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  • Kuivanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is increasing worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma are the most frequent skin tumors. Immunosuppressed patients have an increased risk of neoplasia, of which non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that collectively are capable of degrading virtually all components of the extracellular matrix. MMPs can also process substrates distinct from extracellular matrix proteins and influence cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. MMP activity is regulated by their natural inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metallopro-teinases (TIMPs). In this study, the expression patterns of MMPs, TIMPs, and certain cancer-related molecules were investigated in premalignant and malignant lesions of the human skin. As methods were used immunohistochemisty, in situ hybridization, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the cell cultures. Our aim was to evaluate the expression pattern of MMPs in extramammary Paget's disease in order to find markers for more advanced tumors, as well as to shed light on the origin of this rare neoplasm. Novel MMPs -21, -26, and -28 were studied in melanoma cell culture, in primary cutaneous melanomas, and their sentinel nodes. The MMP expression profile in keratoacanthomas and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas was analyzed to find markers to differentiate benign keratinocyte hyperproliferation from malignantly transformed cells. Squamous cell carcinomas of immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients were compared to squamous cell carcinomas of matched immunocompetent controls to investigate the factors explaining their more aggressive nature. We found that MMP-7 and -19 proteins are abundant in extramammary Paget's disease and that their presence may predict an underlying adenocarcinoma in these patients. In melanomas, MMP-21 was upregulated in early phases of melanoma progression, but disappeared from the more aggressive tumors with lymph node metastases. The presence of MMP-13 in primary melanomas and lymph node metastases may relate to more aggressive disease. In keratoacanthomas, the expression of MMP-7 and -9 is rare and therefore should raise a suspicion of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, MMP-19 and p16 were observed in benign keratinocyte hyperproliferation of keratoacanthomas, whereas they were generally lost from malignant keratinocytes of SCCs. MMP-26 staining was significantly stronger in squamous cell carcinomas and Bowen s disease samples of organ transplant recipients and it may contribute to the more aggressive nature of squamous cell carcinomas in immunosuppressed patients. In addition, the staining for MMP-9 was significantly stronger in macrophages surrounding the tumors of the immunocompetent group and in neutrophils of those patients on cyclosporin medication. In conclusion, based on our studies, MMP-7 and -19 might serve as biomarkers for more aggressive extramammary Paget's disease and MMP-21 for malignant transformation of melanocytes. MMP -7, -9, and -26, however, could play an important role in the pathobiology of keratinocyte derived malignancies.
  • Hästbacka, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The systemic levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -7, -8 and -9 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) were investigated in 877 critically ill patients. In Study I, 15 intensive care unit-(ICU) treated adult patients with secondary peritonitis were prospectively included. Peritoneal fluid, blood and urine samples were collected at the ICU after surgery. The serum and urine levels of MMP-8 were compared with those obtained from ten healthy volunteers, and were found to be significantly higher in patients. In peritoneal fluid, MMP-8 levels were significantly higher than in serum and urine. This study was the first to identify MMP-8 in the peritoneal fluid of peritonitis patients. Study II was a sub-study of the FINNSEPSIS study where patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were prospectively included in 24 Finnish ICUs. Serum samples of 248 patients were analysed for MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels, that were found to be higher than those of healthy controls. MMP-8, -9 and TIMP-1 levels were compared between ICU survivors and non-survivors. Median MMP-8 (p<0.01) and TIMP-1 (p<0.001) were higher and median MMP-9 levels lower (p=0.047) in ICU non-survivors than in ICU survivors. Study III investigated MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels on 51 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest (CA). The patients were a subgroup of the Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest study. Thirty patients had received mild therapeutic hypothermia treatment (MTH) and 21 non-hypothermia treatment (non-MTH). Serum samples taken at 24 and 48 hours from restoration of spontaneous circulation were analysed and compared between patients and healthy volunteers. Serum MMP and TIMP-1 levels of MTH-treated patients were compared during and after MTH with the levels of non-MTH-treated patients. MMP-8 and MMP-9 were higher in CA patients than controls. Patients receiving MTH treatment had lower median MMP-9 levels during MTH than non-MTH-treated patients (p<0.001). This is one novel potential mechanism of how MTH treatment improves outcome of CA patients. Study IV was a 563-patient sub-study of the FINNALI study that included acute respiratory failure patients at 25 Finnish ICUs. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were analysed from blood samples taken on study admission and 48 hours thereafter. Association of MMP-8 and TIMP-1 with 90-day mortality was examined. Serum MMP-8 predicted 90-day mortality of acute respiratory failure patients poorly. Admission TIMP-1 levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors (p<0.001).TIMP-1 was an independent predictor of 90-day mortality, with a moderate discriminative power (AUC 0.633, 95% CI 0.580- 0.686). TIMP-1 was also associated with the severity of oxygenation disturbance. Thus, TIMP-1 is a potentially useful biomarker for predicting outcome in acute respiratory failure patients.
  • Cederqvist, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    During inflammation, excess production and release of matrix proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases, may result in dysregulated extracellular proteolysis leading to development of tissue damage. Pulmonary inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung injury in the preterm infant. The aims of this study were to evaluate involvement of MMPs and serine proteinase trypsin in acute and chronic lung injury in preterm infants and to study the role of these enzymes in acute lung injury by means of an animal model of hyperoxic lung injury. Molecular forms and levels of MMP-2, -8, and -9, and their specific inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2, as well as trypsin were studied in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) samples collected from preterm infants with respiratory distress. Expression and distribution of trypsin-2 and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) was examined in autopsy lung specimens from fetuses, from preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and from newborn infants without lung injury. We detected higher MMP-8 and trypsin-2 and lower TIMP-2 in TAF from preterm infants with more severe acute respiratory distress. Infants subsequently developing BPD had higher levels of MMP-8 and trypsin-2 early postnatally than did those who survived without this chronic lung injury. Immunohistochemically, trypsin-2 was mainly detectable in bronchial epithelium, but also in alveolar epithelium, and its expression was strongest in prolonged RDS. Since trypsin-2 is potent activator of PAR2, a G-protein coupled receptor involved in inflammation, we studied PAR2 expression in the lung. PAR2 co-localized with trypsin-2 in bronchoalveolar epithelium and its expression was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar epithelium in preterm infants with prolonged RDS than in newborn controls. In the experimental study, rats were exposed to >95% oxygen for 24, 48, and 60 hours, or room air. At 48 hours of hyperoxia, MMP-8 and trypsin levels sharply increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and expression of trypsin appeared in alveolar epithelium, and MMP-8 predominantly in macrophages. In conclusion, high pulmonary MMP-8 and trypsin-2 early postnatally are associated with severity of acute lung injury and subsequent development of BPD in preterm infants. In the injured preterm lung, trypsin-2 co-localizes with PAR2 in bronchoalveolar epithelium, suggesting that PAR2 activated by high levels of trypsin-2 is involved in lung inflammation associated with development of BPD. Marked increase in MMP-8 and trypsin early in the course of experimental hyperoxic lung injury suggests that these enzymes play a role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Further exploration of the roles of trypsin and MMP-8 in lung injury may offer new targets for therapeutic intervention.
  • Määttä, Vesa (2010)
    Matti Laurila (1895 1983) This is a biographical research of a Jaeger officer, a Civil Guard Chief, a Field Commander Matti Laurila. A broader practice of qualitative methods was utilized in the research. The main aim is a permanent reconstruction and reinterpretation of past events through the experiences of the study object. The life and times of Laurila are intertwined with the crucial events that led to the Finnish Declaration of Independence. Afterwards he helped to ensure that the young republic also stayed independent. As a Jaeger in the winter of 1917 Laurila witnessed an incident he would never forget. After disobeying a direct order, Sven Saarikoski from Lapua was shot dead by his commanding officer, K. A. Ståhlberg, on the ice of the river Aa. Laurila faced the horrors of war at closer quarters, for he lost his father and his brother in the battle of Länkipohja on 16th March 1918. This battle was a major turning point for Laurila and profoundly influenced the rest of his life. The relationship between Laurila and his superiors was problematic almost throughout his military career, haunted as he was by the memory of Sven Saarikoski's execution and the losses in Länkipohja The position of Laurila as an authority in South Ostrobothnia was a key factor in preventing the extreme right from rallying enough Civil Guard troops to escalate the embryonic Mäntsälä rebellion of 1932. After the rebellion Laurila routinely opposed anything he saw as a threat to the independence of the Civil Guard. He would flatly refuse to even consider the integration of the Civil Guard into the national defence force. His uncompromising stand in this matter annoyed some among the higher ranking officers. After the Winter War Laurila got himself into a dispute with Jaeger Colonel H. E. Hannuksela that would have long-lasting consequences. The conflicts between them became widely known in the attack phase of the Continuation War in 1941 at the latest. Laurila had to give up his military career at the end of 1944. In the years that followed he did what he could to ensure that the South Ostrobothnia Civil Guard patrimony remained in the province. Laurila's position as a respected authority in South Ostrobothnia remained unchanged until his death.
  • Kushnerenko, Elena V. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Berghäll, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This dissertation provides a synchronic grammatical description of Mauwake, a Papuan (Trans-New Guinea) language of about 2000 speakers on the North Coast of the Madang Province in Papua New Guinea. The theoretical background is that of Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT), used extensively in analysing and writing descriptive grammars. The chapters from morphology to clause level are described from form to function; in the later chapters the function is taken more often as the starting point. Any theory-specific terminology is kept to the minimum and formalisms have been avoided in accordance with BLT principles. Mauwake has a classic 5-vowel system and 14 consonant phonemes. With its simple phonology it is a typical representative of the Madang North Coast languages. For a Papuan language there are relatively few morphophonological alternations. Nouns are either alienably or inalienably possessed. There is no obligatory number marking in nouns or noun phrases. Pronouns have several different forms: five for case and three for other functions. The dative pronouns are treated as [+human] locatives, and they have also grammaticalised as possessives. The verbal morphology is agglutinative and mainly suffixal. Unusual features include two distributive suffixes, and the interaction of the derivational benefactive and the inflectional beneficiary suffixes. The applicative suffix has either transitivising or causative but not benefactive function. The switch-reference system distinguishes between simultaneous and sequential action, as well as same or different subject in relation to the following clause. There are several verbs denoting coming and going, and they may combine with one of three prefixes to indicate bringing and taking. Mauwake is a nominative-accusative type language, and the basic constituent order in a clause is SOV. Subject and object are the only syntactic arguments. There is no indirect object, but a clause can have two or even three objects. A nominalised clause with a finite verb functions as a relative clause or a complement clause; one with a nominalised verb has several different functions. Functional domains described include modality, negation, deixis, quantification, possession and comparison. As there are four negators, Mauwake has more variation in negative expressions than is usual in Papuan languages. Clause chaining is the preferred strategy for joining clauses into sentences, but coordination and subordination of finite clauses are also common. The form of a complement clause depends on whether it is of the fact, action or potential type. Tail-head linkage is used as a cohesive device between sentences. The discourse-level features described are topic and focus.
  • Pearson, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO2, from peat into the atmosphere appears unwarranted at least on nutrient-poor, boreal forestry-drained peatland sites. The overall climatic impact of soil preparation, in the forms of mounding and scalping, three years after application expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents (100-year GWP), was neutral compared to leaving soil unprepared. The core findings of this research support mounding as the best alternative on nutrient-poor, drained peatland sites when the goal is to maximize the regeneration success of Scots pine after clearcutting with minimal impact on soil GHG emissions. In the future, development of soil preparation methodology is particularly deserving of further attention. While it may not be the sexiest research topic in the worldwide rat race of the modern day, it is nonetheless of substantial importance in a country highly specialized not only in the utilization but also the rejuvenation of wood resources on drained peatlands. Keywords: forestry-drained peat soil, clearcutting, mounding, scalping, CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes, drought and waterlogging stress
  • Heurlin, Eva af (2004)
    Denna pro-gradu beskriver den mexikanska ursprungsbefolkningen, mayaindianerna i Mexikos sydligaste delstat Chiapas, med en speciell betoning på indiankvinnan. Jag har jämfört hur de historiska händelserna som kolonisationen, självständighetsrevolten, den mexikanska revolutionen och den idag verksamma gerillarörelsen zapatisterna inverkat på mayaindianerna. För att förstå orsaken till att zapatisterna gjort uppror är det av betydelse att veta i hurudana förhållanden mayaindianerna lever i. Jag har beskrivit mayaindianernas liv både inom den privata och den offentliga sfären och jämfört kvinnans och mannens ställning i de olika indiannärsamhällena. Som teoretisk referensram har jag använt mig av den antropologiska diskussionen kring indelandet i den privata och den offentliga sfären. Min pro-gradu baserar sig inte på någon fältstudie, utan som metod har jag använt mig av olika etnografier och artiklar som behandlar mayaindianerna. Jag har analyserat empiriska etnografier för att kunna skapa en så trovärdig bild av mayanärsamhället som möjligt. Resultatet av denna forskning är att mayaindianernas situation påverkats av historien och indiankvinnans ställning i närsamhällen varierar.Vi kan alltså inte säga att indiankvinnorna alltid skulle ha varit mannen underställd, utan kvinnans ställning varierar beroende på samhällsutvecklingen och den ekonomiska situationen. Kvinnan och mannen är beroende av varandra för överlevandet och för uppnåendet av makt och prestige i närsamhället och i sina aktiviteter kompletterar de varandra. Indiankvinnorna har genom den revolutionära rörelsen zapatisterna blivit allt mer medvetna om sina rättigheter och om den yttre världen. Zapatisterna har som mål att förbättra indianernas livsvillkor och indiankvinnornas medverkande har inverkat speciellt på könsidentiteten. Rörelsen har börjat diskutera kvinnofrågor genom t.ex. den revolutionära lagen som utarbetats. I lagen kräver kvinnorna rättvis behandling både av sina män och inom närsamhället. De viktigaste källorna i detta arbete är Brenda Rosenbaums etnografi, With Our Heads Bowed - The Dynamics of Gender in a Maya Community, Christine Ebers, Women and Alcohol in a Highland Maya Town - Water of Hope, Water of Sorrow och Diane Goetzes publikationer om zapatistörelsen
  • Tiihonen, Heidi (2012)
    Nuoren märehtijän alkaessa syödä kiinteää ravintoa, etumahojen suhteellinen osuus mahoista kasvaa ja niiden seinämän epiteeli alkaa kehittyä mahdollistaakseen ravintoaineiden tehokkaan imeytymisen. Märehtijöillä rehun hiilihydraatit hajoavat pötsissä haihtuviksi rasvahapoiksi, ja monokarboksylaattikuljettajien uskotaan avustavan haihtuvien rasvahappojen imeytymisessä pötsin seinämän läpi. Pötsin seinämässä on todettu olevan ainakin MCT1- ja MCT4 –isoformeja. Nämä tarvitsevat toimiakseen CD147 -proteiinin (myös OX-47, EMMPRIN, HT7 ja basigin), joka on on glykosyloitu integraalinen membraaniproteiini. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää MCT1-, MCT4- ja CD147 –proteiinien muutoksia pötsin toiminnan kehittymisen aikana. Toisena tavoitteena oli selvittää, voidaanko näytteenä käyttää solukalvojen sijasta pötsin seinämästä tehtyä homogenaattia. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin eri ikäisinä lopetetuista kileistä kerättyjä näytteitä. Kilejä oli yhteensä 31, joista 7 oli 3-21 tunnin ikäisiä, 7 viikon ikäisiä, 7 kahden viikon ikäisiä, 1 kolmen viikon ikäinen, 2 neljän viikon ikäistä, sekä 7 kahdeksan viikon ikäistä. Pötsin seinämästä otettiin näyte, josta valmistettiin homogenaatti ja eristettiin solukalvot eli membraanit. Pötsinäytteistä löydettiin MCT1- ja CD147 –proteiineja, mutta MCT4- isoformia ei ollut havaittavissa. Membraaninäytteissä havaittiin MCT1 -isoformin pitoisuuksien kasvavan iän mukana, paitsi kahdeksan viikon ikäisillä kileillä, joilla MCT1 –isoformin määrät vähenivät merkitsevästi. CD147 –proteiinia oli havaittavissa jo vastasyntyneiden kilien pötsinäytteissä. Membraaninäytteissä CD147 -proteiinin määrä kasvoi lineaarisesti iän mukana ja CD147- proteiinin ja MCT1 –isoformin välillä havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevä korrelaatio. Homogenaattinäytteissä MCT1 -isoformin määrissä ei havaittu korrelaatiota iän kanssa. MCT1- ja MCT4 -isoformien solukalvolle siirtymisessä avustavan CD147 –proteiinin ei myöskään havaittu korreloivan koe-eläinten iän tai MCT1 -isoformin kanssa. Membraani- ja homogenaattinäytteistä mitattujen MCT1- ja CD147 -määrien välillä ei ollut korrelaatiota. Haihtuvien rasvahappojen muodostus alkaa, kun eläin aloittaa kiinteän ravinnon syömisen. Tästä seuraa, että haihtuvia rasvahappoja kuljettavia proteiineja tarvitaan epiteelisolujen pinnalle. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin haihtuvia rasvahappoja kuljettavan MCT1 –proteiinin ja sen apuproteiinien määrän lisääntyminen iän myötä. N. 8-11 viikon iässä, jolloin pötsin toiminta on kehittynyt aikuisen eläimen tasolle, MCT1 –proteiinin määrä oli merkitsevästi vähäisempi kuin 4 viikon iässä. Tulosten perusteella homogenaatti ei ole hyvä tapa mitata membraaniproteiinien määrää.