk of social exclusion. In general, a lack of education, fewer chances of finding a job and associated symptoms of ADHD all contributed to social exclusion. Becoming socially excluded is a long process and not a conscious choice. The participants stated that social exclusion is a vicious circle from which escape is difficult when no support is available. After examining the family types, it can be stated that socio-demographic background variables, particularly educational capital, and the latest information on ADHD, along with support found within the family, were seen as protective factors allowing highly educated families with ADHD a greater chance to better function in Finnish society. Keywords: ADHD, family, netnography, support services, service system, social exclusion
  • Anyan, James (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study explores how opportunities for higher education (HE) are distributed in Ghana s public universities to students; and particularly, how those from the disadvantaged sections of the Ghanaian society fare in that regard. It was approached as a multi-level (integrating elements of micro, meso and macro) and multi-perspective dual transformative case study. Drawing mainly upon data collected from semi-structured interviews with students, graduates, university officials and policy-makers, as well as secondary data archived by the relevant institutions; it examines the processes and patterns in the distribution of admission slots to students. It engages with the tensions and dilemmas confronting the universities in such allocations, and debates same, in the context of procedural justice and meritocracy on the one hand, and distributive justice and affirmative action on the other. The interactions and intersections of socio-economic and other significant variables parental education, family income, geographical location, gender and disability are discussed, principally, in the framework of effectively maintained inequality (EMI), to understand the factors influencing the patterns of distribution observed. The data were thematically analysed using both sensitising concepts from the literature review, the conceptual frameworks as well as the indigenous concepts that emerged from the data. The findings indicate that the distribution of HE seats in the two public universities selected for the study is highly inequitable with students who graduated from the few urban-based and elite upper secondary schools overrepresented while graduates from the majority rural-based and resource-poor schools are underrepresented. Although there was unanimity among the different groups of participants about the existence and persistence of the problem, their approaches to dealing with the problem proved dichotomous. While students from the rural schools, for instance, exposed their status frustration and assumed a reformist stance on the issue of remodelling the current grade-based admission system to one cognisant of the difficult circumstances under which rural students pursue their upper secondary education, their counterparts from the elite schools essentially defended the maintenance of the status quo. The majority of female participants, contrary to the views of policy-makers, strongly objected to affirmative action for the admission of females; arguing that the policy reinforces the notion that they are inferior to their male counterparts. The results further reveal a multi-layered social stratification in access to, and equity in HE in Ghana. Almost all the students and graduates who were admitted into the universities on affirmative action basis identified themselves as rural people from low-income families, with little or no parental education, and poor parental occupations. Such students, though in dire financial straits, were contrary to expectations, found to be very resilient and highly motivated to complete their studies; posting excellent academic performance. Students with disabilities were also found to be internally excluded, facing life and academic threatening challenges, whereas female students reported entrenched socio-cultural norms impeding the education and aspirations of women in the Ghanaian society. Against these backdrops, the study calls for a rethink of the current overly meritocratic admission procedures in Ghana s public universities that do harm to access and equity for the majority rural students. It further recommends financial support from government to support the affirmative action initiatives of the public universities; an improvement in the conditions of students with disability, and multi-sectoral interventions to ameliorate the barriers impeding the education of females. The successful completion of HE holding all things constant by these disadvantaged groups, with its attendant better educated citizenry, enhanced civic consciousness, empowerment and participation, in addition to other socio-economic benefits, make such investments worthwhile. Keywords: distributive justice, procedural justice, affirmative action, gender, disability, stratification.
  • Mäkelä, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, but the underlying mechanisms for this are largely unknown. Disturbed cell signaling and protein metabolism as well as mitochondrial dysfunctions are thought to be involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are the major source of energy in the cell, and they also regulate cell death. In brain, neurons are highly dependent on oxidative energy metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunctions cause oxidative stress with an excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson s disease (PD), ROS are thought to contribute to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which leads to dopamine depletion in striatum. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, ROS defense and respiration. The lack of PGC-1α has been shown to increase the sensitivity of neurons to oxidative stress and brain injuries. In this study we show that increasing the expression of PGC-1α protects against toxin-induced oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons. We show that PGC-1α expression in dopaminergic neurons can be modulated by resveratrol (RSV), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) that are known to regulate metabolism in other tissues. The increase in PGC-1α expression and activation was linked to metabolic changes mimicing low energy levels in the cell, and an increase in SIRT1, a metabolic regulator sensing changes in energy levels. PGC-1α activation was further associated with an increase in mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant levels suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of PGC-1α was due to an improved capacity to combat oxidative stress. These results show that regulation of metabolism by PGC-1α activators could be a useful tool to prevent neurodegeneration in PD. In addition to modulating PGC-1α, RSV was also found to increase the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in dopaminergic neurons of female mice. The increase in the level of DAT increases the uptake of dopamine, further indicating that RSV has beneficial effects in dopaminergic neurons. By affecting DAT, RSV also contributes to maintaining functional neurons, as a decline in DAT has been associated with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. This effect on DAT expression was mediated by estrogen receptors, indicating that the effect of RSV differs between genders that should be considered if RSV is used as therapy for patients with PD.
  • Keppola, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Lobbaus voidaan laajasti ymmärrettynä määritellä kaikiksi pyrkimyksiksi vaikuttaa julkiseen päätöksentekoon. Tässä tutkimuksessa on omaksuttu kapeampi käsitys, jonka mukaan lobbaus rajautuu epäviralliseen ja henkilökohtaiseen yhteydenpitoon päätöksentekijöiden kanssa. Lobbaus on osa toimivaa demokratiaa, mutta siihen liittyy myös demokratiaa ja hallinnon läpinäkyvyyttä vaarantavia tekijöitä. Päätöksentekoa kohtaan tunnetun luottamuksen kannalta on erityisen tärkeää tuoda lisävaloa virkamiesten lobbaukseen, sillä vaikka sen merkitys on osoittautunut suureksi, kansainvälinenkin tutkimus asiasta on varsin vähäistä ja Suomessa aihetta on toistaiseksi vain sivuttu. Ensimmäisenä tutkimustehtävänä onkin selvittää, mitä lobbaus on virkamiesten ja intressiryhmien edustajien näkökulmista ja mitä yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroja näkemyksissä esiintyy. Tavoitteena on avata uutta uraa suomalaisessa intressiryhmätutkimuksessa tarkastelemalla kansainvälisen kirjallisuuden avulla meillä hyvin vähän tutkittua ilmiötä. Tutkimuskohteena on sosiaali- ja terveysministeriön hyvinvoinnin ja terveyden edistämisen osasto, sillä budjettiosuudeltaan merkittävän hallinnonalan osasto käsittelee paljon voimakkaiden intressiristiriitojen kohteena olevia asioita. Aineisto koostuu eliitti- ja lumipallo-otannan yhdistelyllä kerätyistä kahdeksasta puolistrukturoidusta teemahaastattelusta, joista puolet toteutettiin virkamiesten ja puolet intressiryhmien edustajien kanssa. Ryhmittäin anonymisoitua aineistoa analysoidaan teoriasidonnaisen sisällönanalyysin avulla. Teoreettinen viitekehys yhdistää kahta Yhdysvalloissa ja Euroopan unionin kontekstissa kehitettyä näkökulmaa, neopluralismia ja vaihtoteoreettista lähestymistapaa. Toisena tutkimustehtävänä onkin selvittää, missä määrin nämä kansainväliset teoriat kuvaavat suomalaisia näkemyksiä lobbauksesta. Tutkimuksen perusteella virkamiesten lobbauksen viitekehys muodostuu virallisista kuulemismenettelyistä, ja vaikutusvallan kannalta keskeistä on vaikuttaa mahdollisimman varhaisessa vaiheessa politiikkaprosessia. Vaihtoteorialle ominaisesti lobbausta voidaan mallintaa poliittisten hyödykkeiden vaihdantana, jossa intressiryhmät tarjoavat virkamiesten tarvitsemaa tietoa, asiantuntemusta ja päätöksenteon legitimiteettiä, ja pyrkivät vastineeksi saamaan mukaanpääsyn prosessiin. Neopluralismin kannalta mukaanpääsy kuitenkin riippuu asia- ja tilannesidonnaisista tekijöistä, joista tärkeimpinä asian tyyppi, intressiryhmärakenne ja institutionaaliset tekijät. Intressiryhmien mahdollisuudet edistää mukaanpääsyään ja siten vaikutusvaltaansa ovat kuitenkin sidoksissa myös niiden resursseihin. Tärkeimmiksi lobbausresursseiksi osoittautuivat myös poliittisena hyödykkeenä vaihdettava asiantuntemus, taloudelliset resurssit ja suhteet. Nämä ovat myös tiiviisti sidoksissa toisiinsa. Virkamiesten ja intressiryhmien edustajien näkemykset muodostivat hyvin yhtenäisen kuvan lobbauksesta toimintana, joka kansalaisten intressejä ja tietoa välittämällä voi parantaa päätöksenteon laatua. Intressiryhmien kannalta lobbaus nähtiin osana edunvalvontaa. Esille tuli myös viitteitä lobbauskentän muuttumisesta. Eroja esiintyi näkemyksissä lobbauksen määritelmän kattavuudesta ja suhteiden ja asiantuntemuksen painoarvosta. Lobbauksen riskit liitettiin erityisesti avoimuuden vaarantumiseen. Sitä pyritään edistämään itsesäätelyllä, mutta osa kaipasi myös keskustelua lobbauksen pelisäännöistä. Sääntely ja esimerkiksi lobbarirekisteri ei saanut juuri kannatusta, mutta osa ehdotti päätöksentekijöille kirjausvelvollisuutta tapaamisista. Toisaalta huomautettiin Suomessa jo olevan avoimuutta edistäviä elementtejä, joita tulisi voida hyödyntää paremmin.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Over the past few decades, contemporary public policy and governance systems have been transformed in response to both local and supra-national societal problems and demands. Clear-cut means of tackling these problems and demands are rare. Public policy problems seldom fall neatly within specific jurisdictions or agencies. The state has become increasingly dependent on a wide range of policies and arrangements that produce public services, provide rapid results and facilitate timely interventions. As a response, the choice of governance mechanisms and organizational forms that enable collaborative, dynamic and flexible arrangements in the implementation of public policy becomes highly relevant. This study analyses the increasing use of temporary project organisations as new governance mechanisms in contemporary policy implementation and the prospects for action that this entails. The main argument is that project organisations could yield significant benefits and can play a vital role as horizontal as well as vertical interlinking mechanisms between various administrative levels. They could also include challenges that have not yet been fully understood. The overarching aim of the study is to conceptualise and understand the benefits and challenges related to the increasing number of temporary governance mechanisms in the form of project organisations in the public sector context. The study analyses the potential consequences and advantages of public sector projectification in four research articles and this summary article, focusing on how projectification is driven forward, as well as what the consequences of projectification are in the European Union (EU) context and the public sector in general. It considers the long-term effects of project organisations and the extent to which the added value they produce can be utilized. Who are the beneficial social partners and what types of collaborative procedures and actions are needed to achieve innovation in EU structural fund projects? The multifaceted and ambiguous nature of public sector project research, the uniqueness associated with the various actor objectives, interests and participatory procedures regarding projects, as well as their management requires a broad theoretical view and a variety of methods. Three interrelated strands of research in this respect are particularly relevant: the New Public Management (NPM) discourse, theories of Governance, and project management ideals and Governance of Projects (GoP). They represent a mixture of old and new, which is necessary in order to understand the functioning of projects and projectification as well as their embeddedness in the public sector environment. The study follows an empirically informed interpretive approach, which emphasises the intentionality of actions, practices, and social life. It uses a mixed-methods approach and advocates multi-perspectivism and paradigm interplay. It also combines different interpretations of the existing governance frameworks and public sector projects, thus acknowledging that alternative views might exist. The methods used in the individual articles represent metaevaluation, qualitative content analysis, logistic regression analysis and social network analysis (SNA). The findings highlight the lack of conceptualizations concerning the relationship between temporary and permanent structures, and suggest that an increasing temporality in public decision-making may challenge fundamental administrative values such as transparency and democratic accountability. The findings question the often over-emphasised value of using projects as opposed to other more permanent mechanisms in the public sector environment and suggest that there is a potential mismatch between the operational logic of projects and the prevailing project and program evaluation system in the public sector. Projects can act as hubs where valuable information is produced, and project stakeholder networks and various collaborative efforts can play a role in predicting project innovations. There is, however, an overly optimistic view of collaborative efforts in achieving project innovations, calling collaboration in projects into question as a direct remedy for a lack of innovation. The study concludes that an increasing use of project organisations in the public sector may have significant consequences, as well as showing that the expected advantages of project organisations are related to the rationalistic ideals, but also that temporality as such poses challenges to permanent administrative structures. Although projects might be superior to permanent structures in producing quick outputs, too much focus on the rational logic of project organisations means that their added value remains underutilized in a public sector context. The study contributes to a theoretical understanding of projectification, what the key drivers of projectification are, as well as specific public sector features that need to be accounted for in a projectified public sector. The study concludes that contextually sensitive interlinking mechanisms between temporary and permanent organizations are vital in explaining the outcome of temporary organizations in a politico-administrative context.
  • Holopainen, Tanja (Unigrafia, 2016)
    Angiopoietins (Angs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, and lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels. Angiogenesis is important in cancer, because for continuous growth a primary tumor needs a supply of oxygen and nutrients delivered via blood vessels. In physiological conditions, the lymphatic vasculature serves to collect interstitial fluid as well as to absorb lipid particles. In the context of cancer, lymphatic vessels serve as a route for the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. This dissertation aimed to explore the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in cancer progression. In particular, the roles of these proteins in the context of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as metastasis were investigated in two separate studies. In addition, the effects of the photodynamic ablation of intralymphatic cancer cells and lymphatic vessels on the development of metastases were explored. Furthermore, the effect of the endothelial bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (Bmx) on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. We found that the inhibition of VEGFR3 reduces tumor blood vasculature and primary tumor growth. In the second study we found that in-transit tumor cells can be targeted with verteporfin-induced photodynamic therapy. The photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels was improved by combining this strategy with anti-lymphangiogenic therapies via the adenovirally mediated soluble expression of the VEGF-C/D trap. Bmx, a member of the Tec non-receptor tyrosine kinase family, was previously shown to promote tumor cell survival, but relatively little is known about the effect of this kinase on tumor biology. Here, we studied the effects of Bmx tumor angiogenesis by using Bmx gene-deleted mice. Some reduction of primary tumor growth in Bmx-/- mice was detected in several isogenic and oncogenic tumor models, along with some attenuation of tumor angiogenesis. Conversely, overexpression of Bmx resulted in increased tumor progression and angiogenesis. Ang2 is known to be a context-dependent agonist of the tyrosine kinase of the Tie2 receptor. Here, we analyzed the effect of Ang2 on metastatic dissemination into the lungs, finding that the overexpression of Ang2 enhanced lung metastasis. In contrast, Ang2 inhibition decreased the occurrence of lung metastases. In the ultrastructural analysis of the metastatic lungs using transmission electron microscopy, anti-Ang2 treatment attenuated tumor-associated changes in metastasis-associated lung capillaries. This dissertation demonstrates that the blockade of VEGFR3 inhibits tumor angiogenesis, and that the inhibition of Ang2 inhibits lymphatic and lung metastasis and improves endothelial integrity. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of photodynamic therapy to eradicate lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells. These data provide a rationale for developing new cancer therapies targeting the lymphatics in order to reduce metastasis and tumor progression. Taken together, these results provide new insights into endothelial tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis, tumor lymphangiogenesis, and vascular-based therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Environmental fallows are fields that aim to produce environmental benefits instead of agricultural products. In many European countries, the establishment and management of fallows is funded via agri-environmental programmes. This thesis focuses on the biodiversity benefits of environmental fallows in boreal farmland. I examined the impacts of different fallow types and landscape structure on the diversity and species composition of multiple taxa in fallows. I also aimed to evaluate what fallow types, and in what landscape context, are needed to contribute to different biodiversity objectives: the promotion of conservation concern species, overall species diversity or ecosystem services. Species richness and composition of the studied species groups differed substantially between fallow types, and landscape context further modified the value of fallows. Perennial fallows sown with meadow plants supported high plant species richness and bumblebee abundance. Old grassland fallows benefitted both butterflies in general, and butterflies and bumblebees with narrow niches and low dispersal capacities. The positive impacts were emphasized when long-term fallows were located in complex landscapes. High forest cover in the surrounding landscape increased plant species richness in perennial fallows. The breeding density of open farmland birds was highest in short-term meadow fallows in landscapes rich in perennial grasslands. Foraging edge birds preferred short-term meadow fallows in open landscapes and long-term grassland fallows in forested landscapes. Vegetation of annual fallow types game fields and landscape fields differed considerably from perennial fallows and other non-crop biotopes, thus enhancing landscape heterogeneity. My results show that the biodiversity benefits of fallows can be enhanced by adapting fallows to the landscape context and to specific conservation objectives. If the objective is to support species of conservation concern, managing long-term fallows in complex landscapes rich in perennial grasslands is probably the best strategy. Overall biodiversity can also be enhanced in short-term fallows, especially if they are sown with diverse seed mixtures of species that are not too competitive in field conditions. Depending on the sown species, short-term fallows provide good possibilities to enhance landscape heterogeneity and promote ecosystem services. Future studies should consider the specific roles of forest and perennial grasslands in driving the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes. In addition, the impacts of agri-environment schemes, including fallows, on realized ecosystem services should be investigated.
  • Niiranen, Juha (2016)
    The demand for mobile services is increasing constantly and mobile network operators need to significantly upgrade their networks to respond to the demand. The increasing complexity of the networks makes it impossible for a human operator to manage them optimally. Currently the network management operations are automated using a pre-defined logic. The future goal is to introduce cognitive network management functions which can adapt to changes in the network context and handle uncertainty in network data. This thesis discusses using Markov Logic Networks for cognitive management of mobile networks. The method allows uncertain and partial information and makes it possible to consolidate knowledge from multiple sources into a single, compact, representation. The model can be used to infer configuration changes in network parameters and the model parameters can be learned from data. We test the method in a simulated LTE network and examine the results in terms of improvements in network performance and computational cost.