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  • Mehto, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The research is analyzing the Finnish tradition on poetry elocution both from the discource analytical and theatrical and view point. The main questions are, whether there still is a fixed position for elocution in the field of art or are we dealing with just one form of thearte? -- The art of elocution has been considered as an independent art form, sometimes even in opposition to theatre, which has been regarded as a very physical and emotional art form by the elocutionists themselves. The self-image of the Finnish elocution art has been born and firmly sustained from the notion that elocution is linked to literature. Elocution as an art form has been seen as "pure" and humbly serving literature and poetry. The main function of an elocutionist has been to understand and vocally express the meanings found in a poem to larger audience. -- This function has changed over the time. There have been a transition from the traditonal text-centeredness to performer-centeredness, even to performance-centeredness as a new wave of theatrical elements and methods have reached the circle of elocution. New forms of poetry performances, such as poetry reading and poetry slam are new challenges to elocution as it must reconsider it´s traditional function in a new artistic and cultural context.
  • Raunio, Aino (2012)
    Suomessa on pitkät perinteet maallikkotuomareiden osallistumisesta lainkäyttöön. Lautamiesten asema ja merkitys oikeudellisessa ratkaisutoiminnassa on vaihdellut läpi historian, mutta pääosin oikeudenkäyttö ennen 1800-lukua oli hyvin maallikkovaltaista ja yhteisöllistä. Moderni oikeus sen sijaan perustuu yhä vahvemmin ammatillisen lakimieskunnan toiminnan varaan, ja lautamiehet ovatkin mukana enää vakavampien ja yhteiskunnallisesti merkittävämpien rikosasioiden käsittelyssä. Lautamiesjärjestelmässä tapahtuneiden modernien uudistuksien tausta ulottuu 1800-luvulle, jolloin oikeuslaitoksen kokonaisuudistusta ryhdyttiin valmistelemaan. Uudistuksen ilmapiiri herätti lakimieskunnan keskustelemaan myös lautamiesten asemasta oikeudenkäytössä. Lautakunnan olemassaoloa ei varsinaisesti kyseenalaistettu, mutta tosiasiassa lautamiesten merkitystä oikeudenkäytössä haluttiin supistaa rajaamalla lautamiesten osallistuminen käsiteltävän asian vaikeuden mukaan. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää lakimiesten suhtautumista lautamiesjärjestelmään kahdella järjestelmän kannalta merkittävällä ajanjaksolla. Tarkasteltavan ajanjakson alkupiste sijoittuu niin sanotun Wreden oikeuslaitosuudistusta koskevan komiteamietinnön ympärille, 1800-luvun jälkimmäiselle puoliskolle. Tarkastelu ulottuu 2000-luvun käräjäoikeuksien kokoonpanosäännösten uudistamiseen. Tutkielman tavoitteena on vastata kysymykseen: mikä on lakimiesten kanta lautamiesjärjestelmää koh-taan ja miten se on kehittynyt Wreden komiteamietinnön aikakaudelta nykyaikaan. Lakimiesten asenteiden lisäksi tutkielmassa käsitellään lautakuntainstituution yleistä historiaa ja käydään läpi maallikko-osallistumisen historiallisen kehityksen pääpiirteet. Tutkielmassa on myös kansainvälistä vertailua sisältävä osio, jonka avulla pyrin hahmottelemaan oikeudellista kontekstia ja selvittämään mahdollisia yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroavuuksia erilaisten lautamiesjärjestelmien välillä. Vertailusta selviää, että muualla käytetään lautamieskokoonpanoa Suomea laaja-alaisemmin eri oikeusasteissa. Suhtautumisen selvittämisen lähdemateriaalina käytän lainvalmisteluaineistoa, valtiopäiväasiakirjoja ja oikeuskirjallisuutta. 1800-luvun lakimiesten näkemyksiä kartoitan lisäksi tutkimalla Suomen Lainopillisen Yhdistyksen keskuudessa käytyä lautamiesdiskurssia. Lisäksi tarkastelen molempien aikakausien juristien sosiaalista koostumusta yleisellä tasolla sekä suppean empiirisen havainnoinnin avulla. Lakimies-kunnan yhteiskunnallisessa asemassa tapahtuneet muutokset voivat toimia selittävinä tekijöinä tarkasteltaessa lakimiesten asenteiden muutoksia lautamiesinstituutiota kohtaan. Yhteiskunnallisten luokkaerojen kaventumisen myötä lakimiesten ja ”tavallisen kansan” erot sosiaalisessa statuksessa ovat vähentyneet. Tämän myötä lautamiehet eivät enää samalla tavalla toimi eri yhteiskuntaluokkien välisenä tulkkina. Yhteiskunnallisten muutosten myötä myös lautamiesjärjestelmästä esitettyjen perusteiden painoarvo on muuttunut, vaikkakin perustelut ovat pitkään pysyneet samanlaisina. Nykyään lakimiehet pitävät lautamiesinstituution tärkeimpänä tehtävänä tuomioistuinlaitoksen luottamuksen ylläpitämistä. Samalla argumentilla perusteltiin lautamiesjärjestelmää jo 1800-luvulla. Toisaalta lakimiesten puheenvuoroissa korostettiin yhä enemmän juridisen osaamisen tarvetta ja oikeudenkäytön professionaalisuuutta.
  • Raunio, Aino (2012)
    Suomessa on pitkät perinteet maallikkotuomareiden osallistumisesta lainkäyttöön. Lautamiesten asema ja merkitys oikeudellisessa ratkaisutoiminnassa on vaihdellut läpi historian, mutta pääosin oikeudenkäyttö ennen 1800-lukua oli hyvin maallikkovaltaista ja yhteisöllistä. Moderni oikeus sen sijaan perustuu yhä vahvemmin ammatillisen lakimieskunnan toiminnan varaan, ja lautamiehet ovatkin mukana enää vakavampien ja yhteiskunnallisesti merkittävämpien rikosasioiden käsittelyssä. Lautamiesjärjestelmässä tapahtuneiden modernien uudistuksien tausta ulottuu 1800-luvulle, jolloin oikeuslaitoksen kokonaisuudistusta ryhdyttiin valmistelemaan. Uudistuksen ilmapiiri herätti lakimieskunnan keskustelemaan myös lautamiesten asemasta oikeudenkäytössä. Lautakunnan olemassaoloa ei varsinaisesti kyseenalaistettu, mutta tosiasiassa lautamiesten merkitystä oikeudenkäytössä haluttiin supistaa rajaamalla lautamiesten osallistuminen käsiteltävän asian vaikeuden mukaan. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää lakimiesten suhtautumista lautamiesjärjestelmään kahdella järjestelmän kannalta merkittävällä ajanjaksolla. Tarkasteltavan ajanjakson alkupiste sijoittuu niin sanotun Wreden oikeuslaitosuudistusta koskevan komiteamietinnön ympärille, 1800-luvun jälkimmäiselle puoliskolle. Tarkastelu ulottuu 2000-luvun käräjäoikeuksien kokoonpanosäännösten uudistamiseen. Tutkielman tavoitteena on vastata kysymykseen: mikä on lakimiesten kanta lautamiesjärjestelmää koh-taan ja miten se on kehittynyt Wreden komiteamietinnön aikakaudelta nykyaikaan. Lakimiesten asenteiden lisäksi tutkielmassa käsitellään lautakuntainstituution yleistä historiaa ja käydään läpi maallikko-osallistumisen historiallisen kehityksen pääpiirteet. Tutkielmassa on myös kansainvälistä vertailua sisältävä osio, jonka avulla pyrin hahmottelemaan oikeudellista kontekstia ja selvittämään mahdollisia yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroavuuksia erilaisten lautamiesjärjestelmien välillä. Vertailusta selviää, että muualla käytetään lautamieskokoonpanoa Suomea laaja-alaisemmin eri oikeusasteissa. Suhtautumisen selvittämisen lähdemateriaalina käytän lainvalmisteluaineistoa, valtiopäiväasiakirjoja ja oikeuskirjallisuutta. 1800-luvun lakimiesten näkemyksiä kartoitan lisäksi tutkimalla Suomen Lainopillisen Yhdistyksen keskuudessa käytyä lautamiesdiskurssia. Lisäksi tarkastelen molempien aikakausien juristien sosiaalista koostumusta yleisellä tasolla sekä suppean empiirisen havainnoinnin avulla. Lakimies-kunnan yhteiskunnallisessa asemassa tapahtuneet muutokset voivat toimia selittävinä tekijöinä tarkasteltaessa lakimiesten asenteiden muutoksia lautamiesinstituutiota kohtaan. Yhteiskunnallisten luokkaerojen kaventumisen myötä lakimiesten ja ”tavallisen kansan” erot sosiaalisessa statuksessa ovat vähentyneet. Tämän myötä lautamiehet eivät enää samalla tavalla toimi eri yhteiskuntaluokkien välisenä tulkkina. Yhteiskunnallisten muutosten myötä myös lautamiesjärjestelmästä esitettyjen perusteiden painoarvo on muuttunut, vaikkakin perustelut ovat pitkään pysyneet samanlaisina. Nykyään lakimiehet pitävät lautamiesinstituution tärkeimpänä tehtävänä tuomioistuinlaitoksen luottamuksen ylläpitämistä. Samalla argumentilla perusteltiin lautamiesjärjestelmää jo 1800-luvulla. Toisaalta lakimiesten puheenvuoroissa korostettiin yhä enemmän juridisen osaamisen tarvetta ja oikeudenkäytön professionaalisuuutta.
  • Ådahl, Susanne (2000)
    This thesis analyses the specific moral discourses that popular class female sex workers and their regular clients create in the particular world of prostitution in Managua, Nicargua. My intention was to identify, through ethnographic narratives, what meanings sex workers and clients attach to intimacy and respect and how their street life (calle) and home making (casa) roles merge and interact. The specific kind of morality that emerges in sex workers' and clients' manner of speaking indicates how the limits of morality are fluid, pointing to where the spheres of calle and casa meet, intermingle and create specific meanings. This is not an investigation into deviant behaviour, although the actors are situated in a social world that is characterised as liminal. It is, rather, an ethnography of the particular aimed at dispelling stereotypical images portrayed of sex workers and clients. It attempts to bring a commentary to the ongoing discussion on masculinity and sexuality, where a stress is being placed on the multiplicity and shifting character of roles, and of the centrality of interaction between men and women. The study is based on ethnographical field work (Nov 1998 - Mar 1999) conducted in Managua. The main methodology used was taped life history interviews mainly with sex workers and clients; and, participant observation through site visits to both day time and night time locations. The total number of interviews conducted was 26 (women 18, men 8). Additionally, literary sources on sexuality and masculinity in Latin America were used. In the world of Managua prostitution we find popular class Managuans in their role as clients and sex workers, but we also glimpse their other, home making roles. The so called "ideal" picture of gender relations, and the real situation on the streets and homes of popular class Nicaraguans contradict each other. Men and women are conditioned to believe in romantic love, but in many Nicaraguan homes the reality is economic and emotional deprivation, violence, and abandonment. There is a lack of trust, of safety and of an opportunity for men and women to fulfil the roles of home making. Women and men live with the dream of having a home, a place of safety and love, understanding and communication. Through the game of courtship between sex workers and clients, respect and communication leads to a mutual sense of affection and a particular kind of morality. The safety arising from this interaction provides a means of making a home. In this process we find evidence of how the meaning of morality and masculinity is shifting and transformative.
  • Alén-Savikko, Anette (Anette Alén-Savikko, 2014)
    This doctoral dissertation focuses on audiovisual sport coverage in the new media landscape and provides a critical, EU level analysis. Multiple layers of exclusive aspirations exist alongside a striving for maximum exposure and public appeal: sport broadcasting rights in particular have been questioned as their costs have risen and sport content has been moved behind conditional access. These tendencies have then provoked fundamental rights discussions on access by the public to information, pluralism of the media, and freedom of expression. Business is an inseparable part of the modern sport and media gestalt. However, other dimensions to European audiovisual sport coverage exist that do not operate in terms of finance and the market economy alone. In the EU, audiovisual media are regarded as economic services, but they are also acknowledged important role in societies, democracy, and culture. Also European sport has strong socio-cultural dimensions alongside its economic aspects. As regards the new media landscape, media convergence is allegedly influencing sports related media rights and commercial exploitation of sporting events. On the other hand, the Internet and social media are utilized by ordinary citizens, consumers, and supporters. Various demands and regulatory requirements arguably co-exist on many levels. This research aims at providing in-depth analysis of the role of law and alleged changes in the new media landscape, especially concerning various demands and regulatory requirements in the field of audiovisual sport coverage. The focus is on media law and copyright law whereas sport is treated as a particular kind of content with many legally interesting dimensions. Various proprietary rights and exclusive tendencies are mapped out in light of legislation, case law, and legal literature. In addition, fundamental rights, free and fair competition, copyright, and the public interest are analyzed as "law in action." Legal issues related to the Internet and social media are discussed as well. Legal texts are analyzed in the research and research interests are primarily theoretical. A law-and-community approach, elaborated on the basis of Roger Cotterrell's (2006) typology, is utilized in the analysis of legal texts while media and communications studies in particular are utilized in the analysis of (new) media. In particular, the ideas of Jay Bolter and Richard Grusin on 'remediation' are elaborated. New media present a continuation rather than a complete transcendence: new media achieve their 'newness' and cultural significance by refashioning earlier media and the process is mutual (e.g., the Internet/TV). The interrelations between various legal regimes prove highly complex, and EU law in the context of audiovisual sport coverage is often a mixture of Union-level and national-level instruments; there is no overall concept. Moreover, the Internet and social media provide additional dimensions. To conclude with statements on the dominance of economic and instrumental considerations is not surprising. Moreover, audiovisual media and the sport industry also appear to be challenged time and again by technological development and the activities of new entrants or members of the public. As regards the role of law, the research argues that some demands and regulatory requirements have changed in the new media landscape and that the law has difficulty in meeting those demands. With the traditional media mode, inclusion is less in degree and allowed mainly on industry terms whereas the new media mode allows for 'convergence' including in the meaning of media-related roles and practices. Alongside cross-border issues, especially difficult for law is this relativization of binaries in the new media landscape.
  • Ollus, Simon-Erik (2005)
    This study investigates the effect of law enforcement in predatory economies. A predatory economy is an economy where long-term growth performance is lower than optimal, due to a high share of predation. The focus is purely economical and strictly on the private economy. A predation trap occurs, which depends on the initial allocations of entrepreneurship in the economy. The economy can find its way out of the trap, if the flow of new entrepreneurs is sufficient. This study amends an existing model of predation by introducing different law enforcement regimes. It shows that it is possible to regulate the parasitic activities through increased law enforcement. The law enforcement changes the initial conditions required for the predation trap to exist, and thus improve long-term growth performance. However, the law enforcement needs to be cost-effective in order to be worth introducing. On low initial levels of entrepreneurship, introducing law enforcement does not necessarily lift the country out from the predation trap. The country still needs a sufficient enough flow of new entrepreneurs into the economy to free it from predation. Hence, this study explains partly why poor countries stay poor.
  • Sjöblom, Saara Eveliina (2013)
    Äärellistä ryhmää, jonka kertaluku on jonkin alkuluvun p potenssi kutsutaan p-ryhmäksi. Lazardin korrespondenssi sanoo, että jokaista äärellistä p-ryhmää, jonka nilpotenssiluokka on aidosti pienempi kuin alkuluku p vastaa Lien rengas, joka on määritelty samassa joukossa. Lazardin korrespondenssin tärkein työkalu on Baker-Campbell-Hausdorffin kaava (BCH-kaava). Käyttämällä BCH-kaavaa voidaan Lazardin korrespondenssin ehdot täyttävälle Lien renkaalle antaa multiplikatiivisen p-ryhmän rakenne. Äärelliselle p-ryhmälle voidaan antaa Lien renkaan rakenne määrittelemällä summa ja Lie-tulo BCH-kaavan käänteiskaavoja käyttämällä.
  • Sillanpää, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Khazaei, Hamid (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The potential for use of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is increasing worldwide due to its positive environmental impact and nutritional interest, but there are many challenges for faba bean breeding and cultivation. These include its mixed breeding system, its unknown origin and wild progenitor, its large genome being the biggest diploid genome among field crops, and its relative sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses (e.g., drought). Little is known about the ecological adaptation of faba bean germplasm, or about the locations and effects of genes that influence traits related to drought adaptation, especially stomatal morphology and function as key characters for gas exchange between plant and atmosphere. Thus, the current study had two main goals, a) to examine whether faba bean germplasm from drought-prone and drought-free environments differed in leaf traits related to drought adaptation while testing a novel genetic resources utilization tool, and b) to screen the genome for regions and candidate genes controlling morpho-physiological traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean germplasm each containing 201 accessions from dry and wet regions of the world were chosen according to the principles of FIGS (the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy). Leaf morpho-physiological traits related to drought response (e.g., stomatal characteristics and water status) were measured under well watered conditions in a climate-controlled greenhouse. Thereafter, two subsets of 10 accessions each were exposed to water deficit. The significance of the difference between the two sets indicated the potential of FIGS to search for traits related to abiotic stress adaptation. Machine-learning algorithms and multivariate statistics showed that the discrimination between the two sets could be based on pertinent physiological traits, particularly leaf temperature and relative water content. When the plants exposed to water deficit, leaf temperature was the most responsive trait. Four bi-parental populations were developed, of which Mélodie/2 × ILB938/2 showed the highest number of polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and was advanced to the F5 generation, in which 211 individuals were tested for 222 SNPs derived from Medicago truncatula sequence information. The population was phenotyped for several morpho-physiological traits during 2013 and 2014. In total, 188 polymorphic SNPs were assigned to nine linkage groups that covered ~ 928 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 5.8 cM. The map showed a high degree of synteny with the genome of M. truncatula. Most of the detected QTLs for stomatal morphology and function were in a single region of faba bean chromosome II syntenic with a segment of M. truncatula chromosome IV that harbours receptor-like protein kinase. Furthermore, a novel locus, ssp1, for stipule pigmentation was mapped in a well conserved region of M. truncatula chromosome V containing some candidate Myb and bHLH transcription factor genes. The difference between the leaf temperatures of the two FIGS sets (the wet and dry set) allowed us to find a reliable and cost-efficient phenotyping tool for screening drought adaptation related traits in this species. Furthermore, using an appropriate mapping population and using novel M. truncatula-derived SNPs all brought success to detect the genetic regions and to indicate candidate genes. Furthermore, our results confirm the genomic data from model plant species can easily be translated to faba bean. Finally, breeding faba bean for drought adaptation can be made more straightforward by combining the use of germplasm tools such as FIGS, rapidly assessed phenotypes such as canopy temperature, and genomic tools for detecting candidate genes.
  • Ma, Qian (2014)
    Objectives. This research addressed the problems and prospects of Lean Six Sigma (LSS), one of the world's most popular organizational development methods at present. The study enriched this method by suggesting a more sustainable way of organizational development. The previous research on LSS mainly focused on the technical tools in utilizing the production process. Drawing on the theory of Expansive Learning, this research evaluated the learning process of LSS by focusing on the practitioners. The purpose of the research was twofold. First, it analyzed the contradictions of LSS project activity in the research site. It was expected to uncover the problems that jeopardized the learning process of the practitioners. Second, it discussed the zone of proximal development (ZPD) of LSS project activity for the research site, with the purpose of shedding light on the possibilities of future development and learning. Methods. The research site was an international aircraft manufacturer in China. Eleven LSS practitioners were interviewed, including eight Green Belts, one Black Belt, one Master Black Belt and one Green Belt team member. The data were analyzed by adopting three methods: the analysis of conceptions, the Analysis of discursive manifestations of contradictions, and the analysis of action-activity transformation in expansive learning. The ZPD was sketched from two dimensions: the first one by analyzing the action-activity transformation of the practitioners; the second one by evaluating the conception of “what have expanded” in the practitioners due to the project experiences. Results and conclusions. The analysis uncovered eight contradictions in LSS project activity system. Five were scattered in the project activity itself between or within varied elements of activity. Three were between the project activity, the department-based work activity and the LSS training activity. One case in which the GB's trials in breaking the constraints in his own project resulted in collective expansive learning efforts cross projects was analyzed as the representation of action-activity transformation. In addition, some practitioners had re-conceptualized their work motivation through the project experience, seeing Lean Six Sigma as a conceptual tool for understanding strategic work planning and gaining long-term work motivation. In conclusion, two dimensions of the ZPD were suggested: first, an integrated top-down and bottom-up approaches for organizational transformation; second, transcending from LSS as the “concrete tool in individual skill appropriation” to the “conceptual tool in collective work reconceptualization”. The organizations adopting the LSS method can reflect on this thesis to improve their LSS practices by paying attention to the “critical transition agent” for cross-functional processes’ interaction, the employees’ learning initiatives and work motivation.
  • Ikonen, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The history of software development in a somewhat systematical way has been performed for half a century. Despite this time period, serious failures in software development projects still occur. The pertinent mission of software project management is to continuously achieve more and more successful projects. The application of agile software methods and more recently the integration of Lean practices contribute to this trend of continuous improvement in the software industry. One such area warranting proper empirical evidence is the operational efficiency of projects. In the field of software development, Kanban as a process management method has gained momentum recently, mostly due to its linkages to Lean thinking. However, only a few empirical studies investigate the impacts of Kanban on projects in that particular area. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to improve the understanding of how Kanban impacts on software projects. The research is carried out in the area of Lean thinking, which contains a variety of concepts including Kanban. This article-type thesis conducts a set of case studies expanded with the research strategy of quasi-controlled experiment. The data-gathering techniques of interviews, questionnaires, and different types of observations are used to study the case projects, and thereby to understand the impacts of Kanban on software development projects. The research papers of the thesis are refereed, international journal and conference publications. The results highlight new findings regarding the application of Kanban in the software context. The key findings of the thesis suggest that Kanban is applicable to software development. Despite its several benefits reported in this thesis, the empirical evidence implies that Kanban is not all-encompassing but requires additional practices to keep development projects performing appropriately. Implications for research are given, as well. In addition to these findings, the thesis contributes in the area of plan-driven software development by suggesting implications both for research and practitioners. As a conclusion, Kanban can benefit software development projects but additional practices would increase its potential for the projects.
  • Toiviainen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Pereira Querol, Marco Antonio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study is about the challenges of learning in the creation and implementation of new sustainable technologies. The system of biogas production in the Programme of Sustainable Swine Production (3S Programme) conducted by the Sadia food processing company in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is used as a case example for exploring the challenges, possibilities and obstacles of learning in the use of biogas production as a way to increase the environmental sustainability of swine production. The aim is to contribute to the discussion about the possibilities of developing systems of biogas production for sustainability (BPfS). In the study I develop hypotheses concerning the central challenges and possibilities for developing systems of BPfS in three phases. First, I construct a model of the network of activities involved in the BP for sustainability in the case study. Next, I construct a) an idealised model of the historically evolved concepts of BPfS through an analysis of the development of forms of BP and b) a hypothesis of the current central contradictions within and between the activity systems involved in BP for sustainability in the case study. This hypothesis is further developed through two actual empirical analyses: an analysis of the actors senses in taking part in the system, and an analysis of the disturbance processes in the implementation and operation of the BP system in the 3S Programme. The historical analysis shows that BP for sustainability in the 3S Programme emerged as a feasible solution for the contradiction between environmental protection and concentration, intensification and specialisation in swine production. This contradiction created a threat to the supply of swine to the food processing company. In the food production activity, the contradiction was expressed as a contradiction between the desire of the company to become a sustainable company and the situation in the outsourced farms. For the swine producers the contradiction was expressed between the contradictory rules in which the market exerted pressure which pushed for continual increases in scale, specialisation and concentration to keep the production economically viable, while the environmental rules imposed a limit to this expansion. Although the observed disturbances in the biogas system seemed to be merely technical and localised within the farms, the analysis proposed that these disturbances were formed in and between the activity systems involved in the network of BPfS during the implementation. The disturbances observed could be explained by four contradictions: a) contradictions between the new, more expanded activity of sustainable swine production and the old activity, b) a contradiction between the concept of BP for carbon credits and BP for local use in the BPfS that was implemented, c) contradictions between the new UNFCCC1 methodology for applying for carbon credits and the small size of the farms, and d) between the technologies of biogas use and burning available in the market and the small size of the farms. The main finding of this study relates to the zone of proximal development (ZPD) of the BPfS in Sadia food production chain. The model is first developed as a general model of concepts of BPfS and further developed here to the specific case of the BPfS in the 3S Programme. The model is composed of two developmental dimensions: societal and functional integration. The dimension of societal integration refers to the level of integration with other activities outside the farm. At one extreme, biogas production is self-sufficient and highly independent and the products of BP are consumed within the farm, while at the other extreme BP is highly integrated in markets and networks of collaboration, and BP products are exchanged within the markets. The dimension of functional integration refers to the level of integration between products and production processes so that economies of scope can be achieved by combining several functions using the same utility. At one extreme, BP is specialised in only one product, which allows achieving economies of scale, while at the other extreme there is an integrated production in which several biogas products are produced in order to maximise the outcomes from the BP system. The analysis suggests that BP is moving towards a societal integration, towards the market and towards a functional integration in which several biogas products are combined. The model is a hypothesis to be further tested through interventions by collectively constructing the new proposed concept of BPfS. Another important contribution of this study refers to the concept of the learning challenge. Three central learning challenges for developing a sustainable system of BP in the 3S Programme were identified: 1) the development of cheaper and more practical technologies of burning and measuring the gas, as well as the reduction of costs of the process of certification, 2) the development of new ways of using biogas within farms, and 3) the creation of new local markets and networks for selling BP products. One general learning challenge is to find more varied and synergic ways of using BP products than solely for the production of carbon credits. Both the model of the ZPD of BPfS and the identified learning challenges could be used as learning tools to facilitate the development of biogas production systems. The proposed model of the ZPD could be used to analyse different types of agricultural activities that face a similar contradiction. The findings could be used in interventions to help actors to find their own expansive actions and developmental projects for change. Rather than proposing a standardised best concept of BPfS, the idea of these learning tools is to facilitate the analysis of local situations and to help actors to make their activities more sustainable.