E-thesis

Recent Submissions

  • Lindström, Nino (2016)
    Tutkielman päätavoite on esitellä G2-monistot, jotka ovat seitsemänulotteisia suunnistuvia Riemannin monistoja, joilla on spin-rakenne ja joiden Ricci-kaarevuus häviää. Työssä käydään läpi kaikki tarvittava alustava teoria, jotta tuohon tavoitteeseen päästään esittelemällä keskeisiä ja kiinnostavia tuloksia kustakin alustavasta teoriakokonaisuudesta. Ensimmäinen luku käsittelee Lien matriisiryhmiä ja Lien algebroja. Aluksi käydään läpi Lien ryhmän määritelmä ja perusominaisuuksia, kuten kompaktius ja yhtenäisyys. Myös juurisysteemejä ja Dynkinin diagrammeja käsitellään. Lopuksi otetaan erityistarkasteluun Lien ryhmät SU(2), SO(3) sekä SU(3), jotka ovat siis kaksi- ja kolmiulotteiset unitaariryhmät ja kolmiulotteinen ortogonaaliryhmä. Näistä SU(3) on ryhmän G2 isotropia-aliryhmä. Toisessa luvussa käsitellään differentiaaligeometriaa sekä algebrallista topologiaa, erityisesti sileitä monistoja. Tangenttikimppu ja -avaruus sekä vektori- että pääsäiekimppu määritellään. Luvun viimeinen kappale käy läpi homologiaa ja kohomologiaa erityisesti sen motivoimana, että G2-moniston spin-rakenne seuraa kahden ensimmäisen Stiefel-Whitney-kohomologialuokan häviämisestä. Myös muita kohomologialuokkia tarkastellaan ja tutustutaan laskennallisen kohomologian menetelmiin. Kolmas luku käsittelee normitettuja jakoalgebroja, joista tärkeimpänä tulevat esille kahdeksanulotteiset oktoniot, joiden automorfismiryhmänä G2 voidaan ymmärtää. Algebran kahdentamista kutsutaan Cauleyn-Dicksonin prosessiksi, ja oktoniot löydetään kahdentamalla reaaliluvut kolme kertaa. Kahdella kahdennuksella löydetään kvaterniot, jotka puolestaan voidaan ymmärtää ryhmän SO(3) automorfismiryhmänä. Erityisesti imaginääristen eli puhtaiden oktonioiden ristitulo on merkittävä, sillä G2-monisto on varustettu assosiatiivisella 3-muodolla, johon tuo ristitulo liittyy. Imaginääristen oktonioiden yksikköpallo on avaruus S6 ja G2 on pää-SU(3)-säiekimppu kyseisellä avaruudella. Neljännen luvun keskiössa on Lien ryhmä G2. Sitä vastaava Lien algebra löydetään oktonioiden derivaatta-algebrana ja samassa yhteydessä todistetaan, että se on yksinkertainen. Tutkielman keskeiset tulokset kulmininoituvat lopuksi G2-monistojen määritelmään.
  • Tsui, Ka Man (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Forest certification has been used as a tool to promote forestry responsibility towards sustainable forest management. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is one of the certification systems that is well recognised in Europe. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries, the number of FSC chain of custody (CoC) certifications in Finland is relatively low. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six FSC CoC certified companies to explore their experiences towards implementing and maintaining the system in their companies. The sample group was comprised of wood and paper product industries in manufacturing and trading sectors. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed the challenges companies encountered. The results indicated that there were eight types of challenges, including three internal and five external ones, hindering the development of FSC CoC certification in Finland. Internal challenges included competence, financial resources, and a lack of motivation to change. External challenges included insufficient marketing and demand, uncertain cost benefit, keen competitor programmes, limited supply, and long trademark approval time. Meanwhile, the relevant solutions these companies adopted to deal with the challenges were discussed. Since external challenges out-numbered internal ones, it seemed that certified companies are not able to tackle the existing challenges alone. Joint-effort among other actors in the forestry sector, for instance, the national authority, FSC national office, certification bodies are essential to influence the rate of certification uptake. Furthermore, participants discussed about the future development of FSC CoC certification system in Finland. Interviewees believed that the enactment of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) and the introduction of forest certification into national public procurement policy could positively impact the development of the system. The results of this study could be used as a reference for potential certificate users to prepare themselves for implementing FSC CoC certification system. In addition, the study could shed a light on the development of FSC in Finland in the future.
  • Laine, Juhani (Talentum Media Oy, 2016)
    One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish Companies Act 21.7.2006/624 (hereinafter the FCA ) is the system of so-called true non-par value shares. The Finnish true non-par value system offers companies the opportunity to allot shares completely free of charge even in a directed share issue, i.e. when the pre-emptive rights of the existing shareholders are derogated. This opportunity could be risky, especially from the viewpoint of the minority shareholders, if the required majority of shareholders could in a shareholders meeting freely adopt a resolution about that kind of share issue. In practice, this would mean that a part of the share of the assets and of the power in the company of the old shareholders could be transferred to the new shareholders. However, the use of the directed share issue without payment is restricted by certain material grounds defined in the FCA. Pursuant to chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, a directed share issue without payment is allowed only if there is an especially weighty reason both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company. The aim of this research is to formulate a meaningful interpretation of the wording of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, which could be used as a test when it must be judged, is there an especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company . My main thesis proposes that besides the formal or judicial principle of equality between shareholders, the principle of equality in its entirety, as it is known in Finnish company law, also has an economic dimension, which can be referred to as the principle of economic equality between shareholders. As such, a directed share issue without payment always means a breach against the equality of shareholders in the formal sense. However, if the company acquires enough substantial economic benefits through that kind of share issue, the real financial position and value of shareholdings of even those shareholders, who are not entitled to the shares allotted without charge, might remain untouched or even improve. The economic equality of shareholders could then be the core of the material grounds of the directed share issue without consideration. This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 describes the objects and hypotheses of the research, its methods, the most important sources and its structure. Chapters 2 and 3 are the theoretical or general part of the research. The former contains discussion about historical and modern corporate law theories, the concept of a share in a company limited by shares and the relevance of the investment made to a company s capital against the shares. The latter deals with the principle of equality between shareholders and the different dimensions of that principle. Chapters 4 and 5 constitute the practical part of the research. The former provides detailed presentation of the directed share issue without payment as a process. The latter focuses to the interpretation of the especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company and provides examples about acceptable grounds to the directed share issue without payment. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the theses and conclusions of the research. The main conclusions of this research are that Finnish company law contains a principle of the economic equality of shareholders as a mandatory rule, and this rule is based on the economic purpose of business companies and the material objectives of the equality principle in company law. The residual position of shareholders in a business company is still based on a contribution to the company. However, even an indirect improvement of the financial position of the company as a result of a directed share issue without payment can be considered as the equivalent of a contribution, i.e. the directed share issue without payment should not be, in effect, a share issue without payment as it would be understood in everyday language. The principle of economic equality also gives a meaningful bedrock to the interpretation of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA. This principle can then be considered a distinctive feature between the material grounds of the normal directed share issue against payment and the directed share issue without payment. In the former type of directed share issue, the adequate issue price plays a central role and fulfils the objective of economic equality. In the directed share issue without payment other kinds of benefits to the company and the evaluation of economic equality against those benefits will have an independent role. A directed share issue without payment must always be in the interests of the company, the benefit it provides to the company must be substantial and of an economic nature, and it must be defendable when compared to the interests of all shareholders of the company. This latter part of the material grounds of the directed share issue without payment must be interpreted as an example of the mandatory principle of economic equality between shareholders. The essential meaning of that principle in the directed share issue without payment is that the dilution of formal shareholder rights of old shareholders must be compensated in economic sense through the enhanced financial position of the company as a whole. The evaluation of such an expected compensation must, however, be made at the time of the share issue resolution, not retrospectively.
  • Thomson, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Firesetters constitute a heterogeneous group, but some features have been found to be common, including frequent psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia spectrum disorders) and substance use disorder comorbidities, and impulsivity. This study aimed to explore mortality rates and patterns among firesetters. Psychopathy is common in criminal and forensic settings and is associated with crimes and violence. The study investigated whether firesetters engaging in different types of crime (versatile firesetters) or repeating their fire-setting behavior show high rates of psychopathy. The study also analyzed whether fire-setting among young persons would predict onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The firesetters were a consecutive sample of 441 pretrial men, who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination during 1973-98 in Helsinki University Hospital. The control group consisted of date and place of birth- and gender-matched persons. The follow-up began when the examination was completed and ended when the person died, moved abroad, or at the latest on 31.12.2012. Dates and causes of deaths and information on treatment were obtained from national registers. In one part of the study concerning psychopathy, a subgroup of firesetters comprising 135 men was assessed with PCL-R. In another part of the study, a subgroup consisting of 137 firesetters aged 15-25 years was used. The study assessed how many had onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder during follow-up. Nearly half of firesetters and a fifth of control subjects had died at the end of follow-up. The firesetters died significantly younger, at an average age of 53.2 years, than the controls, whose average age at death was 61.6 years. Alcohol-related deaths were more frequent among firesetters and they were 8 times more likely to end their lives by suicide compared to control subjects. Suicide attempts leading to hospital treatment were nearly 13 times more common among firesetters than among controls. The versatile firesetters scored significantly higher on the PCL-R total and factor scores than the exclusive firesetters. A schizophrenia spectrum disorder was diagnosed significantly more often among firesetters than control subjects. Fire-setting behavior was associated with a high mortality rate. Alcohol use contributed substantially to suicide attempts, completed suicides, and deaths overall. Antisocial pathways may be the motivator for versatile firesetters, showing significant traits of psychopathy. Fire-setting among youths should be taken seriously, as these individuals are prone to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Firesetters constitute a high-risk suicidal behavior group, which must be addressed when planning treatment and release.
  • Bona, Silvia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis investigates the causal role of two extra-striate visual regions, the lateral occipital (LO) cortex and the occipital face area (OFA), in certain visual processes. Firstly, I examined whether these areas are causally implicated in the perception of bilateral visual symmetry. Despite the ubiquitous presence of this feature in the external world, the neural basis underlying its detection is not fully known. In Studies I and II,this issue was explored by disrupting the activity of LO and OFA with fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while participants discriminated between symmetric and nonsymmetric dot configurations and between perfectly symmetric and normal (i.e. somewhat non symmetric) faces. The results showed that rightOFA plays a causal role in detection of symmetry in both configurations of dots and faces whereas LO exclusively in the former, with the rightLO showing greater involvement relative to the homologous region in the left hemisphere. As symmetry is extracted in a holistic manner (i.e. through a parallel global analysis of the stimulusrather than via a serial point-by-point comparisonof the local elements), Study III examined whether rightOFA is involved, more generally, in visual detection based on holistic encoding and, if so, whether its role is restricted to faces or extends also to non-face stimuli. To examine this issue, rightOFA and rightLO were stimulated with fMRI-guided TMS meanwhile participants were asked to detect Mooney faces and non-face images, a class of stimuli which are known to be perceived through holistic processes. The results showed that rightOFA is causally involved in detection of both Mooney faces and objects. Taken together, this thesis sheds new light on the functions of LO and OFA in visual perception. Firstly, it demonstrates that both of these regions are causally involved in holistic processes, including detection of symmetry. Secondly, it is shownthat OFA s role in holistic processing extends to both face and non-face stimuli, suggesting that this region is not strictly face-selective.
  • Nurminen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tutkimuksen hypoteesina on, että vanhoillislestadiolaisuudessa on 1970-luvulla erotettavissa kaksi toisistaan niin paljon poikkeavaa vanhurskauttamiskäsitystä, että käsitysten on sanottava olevan erilaiset. Tutkimus on tämän hypoteesin testaamista. Tutkimustehtävänä on siis osoittaa, että vanhoillislestadiolaisuudessa esiintyi 1970-luvulla kaksi vanhurskauttamiskäsitystä, ja että ne poikkeavat toisistaan niin paljon, että niiden ei voi katsoa esittävän samaa vanhurskauttamiskäsitystä. Menetelmänä on systemaattinen analyysi. Käsityksiä ei istuteta olemassa oleviin vanhurskauttamisopin malleihin vaan struktuurit nousevat lähteistä. Tutkimuksessa hypoteesin mukaisia käsityksiä nimitetään armolinjaksi ja pyhityslinjaksi. Linjat ovat tähän tutkimukseen luotuja käsitteitä, jotka kuvaavat lähteissä näkyviä ajattelurakenteita, eivät olemassa olleita rintamia. Lähteinä ovat SRK:n (Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistys) 1970-luvun julkaisut. Päälähteenä ovat saarna- ja hartauskirjat mutta myös muut painotuotteet, kuten viikkolehti Päivämies. Tutkimus osoittaa, että vanhoillislestadiolaisuudessa esiintyi 1970-luvulla kaksi vanhurskauttamiskäsitystä ja että ne poikkeavat toisistaan niin paljon, että niiden ei voi katsoa esittävän samaa vanhurskauttamiskäsitystä. Teologian erot syntyvät jo vanhurskauttamisopin edellytyksissä, erityisesti käsityksessä synnistä, Kristuksen työstä ja ihmisen ratkaisuvallasta, ja ne näkyvät koko teologian läpi. Armolinjalla kristityn vanhurskaus on yhtäältä yhdistymistä Kristuksen kanssa niin, että ihminen pysyy kokonaan syntisenä mutta on Kristuksessa kokonaan vanhurskas. Tämä vanhurskaaksitekeminen ei ole kehittyvä prosessi. Kristuksen vanhurskaus säilyy koko ajan vieraana vanhurskautena, joka ei muuta kristityn substanssia ja jota hän ei saa hallintaansa, mutta joka toisaalta uskossa on kokonaan kristityn. Toisaalta kristityn vanhurskaus on Kristus-yhteyden vuoksi myös Jumalan kokoaikaisessa anteeksiantamuksessa ja suosiossa elämistä. Pyhityslinjalla näkyy Jumalan ja ihmisen yhteistyöhön perustuva käsitys, jossa Jumala lahjoittaa pelastuksen välineet mutta ihmiselle jää pääpaino sekä pelastuksen valitsemisessa että sen säilyttämisessä. Siten pyhityslinjalla vanhurskauttaminen kääntyy kristityn omassa varassa olevaksi "armon" käyttämiseksi eli itsensä pitämiseksi vanhurskaana anteeksiantamuksen avulla.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari (2016)
    Psoriasis is a common skin disorder that is characterized by thickening of the most superficial layer of the skin, the epidermis, and accumulation of white blood cells, inflammation. The exact mechanism of how psoriasis develops is still unknown. Several gene expression studies have been conducted on psoriatic skin. Most of them, however, have focused on the expression in both the epidermis and dermis or were analyzed by microarrays. Here we used a novel approach to decipher the gene expression profile of the psoriatic skin, by utilizing a more specific and sensitive detection of transcripts by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), implemented with an improved normalization method, and combined with samples that contain mainly the skin layer of interest: the epidermis. RNA-seq revealed more accurate expression profiles in different sample types that had varying amount of total mRNA per cell. Comparison with previous transcriptomics studies on psoriasis revealed that our approach provided more information about the transcriptional dysregulation in the epidermis. The expression profiling of epidermis highlighted the involvement of innate immunity and provided, for example, deeper understanding about the components of NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and inflammasome activation in keratinocytes. Some of the components have been associated with psoriasis in previous studies, yet the exact composition and activation mechanisms of inflammasomes have remained unclear. Our RNA-seq findings thus strengthen the role of keratinocytes as modulators of inflammation in the psoriatic lesions. The improved methods and focused analysis might help to pinpoint the most important pathways and functions, including broader knowledge in the involved components, in the psoriatic lesions. This, in turn, might improve the production of more specific treatments for psoriasis. The psoriasis candidate gene CCHCR1 is located in the major psoriasis predisposition locus PSORS1, contains a psoriasis-associated risk allele *WWCC, and its gene product is expressed by the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis and has been shown to have an effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. The gene has two different transcription start sites and is able to encode for a peptide with a longer N-terminus from the transcript 1, which, however, depends upon a SNP that encodes for either tryptophan or stop codon, therefore either enabling or disabling the production of the longer protein. Here we presented association of the stop codon-encoding SNP (named as *Iso3) with psoriasis in family trios. We detected that CCHCR1 localizes at the centrosome and P-bodies, and reported isoform-specific effects on the localization of the P-bodies. Our experiments exhibited haplotype-specific effects of CCHCR1 also on cytoskeletal organization and cell proliferation; functions relevant to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Furthermore, our results suggest that CCHCR1 might function in EGFR-STAT3 signaling and innate immunity, which strengthens the role of innate immunity in psoriasis even further. In addition, RNA-seq revealed isoform- and haplotype-specific effects on the expression profiles of different CCHCR1 cell lines. Interestingly, the most dramatic changes in gene expressions were observed in the isoform 3 -overexpressing cells but also the Non-risk and Risk haplotypes had antagonistic effects. The observation that CCHCR1 influences multiple cell signaling pathways may result from its possible role as a centrosomal P-body protein, which suggests a role in post-transcriptional regulation as well as a role in the regulation of cell cycle. Its exact function in these cellular compartments and effect in psoriatic lesions remains to be studied further.
  • Mansnérus, Juli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), is a heterogeneous class of modern biotechnology medicines encompassing products based on genes, cells and tissues. ATMPs provide new therapeutic opportunities for many diseases and debilitating injuries to the human body, particularly in the disease areas where conventional treatments have proved insufficient. The ATMP Regulation was set up as a lex specialis to ensure the free movement of ATMPs within the EU in order to facilitate their access to the internal market, and therefore to foster the competitiveness of European pharmaceutical companies while guaranteeing the highest level of protection of public health. Since adoption of the Advanced Therapy Medical Product Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 (the ATMP Regulation) only 6 ATMPs have been granted marketing authorisations and 4 of them are still on the market. The primary objective of this study is to analyse the benefits and limitations of the ATMP Regulation from the perspective of SMEs, academia and non-profit organisations that develop ATMPs. Secondly, it discusses the kind of amendment to the ATMP Regulation and related regulatory instruments and processes required to accelerate translation of research into advanced therapies and to facilitate commercialisation of ATMPs whilst ensuring the safety of patients. In addition, it analyses implications of the EU s limited mandate in the field of public health for developers of ATMPs. This study also investigates whether barriers to commercialisation relate to ATMPs as such or whether something else in the innovation system is impeding their market entry. As an example of potential ATMPs undergoing development, it also considers some specific, regulatory and moral patenting obstacles that impede the market entry of human embryonic stem cell-based products. To foster research on ATMPs, regulators must take measures to create a facilitative regulatory environment that encourages innovation, protects public health and, finally, enables timely patient access to innovative therapies. Risk-proportionate approaches to clinical trials and GMP manufacture along with the European Medicine Agency s early access incentives and initiatives are presented as potential facilitators of market entry. The main regulatory measures suggested to foster innovation, improve safety and access to advanced therapies include: facilitating R and D by adaptive, risk-proportionate approaches to clinical trials and GMP manufacture, streamlining the ATMP Regulation (classifications and rules on so-called hospital exemption, in particular) and simplifying regulatory processes for ATMPs.
  • Vanhanen, Tero Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Extreme fiction is literature that aims to shock audiences through transgression. Shock value implies two conflicting tendencies: to disturb and repel while simultaneously sparking our fascination and drawing us closer. Extreme fiction increasingly common as censorship has waned embraces this contradiction through shocking representation of sadistic violence and sexual transgression. Extreme fiction is defined by its affective qualities: it aims to shock, disturb, and disgust and expects readers to enjoy these responses. This study analyzes the affective qualities of transgression and shock value and maps out the affective narrative strategies typical of extreme fiction. The study takes a cross-disciplinary approach to extreme fiction and emotional response to fiction, combining cognitive aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and affect theory with narratological analysis of infamous works of extreme fiction. As the phenomenon gained large audiences in the last few decades of the twentieth century, the study focuses on five particularly influential novels from that era: Cormac McCarthy s Blood Meridian (1985), Bret Easton Ellis s American Psycho (1991), Dennis Cooper s Frisk (1991), Samuel R. Delany s The Mad Man (1994), and Poppy Z. Brite s Exquisite Corpse (1996). In order to approach extreme fiction, the study develops new methodological approaches to analyze emotional response to fiction and delineates the phenomenon of extreme fiction historically and theoretically. Finally, through careful analysis of how influential works of extreme fiction induce shock value, the study formulates the shock tactics and extreme strategies that intertwine the conflicting responses of repulsion and attraction that characterize extreme fiction.
  • Antila, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Major depressive disorder is one of the most significant causes of disability worldwide. Currently, the main treatment options for depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant drugs that pharmacologically target the monoamine systems such as serotonin transporter (SERT) blocker fluoxetine. It has been hypothesized that impairments in synaptic function and plasticity, caused for example by stress, could underlie the manifestation of depression. Moreover, in rodent models chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs has been shown to enhance plasticity of the adult brain via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effects of BDNF mediated via its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) promote synapse function and thus could facilitate recovery from depression. Interestingly, antidepressant drugs with different main pharmacological targets seem to share the ability to activate the TrkB receptor, however, the mechanisms how antidepressant drugs activate TrkB are not known. The delayed onset of action and limited therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drugs has promoted interest toward finding more rapid-acting and effective treatment options for depression. Electroconvulsive therapy has been the treatment of choice for treatment resistant depressed patients, however, side effects and the disrepute among general public has limited its use. Recently, subanesthetic doses of dissociative anesthetic ketamine have been shown to rapidly alleviate depression symptoms in depressed patients who do not respond to conventional antidepressant drugs. The effects of ketamine on mood appear already couple of hours after single intravenous infusion and last for about one week. Ketamine has been shown to induce mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via BDNF-TrkB signaling, rapidly promote synaptogenesis and alter neural network function. Furthermore, in small human studies another anesthetic isoflurane has rapidly alleviated symptoms of depressed patients. Yet, the potential of isoflurane in the treatment of depression has not been studied in large clinical trials. Since TrkB receptor is involved in regulation of synaptic plasticity, drugs that act as agonists or positive allosteric modulators of TrkB could be potentially beneficial in the treatment of CNS disorders characterized by impaired plasticity. The first aim of our studies was to develop a platform suitable for high-throughput screening of compounds regulating TrkB activity. We developed an in situ ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method that detects phosphorylated TrkB receptors from cultured cells. The main advantage of the in situ ELISA compared to conventional ELISA is that the cells are cultivated directly on the ELISA plate making the additional transfer step of the cellular material from the cell culture plate to the ELISA plate unnecessary. To further validate the in situ ELISA method, we conducted a proof-of-concept screening of a small chemical library and found several compounds that dose-dependently activated TrkB receptor or inhibited BDNF-induced TrkB activation. The second aim was to examine the mechanism how the antidepressant drugs activate TrkB. Interestingly, we found that antidepressant drugs activate TrkB independently of BDNF. Moreover, SERT, the main pharmacological target of fluoxetine, was not required for the fluoxetine-induced TrkB activation. Furthermore, the antidepressant-induced TrkB activation was developmentally regulated. The ability of antidepressants to activate TrkB appeared around postnatal day 12. Interestingly, at this same developmental timepoint (P12) the ability of BDNF to activate TrkB decreased dramatically. Finally, we aimed to characterize the neurobiological basis for the possible antidepressant effects of isoflurane. We found that brief isoflurane anesthesia rapidly and transiently activated the TrkB-mTOR signaling and produced antidepressant-like behavioral response in the forced swim test in a TrkB-dependent manner. Single isoflurane treatment also produced an antidepressant-like phenotype in behavioral paradigms that normally require chronic treatment with conventional antidepressant drugs, suggesting that isoflurane may have rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine. Moreover, isoflurane facilitated hippocampal long-term potentiation when measured 24 hours after the treatment and affected the general neural network function by increasing activity of the parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our results improve the understanding of the mechanism of action of conventional antidepressant drugs and provide plausible neurobiological basis for the antidepressant effects of isoflurane. Our findings also support examining further the potential of anesthetics in the treatment of depressed patients who do not respond to the current treatment options.
  • Pekkarinen, Tanja (2016)
    Emakoiden tilakuolleisuus ja suunnittelemattomat poistot erilaisten sairauksien ja tapaturmien vuoksi aiheuttavat tilalle suuria kustannuksia. Lisäksi suuri emakoiden kuolleisuus voi olla eläinten hyvinvointikysymys. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tavoitteena on koota tietoa kirjallisuudesta emakoiden poistoista ja kuolleisuudesta ja selvittää taustalla olevia syitä. Suomessa on parhaillaan meneillään laaja tutkimus, jossa selvitetään emakoiden tuotantokestävyyteen liittyviä tekijöitä kuten niiden kuolinsyitä. Suurin osa emakoista poistetaan tiloilta myymällä ne teurastamoon. Lisäksi emakoita kuolee itsestään tiloilla ja niitä joudutaan myös lopettamaan, koska ei haluta pitkittää niiden kärsimyksiä. Emakoiden kokonaispoistoprosentti tiloilla on keskimäärin 50. Emakot porsivat keskimäärin neljä kertaa ennen niiden poistoa tilalta. Monet emakot poistetaan tilalta ennen kuin ne ovat saavuttaneet suurimman tuotantopotentiaalinsa ja ennen kuin ne ovat korvanneet hankintakulunsa. Poistoprosentti ja keskiporsimakerta vaihtelevat hyvin paljon eri tilojen välillä. Teurastettujen emakoiden poistosyistä merkittävin on lisääntymisongelmat. Lisäksi etenkin nuoria emakoita poistetaan paljon tuki- ja liikuntaelinongelmien kuten ontumisen vuoksi. Vanhempien emakoiden tyypillinen poistosyy on huono tuottavuus tai vanhuus. Lisääntymisongelmista yleisimmät poistosyyt ovat tiinehtymättömyys ja kiimattomuus. Lisääntymisongelmien vuoksi poistetuilla emakoilla on suhteessa eniten tehottomuuspäiviä ja vieroitettujen porsaiden määrä on pienin verrattuna muiden syiden vuoksi poistettuihin emakoihin. Emakoiden kuolleisuus eri tutkimuksissa vaihtelee 4,6–16 %:n välillä, ja siihen kuuluvat yleensä sekä itsestään kuolleet että lopetetut emakot. Kuolleisuus vaihtelee paljon eri tiloilla. Tyypillisesti nuorilla 1–3 kertaa porsineilla emakoilla on suurin kuolleisuus. Suurin osa emakoiden kuolleisuudesta esiintyy porsimisen aikoihin ja heti sen jälkeen imetyskaudella. Tärkeimpiä emakoiden kuolinsyitä ovat sydämen vajaatoiminta, ontuminen, ruoansulatuskanavan elinten kiertymät ja muut sairaudet, porsimiseen liittyvät ongelmat sekä virtsatiesairaudet. Lisäksi emakoita kuolee hengitystiesairauksiin, erilaisiin tarttuviin tauteihin ja traumoihin. Sydämen vajaatoiminnan ja ruoansulatuskanavan elinten kiertymien vuoksi kuolevat emakot menehtyvät yleensä äkillisesti ilman aikaisempia oireita. Emakoiden lopetuksen suurin syy on niveltulehduksen tai murtuman aiheuttama ontuminen. Emakoiden poistoihin ja kuolleisuuteen voivat vaikuttaa vuodenaika, ilmasto, tuotannolliset tekijät ja emakoiden erilaiset ominaisuudet. Erilaiset tuotanto-olosuhteet, ruokinta ja eläinten hoito- ja poistokäytännöt selittävät eroja tilojen välillä. Emakoiden tuotantokestävyyttä voidaan rajallisesti parantaa jalostuksen avulla. Emakoiden kuolleisuuden vähentäminen ja kestävyyden parantaminen ovat oleellinen osa emakoiden hyvinvointia. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tietoa emakoiden poistoista ja kuolinsyistä sekä niiden riskitekijöistä voidaan käyttää tilojen kuolleisuuden vähentämisessä ja tuottavuuden parantamisessa.
  • Marnela, Marika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The Arctic Ocean and its exchanges with the Nordic Seas influence the north-European climate. The Fram Strait with its 2600 m sill depth is the only deep passage between the Arctic Ocean and the other oceans. Not just all the deep water exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world's oceans take place through the Fram Strait, but also a significant amount of cold, low-saline surface waters and sea ice exit the Arctic Ocean through the strait. Correspondingly, part of the warm and saline Atlantic water flowing northward enters the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait bringing heat into the Arctic Ocean. The oceanic exchanges through the Fram Strait as well as the water mass properties and the changes they undergo in the Fram Strait and its vicinity are studied from three decades of ship-based hydrographic observations collected from 1980-2010. The transports are estimated from geostrophic velocities. The main section, comprised of hydrographic stations, is located zonally at about 79 °N. For a few years of the observed period it is possible to combine the 79 °N section with a more northern section, or with a meridional section at the Greenwich meridian, to form quasi-closed boxes and to apply conservation constraints on them in order to estimate the transports through the Fram strait as well as the recirculation in the strait. In a similar way, zonal hydrographic sections in the Fram Strait and along 75 °N crossing the Greenland Sea are combined to study the exchanges between the Nordic Seas and the Fram Strait. The transport estimates are adjusted with drift estimates based on Argo floats in the Greenland Sea. The mean net volume transports through the Fram Strait are averaged from the various approaches and range from less than 1 Sv to about 3 Sv. The heat loss to the atmosphere from the quasi-closed boxes both north and south of the Fram Strait section is estimated at about 10 TW. The net freshwater transport through the Fram Strait is estimated at 60-70 mSv southward. The insufficiently known northward transport of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) originating in the Nordic Seas is estimated using 2002 Oden expedition data. At the time of data collection, excess sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) was available, a tracer that besides a background anthropogenic origin derives from a mixing experiment in the Greenland Sea in 1996. The excess SF6 can be used to distinguish AIW from the upper Polar Deep Water originating in the Arctic Ocean. It is estimated that 0.5 Sv of AIW enters the Arctic Ocean. The deep waters in the Nordic Seas and in the Arctic Ocean have become warmer and in the Greenland Sea also more saline during the three decades studied in this work. The temperature and salinity properties of the deep waters found in the Fram Strait from both Arctic Ocean and Greenland Sea origins have become similar and continue to do so. How these changes will affect the circulation patterns will be seen in the future.
  • Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Agricultural lands are managed or modified ecosystems that interact with the surrounding natural environment so as to supply while also to use a great range of ecosystem services (ES). In addition, agriculture is responsible for disservices that negatively affect natural ecosystems. In Finland, agricultural lands have undergone marked changes affecting a great number of vital ES. Traditional agri-environmental policy has been criticized for being inefficient in ensuring the provision of ES or limiting the disservices, while markets have been unable to reflect the demand for or supply of ES due to the public character of some ES. Market-based mechanisms as well as targeted policy measures may ensure effective and efficient ES provision. This dissertation explores the factors that determine the citizen demand for and landowner supply of ES, and considers examples of market- and target-based measures that may supplement or replace the current form of agri-environmental policy. The first part of the dissertation is focused on the demand for and supply of cultural ES provided by agricultural lands. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate a marketbased scheme, i.e. a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme that provides certain landscape attributes in a typical agricultural area. The analysis revealed that the most valued attributes were the renovation of production buildings and the presence of grazing animals. The results demonstrated that citizen preferences were heterogeneous, a fact which may affect the level of transaction costs and the performance of the scheme. Landowners were skeptical towards the scheme, willing to provide ES that did not always match with the demand. They also demanded compensation in excess of their expenses. Nonetheless, cost benefit considerations revealed that the scheme may be feasible, as the aggregated welfare benefits outweigh the anticipated costs. The second part is focused on the supply of water conservation services and the avoidance of water eutrophication disservices. During the data collection, Finnish agrienvironmental policy set equal incentives for water conservation, not accounting for environmental conditions, which are spatially varied. Before suggesting any policy reform and the use of alternative measures such as target-based measures, where farmers are compensated for delivering certain ES, it is imperative to investigate the tendency of landowners to adopt water conservation measures. By combining survey data with GIS data, a binary choice model was employed. The model examined the adoption of special measures for water conservation if the soil quality implies a high leaching risk and if the water quality is already poor. Adoption in areas under risk was weakly supported by the study s estimates. This indicates that environmental awareness, assuming it increases with risk, is not strong enough to motivate adoption. Target-based which are spatially tailored measures can attract adopters in hotspot areas. The latter outcome leads to the last subject, which examines farmers participation in an agri-environmental auction scheme. According to the outcomes of the study, farmers who have previously participated in a pilot auction scheme were more likely to be participants in future auctions. The findings also suggested a strong relationship between attitudes and participation, particularly for attitudes related to specific environmental benefits attached to the auction scheme, novelty and financial features, as well as the complexity of the auction mechanism. The ES and disservices examined in this dissertation, i.e. landscape amenities and water eutrophication, are of priority. Finnish agricultural landscape has experienced severe stresses during the past years while the state of the Baltic Sea is largely affected by the eutrophication issues of water bodies. The empirical research findings enhance current knowledge in planning market- and target-based schemes in the years to come. These schemes are attracting increasing attention for being more effective and, if properly designed, more efficient. For agri-environmental auctions in particular, the findings are novel, since they were derived from the first auction experiment ever implemented in Finland.
  • Kärkkäinen, Johannes (2016)
    Työn saaminen Eurooppalaisesta koulusta matematiikan opettajana sai tutkian innostumaan tuomaan esille Helsingissä sijaitsevan uuden koulun matematiikan opetusta. Koulu on uusi Suomessa, vaikka Euroopassa ollut jo pitkään. Mitä tämä koulu tarjoaa matematiikan saralla ja miten se eroaa Helsingin muiden koulun matematiikan opetuksesta. Tutkielmassa käytetään apuna Eurooppalaisessa koulussa ja Helsingin kunnan koulun opetusmateriaalia sekä opetussuunnitelmaa. Käydään läpi lukuvuosi kerrallaan ja tarkastellaan, miten eroavaisuudet ja samankaltaisuudet näkyvät opetussuunnitelmassa. Tämä tutkielman pyrkii valaisemaan näitä aiheita ja tarjoamaan vilahduksen matematiikan opetussuunnitelman näkökulmasta koulun matematiika opetusta yläkoulun puolella. Tutkija toimii tutkielmassa näkökulman antajana pitkälti mukanaan muutaman opettajan kertomat kokemukset, sillä koulun matematiikan opetuksesta ei ole monella Suomessa kokemusta. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on esitellä myös Eurooppalaisen koulun tarjoama vaihtoehto yksityiskouluna muihin yksityiskouluihin verrattuna kuten myös kunnan koulujen ohella, keskittyen ensi sijaisesti matematiikan opetukseen, jota Eurooppalaisella koululla on tarjota. Tutkielmassa nousee esille kulttuuri, jota Eurooppalaisella koululla on tarjota, sekä tavoitteet, joita koulu pitää yllä matematiikan opetuksessa. Tutkielman lopussa käännetään katsetta tulevaan ja mahdollisuuksiin mitä tulevaisuus voi tuoda tullessaa uuden opetussuunnitelman muodossa. Miten matematiikka voisi näkyä tulevaisuudessa ja mihin se mahdollisesti voi viedä näiden kahden opetussuunnitelman ja koulukulttuurin matematiikan opettajan näkökulmasta.
  • Muhonen, Malla (2016)
    Tämän lisensiaatin tutkielman kirjallisuuskatsaus käsittelee hevosen paksusuolen asennonmuutoksia. Tutkimusosa on retrospektiivinen tutkimus hevosen paksusuolen oikeanpuoleisesta asennonmuutoksesta. Hypoteesinä oli, että Suomessa paksusuolen oikeanpuoleinen asennonmuutos joudutaan hoitamaan useammin kirurgisesti kuin muualla maailmassa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli myös selvittää leikkaushoidon tarpeeseen viittaavia tekijöitä, selviämisprosentteja ja mahdollisia vuodenaikaisvaihteluja esiintyvyydessä. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin Helsingin yliopistollisen hevossairaalan potilastietojärjestelmän avulla. Kaikki paksusuolen oikeanpuoleisen asennonmuutoksen vuosina 2008-2013 sairastaneet potilaat sisällytettiin tutkimukseen. Potilaista saadut tiedot koottiin Open Office Databasen tutkimuslomakkeelle ja analysoitiin SPSS:n avulla. Tutkimusotanta koostui yhteensä viidestäkymmenestä kahdeksasta hevosesta, joista 30,8% hoidettiin konservatiivisesti ja 69,2% kirurgisesti. Potilaista 63% sairastui syys- ja tammikuun välisenä aikana. Vetosuhde hiekan havaitsemiselle syksyllä verrattuna kevääseen oli 18 (khiin neliö10,3, p=0,0014) Kirurgisesti hoidetuista potilaista 83,3% kotiutettiin. Konservatiivisesti hoidetuilla vastaava luku oli 81,2%. Tässä tutkimusotannassa suurempi osuus hevosista päädyttiin hoitamaan kirurgisesti verrattuna aiempiin julkaisuihin aiheesta. Paksusuolen oikeanpuoleista asennonmuutosta esiintyi eniten syksyllä. Vetosuhde (odds-ratio) hiekan esiintymiselle paksusuolen oikeanpuoleista asennonmuutosta sairastavilla hevosilla oli huomattavasti korkeampi syksyllä kuin keväällä. Tämä ei vielä todista hiekan olevan altistava tekijä paksusuolen oikeanpuoleiselle asennonmuutokselle, mutta se antaa viitettä mahdollisesta korrelaatiosta. Tämä ongelmakenttä vaatii jatkotutkimuksia.