Recent Submissions

  • Waltari, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have confirmed that the Standard Model (SM) is a good description of particle physics at the electroweak scale. The Standard Model is still incomplete, since it does not explain e.g. neutrino masses, dark matter, dark energy or gravity. Supersymmetry is a well motivated way to extend the Standard Model. The minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) has become somewhat fine-tuned after the first run of the LHC and therefore the detailed study of nonminimal supersymmetric models is highly motivated. We studied phenomenological implications of some nonminimal supersymmetric models especially in the light of the recent discovery of a Higgs boson. Our studies focused on supersymmetry without R-parity and left-right symmetric supersymmetric models. In the MSSM a 125 GeV Higgs requires rather heavy superpartners. In nonminimal models the Higgs mass can be lifted by contributions from new particles at tree-level, loop-level or by mixing effects. We found that if we introduce spontaneous R-parity violation, the mixing between the SM-like Higgs and a right-handed sneutrino can increase the mass of the SM-like Higgs if the sneutrino-like state is lighter than 125 GeV. One does not need as heavy superpartners as in the MSSM and thus fine-tuning is not as severe. If the Higgs mass gets additional contributions, the squarks of the third generation can be more easily within the reach of the LHC. If R-parity is not imposed, the squarks can have new decay modes, which can have a large branching fraction. As an example we studied a model, where R-charges are identified with the lepton number and found that the discovery potential for the stop decaying to a bottom quark and a positron is well beyond 1 TeV squark masses. In left-right supersymmetry we studied the Higgs decay modes and the option of having a right-handed sneutrino as a dark matter candidate. We found that a loop-induced mixing of the bidoublets can either enhance or suppress the Higgs coupling to bottom quarks and thus change the signal strengths considerably. However, in the scan there was also a large number of points, where the couplings behaved close to those of the SM. The right-handed sneutrino is a part of a doublet in left-right symmetric models. We found that sneutrinos may annihilate via a D-term coupling to the Higgs and produce the observed relic density. If we assume the gauge coupling of the right-handed gauge interactions to be the same as for the left-handed ones, we were able to predict a range of masses for the sneutrino. We also showed that with 100 inverse femtobarns we could get a signal of superpartners from the sleptonic decays of the right-handed W-boson, if its mass is below 3 TeV.
  • Björklund, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation examines medicinal-magical amulets pertaining to the uterus and the protection of women and children, the accompanying tradition of magical texts, and the mythology and folktales of demons believed to kill children and parturient women. The amulets and the folktales of the demons they were believed to protect against are intertwined. The amulets cannot be studied merely as archaeological or art historical objects, but must be taken together with folktales and narrative charms. The amulets discussed in this dissertation are from Late Antiquity (250 750 CE) and the Middle Byzantine period (843 1204 CE), and they come from the areas of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor. The stories of the demons these amulets protected against are even earlier; the first mentions date to the time of Sappho in Archaic Greece (6th 7th centuries BCE), and they still appear in manuscript copies as late as the 15th century CE. The amulets discussed in this dissertation represent only a fraction of the amulets from Antiquity to Byzantine times intended to aid in pregnancy and childbirth. They must be seen as part of a tradition of amulets and narrative charms (stories that themselves acted as magical protection) against disease-causing demons. In narrative charms, the demon (who is both disease-causing and the disease itself) is depicted as animal-like, non-human, and usually rising from the sea. She meets a divine figure (Artemis in the older versions of the story, King Solomon, Jesus, or Virgin Mary in the later ones), who interrogates and banishes her. In addition, I propose that seeing the amulets in the context of belief in the evil eye may help explain many of their features and accompanying stories. The evil eye was thought to cause all manners of maladies. Contextualized in terms of the Indo-European and Semitic wet-dry division of life, the evil eye steals the liquids of life: mother s milk, blood, and semen. By attacking the very essence of the household and its continued survival (i.e. reproduction), the evil eye was a significant element behind the amulets and narrative charms. Furthermore, the concept of the evil eye was an extremely important tool in conflict resolution in small, close-knit communities, as a specific conflict could be resolved by placing blame on an immaterial scapegoat while maintaining social cohesion by not identifying any single individual as guilty.
  • Könönen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The peatlands in Southeast Asia have been impacted and turned to vast carbon dioxide sources (CO2) by land management often involving drainage and deforestation. The amount of released CO2 in decomposition is related to management intensity likely resulting from altered conditions for decomposition. However, the link between decomposition processes and land-use change are poorly understood. To provide insight to the effects of land-use change intensities to decomposition processes in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we examined physical (dry bulk density, total pore space, particle size) and chemical properties (pH, loss-on-ignition; total concentrations of N, P, K, C, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Al, Fe, S, Si, DOC and DON; organic matter quality characterized by infrared spectroscopy and on compound level), which together were used to determine the decomposition stage and decomposability (i.e., substrate quality) of peat. The peat biological properties (microbial biomass and enzyme activity) were used to provide insight to the decomposition activity at various land-use types and as a response to known peat properties. The study sites were: near-pristine swamp (i) and drained (ii) forest, deforested and drained degraded (iii), agricultural (iv) and reforested (v) sites. At the most intensively altered deforested sites the peat was denser, finer and enriched with recalcitrant compounds. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were in the surface peat of swamp forest, where the amount of labile carbohydrates was highest. The six years ago reforested site did not yet show signs of recovery in peat properties, which was likely due the limited litter production capacity of the young plantation and microbial activity limited by chemical weeding. The main conclusion is that the litter input, or rather the lack of it after land-use change, and intensive management practices forms the main factors affecting to decomposition processes and leading to poorer substrate quality and reduced biological activity.
  • Nurmi, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    There are two vascular systems in the body, for blood and lymph, and both are indispensable for embryonic development. The closed circuit of blood vessels is responsible for oxygen and nutrient delivery to all compartments of the body and removal of CO2 and waste products from tissues. The open-ended lymphatic system works as a return route for fluid, immune cells and dietary lipids into the blood circulation. The heart is the central engine for blood flow whereas lymphatic flow is achieved by skeletal and smooth muscle contraction around the lymphatic vessels. Differences between the blood vascular and lymphatic systems are apparent, from the molecular to the functional level. However, the two types of vessels also share a number of signaling molecules and building blocks of vessels. The purpose of the studies presented in this thesis was to expand our knowledge about Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) and their receptors in development and pathological conditions. In the first study, we found, surprisingly, that VEGFR-3, the receptor for the principal lymphatic vessel growth factor, VEGF-C, is crucial for the normal patterning of the developing blood vessels and that endothelial deletion of Vegfr3, but not VEGFR-3-blocking antibodies, leads to excessive blood vessel sprouting and branching. Furthermore, macrophages that express the VEGFR-3 and VEGFR- 2 ligand VEGF-C localized to the vessel branchpoints, and Vegfc heterozygous mice exhibited inefficient angiogenesis characterized by decreased vascular branching. Our second study focused on the pathological aspect of the atherosclerosis. By using the transgenic mouse that overexpress soluble VEGFR-3 (VEGF-C/D trap) we could link the impaired lymphatic vessels to lipoprotein metabolism, increased plasma cholesterol levels, and enhanced atherogenesis. In the third project we focused on the role of lymphangiogenic growth factors in the steady-state homeostasis of lymphatic vessels in adult mice. Our findings from this study indicated that the lymphangiogenic growth factors provide trophic and dynamic regulation of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature, which could be especially important in the dietary regulation of adiposity and cholesterol metabolism. Finally in the last study we discovered a new role of VEGF-C in the embryonic development. To our surprise, we found a striking VEGF-C dependent phenotype with defective fetal liver erythropoiesis that resulted severe anemia in the Vegfc deteled embryos. These studies have revealed a new viewpoint regarding the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway in embryonic and pathological conditions. With these results, our understanding of the VEGF family members has expanded beyond the blood and lymphatic vessel. Hopefully, this new knowledge will improve the possibilities to target the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway for the treatment of human diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and vascular diseases.
  • Kotiranta, Pauliina (2017)
    Tavoitteet Vesisankarit-hankkeessa innostetaan koululaisia harjoittelemaan vesillä liikkumisen taitoja toiminnallisesti ympäri vuoden. Hanke tarjoaa materiaalia opettajille ja vanhemmille vesitaitojen harjoittelemisen tueksi. Tutkimuksessani olen ensinnäkin kiinnostunut siitä, millaisia ovat koulujen toteuttamat Vesisankarit-tapahtumat ja miten oppilaat kokevat ne. Toiseksi, olen kiinnostunut siitä, millaisia toimijuuksia oppilaille mahdollistuu tapahtumassa. Kolmantena tutkimuskysymyksenäni on, millaisia ajatuksia oppilailla on uimataidosta ja pelastustaidoista. Tutkimukseni teoreettisen viitekehyksen muodostavat lapsuustutkimus, lasten toimijuuden käsite sekä Bourdieun pääomateoretisoinnit. Koska kyseessä on ensimmäinen Vesisankarit-hankkeesta tehty tutkimus, on tarkoituksenani luoda yleiskuvaa Vesisankarit-toiminnasta. Tavoitteenani on, että tutkimukseni voisi toimia virikkeenä opettajille ja muille toimijoille, jotka haluavat toteuttaa Vesisankarit-toimintaa. Menetelmät. Tutkimukseni aineisto koostuu viidessä eri pääkaupunkiseudun alakoulussa toteutetusta Vesisankarit-tapahtumasta. Keräsin aineistoni etnografisin menetelmin. Olin jokaisessa tapahtumassa paikalla havainnoimassa toimintaa ja haastattelin vapaaehtoisia oppilaita tapahtumien jälkeen ryhmähaastatteluilla. Haastatteluja oli yhteensä 14 ja niihin osallistui 20 poikaa ja 26 tyttöä. Oppilaat olivat iältään 8-12-vuotiaita. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Vesisankarit-tapahtuma vaatii toteutuakseen toiminnallisuutta tukevan koulun toimintakulttuurin ja aiheesta innostuneen opettajan. Valtaosa oppilaista koki tapahtumassa harjoiteltavien taitojen olevan tärkeitä ja hyödyllisiä tulevaisuudessa. Suosituimpia rasteja olivat sellaiset, joilla oppilaat pääsivät itse tekemään ja kokeilemaan. Oppilaiden tapahtumissa hyödyntämiä pääomia olivat aiempien kokemuksien ja harrastuksien kautta kertyneet tiedot ja taidot. Suurin osa haastateltavista kävi vanhempiensa ja isovanhempiensa kanssa uimassa. Koulujen uimaopetusta kritisoitiin siitä, ettei siellä ole ollenkaan ”vapaata” uintia, mikä taas oli mahdollista perheen kanssa uidessa. Uiminen näyttäytyi osallistujille sosiaalisena tapahtuma, jolloin vietettiin mukavia hetkiä perheen tai kavereiden kanssa.
  • Schroderus, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The topics of this thesis in mathematics belong to the area of operator theory which, in general, studies linear transformations between complete normed vector spaces. Here, all operators considered are bounded and act on complex separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. A prototypical example of Hilbert spaces is formed by the square summable sequences of complex numbers. Other common Hilbert spaces consist of functions which are analytic on some open domain of the complex plane. The characteristic property of analytic functions is that they are locally given by a convergent power series and so the behaviour of such functions is rather rigid. Thesis consists of the introductory part and three research articles, the first and the third being co-authored with, respectively, E. A. Gallardo-Gutiérrez and H.-O. Tylli. Our focus in the first two articles is in the spectral properties of composition operators which are induced by linear fractional transformations (also known as Möbius maps). As the name suggests, a composition operator composes a function with a fixed mapping called the inducing map. In studying these operators we can take advantage of function theoretic tools, and it is not surprising that the properties of composition operator depend intricately on the inducing map. The spectrum of an operator acting on an infinite-dimensional space generalizes the concept of eigenvalues of a finite matrix. In general, determining the spectrum of a given operator is not an easy task. In the first article we compute the spectra of composition operators induced by certain linear fractional self-maps of the unit disc. Here the operators act on the whole range of weighted Dirichlet spaces which are Hilbert spaces of analytic functions on the unit disc. Earlier results in this context cover e.g. the classical Hardy space, the weighted Bergman spaces and the classical Dirichlet space. Our results complete the spectral picture of linear fractional composition operators on the weighted Dirichlet spaces. In particular, we found a way to compute the spectra of parabolic and invertible hyperbolic composition operators on the spaces that are contained in the classical Dirichlet space. The second article continues the study of the spectral properties of linear fractional composition operators in the corresponding setting on the upper half-plane. The analogous spaces of the half-plane differ significantly from their counterparts in the unit disc; for instance, not all linear fractional self-maps of the half-plane induce bounded composition operators. We were able to compute the spectra of all bounded linear fractional composition operators acting on the Hardy, and the weighted Bergman spaces of the upper half-plane. Moreover, we show that the essential spectra coincide with the spectra on all cases. One of the main tools is the Paley-Wiener theorem along with its generalizations which allow us to transfer the computations to certain Hilbert spaces defined on the positive real line. An operator is called universal if it has such a rich lattice of invariant subspaces that it models any given operator (up to a constant multiple) when restricted to some of its invariant subspaces. The definition of universal operators can be generalized to commuting n-tuples of operators. In the third article we consider general properties of universal operators on separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The task of finding and analysing concrete universal operators have gained a lot of attention since they could help in answering the question whether every operator on a separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space has a non-trivial invariant subspace. We study the properties of the whole class of universal operators and as one of our main results we prove that universal operators have a big essential spectrum containing the origin. In addition, we give new examples of universal operators and universal commuting pairs.
  • Kochetkova, Elena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study is devoted to technology transfer from the West (primarily from Finland) to the Soviet forestry industry during a period of rapid modernization under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev during the 1950s and 1960s. Under Khrushchev, the USSR sought to catch up and overtake America . However, in the post-war period the Soviet Union suffered from a dearth of technology and expertise, and technology transfer from more developed foreign industries became a crucial aspect of modernization. Despite geopolitical competition and a vast ideological divide, Khrushchev aimed to transfer updated Western technologies to the USSR in different forms and practices. The Soviet Union established scientific-technical connections with several countries. The main source of modern technologies and machinery needed for paper and pulp production in particular was neutral Finland, which could be considered as a window to Western technological achievements for the Soviet Union. Exemplifying unique relations of West and East in the Cold War, Finland sold many techniques and provided expertise within the framework of scientific-technical cooperation. This dissertation examines the role that technology transfer from the other side of the Iron Curtain played in Soviet modernization from 1955 to 1964. How did technical cooperation with a Western country develop in the context of the Cold War? How and in what forms did Soviet institutions and engineers transfer technologies? How did they deal with more advanced machinery and new expertise? How did they apply the new technologies and how did Soviet domestic research develop? Did these technologies help renew machinery, launch new production and enhance the development of the industry, as expected? If not, why? And, in general, did these foreign technologies lead to technological modernization? In answering these questions, the dissertation sometimes refers to previous periods in order to trace continuities and change. Examining a vast collection of archival and published sources and using methods of the history of technology, the dissertation is focused on the forestry industry, which was one of key fields for expected positive changes in Khrushchev`s modernization. Its technological improvement was necessary not only for the increase of pulp and paper production to meet expanding consumption demands; the forestry industry was also a supplier for a large number of other both civilian and military industries, the latter of which received particular importance during the Cold War. Several plants and factories annexed after the Second Would War (in particular from Finland and the Baltic states) provided for the production of new sorts of pulp needed for military use, and technological modernization of these factories as well as launching new production in other Soviet enterprises was seen as a crucial action for the development of many other industries. Cold War forestry technologies, thus, exemplified their capacity to be a site of exchange , enabling cooperation among different industries, engineers, scientists and institutions. The dissertation illustrates that technologies from Finland and from the West via Finland played a significant role in the Soviet economy while creating a need for continuing transfer. The Soviet leadership aimed to create its own innovations to launch domestic production of the newest technologies. While Soviet engineers succeeded in implementing some technologies, they failed to develop Soviet ones. The Soviet industry remained dependent on cooperation with countries with more advanced industry. The main reasons for this were shortages of raw materials. In addition, technical expertise in industrial enterprises contributed to this dependence. Additionally, within the USSR, there were barriers to technology transfer between institutions. Generally, the successful implementation of Western technologies was possible only when all the details, machinery and expertise, needed for the technology were transferred. At the same time, as a framework for cultural encounters, transfer entailed cultural impacts on Soviet engineers which helped them become more reflexive about work conditions and management practices at Soviet enterprises.
  • Tanskanen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation studies the dramaturgy of ethics in contemporary Finnish drama. My understanding of ethics is based on Emmanuel Levinas s philosophy and his considerations on the encounters between subject and other/Other. Theatre and literary researchers have been heavily influenced by Levinas s thoughts and have considered what it means to encounter otherness in the context of art. This study participates in the debate and introduces a new viewpoint by concentrating on questions of dramaturgy and dramatic writing. It examines how genre, language, style, characters and other structural elements have the potential to create space for otherness by generating ambivalence, obstructing the habitual gaze and questioning hegemonic understandings. The Sublime was found to be a productive concept to analyse the aesthetics of otherness, because it is deeply concerned with questions about the way we perceive the world and its others or the way we understand and represent the relation between self and other/s. In this study, the sublime is understood in the broadest sense of the word, extending to cover also the grotesque, taboos and other ways to reach limits or break barriers. My three case studies are Laura Ruohonen s Luolasto (Finnish National Theatre 2014), Leea and Klaus Klemola s New Karleby (Tampere Theatre 2011) and Milja Sarkola s Jotain toista. Henkilökohtaisen halun näyttämö (Q-theatre 2015). They all challenged dramatic conventions and created alternative dramaturgical strategies that are partly related to contemporary postdramatic theatre. Since dramaturgy is deeply related to ideologies, society, culture and politics, a study of the ethics of dramaturgy produced new knowledge about the politics of contemporary theatre and drama. Analyses influenced by Levinas tended to emphasize plurality and the presence of otherness, both in a subject and in society. Otherness in these works was related to nature and ecology, species and gender, but also to a subject s own unconscious or repressed interiority. These dramas challenged their spectators by reflecting the gaze back to the audience, inviting them to reconsider their own thoughts, attitudes and beliefs, and their limited scope in front of infinity.
  • Ikävalko, Veli-Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Out-of-school learning environments are a part of chemistry education and they follow the Finnish National Core Curriculum. Non-formal learning is also a current topic of research internationally. By using out-of-school learning environments such as the ChemistryLab Gadolin in teaching, it is possible to encourage adolescents towards learning about chemistry. These learning environments offer contents, activities and resources, which might not be available in schools. With the help of context-based and relevant contents in chemistry as well as with inquiry-based work instructions and methods it is possible to support meaningful chemical education. By developing teaching in cooperation with specialists in the industry, we are able to add relevance to chemistry education. The aim of design-based research was to develop a meaningful non-formal learning environment in chemistry that would support the execution of study visit. The research was divided into three parts: (1) problem analyses, (2) the design process and (3) the design product. There were four main research questions in this research: (i) What kinds of needs are there in chemistry education regarding context-based contents and relevance? (problem analyses), (ii) Which factors and actions support active study visit in non-formal learning environments in chemistry? (problem analyses), (iii) How to develop the non-formal learning environment in chemistry communally with specialists in the industry? (design process), and (iv) What kind of is a relevant non-formal learning environment in chemistry with its contents and methods for study visit? (design product). The design-based research consisted of two theoretical problem analyses, where one was connected to meaningful learning of chemistry and the other to learning environments in chemistry and study visits. In total there were four empirical problem analyses. These were carried out as case studies. The first one was about looking at the context-based worksheets (N=160) in upper secondary school chemistry books. The second problem analysis focused on chemistry teachers (N=13) and students (N=33) experiences in exploiting skills in chemistry in everyday life, as to say their experiences in relevance and contexts. In the third one, teachers (N=161) and students (N=300) aims for study visits in the ChemistryLab Gadolin were studied. In the fourth empirical problem analysis, chemistry teachers (N=87) activities before and after the study visit and and ways of assessment were researched. Data was collected with the help of interviews, survey forms and literary outputs. Research data was analyzed with deductive and inductive content analysis. Reliability of research was increased by data -, method -, theory - and researcher triangulation. The results of the problem analyses were taken into consideration in the layout of the aims of the design process. The aim of the design process was to develop the didactic viewpoint of a non-formal learning environment in chemistry that would support meaningful study visit. The design process included the following two parts: (i) the development of laboratory work sheets and (ii) the development of activities that support the study visit. The development of laboratory work sheets was carried out collaboratively in the ChemistryLab Gadolin with industry specialists (N=9) and with students studying to be chemistry teachers (N=10). There were characteristics connected to collaboration and novice operations in the collaborative design process concerning work instructions. During the development process, specialist and instructor s support was observed as important. A suitable instrument of evaluation for non-formal learning environments in chemistry was developed on the basis of teachers (N=161) and students (N=300) case study. A model, for developing activities that support study visit, was created from teachers (N=87) operational models during study visit. The research provided four kinds of research information: (i) information on relevant contents that support chemical education, hands-on laboratory working methods and learning environments, (ii) on the collaborative design process, (iii) on context-based learning and relevance, which can be promoted in cooperation with specialists in the industry, and (iv) on meaningful execution of non-formal study visits in chemistry and on the evaluation of the aims of a visit. According to the empirical problem analysis (the so called needs analysis) in this research, context-based and relevant contents in upper secondary school inquiry should be developed in a more versatile way. A third of laboratory work sheets in upper secondary level textbooks included relevant, context-based contents, where home economics was emphasized. Teachers and students were observed to emphasize topics in home economics on the individual level in a case study concerning everyday chemistry. According to research, chemistry teachers activities and methods concerning study visit are focused more on the time after the field trip. Before the visit, in the preparatory part, theory and working methods are revised, laboratory work sheets are given and rules and instructions concerning the visit are discussed together. In the part after the visit, more versatile methods, including revising, were used such as blog entries and exercises having to do with visual arts. Assessment was based on summative assessment, attitudes and skills. In a non-formal learning environment, formative evaluation that supports learning was used only a little. According to research, when planning a study visit in a non-formal learning environment it is important to take the following eight factors into consideration (the so called instrument of evaluation for a non-formal learning environment): (i) participation, (ii) relevance, (iii) material environment, (iv) using ICT, (v) inquiry, (vi) supporting teachers work, (vii) differentiation and (viii) clarity of instructions. In addition, it is important for a teacher to take into consideration the before and after activities with different methods and evaluation in a study visit. As design products, there were also nine new and relevant context-based laboratory work sheets, which especially supported Industry, technology and production category. Three work sheets were chosen to be developed further. The final products were observed to support the level of individual relevance as well as the societal and vocational levels. The relevance levels of the further developed work sheets were studied to the visiting groups of teachers (N=25) and students (N=88) in the ChemistryLab Gadolin. The results of the design-based research can be applied in developing meaningful context-based hands-on working in natural science education. Cooperation with the industry brings added value to increasing the relevance of teaching. Meaningful and outcome-based study visits to non-formal learning environments can be developed by exploiting research information. The non-formal learning environment evaluation instrument developed in this qualitative research can be applied when designing learning environments.
  • Sildegs, Uģis (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Abstract Nikolajs Plāte (1915-1983) was one of the most prominent and prolific Latvian Lutheran pastors and theologians to carry the mission of the Church through the complicated Soviet period. The aim of this study is to extend a critical understanding of the Church s Soviet totalitarian history through the experience of one man and his silent heroics of Christian resilience and steadfastness in a hostile environment. The narrow focus of the study is on Plāte's life, work, and theology. The broader focus, however, is on church life in general, challenging struggles for survival, and the various means of coping with the emerging realities. As one of the pastoral generation serving the Church during these grueling times, the so-called old guard, Plāte provides a good case study to illustrate the troubled road of a Lutheran clergyman adjusting to a new ghetto-like environment. His intellectual exertions to respond to these challenges are here referred to as theology in the ghetto, where his theological thinking is better viewed in terms of an existential reaction than an academic discipline. In the first part of this work (I III), I offer a step-by-step historical narrative of Plāte's life and work. After his early education in the hopeful years of the first independence, the disastrous impact of the Soviet occupation and World War II transformed the Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church and pastoral service into something unrecognizable. The primary focus of the study is on Plāte's ministry, first in the Pope, Rinda, and Selga congregations (1945-1953) and, second, in the parish of Rucava (1953-1983). Living under constant Soviet pressure, some painful adjustments had to be made. The work of the Church was increasingly isolated, degraded, and marginalized. Membership declined. The permanent condition of crisis drove people to live in survival mode, and the stagnation of the Church was difficult to reverse. While suffering abuse from the atheistic authorities, Plāte tried to stay active and faithful, to keep working where possible. However, his approach and mentality changed visibly. During this time, his ministry was increasingly dominated by defensive thinking and reactions. Even some antisocial traits became manifest. Thus, in this study I describe and analyze Plāte's inward-looking, conservative mindset, which resulted from the outer totalitarian environment. Only at the end of his life in the beginning of the 1980s was Plāte able to observe some hopeful signs of life for the depressed Church and start looking forward to a better future. In the later part of the work (IV V), Plāte s activities at the seminary and his theological production are analyzed. I describe the body of his writings in chronological sequence. Plāte's texts reveal him as a prolific writer who produced several thousand pages of theological material. I identify and examine his direct and indirect remarks and references concerning the Soviet conditions. At that time, when the Bible, faith, and the Church had come under furious attack by anti-religious propaganda, Plāte's chief concern with his theology was to serve the loyal remnant of the Church and to respond to these clear challenges by addressing the growing gap between Christianity and society, trying to heal the degraded life of the Church, and restoring compromised biblical authority. Plāte believed that the constraints of Soviet totalitarianism could be overcome only by trusting in the power of God s Word, by means of which the Lord could help, intervene in, and overcome the temporal bonds of history. His stress on God s Word thus becomes the key for understanding the underlying feature of his theology.
  • Pettersson, Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation explores how populist radical right politicians in Finland and Sweden use political blogs for the purpose of nationalist political communication and persuasion. The study builds upon research that has highlighted the growing importance of social media in the transmission of radical right, nationalist and anti-immigration political discourse, and to the central role of these media in the gradual normalisation of such discourse. Moreover, the study acknowledges the potential indicated by previous research of political blogs to function as tools for voter persuasion and mobilisation. The study aims to contribute with insights on how social psychological dynamics such as self-presentation, identity-constructions, discursive divisions between ingroups and outgroups , strategies of persuasion, and appeals to emotions and nostalgic memories are involved in these processes. The dissertation examines blog-entries by members of the populist radical right parties the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset) in Finland and the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) in Sweden during 2007-2015. The bloggers who are the focus of the study represent, first, the parties extreme anti-immigration factions, comprised first and foremost of white men (Studies I and IV); second, the parties women s leagues (Study II); and third, politicians with immigrant or other ethnic minority background who have chosen to join a populist radical right party (Study III). The critical discursive and rhetorical psychological study explores the nationalist political blog discourse at three levels: it investigates the arguments it contains; by what verbal, visual and digital means these arguments are presented in order to seem convincing; and what implications these formulations might have in a social and political sense. In so doing, the study approaches the political blog-discourse as part and parcel of its broader argumentative context. This dissertation contributes to social psychological research on nationalist political communication and persuasion in three central ways. First, by delving into the discourse of both white men, women and ethnic minority members in populist radical right parties, it provides an understanding of the diversity of voices within such parties. Women and immigrants within these parties seem to be faced with particular dilemmas: the former ones with that between societal norms of gender equality and the patriarchal politics of the populist radical right; and the latter ones with that of being an immigrant in an anti-immigration political party. The critical discursive and rhetorical analyses of this study are able to show how these politicians strive to reconcile such dilemmas in their blog-discourse in ways that nevertheless remain faithful to the promotion of patriarchal and nationalist political causes. Second, this dissertation extends the critical discursive and rhetorical approach with analytical tools from narrative psychology, social semiotic studies of images and studies of online political communication. Thus moving beyond the text in its analytical approach, the study is able to explore the multitude of (audio-)visual, digital and communicative features contained in political blogs, and how these interact with classical rhetorical strategies, narrative structures, and socially and culturally rooted discursive resources in the construction of nationalist political arguments. Third, the study shows that the (audio-)visual, digital and communicative features of the blogs allow for the presentation of socially sensitive and even racist political views without the individual blogger having to express an explicit personal opinion on the matter at hand. Because of these features political blogs seem to constitute an optimal sphere for nationalist political communication and persuasion: they enable the conveying of powerful, credible and emotion-provoking messages, yet they concomitantly protect the blogger from charges of holding racist views. Discourse contained in political blogs does not remain in the blogosphere, but becomes circulated in mainstream media and thus influences the broader societal and political debate. In order to grasp the character and societal implications of contemporary political communication and persuasion, this dissertation thus encourages social psychological research to develop its tools for critically studying discourse contained in political blogs.
  • Koivusalo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study examines honor and honorable emotional expressions in the nineteenth-century American South. I argue that honor was a behavior that facilitated emotional expression in three ways: recognizing acceptable emotions; navigating in society by expressing acceptable emotions; and identifying and achieving life goals. This can be seen in the life and political career of James Chesnut, Jr. (1815–1885), a prominent southern statesman. This study also approaches southern society more broadly. First, I suggest that rather than an unequivocal or static code, the prevailing idea of honor was shaped by multiple individual interpretations of honor. Individuals had to constantly recalibrate their notion of honor to coincide with other peoples’ notions of honor. Second, I propose that honor was a tool for identifying and expressing appropriate emotions. I have used James Chesnut as a case study because his life choices and actions can be read as responses to the requirements of southern honor and prevailing emotional guidelines. I use specific examples of the use of honor as a guideline. I discuss how parents inculcated a sense of honor in their sons, inducing young men to develop an understanding of honor and to recognize honorable emotional expression. Later, as adults, men had to acknowledge the requirements of honor in every life choice and action. I propose that honor helped Southerners formulate and express emotions: instead of displaying the raw emotions of the private sphere, one was expected to demonstrate their noble counterparts, the emotions of the public sphere. I also suggest that the unstable nature of honor was most obvious in times of crisis, such as during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Then, the role of honor and the importance of honor-related emotional expression intensified. Because of major changes in society, however, individual goals changed and the necessity to forcefully alter the understanding of honor arose. This work is a conceptual study: it examines the features of honor in a specific context, the nineteenth-century American South. It is, nonetheless, also a study on the history of emotions, exploring southern emotionologies or emotion repertoires. Textual analysis is, therefore, especially important for this study which examines how emotional expression was formulated into words.
  • Välilä, Angelica (2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielman tavoitteena on analysoida kuinka maahan virtaavat suorat ulkomaaninvestoinnit ovat vaikuttaneet Venäjän taloudelliseen kehitykseen. Suorien ulkomaaninvestointien vaikutuksesta kohdemaan taloudelliseen kehitykseen on olemassa paljon kirjallisuutta. Tutkimuksia Venäjään kohdistuvien investointien vaikutuksesta talouskasvuun on tehty hyvin vähän. Tutkimukset, joita aiheesta on tehty, rajoittuvat aikaan jolloin maahan tehtiin vielä kovin vähän ulkomaisia investointeja. Muista maista tehdyt tutkimukset osoittavat, että suorien ulkomaaninvestointien tietovuodoilla on positiivinen vaikutus kohdemaan taloudelliseen kehitykseen kokonaistuottavuuden kasvun kautta. Positiiviset vaikutukset edellyttävät kuitenkin hyvää omaksumiskykyä kohdemaalta, johon vaikuttavat esimerkiksi kohdemaan inhimillinen pääoma, instituutiot ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden kehittyneisyys. Venäjän tapauksessa omaksumiskyky nähdään suurimpana esteenä suorista ulkomaaninvestoinneista hyötymiseen. Venäjällä on kuitenkin viime vuosina aktiivisesti ryhdytty parantamaan investointi-ilmapiiriä. Tutkimuksessa analysoidaan suorien ulkomaaninvestointien vaikutusta kohdemaan talouskasvuun kasvuteorioiden ja -mallien avulla. Lisäksi aineistona käytetään Venäjän ja Suomen keskuspankin, Venäjän tilastokeskuksen Rosstatin, Maailmanpankin sekä UNCTAD:n tilas-toja ja julkaisuja. Tutkimusongelman kannalta tärkeä informaatio esitetään kuvien ja taulukoiden avulla. Tarkasteltava ajankohta rajoittuu vuosiin 2003–2014. Lisäksi suorien ulkomaaninvestointien ja talouskasvun riippuvuutta vuosina 2004–2011 on tarkasteltu empiirisessä osiossa. Empiirisen analyysin perusteella suorilla ulkomaaninvestoinneilla ei ole ollut suoraa tilastollisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta Venäjän talouskasvuun vuosina 2004–2011. Teorioiden valossa niillä uskotaan kuitenkin olevan vaikutusta, mikäli ne linkittyvät teknologiseen kehitykseen tietovuotojen kautta.
  • Kankare, Kasperi (2016)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoitus on analysoida suomalaisen yrityksen vuonna 2014 kohtaamia riskejä Ukrainassa sekä tutkia sitä, miten niitä hallitaan ja miten ne vaikuttivat yrityksen liiketoimintaan. Ukraina ei ole merkittävä kauppakumppani Suomelle, mutta silti monet suomalaiset yritykset toimivat maassa ja vuoden 2014 kriisin jälkeen maahan on tullut uusia suomalaisia yrityksiä. Ukraina on kooltaan merkittävä markkina-alue, ja sen merkitys saattaa kasvaa kun se on aloittanut siirtymisen kohti EU:ta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tutkia millaisia riskejä Ukrainan liiketoimintaympäristössä esiintyi vuonna 2014 ja kuinka tutkittu yritys on hallinnut niitä. Tutkimusta varten on suoritettu laadullinen tapaustutkimus, jonka aineisto kerättiin teemahaastatteluiden sekä sähköpostivaihdon avulla. Tämän lisäksi on perehdytty aihetta käsitteleviin journaaleihin, aikakausilehtiin sekä Internet-sivustoihin relevantin ja monipuolisen tiedon hankkimista varten. Teoriapohjana on tutkimuksessa käytetty riskin määritelmää sekä COSO:n kokonaisvaltaista riskinhallintamallia. Tutkimuksessa tehtyjen havaintojen perusteella voidaan todeta, että tutkitun yrityksen riskinhallintatoimenpiteet eivät eronneet merkittävästi COSO:n mallissa esitetyistä, muutamaa poikkeusta lukuun ottamatta. Tutkittaessa suomalaisen yrityksen kohtaamia riskejä Ukrainassa vuonna 2014 huomattiin, että riskit jakautuvat viiteen eri kategoriaan: sosiaalisiin riskeihin, teknisiin riskeihin, henkilöstö riskeihin, poliittisiin riskeihin ja taloudellisiin riskeihin. Tutkimustuloksista huomattiin että yritys vastasi kolmeen eri riskikategoriaan poikkeavalla tavalla verrattuna malliin. Sosiaalisten-, teknisten- ja henkilöstö riskien osalta toimenpiteet erosivat mallissa esitetyistä. Yritys vastasi sosiaalisista riskeistä johtuviin boikotteihin vähentämällä niitä uudelleen brändäämällä tuotteitaan. Teknisiä riskejä hallittiin muuttamalla tuotteita ja tuotantoa uuteen toimintaympäristöön sopiviksi. Henkilöstöriskejä vältettiin olemalla käyttämättä tiettyyn etniseen ryhmään kuuluvia henkilöitä. Tutkimuksessa ilmenneitä riskinhallintakeinoja, jotka poikkesivat COSO:n mallista, ei tullut esille aikaisemmissa akateemisissa tutkimuksissa.