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  • Kiuru, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Kurkinen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 1998)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ollut kuvata pian valmistuvien sairaanhoitaja- ja laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijoiden teoreettista työnhallintaa kliinisen mikrobiologian alaan kuuluvien potilasnäytteiden ottamisessa. Tutkimuksessa haluttiin selvittää, miten peruskoulutus ja työelämän harjoittelujaksot ovat vaikuttaneet näytteenottovalmiuksien syntymiseen sekä minkälainen käsitys valmistuvilla hoitajilla on omista mikrobiologisista näytteenottotaidoistaan. Syy tutkimuksen tekemiseen oli tarve arvioida ammatillisen koulutuksen tuloksellisuutta sekä hakea mikrobiologian opetusalueelta tutkimustietoa opetuksen kehittämiseen ja sisältöjen suuntaamiseen. Tutkimukseen osallistui 21 laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijaa ja 27 sairaanhoitajaopiskelijaa. Opiskelijat olivat viimeiseltä lukukaudelta ja valmistuivat keväällä 1998. Tiedonkeruumenetelmänä oli kyselylomake, jonka alkuosa koostui neljästä mikrobiologisesta näytteenottotilanteesta. Opiskelija vastasi toimintatapansa kertoen ja perustellen, miten hän ottaisi näytteet näissä tilanteissa. Vastaukset ryhmiteltiin käyttäen luokitteluun mukaeltua Solo-taksonomiaa. Koulutusta ja opiskelijan käsityksiä kartoittavat kysymykset olivat joko puolistrukturoituja tai avoimia. Laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijoiden tiedollinen työnhallinta sijoittuu tulosten perusteella tyydyttävän ja hyvän välimaastoon. Sairaanhoitajaopiskelijoiden tietotaso oli heikko ja osin hyvin heikko. Laboratoriohoitajaopiskelijat arvioivat koulutuksen antamia mikrobiologisen näytteenoton valmiuksia pääasiassa hyviksi tai tyydyttäviksi; sairaanhoitajaopiskelijat pitivät opetuksesta saamiaan valmiuksia heikkoina. Näytteenoton arvostusta pidettiin kaiken kaikkiaan matalana, ja tietoa laadukkaasta näytteenotosta arvioitiin puuttuvan työelämässä laajasti. Tutkimuksen perusteella näyttää siltä, ettei valmistuvilla sairaanhoitajilla ole tiedollisia ja taidollisia valmiuksia suoriutua edes perusnäytteenotosta niin, että saatu näyte edustaisi laadukkaasti potilaan tilaa näytteenottohetkellä. Näytteenotto on koko laboratoriotyön prosessin kriittisin vaihe. Jos näyte on otettu, säilytetty tai kuljetettu väärin, paraskaan analyysitekniikka ei pysty tuottamaan siitä potilaan hoitoa oikeaan suuntaan ohjaavaa tulosta. Kaikkien laboratorionäytteiden oton siirtäminen laboratoriohoitajille ja runsaan lisäkoulutuksen anto tälle ammattiryhmälle voisi tuottaa parannuksen vallitsevaan tilanteeseen. Avainsanat: ammattitaito, osaaminen, ammatillinen koulutus, kliinisen mikrobiologian näytteenotto, tiedollinen työnhallinta Keywords: occupational skills, competence, vocational education, collecting of specimen in clinical microbiology, conceptual mastery of work
  • Javela, Kaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    High quality of platelet analytics requires specialized knowledge and skills. It was applied to analyze platelet activation and aggregation responses in a prospective controlled study of patients with Finnish type of amyloidosis. The 20 patients with AGel amyloidosis displayed a delayed and more profound platelet shape change than healthy siblings and healthy volunteers, which may be related to altered fragmentation of mutated gelsolin during platelet activation. Alterations in platelet shape change have not been reported in association with platelet disorders. In the rare Bernard-Soulier syndrome with Asn45Ser mutation of glycoprotein (GP) IX, the diagnostic defect in the expression of GPIb-IX-V complex was characterized in seven Finnish patients, also an internationally exceptionally large patient series. When measuring thrombopoietin in serial samples of amniotic fluid and cord blood of 15 pregnant women with confirmed or suspected fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, the lower limit of detection could be extended. The results approved that thrombopoietin is present already in amniotic fluid. The application of various non-invasive means for diagnosing thrombocytopenia (TP) revealed that techniques for estimating the proportion of young, i.e. large platelets, such as direct measurement of reticulated platelets and the mean platelet size, would be useful for evaluating platelet kinetics in a given patient. Due to different kinetics between thrombopoietin and increase of young platelets in circulation, these measurements may have most predictive value when measured from simultaneous samples. Platelet autoantibodies were present not only in isolated autoimmune TP but also in patients without TP where disappearance of platelets might be compensated by increased production. The autoantibodies may also persist after TP has been cured. Simultaneous demonstration of increased young platelets (or increased mean platelet volume) in peripheral blood and the presence of platelet associated IgG specificities to major glycoproteins (GPIb-IX and GPIIb-IIIa) may be considered diagnostic for autoimmune TP. Measurement of a soluble marker as a sign of thrombin activation and proceeding deterioration of platelet components was applied to analyze the alterations under several stress factors (storage, transportation and lack of continuous shaking under controlled conditions) of platelet products. The GPV measured as a soluble factor in platelet storage medium showed good correlation with an array of other measurements commonly applied in characterization of stored platelets. The benefits of measuring soluble analyte in a quantitative assay were evident.
  • Räty, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Respiratory infections are the most common illnesses worldwide, and a large fraction of those are of viral origin. These infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have substantial socioeconomic impact. Rapid identification of a causing agent provides guidance for treatment decisions and may help prevent the further spread of the virus. Noteworthy that virus infections can be complicated by subsequent bacterial infections. Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of seven common respiratory viruses has been studied in certain segments of the Finnish population. A laboratory test (TR-FIA) for the rapid detection of viral proteins in respiratory secretions has been used in these studies. From many of the patients also acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens have been collected for the detection of antibodies to these seven viruses and also to Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacterial pathogen. During the 16-year period of observation, influenza viruses have caused epidemics every year. Some of these influenza findings have been further investigated in the National Influenza Center and relevant results have been reported to the WHO and to other international organizations. Also the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been found to circulate every year. This virus is an important respiratory pathogen of small children, but also of the elderly. Mycoplasma pneumoniae caused epidemics at intervals of several years. Typically, Mycoplasma pneumoniae affects families with school-age children, and often these infections do not require treatment. Members of the Finnish Defense Forces have been overrepresented in this surveillance, and a significant number of mycoplasma findings have been from young service men hospitalized with pneumonia. Although serological methods rarely help establish a diagnosis during the early phase of an infection, this study has shown that serology performed on paired sera can identify a substantial number of infections that would have gone undetected by rapid diagnostic methods. Besides finding the causative agent of a patient s illness, surveillance of respiratory infections provides information about pathogens that cause epidemics in the population. Through such surveillance it might be possible to identify previously unknown viruses, or common viruses with novel characteristics. As an example, one could mention zoonotic influenza viruses or influenza viruses that have acquired resistance to antiviral drugs.
  • Leiviskä, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Dyslipidemia - high serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), or triglycerides or low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration - is one among the most important factors increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the main apolipoprotein of atheroprotective HDL particles and apoB is the main apolipoprotein in all other atherogenic lipoprotein particles. An increased number of apoB-containing particles and low HDL-C together with almost normal LDL-C is a common feature in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The first aim of this study was to assess the systematic errors in cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C measurements. Secondly, the effect of fasting and non-fasting triglyceride values on the prevalences of high LDL-C and metabolic syndrome was estimated. The reference intervals for apoA-I, apoB, and apoB/apoA-I ratio were calculated and they were compared with the traditional lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in different pathophysiological conditions. Finally, two direct HDL-C methods and two turbidimetric apoA-I methods in two independent laboratories were compared to discover the concordance between these methods. The data for estimating accuracy of cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C measurements was obtained from different external quality assessment (EQA) programs, in which the Laboratory of Analytical Biochemistry at the National Institute for Health and Welfare has participated since 1978. The laboratory data for lipid and lipoprotein population trends was obtained from the FINRISK population-based health surveys during 1982 2012. During this time systematic error for cholesterol and triglyceride measurements remained within the range of 4% but for HDL-C error was larger. Comparison of two direct HDL-C methods showed a concentration-dependent difference between these methods. At low HDL-C concentrations difference between methods was negative -12.0 %, but at higher concentrations turned out to be positive: +9.0 %. However, apoA-I methods demonstrated better agreement than HDL-C in the method comparisons. Obese men and women had the highest apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratios compared to the healthy reference group. Men with self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes had lower apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratio than the averages in the healthy reference group. In contrast women had higher apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratios in obesity, CVD, hypertension, or diabetes than in the healthy reference group. Participating in the external quality assessment programs with target values measured by the reference methods was essential, when interpreting the effects of the systematic errors on the population lipid trends. The concentration-dependent differences in homogeneous HDL-C methods may cause misclassificatios in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease. Because an increased number of apoB-containing lipoproteins but a normal or even low LDL-cholesterol is a common feature in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, apoB measurements may produce more specific information in the risk assessment for CVD in these conditions than total cholesterol and LDL-C measurements.
  • Santala, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this historiographical study I evaluate the placement of Eero Saarinen s airport terminals in the history of modern architecture. His Trans World Airlines Terminal (1956-62) and Dulles International Airport (1958-63) were the first airport terminals to enter the annals of modern architecture. I hypothesize that the airport terminal was previously excluded as a building type from historiography since it was seen as infrastructure, not architecture. Furthermore, its modernity did not coincide with the aims of historians, who could not utilize an emergent building type to demonstrate how modernism revolutionized architectural vocabularies. Discussing the related histories of aviation and technologies, the typological instability of the airport terminal, and Saarinen s architectural practice, I utilize genealogy, microhistory, and Science and Technology Studies to intervene in the historiography of modern architecture. Specifically, I question the assumption that architecture follows technological developments, the narrow interpretation of modernity dominating the writing of architectural history, and the resulting myopia in the classification of emerging building types. I view Saarinen s architectural practice as one of the many laboratories for a new architecture. Mapping such laboratories reveals a multifaceted view of postwar architecture, where modernism is explained by individual actors laboring at their localized sites to mediate a particular kind of modernity. I argue that Saarinen s engagement with technology and his laboratory-like working methods reconciled the contradictions between modern architecture and its blind spot, the airport terminal. This synthesis allowed the terminal building to transcend its utilitarian-technological nature as transportation infrastructure and led to its inclusion in the history of modern architecture as a building type that has its own history and parameters for design. This study makes three contributions. It outlines the history of the airport terminal emphasizing buildings that could have easily found their place in the canon of modern architecture. It explains the reasons for their exclusion and suggests ways to reduce the canon s myopia towards variants of modernism. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the historiography of modern architecture and its logic of including emergent buildings by acknowledging the airport terminal as an emblematic building type of the twentieth century.
  • Kananen, Johannes (2004)
    This Thesis examines the extent to which labour market deregulation can provide a viable solution for problems associated with European labour markets. Compared to the US, Europe is said to have opted for equity instead of efficiency. Seemingly rigid labour markets have resulted in high and persistent levels of unemployment in times of post-industrialisation and globalisation. Labour market regulation is here understood in a wide sense, comprising employment protection legislation, but also wage setting, minimum wages and mandatory social security contributions. The Scandinavian regime would arguably have to make the greatest changes if all aspects of deregulation were implemented. Thus, the Thesis takes a closer at Finnish, Swedish and Danish employment policies. The Scandinavian model is contrasted with the liberal model of the UK. Data in the empirical section comes from OECD public databases. It is argued that recent changes in economic theory have influenced policy suggestions aiming at more flexible labour markets. The theory of the Natural Rate of Unemployment is associated with a different role of the state compared to traditional Keynesian theories. During the post-war period of stable economic growth and welfare state expansion, the state adopted in many countries an active role in the economy, and full employment was maintained by counter-cyclical demand management. Now the state has a much more limited role with regards to macroeconomic policy, and the idea of an undisturbed market is back in policy making. A trend towards the recommodification of labour is identified in the Thesis. It is argued that recent reductions in social security are an indication of this trend, and that labour market deregulation would strengthen it further. It will be concluded that Europe does not form a uniform area and that simple policy suggestions are therefore hard to find. Labour market deregulation is not an inevitable solution of European labour markets, and the social goals associated with employment policy are subject to political debate and not economic facts.
  • Leväsaari, Antti (2013)
    In the standard model of competitive labor markets, an influx of immigrants increases the labor market prospects of native workers whose labor is complementary to the immigrants' labor and decreases that of those native workers whose labor is substitutable with immigants' labor. The standard model cannot, however, explain how vacancies and unemployment exist at the same time, or allow the job creation to respond to the arrival of new workforce. This master's thesis studies the effects of immigration on the wages, employment and welfare of native workers when firms and workers have to spend resources to find a suitable job match. In this environment, search frictions produce unemployment and the job creation is allowed to respond to an influx of immigrants. Matching model with three different settings is used to study these effects. In the first one immigration is introduced to a two-country matching model to see how an influx of immigration affects wages, unemployment rate and welfare of natives through probabilities of finding a job and finding a worker for an open vacancy. By Pareto ranking the three equilibria the model produces it is shown that immigration is beneficial to all parties involved. The second setting is a one-country model with two sectors and examines how an influx of immigrants to one of the sectors affects natives' welfare in that sector. The effect is ambiguous and comprises of an impact through matching probabilities and an impact though relative prices. Finally, the impact of low-skilled immigration on both high-skilled and low-skilled native workers is studied. It will be shown that an influx of low-skilled immigrants has a positive impact on the wages and employment rate of high-skilled natives but an ambiguous impact on those of low-skilled natives. When the education choice is endogenized, however, more natives decide to acquire education and the overall effect is positive. While these results do not perfectly fit the empirical findings on the subject, they offer one mechanism to understand the behavior of labor markets with immigration, and help to understand the empirical results that contradict the predictions by the standard model.
  • Yukhtenko, Anna (2014)
    In this paper I develop an endogenous growth model with labor market frictions and spillover effects of physical capital stock on human capital accumulation. Using this instrument, I study the effects of labor market frictions on the balanced growth path of the economy, accounting for possible substitutability or complementarity between the two types of capital. I find out that severe labor market frictions impede economic growth, lower workers’ wage, educational and work effort. Faster human capital accumulation process caused by improved market conditions, enhanced importance of work experience or exogenous positive shocks benefits economic growth. I prove that if human and physical capital are complements (positive externality), the process of on-the-job learning increases the speed of human capital accumulation, resulting in higher work effort and economic growth rate. Substitutability between the two factors of production (negative externality) leads to inability of workers to adjust to rapid technological progress, causing economic inefficiencies, invalid usage of capital and, in the end, lower growth rate of the economy.
  • Siljander, Eero (2004)
    This thesis deals with labour demand, the elasticises of labour demand and adjustment through the theory of labour economics, an econometric model and its application to panel data set of finnish firms. First a continues and discrete time model of labour demand are specified with strictly convex or quadratic adjustment costs. In the econometric part of the study a model for labour demand with firm and time specific elasticises and adjustment are specified. The adjustment parameter is also explicitly modeled. From the econometric model for labour demand the wage-, output-, capital- and trend elasticity are calculated for each observation in time. Then these elasticities are averaged according to the factor of interest which in this thesis are 1.time, 2.industry and 3.size of firm. The same applies for the adjustment parameter. Especially the wage elasticity is of special interest as it describes the effects of the tax wedge of labour on labour demand. In the econometric part of the thesis the elasticises and adjustment of labour demand are estimated from an unbalanced panel data set of the 500 largest enterprises in Finland as measured by turnover. The data covers the years from 1986 to 2003 and has a total of 8185 observations. As an econometric research method a fixed effects nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) algorithm is used to estimate labour demand. The results indicate that the wage and output elasticity of labour demand have increased during the observed period from 1986 to 2003. The wage elasticity has increased from -0.6 to -0.75 and the output elasticity from 0.8 to 0.9 in the long run during the data period. The same pattern is observed for these elasticises in the short run as well. Technical change has decreased labour demand by approximately two percent p.a. in the short and long run. These results confirm that finnish labour markets have become more flexible due to increased competition and integration of product markets which in turn are due to the single market policies of the EU and the effects of globalization on labour markets. The only surprise in the results is that the adjustment parameter has decreased slightly during the end of the observation period which points to mounting adjustment costs of labour demand and rigidities in the adjustment of labour markets. The results also show that the elasticises and adjustment of labour demand vary strongly with the industry of the firm. This points to the heterogeneity across firms and industries which validates the research strategy and methodology used here and should not be overlooked in empirical research in general. On the other hand firm size is not found to be a significant factor in determining the elasticises or adjustment. Therefore the explicit modeling of firm and time specific adjustment should be taken into account in future research on labour demand and its elasticises.
  • Roppola, Juha (2008)
    Vuonna 1968 Neuvostoliitto halusi mukaan nopean tietokoneistumisen aikakauteen ja ostaa brittiyritys International Computersin (ICL) uusia tehokkaita digitaalisia tietokoneita. ICL:n lupaavan liiketoiminnan päänavaus törmäsi kuitenkin amerikkalaisten vastustukseen. Koska kyse oli kolmannen sukupolven tietokoneista eli kauppasaarron alaisesta strategisesta kaupasta, se vaati USA:n hyväksynnän. Britannian pääministeri Harold Wilson, joka oli ymmärtänyt tietokoneiden merkityksen kasvun, henkilökohtaisesti antoi kaiken tukensa tietokoneiden idänkaupalle. Lopulta amerikkalaiset taipuivat kompromissiin. Tässä tutkielmassa väitetään, että ICL oli erityisen tärkeä Harold Wilsonin Labour-hallitukselle, mikä korosti myös tietokoneiden idänkaupan merkitystä. Ilman hallituksen tukea ICL ei olisi menestynyt Neuvostoliiton markkinoilla länsiyrityksistä parhaiten. Tutkimuksessa on uutta arkistolähteisiin perustuvaa tietoa tapauksesta ja monitasoinen lähestymistapa, jota aikaisemmassa tutkimuksessa ei ole käytetty. Tässä tutkitaan tarkemmin neljän tietokoneen viennin vaiheita, jotka hiersivät eniten USA:n ja Britannian välejä. Amerikkalaiset asettuivat vastustamaan tiukasti tietokoneiden vientiä Neuvostoliittoon strategisin perustein ja asiassa jouduttiin vetoamaan suoraan presidentti Richard Nixoniin. Yhdysvallat piti läheistä liittolaistaan tiukemmin kiinni lännen Neuvostoliittoa kohtaan asettamasta kauppasaartopolitiikasta, jota valvoi yhteistyöjärjestö Cocom, kun Britannia puolestaan painotti idänkaupassa enemmän taloudellisia intressejään. Brittien pahimmaksi kilpailijaksi idänmarkkinoilla nousikin Ranska, joka suhtautui teknologian vientikieltoihin välinpitämättömästi. Britannian taloudellinen teollinen kehitys olivat jääneet jälkeen sen tärkeimmistä kilpakumppaneista, mikä alkoi herättää kasvavaa huolta 60-luvulla. Vuonna 1964 valtaan noussut Britannian työväenpuolue Labour syytti konservatiiveja kestämättömästä "stop-go" -taloudenpidosta ja tarjosi tilalle teknologista vallankumousta. Vienninedistämisellä pyrittiin korjaamaan suurta vaihtotaseen vajetta, joka nähtiin keskeisenä taloudellisena ongelmana. Labourin uudessa teknologiapolitiikassa näkyvimpään rooliin nousi tietokoneteollisuus. ICL muodostettiin juuri vuonna 1968 Labour-hallitukselle tärkeässä fuusiossa, jota se tuki avokätisesti, kilpailemaan amerikkalaisen markkinajohtaja IBM:n kanssa. IBM ei vielä vaikuttanut Neuvostoliiton markkinoilla, mikä teki niistä ICL:lle vieläkin houkuttelevammat. Merkittävästä tietokoneteollisuuden 1960-luvun kilpailusta, josta IBM selvisi voittajana, ei ole kunnon tutkimusta. Tämä tutkielma valottaa asetelmaa idänkaupan kautta. Idänkauppaan ladattiin odotuksia myös Amerikassa ja monet yritykset tutkivat mahdollisuuksia idän markkinoilla. Juuri suuret odotukset alleviivasivat idänkaupan merkitystä. Vaikka taloudellisen kylmän sodan ja kauppasaartotutkimuksen piirissä viitataan usein "taloudellisiin intresseihin" tai kansalliseen politiikkaan, tämä tutkielma nostaa ne uudella tapaa keskeisiksi lähtökohdiksi. Tämä on tutkimus pikemminkin vienninedistämisestä ja teknologian poliittisuudesta kuin vientikielloista.
  • Erholm, Juha (2006)
    The European Union has taken down internal borders in Europe to allow for the free movement of people, companies, goods and services. Yet EU member states retain great liberty in setting their own tax levels and public systems. As mobility causes public economies to take the external situation into consideration when setting tax and public expenditure policies, this new setting can encourage fiscal competition between EU member states and lower income redistribution levels in the EU. This thesis examines this setting from the perspective of how labour mobility can cause fiscal competition. In recent decades, labour mobility in Europe has been quite low. This can be expected to change, however, partly because of the May 2004 enlargement of the EU. Wildasin (1991) models a combined federal and local system with federal subsidies and local income redistribution, with only the poor being allowed to move. In equilibrium local jurisdictions end up with the same income redistribution as all other local jurisdictions. Hindriks (1999) examines a setting where independent jurisdictions compete fiscally, attracting the rich and deterring the poor. Particularly the mobility of the rich is detrimental to income redistribution. Also the mobility of the poor has in most cases a negative effect. Jurisdictions can compete either in taxes, transfers or both in taxes and transfers, with competition in transfers having the strongest effect on income redistribution. Tax and income redistribution reasons are not currently the biggest cause to migrate in the EU. Despite this, expecting labour mobility levels to go up European nations will have to consider labour mobility induced fiscal competition as possibly limiting public policy in the future.
  • Kylmä, Tarja (1993)
    Tähän tutkielmaan kuuluu sekä kirjallisuuskatsaus että tutkimusosa. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käsitellään verkkokalvon anatomian ja fysiologian perusteiden sekä koiran verkkokalvon kehityksen lisäksi lyhyesti fototransduktiota (valoenergian muuttumista näköaistinsoluissa sähköisiksi impulsseiksi), koiran verkkokalvosurkastumia ja elektroretinografiaa. Tutkimuksessa mitattiin pimeäadaptoidun verkkokalvon DC-elektroretinogrammi yhdeksältä labradorinnoutajalta. Koirien molemmat vanhemmat sairastavat perinnöllistä verkkokalvosurkastumaa (yleistynyt sauva-tappi -dystrofia). Rekisteröinneissä koirat olivat 1, 2, 3, 4 ja 18 kuukauden ikäisiä. Kontrolliryhmän koirat olivat terveitä, vastaavanikäisiä labradorinnoutajia. Xenon-salamalampulla annetut ärsykkeet kolmella eri intensiteetillä (alkaen 2 log yksikköä b-aallon kynnysarvon alapuolelta) aiheuttivat negatiivisia vasteita, jotka tunnistettiin kynnysherätevasteiksi (scotopic threshold response, STR). STR:n oletetaan olevan postreseptoriaalinen kynnysvaste. Vasteiden latenssiajat vaihtelivat 37-78 ms:iin. Vasteen voimakkuuteen vaikuttivat valon intensiteetti ja koiran ikä. Latenssiaika, vasteen alkamiseen kulunut aika, lyheni koiran vanhetessa sekä kontrolleilla että dystrofisilla. Amplitudien huippuarvot vaihtelivat 0-70 mikroV:iin, eikä kummassakaan ryhmässä amplitudeilla ollut merkitsevää eroa. 18 kuukauden iässä ei kuitenkaan yhdeltäkään dystrofiselta mitattu STR:ää, vaikka kontrolleilla se oli. Ero oli merkitsevä (P=0.028). Vasteen huippuarvon saavuttamiseen kulunut aika (implicit time)lyheni terveen koiran vanhetessa. Dystrofisilla lyhenemistä ei tapahtunut. Kolmen kuukauden iässä ero oli tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Tutkimus osoittaa, että STR:ää voidaan käyttää avuksi, kun tutkitaan perinnöllistä verkkokalvosurkastumaa sen varhaisvaiheessa.
  • Mikkonen, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tutkimus osoittaa kerronnan trooppien, sääntöjen kääntämisen ja useamman asteen maailmojen yhteyden fantasiakirjallisuudessa. Tutkimuksen kohteena on Ilkka Auerin fantasiateos Sysilouhien sukua (2004), joka aloittaa Lumen ja jään maa -sarjan. Teoksen juoni mukailee fantasiakirjallisuudelle tyypillistä quest-tarinatyyppiä, jossa henkilöhahmon tulee suorittaa tiettyjä tehtäviä voidakseen päästä päämääräänsä. Tämä päämäärä on usein konkreettinen, mutta siihen liittyy myös henkilöhahmon kasvutarina. Kerronnan troopit ovat Margaret Anne Doodyn The True Story of the Novel -teoksessaan (1997) erittelemiä kerronnan hetkiä, joiden yhteyteen juonenkulun kannalta tärkeät elementit keskittyvät. Tutkimukselle erityisen tärkeitä kerronnan trooppeja ovat rikkomisen, korjaamisen, luolan, unen, labyrintin, Minotauroksen, Eroksen ja jumalattaren troopit, joiden yhteyden useamman asteen maailmoihin ja sääntöjen kääntämiseen tutkimus selvittää. Lisäksi tutkimus keskittyy erityisesti reunan trooppiin, joka on fantasiakirjallisuudessa tärkeä useamman asteen maailmoihin liittyvä trooppi, jonka yhteydessä esiintyy toistuvia fantasiakirjallisuudelle tyypillisiä motiiveja. Sääntöjen kääntämisellä tarkoitetaan teoksen sisäisten tosiasioiden ja sääntöjen muuttamista niin, että niistä tulee teoksen maailmassa epätavallisia. Sääntöjen kääntämisen teoriaa on eritellyt Eric S. Rabkin teoksessaan The Fantastic (1976). Tutkimus erittelee teoksen maailmojen rakennetta ja nostaa yksityiskohtaisesti esille useamman asteen maailmojen tunnuspiirteitä. Useamman asteen maailmojen teoreettisena lähtökohtana on Maria Nikolajevan väitöskirja The Magic Code : the use of magical patterns in fantasy for children (1988), joka käsittelee erilaisia useamman asteen maailman ilmentymiä lasten fantasiakirjoissa. Tutkimus osoittaa, että kerronnan troopeilla, useamman asteen maailmoilla ja sääntöjen kääntämisellä on selvä yhteys, mikä tekee fantasiasta juonen kannalta hyvin tärkeän elementin. Kerronnan trooppien ympärille keskittyy useamman asteen maailmojen merkkejä, sääntöjen kääntämisiä sekä quest-tarinatyypille tyypillisiä juonen kannalta tärkeitä tehtäviä.