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  • Haarto, Noora (2014)
    Työssä käsitellään kuvataiteessa esiintyvää matematiikkaa ja suunnitellaan perusopetukseen soveltuva opetuskokonaisuus, jossa kuvataidetta hyödynnetään matematiikan opetuksessa. Tavoite on suunnitella mahdollisimman monipuolinen kokonaisuus, josta riittää materiaalia niin yksittäisten oppituntien kuin kokonaisen valinnaisen kurssinkin tarpeisiin. Opetuskokonaisuuden on myös tarkoitus olla vaatimustasoltaan joustava siten, että sitä voidaan helposti muokata eri tasoisten oppilaiden tarpeita vastaavaksi. Ennen opetuskokonaisuuden suunnittelua työssä käydään läpi mm. perspektiivin matematiikkaa, kultaisen leikkauksen ja Fibonaccin lukujen perusominaisuuksia ja geometrisia konstruktioita, sekä hyperbolista geometriaa. Matemaattisia esitietoja ei varsinaisesti tarvita, mutta vektorilaskennasta ja geometriasta olisi hyvä olla jonkin verran lukiopohjaa syvempi tietämys.
  • Lepistö, Sirkku (2007)
    Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat lukiolaistyttöjen käsitykset ja kokemukset matematiikan opiskelusta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten tytöt merkityksellistävät suhdettaan matematiikan opiskeluun koulussa ja tulevaisuuden suunnitelmissaan. Tutkimuksessa kuvataan ja tulkitaan tyttöjen käsityksiä sekä tarkastellaan minkälainen sija matematiikalle tyttöjen elämässä rakentuu. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu neljästätoista lukion ensimmäistä luokkaa käyvän 16-17 –vuotiaan helsinkiläistytön teemahaastattelusta. Tutkimuksessa haastateltiin sekä pitkää että lyhyttä oppimäärää matematiikkaa opiskelevia tyttöjä. Aineiston analyysimenetelmä on käytetty sisällönanalyysiä. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnetään kasvatussosiologian ja etnografisen koulun ja sukupuolen tutkimuksen näkökulmia ja käsitteistöä, sekä naistutkimuksen teoreettisia tulkintoja sukupuolen ja matematiikan suhteesta. Tärkeimpiä lähteitä ovat Tuula Gordonin, Elina Lahelman, Tarja Tolosen sekä Valerie Walkerdinen ja Suzanne Damarinin kirjoitukset. Tutkimus kiinnittyy sosiologiseen kulttuurintutkimukseen, kasvatussosiologiaan ja naistutkimukseen. Tyttöjen suhde matematiikkaan osoittautuu analyysissä monitasoiseksi kysymykseksi, joka liittyy tyttöjen sosiaalisiin, kulttuurisiin ja yhteiskuntaluokkapohjaisiin eroihin sekä koulutuksen eriytymistä ylläpitäviin mekanismeihin. Tytöt jaoteltiin haastattelupuheen perusteella kahteen eri tyyppiin, ”välineellisesti” ja ”käytännöllisesti” matematiikkaan suhtautuviin. Tämän jaottelun katsotaan heijastelevan lukion pitkän ja lyhyen matematiikan opetussuunnitelmassa määriteltyjen opetuksen tehtävien ja tavoitteiden eroja, joka tuli tutkimuksessa keskeisellä tavalla esiin. Opetussuunnitelmassa määritellyt lyhyen ja pitkän matematiikan opetuksen tehtävät ja tavoitteet ovat erilaisia ja myötäilevät jakoa naisten- ja miesten ammattialueisiin yhteiskunnassa. Tutkimustulosten perusteella vaikuttaa siltä, että lukion matematiikan opetussuunnitelma sukupuolittuu koulun käytännöissä. Tyttöjen kokemukset ja näkemykset pitkän ja lyhyen matematiikan hyödyllisyydestä ja relevanssista omalle elämälle vahvistavat tätä tulkintaa. Tutkimuksessa tuli esiin, että tyttöjen kiinnostumista matematiikasta rajoittaa osin mielikuva matemaatikoista nörtteinä. Tytöt halusivat tehdä eron itsensä ja koulujen kulttuureissa matematiikasta kiinnostuneiden, poikkeaviksi määriteltyjen nörttien välillä. Tyttöjen näkemyksissä matematiikan oppimisesta tuli esiin jaottelu älyämiseen ja työntekoon. Osa tytöistä oli omaksunut käsityksen, ettei voi osata matematiikkaa, koska ei pysty oivaltamaan, ns. "matemaattiset aivot" puuttuvat. Toiset tytöistä taas korostivat harjoittelun ja työnteon merkitystä matematiikan oppimisessa. Näkemykseen matematiikan oppimisesta ainoastaan oivaltamisen kautta tapahtuvana toimintana liittyi myös sukupuolittunut vivahde. Poikien oivaltamisen nähtiin tapahtuvan luonnostaan.
  • Koukkunen, Kalevi (1992)
  • Kemppainen, Eeva (2013)
    This thesis introduces material culture studies and encourages creative education. The focus is on commodity geographies that include commodity chain stories, trade justice debates, radical pedagogies and culture activism. The study has been done in response to wider academic calls and it is directed to multiple audiences working in academia, education and ethical world trade. Academics have called for studying materiality and trade but also for revitalising human geography. They have argued that it is important to develop education that connects universities, schools and NGOs. This thesis examines how people in the often separate spheres of academia, education development, NGOs and cultural activism have collaborated on trade justice education in England and Finland. The thesis examines what this kind of education is like for students, teachers and researchers in the network and what kinds of new, useful and creative collaboration work can be undertaken. The research involved fieldwork in England, where commodity and young people’s geographies have been extensively developed. The idea was to learn from the research and teaching practise, participate in collaborative projects, bring the knowledge to Finland and share the thesis’ findings in public. The thesis is organised in four chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context by reviewing the development of material culture studies, critical economic geographies and the ‘Follow The Thing’ genre of trade justice scholar activism. Chapter 2 examines how the separate spheres of academia and activism are interlinked. This includes developing trade justice education by joining up creative culture jamming, scholar activism and NGOs’ global education projects. Chapters 3 and 4 focus on teaching practise, learning experiences and new collaborations. Chapter 3 outlines the methods of the research and examines three case studies, curriculum change and radical pedagogies. A university geography course and two educational projects were studied by interviewing students and educationalists. In chapter 4, the ‘Classroom project’ tells about collaboration with educationalists and new geography teachers. The creative ideas and classroom experiences of the teachers were studied and new teaching materials were co-created for public sharing after having a workshop at the Geographical Association conference in 2013. The research also included collaboration with www.followthethings.com, a database of geographical trade justice and culture jamming studies, and creating the first bilingual study about a Finnish commodity. Chapter 4 and Conclusion also examine how this public research and teaching materials enabled networking with Finnish educationalists and the use of the thesis’ findings in NGOs’ new innovative education projects. The methods and writing style of the research are autoethnographic. Besides conventional research, the thesis describes personal experiences and research of the writer. The writing style stems from doing fieldwork within a network, in which collaboration and enthusiasm are notable. The thesis is a piece of public geographies - a co-created report that works through the networks and making the teaching materials publicly available in both countries. A written documentary of the research practise is important: much collaboration stays unreported, uninspiring or unknown in Finland. The case studies of this thesis reveal important experiences of collaboration, creative teaching and students’ powerful learning on trade justice education. The interview data shows how border-crossing projects and scholar activism have linked commodity research, culture jamming, young people’s geographies and radical pedagogies usefully together. Collaboration with new teachers gave valuable information about practical classroom experiences and students’ course work, which are now shared online and used in a Finnish NGO project. The critical research knowledge and enthusiasm of the thesis aims to encourage creative education and give important advice for new educational projects.
  • Tuovinen, Soile (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Hypertensive pregnancy disorders complicate approximately 10% of all pregnancies. They may compromise placental functioning and, thus, affect the fetal developmental milieu. It is therefore highly plausible that they have consequences for the developmental outcomes of the offspring. However, their role in the developmental plasticity phenomenon dubbed programming remains relatively unexplored. This thesis examines whether adult offspring born to mothers with hypertensive pregnancy disorders differ from their counterparts born to normotensive mothers in mental health and cognitive functioning, and whether the potential group differences vary according to sex, length of gestation, parity, and childhood socio-economic status. This thesis capitalizes on the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The study cohort comprises 13 345 individuals born in Helsinki between 1934 and 1944. Maternal hypertension status was defined based upon blood pressure and urinary protein measurements during pregnancy and was available for 6410 individuals. Data on mental disorders come from validated national registers extending over four decades (n = 5970 eligible for this study; Study II). Depressive symptoms were measured with a standardized questionnaire (BDI) in conjunction with a clinical follow-up study at a mean age of 62 years (n = 788; Study I) and in conjunction with a further follow-up including a more detailed psychological survey at a mean age of 64 years (n = 661; Study I). Cognitive test scores were obtained from the Finnish defence forces basic ability test taken during military service at a mean age of 20 years (n = 1196; Study III) and in a re-test at a mean age of 69 years (n = 398; Study IV). Cognitive impairment was measured with psychological questionnaires (DFQ and DEX) in conjunction with a further follow-up at a mean age of 69 years (n = 876; Study V). In comparison to the offspring born to normotensive mothers, offspring born to pre-eclamptic mothers showed higher self-reported cognitive impairment (Study V). Offspring born to mothers with hypertension without proteinuria showed a higher risk of mental disorders (Study II), although they did not differ in the severity of selfreported depressive symptoms. Maternal hypertensive pregnancy disorders as a diagnostic entity were associated with lower cognitive functioning (Sudy III and IV) and higher cognitive decline (Study IV). Sex, parity and childhood socio-economic status modified some of associations. Maternal pre-eclampsia was associated with higher self-reported depressive symptom scores in primiparous, but not in multiparous, offspring (Study I), and with a lower risk of mental disorders in male, but not female, offspring (Study II). Maternal hypertension without proteinuria was associated with self-reported cognitive impairment in female, but not male, offspring (Study V). Finally, the associations between maternal hypertensive pregnancy disorders as a diagnostic entity and lower cognitive functioning (verbal reasoning) in young adulthood were most evident in primiparous offspring and in offspring with a high childhood socio-economic status (Study III). These study findings showed that maternal hypertensive pregnancy disorders were associated with all studied mental health and cognitive functioning outcomes. Overall, maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy carried an increased risk of a wide spectrum of problems in mental well-being and cognitive functioning among the offspring several decades later. However, protective effects were also observed, and, in future studies, it will be important to unravel the developmental pathways and underlying biological mechanisms. Being the longest follow-up on the transgenerational consequences of maternal hypertensive disorders reported thus far, the findings highlight the role of the prenatal environment in developmental programming.
  • Hannula, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Pakkanen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Frictions are factors that hinder trading of securities in financial markets. Typical frictions include limited market depth, transaction costs, lack of infinite divisibility of securities, and taxes. Conventional models used in mathematical finance often gloss over these issues, which affect almost all financial markets, by arguing that the impact of frictions is negligible and, consequently, the frictionless models are valid approximations. This dissertation consists of three research papers, which are related to the study of the validity of such approximations in two distinct modeling problems. Models of price dynamics that are based on diffusion processes, i.e., continuous strong Markov processes, are widely used in the frictionless scenario. The first paper establishes that diffusion models can indeed be understood as approximations of price dynamics in markets with frictions. This is achieved by introducing an agent-based model of a financial market where finitely many agents trade a financial security, the price of which evolves according to price impacts generated by trades. It is shown that, if the number of agents is large, then under certain assumptions the price process of security, which is a pure-jump process, can be approximated by a one-dimensional diffusion process. In a slightly extended model, in which agents may exhibit herd behavior, the approximating diffusion model turns out to be a stochastic volatility model. Finally, it is shown that when agents' tendency to herd is strong, logarithmic returns in the approximating stochastic volatility model are heavy-tailed. The remaining papers are related to no-arbitrage criteria and superhedging in continuous-time option pricing models under small-transaction-cost asymptotics. Guasoni, Rásonyi, and Schachermayer have recently shown that, in such a setting, any financial security admits no arbitrage opportunities and there exist no feasible superhedging strategies for European call and put options written on it, as long as its price process is continuous and has the so-called conditional full support (CFS) property. Motivated by this result, CFS is established for certain stochastic integrals and a subclass of Brownian semistationary processes in the two papers. As a consequence, a wide range of possibly non-Markovian local and stochastic volatility models have the CFS property.
  • Valtakoski, Aku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Tanskanen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    In cardiac myocytes (heart muscle cells), coupling of electric signal known as the action potential to contraction of the heart depends crucially on calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in a microdomain known as the dyad. During CICR, the peak number of free calcium ions (Ca) present in the dyad is small, typically estimated to be within range 1-100. Since the free Ca ions mediate CICR, noise in Ca signaling due to the small number of free calcium ions influences Excitation-Contraction (EC) coupling gain. Noise in Ca signaling is only one noise type influencing cardiac myocytes, e.g., ion channels playing a central role in action potential propagation are stochastic machines, each of which gates more or less randomly, which produces gating noise present in membrane currents. How various noise sources influence macroscopic properties of a myocyte, how noise is attenuated and taken advantage of are largely open questions. In this thesis, the impact of noise on CICR, EC coupling and, more generally, macroscopic properties of a cardiac myocyte is investigated at multiple levels of detail using mathematical models. Complementarily to the investigation of the impact of noise on CICR, computationally-efficient yet spatially-detailed models of CICR are developed. The results of this thesis show that (1) gating noise due to the high-activity mode of L-type calcium channels playing a major role in CICR may induce early after-depolarizations associated with polymorphic tachycardia, which is a frequent precursor to sudden cardiac death in heart failure patients; (2) an increased level of voltage noise typically increases action potential duration and it skews distribution of action potential durations toward long durations in cardiac myocytes; and that (3) while a small number of Ca ions mediate CICR, Excitation-Contraction coupling is robust against this noise source, partly due to the shape of ryanodine receptor protein structures present in the cardiac dyad.
  • Attorps, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
  • Mäkitie, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This master s thesis examines tourism related housing and related discourses in the village of Kilpisjärvi, Finland. I study the tourism development in Kilpisjärvi and the debate related to this process. My methodology is based on discourse and content analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine and classify the discourses of tourism related housing and what are the lessons learned from the recent development of Kilpisjärvi. Kilpisjärvi is the northernmost village in western Finnish Lapland, located in the middle of the highest mountain area of Finland. The area has been reindeer herding area of Saami people for centuries, but it has lacked permanent settlement until the beginning of 20th century. The first tourist accommodation was built in 1930s, followed by the road in 1940s and the hotel in 1950s. Traditionally the area has attracted skiers and hikers. The area is also known for its extraordinary nature and rare plant life. Tourism development was slow in Kilpisjärvi until the turn of millennium when rapid growth in tourism related housing was triggered by extensive land use planning. Small wilderness village of Kilpisjärvi has grown to a tourism centre with over 800 beds in commercial enterprises, more than hundred second-homes, and two large caravan areas. This development has raised conflicts among villagers. The empirical part of this study is based on the interviews of 17 permanent dwellers of Kilpisjärvi and three Norwegian cottage owners. Six discourses can be distinguished: 1) Nature and landscape, 2) Economy, 3) Place, 4)Reindeer herding, 5) Governance and 6) Possibilities to influence decision-making. The first discourse stressed that tourism development and building should adapt to nature and landscape, while economic discourse stressed the economical importance of tourism to Kilpisjärvi and the municipality of Enontekiö. The third discourse noted the change of Kilpisjärvi as a place due to the boom of tourism development. The discourse of reindeer herding was clearly distinguished from others, seeing tourism development merely negative. Governance was seen as an important tool in regulating development, but many saw that the municipal administration has failed to take into account other aspects of tourism development than economical factors. Many villagers saw their influence in decision-making weak, while landowners and municipal decision-makers were seen as oligarchy in land-use planning regardless of formal participatory planning process enforced by law. I conclude that it is important to take into account the diversity of local discourses in tourism development and land use issues. Transparent and genuine participatory planning process would promote sustainable development, prevent conflicts and allow decisions and development which would satisfy larger number of local dwellers than presently.
  • Aineslahti, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    A Journey in the Landscape of Sustainable School Development “A Journey in the Landscape of Sustainable School Development” is a story of the Sorrila School development process. This research deals with a school development project as a process, and as a part of international projects on Education for Sustainable Development, with ENSI (Environment and School Initiatives) being the most important. The main purpose of the study was to analyze the change process as a general phenomenon as well as the learning connected to it. The research describes the development period 2001–2008 at the Sorrila Primary school. The research questions are as follows: 1. What did pupils learn during the research and development period? 2. How did the coordinating teacher develop personally? 3. How were the ENSI targets and other closely linked projects reached? 4. What was the feedback from the pupils, their parents and other teachers at the school? 5. How did the developing process proceed in 2001–2008? The method used was integrating action research, which also had ethnographical elements. Narrative was the form of the data as well as the manner of reporting. The method as a whole was integrating, ethnographical action research as a story. The research data consisted mostly of Knowledge Forum notes written by the teacher-researcher. Knowledge Forum is an Internetbased collaborative knowledge-building programme. Pupils’, parents’ and other teachers’ feedback, newspaper articles and students’ writings complied the data, which consists of material from seven years. Sustainable development was the basis of the school improvement. The targets of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) were part of the development projects. According to the research results the school was seen as part of complex systems where manifold and interactive learning took place. The learning of pupils, teachers and the school as a community can be characterised socioculturally. The school was able to reach a level of collaborative transformative learning. As well as several concrete projects, such as Comenius school project, school development consisted of networking at many levels. Along with the projects and networking, the school was able to apply the pedagogy of connection, by carrying out integrative and cross-disciplinary themes and using various learning and teaching methods. International cooperation was a natural part of the work. A figure of Aunt Green, the role model of the teacher researcher, was an innovation which resembled a change agent. The other role of the teacherresearcher as a coordinator, was important for her own professional development. According to the results the change process, which relied on sustainable school development, led the school along a road of positive renewals. It was not a series of projects but an ongoing process. The objectives of the international projects were accomplished to a great extent during the research period. According to the principles of action research, the main results were put forward in order to help others to develop their schools. Frictions and problems as well as positive experiences and rejecting dualities were seen as change forces. Keywords: education for sustainable development (ESD), sustainable school development, teacher professional development, integrating, pedagogy of connection, transformative learning
  • Jaatinen, Katja (2008)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kahden 1700-luvun luonnontieteilijän Joseph Banksin (1743-1829) ja Johann Reinhold Forsterin (1729-1798) matkakuvauksia maailmanympäripurjehduksilta, joiden pääkohde oli eteläinen Tyynimeri. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää mitä heidän oman kulttuurinsa ja vieraiden kulttuurien esitystapoja matkakuvauksista ilmenee ja mitä esitystavoista voidaan päätellä siitä, miksi ja millä motiiveilla kulttuureista on kirjoitettu. Aineistona on seuraavat matkakuvaukset James Cookin kahdelta ensimmäiseltä matkalta: The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks (1962), The Resolution Journal of Johann Reinhold Förster (1982) ja Forsterin Observations Made During Voyage Round the World (1778). Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestytään sijoittamalla matkakuvaukset historialliseen ja kulttuuriseen kontekstiin, joka tekee niistä ymmärrettäviä. 1760- ja 1770-luvuilla eurooppalaisten ja tässä tutkimuksessa nimenomaan brittien matkat tuolloin vähän tunnetulle eteläiselle Tyynellemerelle lisääntyivät. Matkakuvauksissa aluetta tehdään tunnetuksi. Niissä rakennetaan maailmanlaajuista merkityksenantoa pääasiassa luonnontieteellisellä kartoituksella. Tutkimuksessa osoitetaan, että tällä on vaikutus esitystapoihin. Vieraiden kansojen esittämisessä ilmenee luonnontieteestä omittu luokittelu, joka tähdentää kansoja erottavia tekijöitä. Tutkimuksen yhtenä lähtökohtana on ajatus siitä, että kulttuurikuvauksissa oma ja vieras kulttuuri ovat samanaikaisesti läsnä. Tässä tutkimuksessa se ilmenee tavoissa, joilla matkat ja kuvauksenkirjoittajan oman kulttuurin imperialistiset tavoitteet esitetään. Alue kirjoitetaan osaksi brittiläistä imperiumia. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on tekstien tulkinta. Tarkastelu liittyy yleiseen teoreettiseen keskusteluun, jossa tähdentyy ajatus kulttuureista ja etnografioista teksteinä sekä kirjoitustapojen kontekstisidonnaisuus. Tärkeimpiä lähdeteoksia ovat Mary Louise Prattin Imperial Eyes. Travel Writing and Transculturation (1992), James Cliffordin ja George Marcusin (toim.) Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography (1986) ja James Boonin Other Tribes, Other Scribes (1982). Aineistosta voidaan päätellä, että esitystavat luovat kuvan kulttuureista, mutta kirjoittamisajankohta ja matkojen motiivit rajaavat sen mitä ja millä motiiveilla kulttuureista on kirjoitettu. Esitystavat eivät ole neutraaleja, vaan ne ilmentävät valtarakenteita. Samalla korostuu se, että etnosentrisyyttä ei voida täysin ylittää.
  • Arkimies, Johanna (2001)
    Adoptio on suuri muutos kaikille osapuolille: lapselle, biologisille vanhemmille ja tuleville adoptiovanhemmille. Suomessa lakisääteinen tuki ja valmennus annetaan ottolapsineuvonnassa. Ottolapsineuvonnassa sosiaalityöntekijä valvoo vielä tuntemattoman lapsen etua. Toisaalta sosiaalityöntekijän toimenkuvaan kuuluu perheen valmentaminen adoptiovanhemmuuteen. Tässä tutkimuksessa keskitytään adoptiovanhempien kokemuksiin ottolapsineuvonnasta. Arviolta 90 % adoptiovanhemmista on tahattomasti lapsettomia. Ottolapsineuvonnassa kiinnitetään erityistä huomiota siihen, kuinka perhe on selvinnyt lapsettomuudesta, ja mitä se merkitsee perheelle. Adoptiolapsen kannalta on tärkeää, että hän tulee perheeseen yhtä toivottuna kuin biologinenkin lapsi olisi ollut.Tutkimukseni sijoittuu perhetutkimuksen piiriin, siellä lähinnä stressi- ja kriisitutkimuksen sisälle. Työn teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on Joan Pattersonin (1988) FAAR-malli. Tahaton lapsettomuus määriteltiin tämän teorian pohjalta stressitekijäksi. FAAR on psyko-sosiaalinen malli, joka keskittyy siihen, millaisia strategioita perhe käyttää selvitäkseen stressaavasta tilanteesta. Erityisen tärkeää perheen selviämisessä on se, minkä merkityksen perhe antaa stressaavalle tapahtumalle. Lapsettomuuden osalta keskeinen kysymys on ollut: mitä lapsettomuus merkitsi perheelle. Adoption osalta on tutkittu sille annettuja merkityksiä. Tärkein lähde on Pattersonin (1988) artikkeli Families Experiencing Stress. Työn empiirinen osuus muodostui viiden pariskunnan haastattelusta, jotka saivat ottolapsineuvontaa perheasiaintoimistossa vuosina 1989 - 1996. Haastettelu oli teemahaastattelu, jossa oli kysymyksiä tahattomasta lapsettomuudesta ja adoptiosta. Kaikki haastattelut nauhoitettiin ja litteroitiin. Tutkimusmateriaali analysoitiin diskurssianalyysin keinoin. Tässä tutkimuksessa tahaton lapsettomuus ei näyttäytynyt vaiettuna kansantautina. Kaikki perheet olivat kertoneet lapsettomuudesta ainakin yhdelle läheiselle ystävälle ja/tai vanhemmille. Lapsettomuuden ei katsottu enää olevan sellainen stigma kuin se oli menneinä vuosikymmeninä. Lapsettomuuteen liittyvästä surusta kerrottiin naisen äänellä. Miehille (3) biologinen vanhemmuus ei alun alkaenkaan näyttäytynyt niin merkityksellinä asiana kuin naisille. Naiset olivat selvinneet lapsettomuuteen liittyvästä surusta keskittymällä muihin asioihin elämässään kuten työntekoon. Myös puolison tuki ja unelma adoptioäitiydestä auttoivat jaksamaan. Muistot ottolapsineuvonnasta olivat pääsääntöisesti myönteisiä. Sitä pidettiin hyvänä valmentautumisena adoptiovanhemmuuteen. Lapsettomuuden käsittely tuntui luonnolliselta ottolapsineuvonnassa, ja sen katsottiin olleen yksi adoptioon johtaneista syistä. Adoptio nähtiin alusta alkaen mahdollisuutena. Myöhemmin siihen liitettiin sanat rikkaus ja rakkaus. Lapsettomuuskokemukset ja adoptio olivat muun muassa syventäneet ja rikastuttaneet puolisoiden välistä suhdetta. Adoptiolapsen ja -vanhemman väliseen rakkauteen viitattiin spontaanisti. Kaikissa pohdinnoissa viitattiin siihen, että adoptiovanhemman on vaikea kuvitella, että voisi rakastaa biologista lasta enemmän kuin adoptiolasta. Lapsen kannalta adoptio nähtiin "suurena mahdollisuutena", jonka avulla voidaan vaikuttaa myönteisesti lapsen elämään. Negatiivisena asiana mainittiin adoption kalleus ja prosessin pitkä kesto.
  • Kallio, Kirsi (1994)
  • Knuuti, Ulla (2007)
    On a journey from marginal to mainstream? The lifestyle and recovery of former drug users This thesis studies the lifestyle and recovery of former users of illicit drugs through their experiences. The study describes the life of people with drug problems both during the time they used drugs regularly and after they stopped the use entirely. The focus is on the development of the lifestyle of 32 persons who no longer use drugs. They may have stopped using drugs independently or with the help of a treatment. In this study, persons who have given up drug use with the help of a psychosocially oriented treatment are called non-medicinally treated former users (n=19) whereas opioid addicts who have stopped using drugs through substitution treatment are referred to as substitution treatment patients (n=13). The research material was gathered from theme interviews. The criteria for the focus group of the study included the following: a) the interviewees had had a serious drug problem in their past; b) they had not used drugs for at least one year prior to the interview; c) they were not in an institutional care at the time of the study. This thesis is basically a lifestyle study in which the aspects of lifestyle are used to describe the everyday life of former drug users. The study reviews the whole spectrum of everyday routines, especially the social interaction and subjective experiences of people. The second concept used in this study is recovery, which is described as a process that starts from the abstinence from substances and adoption of the recovery culture and continues as a comprehensive change of the lifestyle, identity and values of an individual. Disengaging from a drug-oriented lifestyle and connected social network as well as finding an individual frame of reference is a demanding process. Years of drug use have often caused complex health and social disadvantages as well as problems with work, education, livelihood, accommodation and human relationships. The effect of the past on the present arises at all levels. The interviews revealed a recovery culture maintaining the lifestyle as well as an adaptive and optimistic approach to the future among those participating in the study. The study shows that an adequate distance from acute substance use is a precondition for the beginning of the recovery process, yet abstinence in itself tells nothing about the actual recovery. The study describes how some recovering users find a meaning in life easily whereas others have to work actively for their recovery. Detaching oneself from the feeling of adopted abnormality connected with substance addiction forms an important basis for satisfying abstinence. Peer groups support the development of counter-cultures and abstinence or the support is received from the community formed in the substitution treatment clinic.