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  • Alpia, Johanna (2003)
  • Wessman, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The topic of this thesis is the analysis of complex diseases, and specifically the use of certain clustering methods to do it. We concern ourselves mostly with the modeling of complex phenotypes of diseases: the symptoms and signs of diseases, and the other multiple cophenotypes that go with them. The two related questions we seek answers for are: 1) how can we use these clustering methods to summarize the complex, multivariate phenotype data, for example to be used as a simple phenotype in genetic analyses and 2) how can we use these clustering methods to find subgroups of sufferers of a particular disease, such that might share the same causal factors of the disease. Current methods for studies on medical genetics ideally call for a single or at most handful of univariate phenotypes to be compared to genetic markers. Multidimensional phenotypes cannot be handled by the standard methods, and treating each variable as independent and testing one hundred phenotypes with unclear true dependency structure against thousands of markers results into problems with both running times and multiple testing correction. In this work, clustering is utilized to summarize a multi-dimensional phenotype into something that can then be used in association studies of both genetic and other type of potential causes. I describe a clustering process and some clustering methods used in this work, with comments on practical issues and references to the relevant literature. After some experiments on artificial data to gain insight to the properties of these methods, I present four case-studies on real data, highlighting both ways to succesfully use these methods and problems that can arise in the process.
  • Wikström, Kate (1999)
    Arbetet beskriver två aktörer som av olika skäl beslutit sig för att inleda ett samarbete i fråga om bashälso- och socialvårdsproduktion. Samarbetet har en unik karaktär och är det första av sitt slag inte bara i Finland utan också i Norden. Aktörerna i samarbetet består av Karis stad och Samfundet Folkhälsan i svenska Finland r.f. Det unika i samarbetet utgörs av samarbetets omfattning samt faktumet att Folkhälsan räknas höra till den tredje sektorn. En finländsk kommun har aldrig tidigare anlitat en organisation från tredje sektorn i syfte att överlåta hela sin produktion av bashälsovård. Den tredje sektorn i Finland har traditionellt främst sysslat med frågor angående kultur och fritid. I samarbetet med Karis stad administrerar och producerar samfundet Folkhälsan i svenska Finland r.f. bashälsovården och en del av socialvården för en hel kommun. Samarbetets stora omfattning och stadens val att anlita den tredje sektorn som producent för stadens bashälsovård innebär att samarbetet är historiskt. Arbetet utgår från den nationalistiska teorin i vilken man studerar samhälleliga fenomen utgående från aktörers avsikter, kalkyler och manövrer. För att man skall kunna förstå hur samarbetets speciella karaktär utvecklats beskrivs aktörernas utgångslägen och preferensordning. Eftersom många viktiga frågor angående samarbetet avgjordes genom förhandlingar beskrivs förhandlingsgången och förhandlingarnas resultat. Samarbetets form har inte endast påverkats av förhandlingar mellan aktörerna utan även av lagliga hinder. De lagliga hindren kom att påverka samarbetet så att en monopolsituation idag råder i fråga om Karis stads bashälsovårdsproduktion. Då staden i ett tidigt skede av förhandlingarna hamnade i ett underläge och gick med på avtalspunkter som inte är gynnsamma för staden har det varit speciellt intressant att undersöka varför detta skedde och hur staden agerat för att balansera upp situationen. Arbetets tyngdpunkt ligger därför framförallt på den ena aktörens (stadens) handlingsutrymme d.v.s. alternativ och valmöjligheter. Förutom en redogörelse över hur staden agerat, ges även en beskrivning av alternativa strategier staden kunde ha använt sig av. Eftersom ett av stadens mål med samarbetet var att sänka stadens kostnader för sjuk och hälsovård ges även en översikt över vad samarbetet innebär rent ekonomiskt för staden. Materialet som använts i uppsatsen består främst av personlig kommunikation, styrelse- och fullmäktigeprotokoll samt tidningar. Den viktigaste teorikällan för arbetet är tagen ur boken "Ideologi och strategi. Svensk politik under 100 år", skriven av Leif Lewin.
  • Kiili, Markus Tapio (2005)
    Parodontiitti eli hampaan tukikudoksen tulehdus on ihmisten ja koirien yleisin suusairaus, jolle on tunnusomaista hammasta ympäröivä kudostuho. Kudostuhon aiheuttajana ovat plakkibakteereiden tuottamat ja elimistön omiin puolustusreaktioihin liittyvät tulehduksen välittäjäaineet. Elimistön omista kudostuhoa aiheuttavista aineista tärkeimpinä pidetään kolleganolyyttejä eli kollageenin hajottajia ja niistä nimenomaan tiettyjä matriksin metalloproteinaaseja (MMP). Parodontiitille on tyypillistä kroonisuus ja taudin eteneminen pyräyksittäin, joten sen tarkkaa ennustetta on usein vaikea arvioida. Uusimpien MMP- tutkimusten tarkoituksena on löytää tarkempia menetelmiä parodontiittipotilaiden taudin aktiviteetin arviointiin ja siten hoidon suuntaamiseen oikein valituille potilaille. Myös spesifisiä matriksin metalloproteinaasien inhibiittoreita on tutkittu mahdollisina lääkkeinä parodontiitin hoitoon. Nämä syventävät opinnot pohjautuvat artikkeliini matriksin metalloproteinaasien mittauksesta kroonista parodontiittia sairastavien ihmisten iennesteestä ja ikenen kudosnäytteistä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää MMP-8:n ja MMP-13:n eri molekyylimuotojen esiintymistä kroonisessa parodontiitissa, sekä tutkia mitkä eri solut niitä erittävät. Kahdeltatoista hoitamatonta parodontiittia sairastavalta keski-ikäiseltä ihmiseltä kerättiin 30 ientaskunäytettä määrämittaisilla imupaperisuikaleilla. Näytteet liuotettiin puskuriliuokseen, joka analysoitiin Western immunoblotting menetelmällä käyttäen kanissa tehtyjä polyklonaalisia MMP-8 ja MMP-13 vasta-aineita. Ienkudosnäytteet kerättiin kuudelta kroonista parodontiittia sairastavalta ihmiseltä. MMP-8 ja MMP-13 paikallistettiin käyttäen samoja vasta-aineita ja avidiini-biotiini-peroksidaasi detektiomenetelmää. Ennen hoitoa otettujen ientaskunestenäytteiden todetusta MMP-8:sta suurin osa oli molekyylipainoltaan 80kD, 75kD ja 60kD vastaten prepro-, pro- ja aktiivista muotoa neutrofiilityypin entsyymistä. 43kD ja 38kD painoiset aktiiviset fibroblastityyppiset entsyymit olivat toiseksi suurin ryhmä. Lisäksi todettiin jonkin verran >100kD ja <30kD painoisia tuotteita vastaten todennäköisesti MMP-8:n kompleksimuotoa ja pilkkoutumistuotteita. MMP-13 pääasiallinen molekyylimuoto oli 60kD proentsyymi, mutta myös 40kD aktiivista muotoa esiintyi. Joissakin näytteissä oli hieman myös >100kD kompleksimuotoja. Sekä MMP-8, että MMP-13 pitoisuudet ennen ja jälkeen hoidon otetuissa näytteissä korreloivat ikenen verenvuoto indeksin kanssa (p<0,05). Immunohistokemiallisessa analyysissä MMP-8 todettiin esiintyvän neutrofiileissä, ientaskuepiteelissä ja ikenen tulehtuneen sidekudoksen plasmasoluissa. MMP-13 immunoreaktiivisuutta havaittiin ientaskuepiteelissä ja makrofagityypin soluissa.
  • Pietikäinen, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Rajala, Jaana (2007)
    Syftet med undersökningen var att kartlägga olika mobbningsroller och mobbningsstrategier i klassen och hur dessa korrelerar med varandra. Mobbning har undersökts av bland annat Dan Olweus och senare som ett gruppfenomen av Christina Salmivalli. Aggressionsforskningen i pro gradun grundar sig på Kirsti Lagerspetz tidigare undersökningar. Ålder och könsskillnader beaktades också. Sammanlagt undersöktes 110 elever från 6 grundskolklasser i en Helsingforsskola. En specialklass jämfördes med de övriga. PRQ (Participant Role Questionnaire), en kamratvärderingsenkät som baserar sig på Christina Salmivallis undersökningar om mobbarroller i klassen har används som metod. För att kunna klarlägga olika mobbningsstrategier och hur dessa korrelerar med mobbarrollerna, finns också en del i enkäten som baserar sig på DIAS (Indirect and Direct Aggression Scale) av Karin Österman. Resultaten tyder på att de flesta inte är inblandande i mobbning. Det finns mest mobbarroller hos lågstadiepojkarna men samtidigt också flere motståndarroller bland lågstadieflickorna. Mobbning ansågs som ett relativt sällsynt fenomen på högstadieklasserna. De flesta fick roller som utanförstående eller kunde inte placeras i någon roll alls. I specialklassen hittades mer mobbarroller och indirekt mobbning än i de övriga klasserna. Indirekt och direkt mobbning var inte bunden till könet eller åldern. Genom att identifiera mobbarrollerna kan det framgå hur allvarligt mobbningsproblemet är i klassen. Eftersom det är lättare att påverka yngre barns attityder, borde man redan i ett tidigt skede aktivt motarbeta mobbning. Mobbningsrollerna förändras heller inte mycket med tiden. Endast ombyte av klass eller förändring i gruppkonstellationen kan de varande mobbningsmönstren spjälkas upp. Skolkuratorn, lärarna och hela elevvårdgruppen har härmed en viktig ageringsroll. Interventioner och antimobbningsstrategier tyder på att man det är möjligt att få tillstånd en bestående förändring och minska mobbning.
  • Tukiainen, Tomi (2013)
    Työssä esitellään lukijalle tietokonepelit ja mobiilipelimoottorit, jonka jälkeen edetään arvioimaan markkinoilta löytyviä pelimoottoreita pienen mobiilipelejä tuottavan peliyrityksen näkökulmasta. Arvioinnin tarkoituksena on löytää yritykselle parhaiten sopiva pelimoottori. Arvioinnissa hyödynnetään ISO/IEC 25000 sarjan ohjelmistojen laatustandardeja. Kahdestakymmenestä mobiilipelien tuottamiseen soveltuvasta pelimoottorista muodostetaan objektiivinen arvio, jonka perusteella yritykselle parhaalta vaikuttavaa pelimoottoria arvioidaan syvemmin prototyyppipeliprojektissa. Työn perusteella löydetään yritykselle hyvin soveltuva pelimoottori.
  • Lindholm, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Ojaluoma, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Employees and students in University of Helsinki use various services which require authentication. Some of these services require strong authentication. Traditionally this has been realized by meeting in person and presenting an official identification card. Some of these online services can be automatized by implementing existing techniques for strong authentication. Currently strong authentication is implemented by VETUMA-service. Mobile authentication is interesting alternative method. The purpose of this paper is to study the Mobile Signature Service technology and to find out the benefits and possibilities of its use for mobile authentication in University of Helsinki. Mobile authentication is suitable method for implementing strong authentication and for signing documents digitally. Mobile authentication can be used in many different ways in Helsinki university.
  • Martela, Anna (2013)
    This Master’s Thesis will reflect on how information can empower women in urban West Jakarta through examining two different forums that provide crucial healthcare information for women in lower income families. My main focus is on analyzing a mobile phone service, which was a pilot project by Nokia Life and Mercy Corps in West Jakarta, targeted for pregnant women and women with small children. My research is based on participatory observation, focus group discussions, and interviews in late 2011 and early 2012. Anthropological research does not provide many studies on how women in development countries use mobile phones. My Master’s Thesis tries to shed light on this area. In addition to this, the study tackles the growing but little researched field of mobile phone use in health services; the so-called Mhealth use. In my thesis I will look at technology use from a gender perspective. I am especially interested in the feelings mobile phone services such as Nokia Life generates in its women users. I will thus show how information via mobile phones can have the potential to empower women, even though some barriers to the empowerment process occur in developing countries. As a theoretical basis I will utilize, for example, Chib et al.’s (2008) ICTs for development model. I will also discuss how women in West Jakarta use their mobile phones, and argue that mobile phones can impact women’s lives, but only if the socio-cultural setting allows this. In West-Jakarta, mobile phone and Mhealth use broadened mothers’ lives within the domain of motherhood. Their cultural and social setting thus set the limits on how the mobile phones could alter their lives.
  • Fortelius, Sabina Maria Blanka (2014)
    The context of the thesis is found in the sociological discussion on migration and labour market integration of immigrants. The theoretic foothold builds on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory on forms of capital and fields. The point of departure for the study is Swedish citizens’ paths to employment in Helsinki at the time recently after migration. Swedish migrants without a previous connection to Finland through kin have not been studied in the Finnish context, and the aim is to describe how these migrants gain access to the local labour market in Helsinki. What assets do the Swedish citizens use in order to gain employment in Helsinki? How are these assets achieved? Are the resources migrated from Sweden valued on the field, or do the Swedish migrants have to take further measures in Finland, in order to gain employment? By answering these questions a definition of the prevailing rules on the labour market will also be made. The thesis is written as an independent part of the research project Svenska invandrare i Finland, led by senior lecturer Östen Wahlbeck. The empirical data for the study consists of 14 semi-structured in-depth interviews with Swedish Citizens in Helsinki. The interviews were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 and have been analysed from an inductive angle. As an immigrant group, the Swedish citizens in Finland are in a specific position as their first language is one of the national languages in Finland. The Swedish citizens actively use the Swedish-speaking labour market as a gateway to employment. The initial occupations of Swedish citizens in Helsinki are on the one hand often situated in Swedish-speaking sectors where the level of required skills or assets might be low, entry-level sectors, and sectors where the specific skills required are corresponding to the national background of the employee, ethno-specific occupations. On the other hand, the interviews also show that some of the interviewed have managed to gain employment that corresponds to their work experience from Sweden. The study shows that the Swedish immigrants only to a limited extent have to rely on unofficial channels to gain employment, and that the assets of the Swedish applicants in many cases have been recognised in their migrated state. In many cases, the applicants have also managed to mobilise their ties to or knowledge of Sweden into a valued asset which enables them to gain employment in Helsinki.
  • Warro, Eeva (2012)
    This thesis scrutinises EU civilian crisis management as an instrument of global liberal governance. Critical Theorists’ views on peace operations form the starting point of the thesis. In their view peace operations are instrumental in spreading liberal common sense and state-centric and managerialist in nature turning subjects of security into objects. Instead they call for more complex operations based on local leadership and wide civil society engagement. This thesis sides, however, with an alternative problematisation of political power, government and war, namely the Foucaultian governmentality approach. Besides Foucault (1977; 1990; 2003; 2007) the theoretical background of this thesis is inspired especially by the works of Dillon and Reid (2008; 2009). With their advancements global liberal governance is seen as a security dispositif with which a biopolitical world order is upheld. EU civilian crisis management, itself a complex ensemble, is argued to be an instance of the dispositif and the analysis focuses on showing how. The research material of this thesis consists in speeches of the EU High Representative for ESDP, Javier Solana, in official EU policy documents, notably the European Security Strategy; in guidelines and policy documents pertaining more specifically to ESDP civilian crisis management and to civilian crisis management training as well as in documents and web-pages of the EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo. The methodological orientation for scrutinising this material is the Foucaultian governmentality approach, relying mainly on works of Rose (1992; 1993; 1999; 2006; 2007). Political rationalities, governmental technologies and subjects are the central analytical concepts utilised for the analysis. The security rationality of the EU, in particular in the field of ESDP civilian crisis management, is biopolitical. Contingency and the Union’s ability to discern threatening developments from good ones figure as the greatest security concerns in the material analysed. These are addressed by emergency thinking, whereby the security of the governmental mechanisms of crisis management themselves becomes central. In order to be resilient in the face of contingency, the system needs to be in constant transformation. This logic of constant transformation and adaptation are governmentalised in the EU civilian crisis management system by various biopolitical techniques and mechanisms that in the discussion are grouped as technologies of reflexive government, harmonisation and co-location. These technologies are instrumental in producing also subjects, which are capable in living out the rationality of emergency and which thus reproduce it and maintain the governmental technologies. The civilian crisis management experts are articulated as relays and objects of governmental power. On one hand, they collect information through which different instances are made governable thus ensuring government without Government, and on another, mechanisms upon mechanisms are introduced to keep the experts and the civilian crisis management system itself on check in the fear of it turning acerbic. It is concluded that the thus biostrategised EU civilian crisis management is instrumental in mobilising different civilian sectors of societies to the biopolitical war waged by global liberal governance. Thereby, the view adopted is akin to that of the Critical Theorists about liberal peace operations, but this thesis goes into depth about the actual processes and techniques of global liberal governance and makes reference to no relation of subjugation, but sees power as productive, not merely restrictive.
  • Kullman, Kim (2015)
    Working between and beyond the interdisciplinary areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, this thesis explores how children learn practices of everyday mobility in metropolitan Helsinki (population 1.4 million). Children’s urban movement has become a contested issue in Euro-American settings due to a range of developments, among them the growth in car traffic, the increase in travel distances to school and the widening influence of risk thinking on cultural understandings of childhood. Such tendencies have conspired to intensify the regulation of children’s engagements with urban environments, thereby circumscribing their agencies and sociabilities. Elaborating a more affirmative account of children’s mobility, this thesis gives prominence to the varied competencies, experiences and knowledges of movement that are already in place in the daily lives of families. Through a close exploration of the actual practices whereby children foster their mobilities, the thesis indicates that some of the current concerns around children’s urban movement are misplaced and that societies need to reconsider how children are involved in the shaping of present and future mobilities. The thesis draws on empirical research in two specific sites where children in Helsinki learn mobility: a model traffic area for 5-10-year-olds and the school journeys of 7-12-year-olds, the first of these providing an entry-point into formal pedagogical practices, the second into informal learning through mundane urban travel. The study has deployed various qualitative and participatory methods—including mobile ethnography, digital picture-making and visual interviews—to create an open-ended and flexible arena for children, parents and educators to experiment with diverse ways of becoming mobile and to convey their experiences of such becomings. Further extending this approach, the thesis allies itself with Donald Woods Winnicott, Daniel Stern, Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour and other thinkers to trace out a series of mobility experiments, transformative relational arrangements, which suggest a three-fold argument about mobile learning. First, the thesis develops a detailed account of children’s mobility that eschews generalised assumptions about their agency, stressing instead its dynamic and relational emergence as part of daily practices of movement. Children’s mobility in Helsinki is often constituted in collective experiments that draw together a variety of people and materials, from parents and siblings to zebra crossings and bicycles—all carefully composed to engage children in an equally safe and playful elaboration of their agency in relation to other urban bodies. Describing these heterogeneous set-ups and their intricate workings, the thesis brings out the creativity and diversity of children’s everyday movements. Second, the thesis proposes an affirmative view of children’s mundane mobilities by demonstrating that the experimental forms of learning cultivated by the families and educators in Helsinki contribute to children’s sense of belonging in urban and traffic environments. Such experimental learning speaks of more caring and collaborative styles of movement that this thesis further clarifies in an attempt to develop alternative ways of understanding children’s mobility that bypass some of the control-oriented and risk-averse attitudes surrounding the geographies of childhood in present Euro-American societies. This also enables a closer examination of how mobility experiments could help academics, educators, planners and other professionals to support and stimulate children’s mobility in a manner that enriches their civic agency and participation. Third, the thesis elaborates a methodological argument about the importance for childhood research to move beyond the effort to describe the world as it appears towards a more active and collective experimentation with the ways in which the world could become otherwise, as dealing with ever-complex empirical challenges asks for more dynamic and open-ended modes of working. The thesis indicates that understanding issues such as children’s mobility requires continuous experimentation with concepts, devices and methods so that both researchers and participants have an opportunity to detect and amplify unexplored possibilities in their practices. The areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, through their interdisciplinary inclinations and sensitivities to human potential and transformation, are particularly well placed to contribute to such an exploration of more responsive forms of engagement.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Senni (2010)
    This is an ethnographic study of the mobility of women in Upper Egypt. It is based on two months of fieldwork conducted in the governorate of Sohag. A central argument of this study is that the critical re-evaluation of spatial divisions is needed to come to grips with the complexity of ways in which space is actually understood. Upper Egypt or the Sa’id is a culturally specific region that is labelled as traditionalist, family-centred and patriarchal. Sa'idi women negotiate mobility in public space within the community with regard to such principles as the avoidance of shame and respect towards familial authorities. Despite the small size of the governorate the ideas and practices related to mobility are diverse. The aim of this study is to ethnographically illustrate the heterogeneity that is linked with spatial constructions. Using the theory of practice, I show that women, as active mobile agents, construct, negotiate, regulate, and finally give social meanings to space. By means of participant observation and interviews I study two socially distinguishable groups. I concentrate on highly-educated middle class women living in urban surroundings. As a reference point, I have a group of rural non-educated women. With regard to the two mentioned groups the following themes are studied: how women, as active agents, negotiate their mobility in public space, how the question of women’s mobility is related to the morals of the patriarchally arranged community and how the different social classes regard spatial organisation. Mobility is an embodied activity that is founded on the inseparable relationship between body and space. In feminist anthropology, the theoretical division between male-oriented public and female-oriented private space has evoked a lot of discussion. This study reveals that, not so much the concepts of public and private, but the spatial division between familiar and unfamiliar helps to understand on what basis the mobility of women is regulated and negotiated. Moreover, it is shown that the urban middle class and the rural lower class have very different kinds of spatial practices. The data displays that the ability to regulate privacy and to make spatial divisions requires resources. Finally, the results suggest that there is no single Egyptian understanding of space. Spatial categorisations are renegotiated all the time, as is gender. As commonly shared ideas of womanhood change, spatial practices find new forms. This study is an attempt to understand contemporary spatial practices in the relatively little studied Sa’idi region and to provide a reconsideration of spatial divisions in the light of the ethnographic data.
  • Valros, Niklas Folke Harri (2007)
    Pro gradu -avhandlingens forskningsobjekt är finska mobilkonsumenter i åldern 20–71 år. Syftet med undersökningen är att granska samt kartlägga användningen av nyttiga och nöjaktiga mobiltjänster. Vilka är de populäraste tjänsterna? I bakgrunden fungerar Colin Campbells teori om hedonism i konsumtionssamhället. Även intresset för ny teknologi är ett centralt tema i undersökningen. Med hjälp av teorier från dessa temaområden profileras mobilkonsumenten i nyttokonsumenter respektive nöjeskonsumenter och samtidigt görs en skillnad mellan modern och traditionell hedonism. Med andra ord söks kännetecken för detta slag av konsumtionsbeteende och samtidigt undersöks vilket intresset för nya innovationer och ny teknologi är. Undersökningens material består av ett statistiskt material från år 2003. Materialet härstammar från Konsumtionsforskningscentralen. Materialet är icke-slumpmässigt och behandlar frågor kring användning av mobila tjänster och mobiltelefoner. Inga öppna frågor är inkluderade i undersökningen. Konsumentprofiler har sökts med hjälp av kvantitativa metoder. Materialet är delat i målvariabler och kriterievariabler. Kriterievariablerna är nödvändiga med tanke på konstrueringen av konsumentprofilerna. I avhandlingen uppfattas mobiltjänsterna som relativt ointressanta. Ingen särskild grupp visade sig vara speciellt intresserad av användningen av tjänsterna. Vissa tecken på modern hedonism kunde ändå urskiljas eftersom många hade testat tjänsterna åtminstone en gång och innehavet av nyare mobilmodeller kunde konstateras. Nyttotjänsterna var populärare än nöjestjänsterna. Även om materialet gav goda förutsättningar till en indelning i nytto- och nöjeskonsumtion, visade det sig att dessa två dimensioner inte existerade. Istället handlade det om sk blandkonsumtion, dock med en tyngdpunkt på nyttan. Trots att användningen av mobiltjänster inte är en särskilt bra markör på hedonism kan man dock dra försiktiga slutsatser som baserar sig på innehav av mobilmodeller samt på testandet av tjänsterna. Ju mer avancerad teknologi ägs, desto oftare använder man sig av fördelar den nya teknologin för med sig. Men det handlar inte om traditionell konsumtion, rättare sagt handlar det om modern konsumtion där vikten inte längre ligger på varans praktiskhet eller på ett behov. Snarare handlar det om ett slag av teknologisk nyfikenhet. Konsumtion av mobiltjänster är ett fenomen som inte ännu idag har ett tydligt ansikte.
  • Ollila, Marja-Liisa (1986)