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  • Raulio, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Work has a central role in the lives of big share of adult Finns and meals they eat during the workday comprise an important factor in their nutrition, health, and well-being. On workdays, lunch is mainly eaten at worksite canteens or, especially among women, as a packed meal in the workplace s break room. No national-level data is available on the nutritional quality of the meals served by canteens, although the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health laid out the first nutrition recommendations for worksite canteens in 1971. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of various socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related factors to the lunch eating patterns of Finnish employees during the working day and how lunch eating patterns influence dietary intake. Four different population-based cross-sectional datasets were used in this thesis. Three of the datasets were collected by the National Institute for Health and Welfare (Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey from 1979 to 2001, n=24746, and 2005 to 2007, n=5585, the National Findiet 2002 Study, n=261), and one of them by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Work and Health in Finland survey from 1997, 2000, and 2003, n=6369). The Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey and the Work and Health in Finland survey are nationally representative studies that are conducted repeatedly. Survey information was collected by self-administered questionnaires, dietary recalls, and telephone interviews. The frequency of worksite canteen use has been quite stable for over two decades in Finland. A small decreasing trend can be seen in all socioeconomic groups. During the whole period studied, those with more years of education ate at worksite canteens more often than the others. The size of the workplace was the most important work-related determinant associated with the use of a worksite canteen. At small workplaces, other work-related determinants, like occupation, physical strain at work, and job control, were also associated with canteen use, whereas at bigger workplaces the associations were almost nonexistent. The major social determinants of worksite canteen availability were the education and occupational status of employees and the only work-related determinant was the size of the workplace. A worksite canteen was more commonly available to employees at larger workplaces and to those with the higher education and the higher occupational status. Even when the canteen was equally available to all employees, its use was nevertheless determined by occupational class and the place of residence, especially among female employees. Those with higher occupational status and those living in the Helsinki capital area ate in canteens more frequently than the others. Employees who ate at a worksite canteen consumed more vegetables and vegetable and fish dishes at lunch than did those who ate packed lunches. Also, the daily consumption of vegetables and the proportion of the daily users of vegetables were higher among those male employees who ate at a canteen. In conclusion, life possibilities, i.e. the availability of a canteen, education, occupational status, and work-related factors, played an important role in the choice of where to eat lunch among Finnish employees. The most basic prerequisite for eating in a canteen was availability, but there were also a number of underlying social determinants. Occupational status and the place of residence were the major structural factors behind individuals choices in their lunch eating patterns. To ensure the nutrition, health, and well-being of employees, employers should provide them with the option to have good quality meals during working hours. The availability of worksite canteens should be especially supported in lower socioeconomic groups. In addition, employees should be encouraged to have lunch at a worksite canteen when one is available by removing structural barriers to its use.
  • Porra, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    A novel method for functional lung imaging was introduced by adapting the K-edge subtraction method (KES) to in vivo studies of small animals. In this method two synchrotron radiation energies, which bracket the K-edge of the contrast agent, are used for simultaneous recording of absorption-contrast images. Stable xenon gas is used as the contrast agent, and imaging is performed in projection or computed tomography (CT) mode. Subtraction of the two images yields the distribution of xenon, while removing practically all features due to other structures, and the xenon density can be calculated quantitatively. Because the images are recorded simultaneously, there are no movement artifacts in the subtraction image. Time resolution for a series of CT images is one image/s, which allows functional studies. Voxel size is 0.1mm3, which is an order better than in traditional lung imaging methods. KES imaging technique was used in studies of ventilation distribution and the effects of histamine-induced airway narrowing in healthy, mechanically ventilated, and anaesthetized rabbits. First, the effect of tidal volume on ventilation was studied, and the results show that an increase in tidal volume without an increase in minute ventilation results a proportional increase in regional ventilation. Second, spiral CT was used to quantify the airspace volumes in lungs in normal conditions and after histamine aerosol inhalation, and the results showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral lungs following histamine provocation. Third, the kinetics of proximal and distal airway response to histamine aerosol were examined, and the findings show that the distal airways react immediately to histamine and start to recover, while the reaction and the recovery in proximal airways is slower. Fourth, the fractal dimensions of lungs was studied, and it was found that the fractal dimension is higher at the apical part of the lungs compared to the basal part, indicating structural differences between apical and basal lung level. These results provide new insights to lung function and the effects of drug challenge studies. Nowadays the technique is available at synchrotron radiation facilities, but the compact synchrotron radiation sources are being developed, and in relatively near future the method may be used at hospitals.
  • Kurki, Lea Tuulikki (2004)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastelen Kenian luo-heimon hautajaisia ja seremoniasta avautuvia subjektikäsityksiä sekä niiden muutosta yhteiskunnallisen muutoksen kanssa. Alkusanoissa esimerkkinäni on edesmenneen kenialaisen luo-asianajaja S.M. Otienon hautajaistapaus ja kiista ”modernin" luon oikeasta hautapaikasta. Myös omassa kenttäaineistossani tavoitteenani on ollut tutkia hautajaisten erilaisia subjekteja, vainajia, lähinnä Meyer Fortesin "sosiaalista persoonaa" koskevan teorian valossa. Meyer Fortesin tutkimat Ghanan tallensit näkivät subjektin osana yhteisöä: sosiaalista persoonaa rakennettiin koko elämän ajan, ihmisten arkisissa teoissa ja toiminnassa. Päämääränä oli sosiaalisen persoonan täydellistyminen: kuolemassa täydellistynyt, lapsia saanut ja yhteisön ihanteita toteuttanut subjekti hyväksyttiin osaksi yhteisön esi-isiä. Yleisemmin teoreettinen keskustelu liittyy afrikkalaisen antropologian ja etenkin siinä vaikuttaneen strukturalistis-funktionalistisen koulukunnan ongelmallisiin käsityksiin subjektista ja sosiaalisesta järjestelmästä. Työni perustuu antropologiseen osallistuvaan havainnointiin ja kenttätyöhön Kenian pääkaupungissa Nairobissa sekä luo-heimon kotiseudulla Luolandissä, Länsi-Keniassa, jossa heimon hautajaiset tavallisesti pidetään. Luolandiin hautaaminen on luoille yksi tärkeimmistä kulttuurisista normeista ja sillä halutaan etsiä yhteisyyttä heimon, suvun ja yksilön välille. Aineisto on koottu pääosin kesän 2002 aikana, mutta materiaalia on kerätty jo vuoden 2000 matkalla Keniaan. Kenttätyöaineisto koostuu nauhoitetuista ja teemoitelluista luojen haastatteluista, tapaustutkimuksista sekä lehdistömateriaalista. Luojen hautajaisistaan käymä väittely on myös osa laajempaa yhteiskunnallista keskustelua kulttuurisista arvoista ja niiden säilyttämisestä. Pääargumenttini tässä pro gradu -työssä on, että subjektin omavaltainen toiminta ja korostunut toimijuus sosiaalisen ryhmänsä ulkopuolella aiheuttaa ainakin luoilla konflikteja hautajaistilanteessa, jotka yhteisö pyrkii itse hautajaistilanteessa selvittämään. Mielestäni Fortesin ”sosiaalinen persoona” vastaa lähinnä heimon perinteisten kulttuuristen kategorioiden mukaisia arvostuksia, jotka ovat sukupuolittuneita sekä ohjautuvat esimerkiksi subjektin statuksen sekä moraalin arvioinnin kautta. Kuitenkin luoilla kulttuuristen kategorioiden toiselle puolen jää myös erilaisia sosiaalisesta muutoksesta johtuvia välitiloja, joita sosiaalisen persoonan käsitteellä ei voida selventävästi ymmärtää. Näin ollen ainakin luojen kohdalla Meyer Fortesin teoria subjektista jää riittämättömäksi. Yritän tässä työssä tuoda myös luojen subjektiuden muita ulottuvuuksia näkyviin. Sivuan samassa myös muutamia muita afrikkalaiseen subjektikäsitykseen antropologiassa vaikuttaneita muuttuvan subjektin kannalta keskeisiä teorioita, esimerkiksi afrikkalaista filosofiaa, modernisaatioteoriaa ja toimintateoriaa sekä näiden käyttökelpoisuutta omassa aineistossani.
  • Kurki, Lea Tuulikki (2004)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastelen Kenian luo-heimon hautajaisia ja seremoniasta avautuvia subjektikäsityksiä sekä niiden muutosta yhteiskunnallisen muutoksen kanssa. Alkusanoissa esimerkkinäni on edesmenneen kenialaisen luo-asianajaja S.M. Otienon hautajaistapaus ja kiista ”modernin" luon oikeasta hautapaikasta. Myös omassa kenttäaineistossani tavoitteenani on ollut tutkia hautajaisten erilaisia subjekteja, vainajia, lähinnä Meyer Fortesin "sosiaalista persoonaa" koskevan teorian valossa. Meyer Fortesin tutkimat Ghanan tallensit näkivät subjektin osana yhteisöä: sosiaalista persoonaa rakennettiin koko elämän ajan, ihmisten arkisissa teoissa ja toiminnassa. Päämääränä oli sosiaalisen persoonan täydellistyminen: kuolemassa täydellistynyt, lapsia saanut ja yhteisön ihanteita toteuttanut subjekti hyväksyttiin osaksi yhteisön esi-isiä. Yleisemmin teoreettinen keskustelu liittyy afrikkalaisen antropologian ja etenkin siinä vaikuttaneen strukturalistis-funktionalistisen koulukunnan ongelmallisiin käsityksiin subjektista ja sosiaalisesta järjestelmästä. Työni perustuu antropologiseen osallistuvaan havainnointiin ja kenttätyöhön Kenian pääkaupungissa Nairobissa sekä luo-heimon kotiseudulla Luolandissä, Länsi-Keniassa, jossa heimon hautajaiset tavallisesti pidetään. Luolandiin hautaaminen on luoille yksi tärkeimmistä kulttuurisista normeista ja sillä halutaan etsiä yhteisyyttä heimon, suvun ja yksilön välille. Aineisto on koottu pääosin kesän 2002 aikana, mutta materiaalia on kerätty jo vuoden 2000 matkalla Keniaan. Kenttätyöaineisto koostuu nauhoitetuista ja teemoitelluista luojen haastatteluista, tapaustutkimuksista sekä lehdistömateriaalista. Luojen hautajaisistaan käymä väittely on myös osa laajempaa yhteiskunnallista keskustelua kulttuurisista arvoista ja niiden säilyttämisestä. Pääargumenttini tässä pro gradu -työssä on, että subjektin omavaltainen toiminta ja korostunut toimijuus sosiaalisen ryhmänsä ulkopuolella aiheuttaa ainakin luoilla konflikteja hautajaistilanteessa, jotka yhteisö pyrkii itse hautajaistilanteessa selvittämään. Mielestäni Fortesin ”sosiaalinen persoona” vastaa lähinnä heimon perinteisten kulttuuristen kategorioiden mukaisia arvostuksia, jotka ovat sukupuolittuneita sekä ohjautuvat esimerkiksi subjektin statuksen sekä moraalin arvioinnin kautta. Kuitenkin luoilla kulttuuristen kategorioiden toiselle puolen jää myös erilaisia sosiaalisesta muutoksesta johtuvia välitiloja, joita sosiaalisen persoonan käsitteellä ei voida selventävästi ymmärtää. Näin ollen ainakin luojen kohdalla Meyer Fortesin teoria subjektista jää riittämättömäksi. Yritän tässä työssä tuoda myös luojen subjektiuden muita ulottuvuuksia näkyviin. Sivuan samassa myös muutamia muita afrikkalaiseen subjektikäsitykseen antropologiassa vaikuttaneita muuttuvan subjektin kannalta keskeisiä teorioita, esimerkiksi afrikkalaista filosofiaa, modernisaatioteoriaa ja toimintateoriaa sekä näiden käyttökelpoisuutta omassa aineistossani.
  • Hirvenlahti, Laura (2010)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani aiheena on Chávezin vallankumousretoriikka ja puheiden yleisöt. Hugo Chávezin retoriikka on osittain siivittänyt hänen suosiotaan Venezuelassa. Tutkielmassani analysoin, puhuuko Chávez myös laajemmille yleisöille. Chávez on saanut kansainvälistä huomiota räväkällä retoriikallaan ja Venezuelasta on tullut ikään kuin maailmanpolitiikan kentälle uhitteleva pikkuveli. Tutkin Chávezin retoriikkaa vallankumouksien ja vallankumousretoriikan näkökulmasta. Vallankumousteoriat selittävät vallankumouksien logiikkaa ja merkitystä sekä selittävät vallankumouksien ja maailmanpolitiikan yhteyttä. Vallankumousretoriikalla on taipumus viitata ja vedota myös maailmanlaajuiseen vallankumoukseen. Tutkielmassani analysoin Chávezin filosofisia yleisöjä ja sitä vaikuttaako puhepaikka Chávezin retoriikkaan. Tutkimuskysymyksessäni yleisö tarkoittaa puhujan konstruoimaa joukkoa, johon puhuja haluaa argumentillaan vaikuttaa. Tämä yleisö tulee erottaa puhetta paikan päällä kuuntelevasta yleisöstä. Pro gradu -tutkielmani aineistona on 11 Hugo Chávezin pitämää puhetta. Valitsin puheet niiden oletettujen läsnä olevien yleisöjen perusteella. Analyysiosiossa käsittelen puheita tämän jaottelun perustella eli ensin Venezuelassa pidettyjä puheita, alueellisia puheita ja lopuksi kansainvälisiä puheita. Puheista etsin esisopimuksia ja arvoja, joihin Chávez perustaa argumenttinsa. Menetelmänä pro gradu -tutkielmassani on Chaim Perelmanin retoriikan tutkimuksen metodi. Perelman korostaa yleisön merkitystä retoriikassa ja pitää olennaisena puhujan ja yleisön välistä suhdetta. Puhujan tulee suhteuttaa argumentointi yleisöönsä. Esisopimus on ikään kuin argumentin aloituspiste, yhteisymmärryksen alue yleisön ja puhujan välillä. Argumentointi perustuu siihen mikä on yleisön hyväksyttävissä. Tutkielmani tärkeimpinä teoksina pidän Perelmanin (1996) teosta Retoriikan valtakunta sekä Perelman & Olbrects-Tytecan (1971) teosta New Rhetoric: a treatise on argumentation. Vallankumouksien ja vallankumousretoriikan näkökulmasta keskeisin teos on Hallidayn (1999) Revolutions and World Politics. Tutkielmani tuloksena on, että Chávez puhuu periaatteessa koko ajan samalle yleisölle eli niille, jotka näkevät historian samalla tavalla ja uskovat, että sorron historia ja Bolívarin perintö oikeuttaa nykypäivän politiikkaa ja antaa sille suunnan. Chávez puhuu melko samalla tavalla kaikille konkreettisille yleisöille. Tämä tarkoittaa, ettei puhepaikalla ei ole suurta merkitystä Chávezin retoriikassa käyttämien esisopimusten kannalta. Chávez nojaa samoihin esisopimuksiin, joiden voi tulkita olevan vain melko kapean yleisön hyväksymiä. Tämä osaltaan tuo esiin sen, ettei Chávezin tavoitteena ole laajojen filosofisten yleisöjen tavoittaminen. Chávezin käyttämät tärkeimmät esisopimukset liittyivät historiaan ja sen tuomaan oikeutukseen sekä vallankumoukseen toivottavana asioidentilana.
  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research Children tell of their well-being who listens? (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Pitkänen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Patrikainen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this research was to describe and understand class teacher s pedagogical thinking and action in mathematics education. At first we investigated how teachers taught mathematics as well as their reasons for their pedagogical decisions. Based on these empirical findings, the second essential aim was to consider the quality of mathematics education relative to socio-constructivistic curriculum thinking and to model it with theoretical conceptions. The conceptualizing of mathematics education was based on the didactical relation included in the didactical triangle. The research is qualitative by nature and can be characterized as a qualitative collective multiple-case study. The participants, three class teachers, were followed up during one mathematical teaching-studying-learning process. The research material was gathered by two different methods: first the teachers pedagogical action was observed using video recordings, and then the pedagogical thinking connected to this action was depicted with the help of stimulated recall interview. The video data was analysed using a theory based set of concepts which described the mathematics teaching-studying-learning process. The purpose of the theory-bounded interview data analysis was to deepen the tentative understanding of mathematics education gained through the video analysis. The results describe the teachers pedagogical thinking and action in the context of mathematics education. All three teachers shared a constructivistic conception of mathematics teaching and learning, but each emphasized different viewpoints. These personal conceptions of teaching were defined as humanistic-constructive, cognitive-constructive and contextual-constructive. Finally, a model of mathematics education consisting of four factors was constructed. This model also included the didactical relation which was defined as the teacher s relation to the student, the content and the life-world. The research results and methodological inventions can be used in the context of school teaching, teacher education and research on teaching. Teachers and teacher students can utilize the results when reflecting on their own pedagogical thinking and action. In addition the research provides topical information concerning Finnish mathematics education as well as new perspectives for national and international research, development and curriculum work.
  • Johansson, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Mathematical learning disability has been studied relatively little in relation to the difficulty of reading and writing, even though estimates of the prevalence of these various difficulties do not appear to differ from each other. The aim of this study was to describe class teachers’ and mathematics teachers` perceptions of the mathematical learning disability and different support actions concerning it. Research questions were 1. What type of conceptions does class teachers and mathematics teachers have about mathematics learning difficulty? 2. What type of conceptions does class teachers and mathematics teachers have about supporting students? This case study research data was collected by interviewing two class teachers and two mathematics teachers. The form of the interview was theme interview. Interview data analysis was carried out by using a content analysis. The result showed that class teachers had difficulties to define mathematical learning disability. They reported how the disability appears at the everyday school life. The cause of mathematical disability was related to other learning disabilities, especially dyslexia. Teachers felt that early support was important to the students who have mathematical disability. The same time the teachers felt puzzlement and inadequate. This was largely due to lack of resources, for example, special education resources are used mainly to support the difficulties of Finnish language. This means that the mathematical learning difficulties are often ignored. Mathematics teachers saw that special education as an important means of support.
  • Muhonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. All students, regardless of their capacity, should be offered impartial learning opportunities. Usually, it is well attended that each student will achieve learning goals. The gifted students are often unrecognized and ignored in school in everyday life. We must learn to recognize gifted students to provide them teaching that corresponds to their abilities. The reliable identification of giftedness is challenging. The mathematically gifted student brings both challenges and opportunities for teaching. There is a variety of differentiation methods to be used in teaching mathematics depending on pupils’ needs and on the resources of the schools. The purpose of this study was to find out how the class teachers define mathematically gifted students, to find out the differentiation ways of teaching mathematics and to find out the class teachers’ experiences of differentiation in mathematics. Methods. The study was a qualitative case study. The survey was conducted by interviewing the three class teachers, who had been selected for the research because of their interest of differentiation in mathematics. The direction based content analysis was used for the analysis of the research material. Results and conclusions. The teachers recognized the features of mathematical giftedness in their pupils. However, it was challenging for them to identify whether the students are really gifted or only a very successful at school work. The teachers used many ways to differentiate teaching of mathematics. Especially functional teaching was used as a mean to differentiate teaching. The teachers’ experiences of differentiation in mathematics were very positive. The results of the study can be used by class teachers when they plan their differentiation in mathematics.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school´s festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn´t been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school´s festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers´ experience was that pupil´s religious diversity didn´t make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers´ conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn´t that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school´s festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn´t been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school´s festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers´ experience was that pupil´s religious diversity didn´t make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers´ conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn´t that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Taskinen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Objectives. The development plan for education and research 2003 - 2008 (report of the Ministry of Education) highlights the development and promotion of special education and integration. In the end of the year 2007, there was Special education strategy published, a proposal for a long-term strategy for the development of special education in pre - and primary schools. Today there are a growing number of special education pupils studying in their neighbourhood schools and in regular teaching groups. Class teachers are so confronting new challenges in their classes. It is pointed out in the researches that teachers´ positive attitudes and professional skills are essential for successful mainstreaming / inclusion in schools. The object of this thesis is to examine primary school class teachers´ conceptions of working and teaching in the regular education which include special education pupils. This issue will be approached by these research problems: what kind of conceptions do teachers who work in basic education with special education pupils have, what kind of significance does teachers education has for these conceptions, what kind of significance does teachers work experience has for their working and is there a some kind of connection between teacher´s conceptions and the nature of special education pupil´s disability? Methods. In the spring 2009, the half structured questionnaire was send to all primary schools in Helsinki (N=86). One class teacher in each school was asked to fill in the questionnaire. Altogether 38 teachers answered this questionnaire. The data was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questions were processed by using the SPSS- statistics program and qualitative questions were analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Class teachers were satisfied with their work and most of them felt that they master the teaching situations sufficiently. They reported that they get support and help most from the special needs assistants and special education teachers but they also felt that they need it more from them. Remedial instruction- lessons were also needed more. Those who had the class teacher qualification got a bit more support from special education teachers than those without qualification. Both, longer work experience and studies of special pedagogy correlated with the amount of help from the assistant. There was also positive connection between the work experience and the amount of remedial instruction. Teachers urge for updating education was clearly shown in this study. About half of these teachers wished more education related to special needs pupils / education. Teachers felt that the lack of time is the most challenging in their work. About half of the teachers felt that the regular studying environment supports special education pupils well or very well and felt mainstreaming valuable for all. They pointed out that the nature and the degree of disability is relevant. They felt that pupils with behavioral difficulties had most negative influence for the whole class, and felt themselves helpless and frustrated because of these pupils.
  • Kaartinen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to describe, analyse and interpret teacher’s perceptions on temperament and effects of temperament on student evaluations. There’s hardly any research done in Finland on how class teacher’s receive temperament and how it effects evaluations. The subject is important to further research since each student will be evaluated throughout their school years. There were two research questions: 1. What is the teacher’s level of knowledge on tempera-ment? 2. How does temperament effect on students evaluation? Research methodology: Answers to research questions were searched by interviewing six (6) classteachers and by analyzing their answers through Grounded theory and through content analysis. Results and conclusions: Teachers had not really received any education on temperament during their studies. Part of the teachers had searched information on temperament outside of their studies. However teachers had some kind of perception on temperament (inherent way to function and to react in different situations) and the different features of temperament (activity level, shyness etc.). Temperament seems to have effect on student evaluations relating to learning, working and behavior even that according to the Perusopetuksen Opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 (Foundation teaching Learning Plan) students temperament should not have effect on evaluation. On the other hand in the same document teacher´s are obligated to evaluate working methods and behavior as a part of subject grade. Therefore teachers have contradictory instructions on how evaluations should be performed.
  • Laine, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Education for sustainable development related to efficacy beliefs has been studied in the past, for example, among the subject teachers, but among the class teachers, research-based information is still scarce. Aim of this study was to investigate the class teachers efficacy beliefs and their connection to school action culture in context of education for sustainable development. The study also surveyed the realization of education for sustainable development with classroom teaching and school action culture. In addition the study examined the class teachers and their schools, the differences between their efficacy beliefs and the implementation of education for sustainable development. Methods. The study was conducted utilizing SEED research, supported by the Academy of Finland, sub-project by University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education, collected survey data. The SEED projects (Sustainable Food Education for Self-Efficacy Development) aim has been to study and develop the education for sustainable development in Finnish basic education. Sub-project of University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education surveyed teachers and students factors which influenced sustainable development actions. The questionnaires question sets were analyzed by statistical methods and the questionnaires open questions were analyzed utilizing content analysis. The study was conducted in spring 2010 with national stratified sampling and the questionnaire was answered by 231 class teachers from 80 schools. Results and conclusions. Class teachers described their efficacy beliefs in education for sustainable development as mediocre. Best known was ecological sustainability and the least known part was economic sustainability. The knowledge of the curriculums cross-curricularity of sustainable development was mediocre. From aspects of the Sustainable development the ecological point of view was best achieved in school culture and the worst one of them was the economic aspect. The school action culture which supports sustainable development was found to affect class teachers education for sustainable development positively. Between class teachers there did not show up any differences in sustainability education based on sex, age, class level, the school or the schools classification in the municipality. Schools showed differences in teaching of sustainable development, schoolwork and school culture influence, as well as in the implementation of sustainable development in socio-cultural dimension.
  • Korhonen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Deskriptiivisessä vaativuusteoriassa tutkitaan laskennan vaativuuteen liittyviä kysymyksiä logiikan työkalujen avulla. Tällöin käsitellään tilannetta, jossa laskennan syötteenä toimivat äärelliset mallit. Tässä kehyksessä erinäisiä vaativuusluokkia voidaan karakterisoida etsimällä logiikoita, joilla on kyseistä vaativuusluokkaa vastaava ilmaisuvoima. Klassiset esimerkit tällaisista tuloksista ovat Faginin esittämä epädeterministisen polynomiaalisen ajan karakterisaatio logiikan Σ_1^1 avulla ja Immermanin, Livchakin ja Vardin esittämä deterministisen polynomiaalisen ajan karakterisaatio ensimmäisen kertaluvun inflatorisen kiintopistelogiikan avulla. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan Gurevichin esittämää kysymystä polynomiaalisessa ajassa ratkeavien kielten luokan P vahvasta loogisesta karakterisaatiosta. Kyseinen kysymys on yksi äärellisen malliteorian haastavimpia ongelmia. Kysymyksen esittelyyn tarvittavan peruskoneiston läpikäynnin lisäksi tässä käsi- tellään myös sen yhteyksiä laskennan vaativuusteoriassa keskeiseen P-NP-ongelmaan. Gurevichin kysymyksestä voidaan esittää myös rajoitetumpia versioita, mikäli käsitellään tilannetta, jossa laskennan syötteenä voi olla vain kiinnitetyn malliluokan K malleja. Tällöin luokan P karakterisointi helpottuu, ainakin jos luokka K on riittävän suppea. Tässä opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi Grohen esittämä tulos siitä, että mikäli luokaksi K valitaan 3-yhtenäisten tasoverkkojen luokka, niin ensimmäisen kertaluvun inflatorinen kiintopistelogiikka karakterisoi polynomiaalisessa ajassa laskettavat kielet.
  • Uuksulainen, Sanna (2007)
    Tutkielmassa selvitetään luokka-aseman merkitystä suomalaisten nuorten lehtien lukutottumuksissa. Tutkimus pyrkii vastaamaan kysymykseen, onko lehtien lukemisessa nähtävissä yhteiskunnallisiin luokkarakenteisiin viittaavaa eriarvoisuutta? Haastateltavina on 12 pääkaupunkiseudulla asuvaa nuorta opiskelijaa. Opiskelijat on valittu eritasoisista oppilaitoksista aina ammattikoulusta yliopistoon. Erilaisten opintolinjojen lisäksi haastateltavien luokka-asemaa määrittää heidän vanhempiensa koulutus ja nykyinen ammatti. Haastatteluissa on pääpaino neljällä haastatteluja varten valitsemallani lehdellä: Suomen Kuvalehdellä, Helsingin Sanomilla, Iltalehdellä ja 7 Päivää -lehdellä. Lisäksi haastatteluissa käsitellään jonkin verran muita lehtiä ja sähköistä mediaa. Tutkimuksessa käyn läpi Suomen yhteiskuntaluokkien historiaa alkaen 1900-luvulta edeten keskustelemaan siitä, millä tavoin luokkien eriarvoisuus on nähtävissä nykypäivänä. Lisäksi käsittelen sitä, kuinka yhteiskuntaluokat näkyvät lehdissä ja niiden lukijoissa. Vertailukohteena ovat brittiläiset lehdet ja Englannissa tekemäni kandidaatin työ ulkosuomalaisten nuorten lehtien lukemisesta. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytän teemahaastatteluja. Teemoinani ovat lehtien lukutottumukset, lähipiirin vaikutus nuorten lukutottumuksiin sekä mielikuvat lehdistä ja niiden lukijoista. Ensimmäisessä osiossa kartoitan sitä, kuinka paljon haastateltavat lukevat haastatteluja varten valittuja lehtiä ja muita julkaisuja. Toisessa teemaosiossa tarkastelen haastateltavien lapsuudenperheen ja ystäväpiirin lukutottumuksia ja niiden vaikutusta haastateltaviin. Kolmannessa teemaosiossa käsittelen sitä, kuinka luokkasidonnaisia mielikuvia haastateltavilla on tietyistä lehdistä ja niiden lukijoista. Käytän myös apuna koko väestöä kartoittavia tutkimuksia, erityisesti suoraan lehdiltä saamiani Taloustutkimus Oy:n (2006) KMT Lukija Syksy05/Kevät06:n (Levikintarkastus Oy) tuloksia. Tutkimukseni keskeinen tulos on, että luokka-asemalla on haastatteluotoksessani vaikutusta lehtien lukemiseen ja muista lukijoista muodostettuihin mielikuviin. Opiskeluala vaikuttaa lukutottumuksiin. Myös lähipiiri, erityisesti vanhemmat, ovat tärkeällä sijalla siinä, mitä lehtiä nuoret alkavat itse lukea. Joissakin tapauksissa pelkkä vanhempien antama esimerkki tietyn lehden lukemisesta riittää, mutta yhtä lailla merkittäviä ovat vanhempien kanssa yhdessä vietetyt lukuhetket lapsuudessa ja sitä kautta saatu innostus tietyntyyppiseen lukemiseen. Myös koko väestöä kartoittava tutkimustieto tukee sitä, että luokka-asema vaikuttaa lukemiseen. Esimerkiksi akateemisesti koulutetut ovat yliedustettuina tiettyjen lehtien lukijaprofiileissa. Tärkeimpiä tutkimuksessa käytettyjä lähteitä ovat Pierre Bourdieun (1984) Distinction, Beverly Skeggsin (2004) Class, self, culture, Sanna Sanaksenahon (2006) Eriarvoisuus ja luottamus 2000-luvun Suomessa, suomalaista luokkayhteiskuntaa käsitteleviä teoksia (esim. Blom 1999) sekä sosiaalista pääomaa käsittelevät teoriat (Putnam 2000, Halpern 2005).
  • Turkka, Jaakko (2014)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan luokkahuonekeskusteluja kemian opettamisessa. Tutkimuksen taustalla on sosiokulttuurinen oppimiskäsitys sekä opetussuunnitelmien muutos, joka korostaa keskustelun merkitystä osana mielekästä oppimista ja tulevaisuudessa tarvittavaa osaamista. Luokkahuonekeskustelu mielletään opetuskeskusteluna, joissa oppilaiden äänille pyritään antamaan lisää tilaa osana opetusta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on lisätä ymmärrystä luokkahuonekeskusteluiden merkityksestä kemian opetuksessa. Tutkimus kokoaa yhteen opetuskeskusteluja sivuavaa teoriaa ja tieteellistä tutkimusta sekä opettajien kokemusperäistä tietoa yhtenäiseksi kuvaukseksi luokkahuonekeskusteluista. Aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla viittä kemian opettajaa. Haastatteluissa ilmeni opetuskeskustelun tutkimuksessa aiemmin huomioimaton puoli. Opettajat asettavat luokkahuonekeskusteluille ristiriitaisia odotuksia. Keskusteluun osallistuvan oppilaan odotetaan ideaalisessa tilanteessa esittävän sekä johdonmukaisia perusteluja että varauksettomia ja suodattamattomia kommentteja. Haastatteluissa havaittiin, että luokkahuonekeskusteluissa korostuu entisestään opettajien tasapainoilu tieteellisen tiedon opettamisen ja oppilaiden mahdollisimman laajan osallisuuden välillä. Dialogisen opettamisen lähestymistapa sopii tämän tasapainottelun ymmärtämiseen kemian opettamisessa ja se on siksi mielekästä ottaa huomioon monipuolisempien keskusteluvälineiden kehittämisessä. Tarkemman kokonaiskuvan saamiseksi luokkahuonekeskusteluista olisi jatkossa tärkeää tutkia opetuskeskusteluiden etenemistä luokkahuoneista käsin sekä selvittää oppilaiden kokemuksia keskusteluista.