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  • Alamehtä, Jenni (2014)
    Tutkielmassa todistamme, että valitut alueet ovat L^p-keskiarvoalueita. Aloitamme esittelemällä kvasihyperbolisen metriikan. Tarvitsemme metriikkaa koko tutkielman ajan. Kvasihyperbolinen metriikka on n-ulotteinen vastine standardille hyperboliselle metriikalle avaruudessa R^2. Todistamme, että kvasihyperbolinen metriikka on todella metriikka ja esitämme lyhyesti erittäin käyttökelpoisen arvion kvasihyperboliselle metriikalle. Toisen luvun lopussa esitämme L^p-keskiarvoalueen määritelmän, joka pohjautuu kvasihyperboliseen metriikkaan. Kolmannessa luvussa osoitamme, että pallo avaruudessa R^n on L^p-keskiarvoalue. Pallossa kvasihyperbolinen metriikka on helppo laskea ja saammekin sille tarkan arvion. Kun siirrymme polaarikoordinaatteihin, induktiolla sekä dimension n että luvun p suhteen saamme osoitettua, että pallo on L^p-keskiarvoalue. Neljännessä luvussa käsittelemme kolmiota tasossa. Kvasihyperboliselle metriikalle kolmiossa saamme laskettua hyvän arvion. Tutkielmassa laskemme ylärajan kvasihyperbolisen metriikan integraalille kolmiossa, kun potenssi p=1, p=2 ja p=3. Ennestään tiedämme, että kolmio on L^p-keskiarvoalue. Viidennessä luvussa käsittelemme äärellistä piikkialuetta. Piikkiin olemme liittäneet kolmion, mutta se voisi olla mikä tahansa L^p-keskiarvoalue, kuten pallo tai kuutio. Kuitenkin koko alueen mitan tulee olla äärellinen. Todistuksen jälkeen osoitamme tärkeän lauseen. Se antaa yhden mahdollisen funktion, jolla voimme muodostaa halutun piikin S. Lopuksi tutkimme äärettömyyteen jatkuvaa piikkiä. Piikki on jälleen rajattu kolmiolla, mutta se voisi olla pallo, kuutio tai kolmio jossain toisessa asennossa. Oleellista on, että koko alueen mitta on äärellinen. Laskut ovat vastaavat kuin rajoitetussa tapauksessa.
  • Koivistoinen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The purpose of this work was to identify some of the genes of the catabolic route of L-rhamnose in the yeast Pichia stipitis. There are at least two distinctly different pathways for L-rhamnose catabolism. The one described in bacteria has phosphorylated intermediates and the enzymes and the genes of this route have been described. The pathway described in yeast does not have phosphorylated intermediates. The intermediates and the enzymes of this pathway are known but none of the genes have been identified. The work was started by purifying the L-rhamnose dehydrogenase, which oxidates L-rhamnose to rhamnonic acid-gamma-lactone. NAD is used as a cofactor in this reaction. A DEAE ion exchange column was used for purification. The active fraction was further purified using a non-denaturing PAGE and the active protein identified by zymogram staining. In the last step the protein was separated in a SDS-PAGE, the protein band trypsinated and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. This resulted in the identification of the corresponding gene, RHA1, which was then, after a codon change, expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Also C- or N-terminal histidine tags were added but as the activity of the enzyme was lost or strongly reduced these were not used. The kinetic properties of the protein were analysed in the cell extract. Substrate specifity was tested with different sugars; L-rhamnose, L-lyxose and L-mannose were oxidated by the enzyme. Vmax values were 180 nkat/mg, 160 nkat/mg and 72 nkat/mg, respectively. The highest affinity was towards L-rhamnose, the Km value being 0.9 mM. Lower affinities were obtained with L-lyxose, Km 4.3 mM, and L-mannose Km 25 mM. Northern analysis was done to study the transcription of RHA1 with different carbon sources. Transcription was observed only on L-rhamnose suggesting that RHA1 expression is L-rhamnose induced. A RHA1 deletion cassette for P. stipitis was constructed but the cassette had integrated randomly and not targeted to delete the RHA1 gene. Enzyme assays for L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase were done similarly to L-rhamnose dehydrogenase assays. NAD is used as a cofactor also in this reaction where L-lactaldehyde is oxidised to L-lactate. The observed enzyme activities were very low and the activity was lost during the purification procedures.
  • Lehtinen, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Luce Irigaray is a Belgian-born philosopher, psychoanalyst and linguist. Irigaray s concept of woman is crucial for understanding her own work but also for examining and developing the theoretical and methodological basis of feminist theory. This thesis argues that, ultimately, Irigaray s exploration of woman s being challenges our traditional notion of philosophy as a neutral discourse and the traditional notion of ourselves as philosophizing persons or human beings. However, despite its crucial role, Irigaray s idea of woman still lacks a comprehensive explication. This is because the discourse of sexual difference is blurred by the ideas of essentialism and biologism. --- Irigaray s concept of woman has been interpreted and criticized from the perspectives of metaphysical essentialism, strategic essentialism, realist essentialism and deconstructionism. This thesis argues that a reinterpretation is necessary to account for Irigaray s claims about the the traditional woman , mimesis, the specificity of the feminine body, feminine expression and sexual difference. Moreover, any reading should account for the differences between women and avoid giving a prescriptive function to the essence of woman. --- My thesis develops a new interpretation of Irigaray s concept of woman on the basis of the phenomenology of the body. It argues that Irigaray s discourse on woman can and must be understood by an idea of existential style. Existential style is embodied, affective and spiritual and it is constituted in relation to oneself, to others and to the world. It is temporal, it evolves and changes but preserves its open unity in its transformations. Stylistic unities, such as femininity or philosophy, are constituted in and by the singulars. -- This study discusses and analyses feminine existential style as a central theme and topic of Irigaray s works and shows how her work operates as a primary and paradigmatic example of the feminine style. These tasks are performed by studying the mimetic positions available for women and by explicating the phenomenological background of Irigaray s conceptions of the philosophical method, and the lived, expressive and affective body. The critical occupation and transformation of these mimetic positions, the inquiry into the first-person pre-discursive experience, and the cultivation of feminine expressivity open up the possibility of becoming a woman writer, a woman lover and a woman philosopher. The appearance of these new feminine figures is a precondition for the realization of sexual difference. So Irigaray opens up the possibility of sexual difference by instituting and constituting a feminine subject of love and wisdom, and by problematizing the idea of a neutral and absolute subject.
  • Aaltonen, Linda (2014)
    I detta Pro gradu arbete behandlar jag LU-faktorisering av matriser som tillhör linjäralgebran och matriskalkylen. Dessutom beskriver jag kort några andra faktoriseringar: gaussisk eliminering, QR-faktorisering och Cholesky-faktorisering. I början av arbetet går jag igenom vad matriser är och definitioner och begrepp som man behöver för att kunna förstå LU-faktoriseringen. Det kan vara långsamt och opraktiskt att lösa matrisekvationen Ax = y. I numerisk matrisberäkning strävar man ofta till att skriva matrisen A som en produkt av två eller flera enkla matriser. Denna process kallas för matrisfaktorisering LU-faktoriseringen är en matrisfaktorisering, där varje kvadratmatris kan framställas som en produkt av över- och undertriangulära matriser. LU-faktoriseringen är ett exempel på en direkt metod för att lösa linjära ekvationssystem. För en matris A har LU-faktoriseringen formen A = LU. Om A är en kvadratisk matris så blir även L som är en undertriangulär matris och U en övertriangulär matris kvadratiska. Om A inte är kvadratisk så blir inte U kvadratisk och då inte heller triangulär men, L blir kvadratisk och triangulär. Dessutom kan matrisens L diagonalelement väljas som ettor och elementen ovanför huvuddiagonalen är nollor och i matrisen U kommer elementen under huvuddiagonalen att vara nollor. I arbetet ger jag några bevis som hjälper att förstå vad LU-faktorisering går ut på. Jag beskriver också Doolittles och Crouts algoritmer samt gles matrisfaktorisering som leder till olika slags LU-faktoriseringar. Till sist beräknar jag några exempel på uppgifter som har att göra med LU-faktoriseringar och hur man löser dem.
  • Laaksovirta, Katri (1936)
  • Asikainen, Katja (2005)
  • Lähteenaro, Klaara (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kartoittaa ja kehittää modernia opiskeluympäristöä hyödyntävää kirjallisuuspiiritoimintaa ja sitä kautta edistää oppilaiden mahdollisuuksia osallistua elämyksellistä lukemista painottavaan kirjallisuuspiiriin sekä vahvistaa heidän kiinnostustaan tieto- ja viestintätekniikan käyttöön. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin lukuvuonna 1997 1998 kyselyin ja haastatteluin sekä observoimalla lähiopetustilanteita ja virtuaaliryhmien sähköpostiviestintää. Lisäksi käytettiin valmiita dokumentteja ja asiakirjoja. Tutkimusjoukkona oli Matildaan osallistuneet 4.-6. luokan oppilaat kuudelta Espoon ala-asteelta sekä neljä tutoria, koordinaattori ja joitakin luokanopettajia Matilda-kouluista. Tutkimusongelmat suuntautuivat pääasiassa matildalaisten kokemuksiin opiskelusta modernissa opiskeluympäristössä, suhteesta tieto- ja viestintätekniikkaan sekä siihen, mitä uutta lukemiseen ja kirjallisuuteen liittyvää he kertoivat oppineensa ja kokeneensa. Koska tutkimuskohteen kaltaisia kokeiluita, joissa yhdistyy kirjallisuuspiiritoiminta ja moderni tieto- ja viestintätekniikka, ei ainakaan Suomessa ole aikaisemmin ollut, päädyttiin tutkimusmetodologian valinnassa kvalitatiiviseen otteeseen. Tutkimusote noudatti tapaustutkimuksen ja kehittämistutkimuksen periaatteita. Vaikka tutkimus oli menetelmältään kvalitatiivinen, aineistoa käsiteltiin myös kvantifioiden, mutta yleistyksiä tehtiin ainoastaan tapauksen suuntaan. Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että opiskelu oli oppilaille positiivinen kokemus. He pitivät erityisesti etäopiskelun itsenäisestä työskentelystä ja lähiopetuspäivistä. Heidän suhtautumisensa tieto- ja viestintätekniikkaan muuttui positiivisemmaksi ja heidän taitonsa tieto- ja viestintätekniikan käyttäjinä kehittyivät. Oppilaat saivat positiivisia lukukokemuksia, heidän lukualueensa laajeni ja osa heistä kertoi lukutyylinsä muutoksista ja syvenemisestä. Oppilaat kokivat ongelmallisimmaksi hankkeen sekavan tutorointi-systeemin, kiireisen aikataulun sekä tietokoneisiin ja -verkkoon liittyvät ongelmat. kirjallisuuspiiri, kolmilukutaito, lukutaito, kirjallisuus, lukeminen, elämyksellinenlukeminen, kirjallisuudenopetus, moderni opiskeluympäristö, avoin ja joustava opiskeluympäristö, telematiikka, tieto- ja viestintätekniikka reading circle, teaching of literature, tri-literacy, literacy, reading, literature, aestheticreading, modern learning enviroment, open anf flexible learning enviroment, telematics, modern information technology
  • Lahtinen, Anna-Maija (1972)
  • Nurmi, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous study shows that reading motivation among Finnish children and youth has diminished. Recreational reading is known to be an essential factor in literacy development. With support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, new ways of promoting reading are being developed. In Sweden, the municipalities formulate plans of reading promotion with the collaboration of various operators. In Finland, there is no similar system. There are no previous studies or reports to be found on the topic in Finland or in Sweden. This study examined the methods of reading promotion presented in the plans and their justification. The study aimed at considering whether there is something to be learned from the Swedish system in Finland. Plans of reading promotion of 17 Swedish municipalities were chosen as the data of this study. The method chosen was inductive content analysis. The actions of reading promotion described in the plans could be portrayed as efforts between four factors: the professionals, the parents, the children and the material. The professionals aim at both having an impact directly on the children, using methods that take place in children’s groups, and indirectly by informing and supporting the parents. They try to improve the achievability of the material by bringing the library close to the children and by offering reading that is suitable by its contents and suitably easy for each reader. The professionals also aim at improving their own actions and cooperation. The viewpoint of the librarians stands out in the plans. Cooperation with the educationalists does not seem to be widely used in planning, purchasing material or agreeing on the distribution of work. The methods are usually adult-centered. The methods, where the child becomes a subject instead of being an object, stood out clearly: the children were given an opportunity of either collaborating in purchasing the material and making it achievable or influencing each other by developing the library environment and by networking. Significant qualitative variation was found in the plans. This report offers ideas of reading promotion for an elementary school teacher and can be helpful in formulating plans of cooperation of school and library. Comparing the reading interest of Finnish and Swedish children and finding out the effects of planning on reading motivation would further contribute to the findings of this study. That information would make it more possible to evaluate if the Swedish system is worth introducing in Finland.
  • Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Remediation of Reading Difficulties in Grade 1. Three Pedagogical Interventions Keywords: initial teaching, learning to read, reading difficulties, intervention, dyslexia, remediation of dyslexia, home reading, computerized training In this study three different reading interventions were tested for first-graders at risk of reading difficulties at school commencement. The intervention groups were compared together and with a control group receiving special education provided by the school. First intervention was a new approach called syllable rhythmics in which syllabic rhythm, phonological knowledge and letter-phoneme correspondence are emphasized. Syllable rhythmics is based on multi-sensory training elements aimed at finding the most functional modality for every child. The second intervention was computerized training of letter-sound correspondence with the Ekapeli learning game. The third intervention was home-based shared book reading, where every family was given a story book, and dialogic reading style reading and writing exercises were prepared for each chapter of the book. The participants were 80 first-graders in 19 classes in nine schools. The children were matched in four groups according to pre-test results: three intervention and one control. The interventions took ten weeks starting from September in grade 1. The first post-test including several measures of reading abilities was administered in December. The first delayed post-test was administered in March, the second in September in grade 2, and the third, “ALLU” test (reading test for primary school) was administered in March in grade 2. The intervention and control groups differed only slightly from each other in grade 1. However, girls progressed significantly more than boys in both word reading and reading comprehension in December and this difference remained in March. The children who had been cited as inattentive by their teachers also lagged behind the others in the post-tests in December and March. When participants were divided into two groups according to their initial letter knowledge at school entry, the weaker group (maximum 17 correctly named letters in pre-test) progressed more slowly in both word reading and reading comprehension in grade 1. Intervention group and gender had no interaction effect in grade 1. Instead, intervention group and attentiveness had an interaction effect on most test measures the inattentive students in the syllable rhythmic group doing worst and attentive students in the control group doing best in grade 1. The smallest difference between results of attentive and inattentive students was in the Ekapeli group. In grade 2 still only minor differences were found between the intervention groups and control group. The only significant difference was in non-word reading, with the syllable rhythmics group outperforming the other groups in the fall. The difference between girls’ and boys’ performances in both technical reading and text comprehension disappeared in grade 2. The difference between the inattentive and attentive students cold no longer be found in technical reading, and the difference became smaller in text comprehension as well. The difference between two groups divided according to their initial letter knowledge disappeared in technical reading but remained significant in text comprehension measures in the ALLU test in the spring of grade 2. In all, the children in the study did better in the ALLU test than expected according to ALLU test norms. Being the weakest readers in their classes in the pre-test, 52.3 % reached the normal reading ability level. In the norm group 72.3 % of all students attained normal reading ability. The results of this study indicate that different types of remediation programs can be effective, and that special education has been apparently useful. The results suggest careful consideration of first-graders’ initial reading abilities (especially letter knowledge) and possible failure of attention; remediation should be individually targeted while flexibly using different methods.
  • Panula, Anne-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The purpose of this follow-up study was to explore the occurrence and persistence of reading difficulties and their relation to school achievement as well as the reception of part time special education. The progress of literacy and the changes in school achievement among the students who had received part time special education were also examined in this study. The target group was one age cohort in a small community in southern Finland. A total of 461 students participated the study (boys 49.9% and girls 50.1%). The analysis of the results was mainly done using the data from 3rd to 9th grades of the entire cohort (N=287; boys 53% and girls 47%). The external loss of data was 18.5%. The research questions were also analysed with follow-up data collected after different lengths of time. The longest period started from preschool and continued to the end of the 9th grade (N=137; the external loss of participants over the nine years was 25.5%). Cross data was created for every measuring point (preschool, 3rd, 6th and 9th grades). Eight different reading paths were created for primary school. The preschool screening of reading abilities was done using the individual phonological test Diagnostic Tests I (Diagnostiset testit I; Poskiparta, Niemi and Lepola 1994). In primary school reading abilities were charted using the Primary School Reading Test (Ala-asteen Lukutesti; Lindeman 1998). Screening reading abilities in the secondary school was done with the Niilo Mäki Institute s Screening Test for Adolescents and Adults (Lukivaikeuksien seulontamenetelmä nuorille ja aikuisille; Holopainen, Kairaluoma, Nevala, Ahonen and Aro 2004). School reports for the 6th and 9th grades were used as indicators of school achievement. Comprehensive, dynamic and developmental aspects of reading skills formed the conceptual framework of the study. The classic Simple view of reading model (SVR-malli; Gough and Tunmer 1986; Hoover and Gough 1990) was used as a starting point for the study. The SVR model was developed into a comprehensive literacy model when it was formed using the Convergent Skills Model of Reading Development (Vellutino, Tunmer, Jaccard and Chen 2007) and Component Model of Reading (Aaron, Joshi, Gooden and Bentum 2008) models. The Finnish point of view, the orthographic characteristics of the Finnish language (high transparency of the language, or the regularity of mapping between orthography and phonology) as well as the relations between reading development, reading difficulties, Finnish culture and the education system were emphasized in the resulting reading model. The results suggest that tests in preschool can predict reading comprehension difficulties in primary school fairly well. The most used reading path among the students in primary school was the strong reading path, and the second was the so called weak reading path. Reading difficulties turned out to be quite stable through out primary education. When analysing gender differences, it was discovered that boys have more reading difficulties and that these difficulties are more stable. The average grades in theoretical subjects were statistically highly significantly weaker for students with reading difficulties compared to other students in all examinations. The reading comprehension test in 3rd grade predicted quite well (72% accuracy) whether a student would be in the group with the lowest grades at the end of the 9th grade (an average of theoretical subjects of 7.00 or less). For the boys, weak reading skills were especially related to poor school achievement. The study also brought out the joint effect of word recognition and reading comprehension with 6th and 9th grade school achievement. A positive relation between the amount of part time special education received during primary school and the changes in school achievement between 6th and 9th grade was shown in the study. In addition to individual variations, the school and individual classrooms affected the general variation in reading ability and school achievement. In the study this was demonstrated using multilevel modeling. The class level proved to be a significant factor for 3rd and 6th grade word recognition skills. Keywords: Literacy, follow-up study, reading difficulties, dyslexia, reading comprehension, school achievement, part time special education
  • Pesonen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    I examine the portrayal of Jesus as a friend of toll collectors and sinners in the Third Gospel. I aim at a comprehensive view on the Lukan sinner texts, combining questions of the origin and development of these texts with the questions of Luke s theological message, of how the text functions as literature, and of the social-historical setting(s) behind the texts. Within New Testament scholarship researchers on the historical Jesus mostly still hold that a special mission to toll collectors and sinners was central in Jesus public activity. Within Lukan studies, M. Goulder, J. Kiilunen and D. Neale have claimed that this picture is due to Luke s theological vision and the liberties he took as an author. Their view is disputed by other Lukan scholars. I discuss methods which scholars have used to isolate the typical language of Luke s alleged written sources, or to argue for the source-free creation by Luke himself. I claim that the analysis of Luke s language does not help us to the origin of the Lukan pericopes. I examine the possibility of free creativity on Luke s part in the light of the invention technique used in ancient historiography. Invention was an essential part of all ancient historical writing and therefore quite probably Luke used it, too. Possibly Luke had access to special traditions, but the nature of oral tradition does not allow reconstruction. I analyze Luke 5:1-11; 5:27-32; 7:36-50; 15:1-32; 18:9-14; 19:1-10; 23:39-43. In most of these some underlying special tradition is possible though far from certain. It becomes evident that Luke s reshaping was so thorough that the pericopes as they now stand are decidedly Lukan creations. This is indicated by the characteristic Lukan story-telling style as well as by the strongly unified Lukan theology of the pericopes. Luke s sinners and Pharisees do not fit in the social-historical context of Jesus day. The story-world is one of polarized right and wrong. That Jesus is the Christ, representative of God, is an intrinsic part of the story-world. Luke wrote a theological drama inspired by tradition. He persuaded his audience to identify as (repenting) sinners. Luke's motive was that he saw the sinners in Jesus' company as forerunners of Gentile Christianity.
  • Silander, Susanna (1995)
  • Koskinen, Maarit (2005)