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  • Valjakka, Minna (2011)
    The main aim of this work was to explore the use of Mao Zedong s (毛泽东, 1893—1976) visual image in contemporary Chinese art during the years 1976—2006. Chairman Mao is the most visually reproduced person in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the presence of his image is still unquestionable at many levels. Although several scholars have provided insightful observations on this topic, research focusing on Mao's visual image has been neglected. Employing the interdisciplinary approach of visual studies and using image as the main concept, this research combines different theoretical frameworks, deriving from art history, image studies and social sciences, for each chapter in order to explain the origins, intentions and major strategies of the contemporary Chinese artists. The focus of this research was to elucidate how Mao's visual image, deriving from the Maoist era, is re-created and negotiated in contemporary Chinese art works. The material reproductions - the visual images in contemporary art - are created to be juxtaposed with the immaterial mental images of Mao that were created during the Maoist era through the original visual images of Mao. This complex interaction between visual and mental images is further exemplified by art works that do not include Mao's visual image, but still imply his mental image. The methods used derive from both sinology and art history. The research is based on extensive fieldwork in China, which was crucial for gathering new information and materials from this vigorous art scene. The topic is approached through a Chinese cultural, political and historical perspective that is necessary for a further understanding of how the original visual images of Mao obtained their omnipotent status and what kind of iconography was created. Close structural analysis, taking into account the format, style, techniques, composition, colors, materials and space used in the art works, is employed to demonstrate the great variety of visual images created. The analysis is further placed in a continuous dialogue both with the contemporary art works of Mao and with the original visual images of Mao from the past. In this study it is shown that contemporary Chinese art relating to Chairman Mao is a more versatile and multilayered phenomenon than is generally assumed. Although some of the art works seem to fit into the definition of superficial art, the study demonstrates that this reading of the art works is not adequate. The author argues that employing Mao's visual images in contemporary Chinese art is based on three main strategies used by artists: to create a visual dialogue with a traumatizing past, to employ transcontextual parody, and to explore the importance of Tian'anmen through site-dependent art. These strategies are not exclusionary, but instead interdependent and many art works employ more than one of them. In addition, these three main strategies include versatile methods used by artists that make the use of Mao's visual images even more multifaceted.
  • Kannisto, Heli (2014)
    MAOL-taulukot -kirja on ollut lukiolaisten tukena opinnoissa jo vuodesta 1978 lähtien. Tämän jälkeen kirjaa on uudistettu kolmesti vuosina 1991, 1999 ja 2005. MAOL-taulukot -kirjaa saa käyttää ylioppilastutkintolautakunnan päätöksellä kemian, matematiikan, fysiikan ja maantiedon ylioppilastutkinnossa. MAOL-taulukot -kirja koostuu kolmesta osiosta, jotka ovat matematiikka, fysiikka ja kemia. Tutkimus tarkastelee MAOL-taulukot -kirjan käytettävyyttä ja opetusta lukion kemian opetuksessa. Aineistona on ollut sekä MAOL-taulukot -kirja että opettajilta lomakekyselyllä hankittu aineisto. MAOL-taulukot -kirjan aineisto on analysoitu laadullisen sisällönanalyysin avulla. Analyysissa selvitettiin MAOL-taulukot -kirjan kemian osuuden taulukoiden suhdetta lukion kemian opetussuunnitelman keskeisiin sisältöihin. Sisällönanalyysiä hyödynnettiin myös lomakeaineiston avointen kysymysten luokittelussa ja analysoinnissa. Lomaketutkimus tehtiin verkkokyselynä ja siihen vastasi 107 opettajaa. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta, että MAOL-taulukot -kirjan kemian osuuden taulukot tukevat kattavasti lukion kemian opetussuunnitelmassa määriteltyjä keskeisiä sisältöjä. Opettajat näkevät taulukkokirjan monipuolisena materiaalina. Toisaalta sitä pidetään lähdemateriaalina, toisaalta oppikirjana. Tämä jako on merkityksellinen pohdittaessa taulukkokirjan kehittämistä tulevaisuudessa. Opettajien käsitykset taulukkokirjan hyvistä puolista ja kehittämiskohteista olivat ristiriitaisia. Kirjan käytön opetus ei tämän tutkimuksen pohjalta näytä olevan yhtenevää ja monipuolista. Opettajat eivät sanoita omaa hiljaista tietoaan taulukkokirjan käytössä, vaan olettavat oppilailla olevan samat tiedot. Opettajien tausta ei kuitenkaan vaikuta tapaan, jolla he suhtautuvat taulukkokirjaan opetusmateriaalina. MAOL-taulukot -kirjan käyttöä opetuksessa tulisi tutkia lisää sekä opettajien että oppilaiden näkökulmasta. Huolestuttavana tuloksena voidaan pitää, että taulukkokirjan käytön opettaminen ei vaikuta olevan yhtenevää ja monipuolista, koska taulukkokirjaa saa käyttää ylioppilastutkinnossa ja ylioppilastutkinnon merkitystä jatko-opiskelupaikkoja haettaessa pyritään kasvattamaan. Tämä vaarantaa opiskelijoiden tasavertaiset mahdollisuudet.
  • Suhonen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This Master's thesis examines two opposite nationalistic discourses on the revolution of Zanzibar. Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM), the party in power since the 1964 revolution defends its revolutionary and "African" heritage in the current multi-party system. New nationalists, including among others the main opposition party Civic United Front (CUF), question both the 1964 revolution and the post-revolution period and blame CCM for empty promises, corruption and ethnic discrimination. This study analyzes the role of a significant historical event in the creation of nationalistic ideology and national identity. The 1964 revolution forms the nucleus of various debates related to the history of Zanzibar: slavery, colonialism, racial discrimination and political violence. Representations of these Social constructivist principles form the basis of this study, and central concepts in the theoretical framework are nationalism, national identity, ethnicity and race. I use critical discourse analysis as my research method, lean on the work by Teun A. van Dijk and Norman Fairclough as the most significant researchers in this field. I examine particularly the ways in which linguistic methods, such as stereotypes and metaphors are used to form in- and out-groups ("us" vs. "others"). My material, both in Swahili and English, was collected mainly in Tanzania in the fall of 2007 and from online sources in the spring of 2009. It includes publications by the Zanzibari government between the years of 1964-2000 (12), official speeches for the Revolution Day or the Union Day (12), articles from Tanzanian newspapers from the 1990s until the year of 2009 (15), memoirs and political pamphlets (10), blog posts and opinion pieces from four different websites (8), and interviews or personal communication in Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam and Uppsala (8). Nationalistic rhetoric often creates enemy images by using binary good-bad oppositions. Both discourses in this study build identities on the basis of "otherness" and exclusion, with the intent of emphasizing the particularity of the own group and excluding "evilness" outside the own reference group. These opposite views on the 1964 revolution as the main axis of the history of Zanzibar build different portraits of the nation and Zanzibari-ness (Uzanzibari). CCM still relies on the pre-revolutionary enemy images of Arabs as selfish rulers and cruel slave traders. For CCM, Zanzibar is primarily an "African" nation and a part of Tanzania which is threatened by "Arabs", the outsiders. In contrast, the new nationalists stress the long history of Zanzibar as multi-racial, cosmopolitan and formerly independent country which has its own, separate culture and identity from mainland Tanzanians. Heshima, honour/respect, one of the basic values of Swahili culture, occupies a central role in both discourses: the main party emphasizes that the revolution returned "heshima" to the Zanzibari Africans after centuries of humiliation, whereas the new nationalists claim that ever since the revolution all "non-Africans" have been humiliated and lost their "heshima". According to the new nationalists, true Zanzibari values which include tolerance and harmony between different "races" were lost when the "foreign" revolutionaries arrived from the mainland. Consequently, they see the 1964 revolution as Tanganyikan colonialism which began with the help of Western countries, and maintain that this "colonialism" still continues in the violent multi-party elections.
  • Broas, Jessica (2015)
    Mapping trees with remote sensing data has been under focus in many studies and many methods have been developed and tested using different kinds of data. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) gives the possibility to investigate vegetation heights and has thus been recently used in many vegetation mapping studies. The objective of this study was to test feasibility of mapping aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees using ALS data and individual tree detection methods. By recognizing individual trees from the ALS data, it is possible to map the tree AGB on a detailed level. The study focused on trees outside forests in the study area, which is situated in the Taita Hills, Kenya. The agriculture and agroforestry in the study area mostly consist of small-holder farming. The purpose was to determine a method that would enable examination of tree biomass on a farm scale. The individual tree detection enables mapping at this scale. The data acquired for this study was high pulse density (9.6 pulses/m²), small footprint, discrete return ALS data. It enables the detection of individual trees based on a high-resolution canopy height model. The processing of the ALS data was done with free software which does not require expensive licensing. For estimating AGB of the individually recognized trees, a prediction model was developed. For developing the prediction model, ground measurements and biomass estimates were needed. The biomass of the ground measured trees was estimated using non-destructive method employing allometric equations. The ground measurements from 77 sample plots of 0.1 ha size were used. A total number of 554 trees were used in the analysis. The tree measurements included diameter at breast height, tree height, crown diameter and species. Mean wood densities were defined on the basis of the species from the online databases and literature. The ground measurements were gathered at the same time as the remote sensing data was acquired. The mean tree AGB for the agricultural and agroforestry areas within the study area were estimated as 23.8 ± 4.2 Mg/ha. The individual tree detection method resulted in a detection rate (correctly identified trees) of 50.1 % and produced 49.9 % omission errors and 36.8 % commission errors. A regression model was developed to estimate AGB for the ALS detected trees. The derived model produces RMSE of 163 kg and bias of 5.75 kg per tree. The correlation between the predicted biomass values and field estimates was 0.659 on the individual tree level and 0.847 when assessed on the plot-level. The individual tree detection method and the derived biomass prediction model was used to map the biomass of individual trees for an area of 9 km² within the study area. The estimated mean biomass for the area was 11.4 Mg/ha. The results show that the use of ALS data and ITD methods can provide good opportunities to map AGB within the Taita Hills agricultural and agroforestry environment on farm scale. With the method presented in this study the individual tree AGB values would be somewhat biased, but on plot-level the estimation accuracy is better. This means that for individual farms that are at least 1 ha in size, the ALS estimated AGB values would be quite good even though somewhat underestimated, and could be used as basis of payment in possible future ecosystem services payment schemes. The AGB estimates accuracies can still be improved by refining the ITD method, for example by analysis of different ALS metrics or by combining ALS data with other remote sensing data.
  • Rantaharju, Jarno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The Standard Model of particle physics and the modern understanding of physics at small length scales rests on the foundation of non-Abelian gauge theories. Mapping their behavior at large energies is important in understanding the Standard Model and in extending it to include a wider range of physical phenomena. There is a region in the parameter space of these models where the interaction strength runs to a constant at high energies. These conformal models are useful for explaining the masses of Standard Model particles trough the extended technicolor mechanism. In this thesis I present studies of the conformal window using lattice simulations. This turns out to be a significant challenge in the study non-perturbative quantum physics. We have studied the phase structure of the SU(2) gauge theory coupled to fermions that transform in the fundamental or the adjoint representation of the symmetry group. We have found evidence of large discretization errors and studied them by constructing a Symanzik improved model. The running of the renormalized coupling is greatly affected by improvements in the model. Using the Symanzik improved model we have studied the running of the coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with fundamental fermions. The models behave as expected with 4 and 10 flavors of fermions. We were unable to distinguish between chirally broken and conformal behavior in the model with 6 fermions. In order to push further into large energy scales we have studied actions with NHYP and HEX smearing. This helps reduce the discretization effects and reduce the corrections in the Symanzik improvement. Using the improved HEX smeared action we have been able to run simulations at larger energy scales than before.
  • Koskenmies, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Keskinen, Antero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Road transport and infrastructure has a fundamental meaning for the developing world. Poor quality and inadequate coverage of roads, lack of maintenance operations and outdated road maps continue to hinder economic and social development in the developing countries. This thesis focuses on studying the present state of road infrastructure and its mapping in the Taita Hills, south-east Kenya. The study is included as a part of the TAITA-project by the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki. The road infrastructure of the study area is studied by remote sensing and GIS based methodology. As the principal dataset, true colour airborne digital camera data from 2004, was used to generate an aerial image mosaic of the study area. Auxiliary data includes SPOT satellite imagery from 2003, field spectrometry data of road surfaces and relevant literature. Road infrastructure characteristics are interpreted from three test sites using pixel-based supervised classification, object-oriented supervised classifications and visual interpretation. Road infrastructure of the test sites is interpreted visually from a SPOT image. Road centrelines are then extracted from the object-oriented classification results with an automatic vectorisation process. The road infrastructure of the entire image mosaic is mapped by applying the most appropriate assessed data and techniques. The spectral characteristics and reflectance of various road surfaces are considered with the acquired field spectra and relevant literature. The results are compared with the experimented road mapping methods. This study concludes that classification and extraction of roads remains a difficult task, and that the accuracy of the results is inadequate regardless of the high spatial resolution of the image mosaic used in this thesis. Visual interpretation, out of all the experimented methods in this thesis is the most straightforward, accurate and valid technique for road mapping. Certain road surfaces have similar spectral characteristics and reflectance values with other land cover and land use. This has a great influence for digital analysis techniques in particular. Road mapping is made even more complicated by rich vegetation and tree canopy, clouds, shadows, low contrast between roads and surroundings and the width of narrow roads in relation to the spatial resolution of the imagery used. The results of this thesis may be applied to road infrastructure mapping in developing countries on a more general context, although with certain limits. In particular, unclassified rural roads require updated road mapping schemas to intensify road transport possibilities and to assist in the development of the developing world.
  • Therman, Sebastian (National Institute for Health and Welfare, 2014)
    Psychotic diseases are a great burden to both the affected individuals and society at large. Though psychoses are severe mental disorders, similar phenomena appear outside of the diagnosable disorders as psychotic or psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The PLEs are on a continuum of liability and symptom expression in the population, from the healthy to the pathological, and the diagnosed disorders constitute the extreme of the distribution, rather than a clearly delineated class. Studying the psychosis continuum offers a way of understanding the underlying causes shared across the entire range. The frequent presence of PLEs before the first psychotic episode also helps in identifying a trajectory towards disease. However, the specific PLEs associated with increased psychosis risk or incipient disease require further elucidation. Though experiences similar to the positive symptoms of psychosis primarily hallucinations and delusions have been nominated as the most predictive of psychosis, these are broad categories that may contain subdivisions of varying levels of shared aetiology with psychotic disease, and varying predictive value. In this thesis, the latent dimensions of self-reported PLEs were explored in one sample of 6,611 adolescents and one sample of 31,822 adults from the general population (Studies I and II), as well as in one sample of 71 and one sample of 731 adolescents in psychiatric care (Studies III and IV). Three different PLE questionnaires were employed in the separate studies: the PROD-screen, the 92-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire, and the positive items of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. The clinical significance of the identified dimensions was studied via their associations with general mental health, cognitive performance, and their predictive value with respect to psychiatric hospitalization in general or for psychosis specifically. Overall, the results showed a general PLE structure of positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions similar to that of symptoms in non-affective psychotic disorders. The positive dimension further subdivided into dimensions of persecutory ideation, other delusions, and hallucinations and, in one study, depersonalization experiences. These dimensions were correlated with general psychiatric health, as assessed by lifetime depression and anxiety. In contrast, questionnaire items intended to address hypomanic, grandiose, or magical thinking appeared unrelated to psychiatric health. In a smaller sample of adolescents in psychiatric care, the positive, disorganized, and negative dimensions were not associated with cognitive performance, contrary to expectation. However, in a larger sample, especially functional disorganization, that is, impaired role functioning, was associated with later psychiatric hospitalization in general, while the depersonalization experiences dimension was the best predictor of hospitalization with a diagnosis of psychosis. The identified latent dimensions of psychotic-like experiences demonstrate the structural validity of the PLE questionnaires, while the concurrent clinical correlates and predictive value establish criterion validity. In particular, the finding of the empirically derived depersonalization dimension being specifically predictive of psychosis merits attempts at replication. Modern psychometric methods used in the present thesis improve the utility of PLE related rating scales. In future studies a more fine-grained approach to assessing PLEs is recommended, in order to improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction and our understanding of the psychosis continuum.
  • Laitinen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Halinen, Saana (2002)
    Tutkielma käsittelee ns. kehitysmaiden ja länsimaiden välisen oikeudenmukaisen kaupankäynnin edistämistä Suomessa 1970-luvulta 2000-luvulle. Toiminta alkoi Suomessa vuonna 1977 kun Ouluun perustettiin ensimmäinen kehitysmaayhdistys, joka perusti kehitysmaakauppa Juuttiputiikin. Oulun jälkeen vastaava yhdistys perustettiin Turkuun vuonna 1981. 1980-luvun puolivälissä Helsingin yliopiston ja Kauppakorkeakoulun ylioppilaskunnat käynnistivät Afrikan Tähti -hankkeen, jonka tarkoituksena oli tuoda suoraan kehitysmaissa jalostettuja tuotteita ja kaupata niitä tavallisten päivittäistavarakauppojen kautta. Uudempaa oikeudenmukaisen kaupankäynnin aaltoa edustaa “Reilun kaupan” merkki päivittäistavarakaupoissa myytävien tuotteiden kyljessä. Keskeisenä tavoitteena on tutkia oikeudenmukaisen kaupankäynnin edistämistä historiallisessa kontekstissaan ja hahmottaa muutosta. Tutkimuskohteena on liikkeen sisäinen keskustelu ja käytännöt Oulun ja Turun kehitysmaakaupoissa, kehitysmaakauppaliikkeessä, Afrikan Tähti -hankkeessa ja Reilun kaupan merkkijärjestelmässä. Muutosta on tutkittu kolmen operatiivisen kysymyksen kautta: 1) Minkä yhdistys näki ensisijaisena tarkoituksenaan?, 2) Mikä oli yhdistyksen suhtautuminen konventionaalisiin markkinoihin ja kaupallisuuteen? ja 3) Millaisia kriteereitä käytettiin tuottajien valinnassa? Lähteinä olen käyttänyt Oulun ja Turun kehitysmaakauppayhdistysten, Afrikan Tähti -hankkeen ja Reilun kaupan edistämisyhdistyksen järjestämättömiä aineistoja ja aktiivien haastatteluja. Keskeisiä teoreettisia käsitteitä ovat mahdollisuusrakenne ja diskurssi. Mahdollisuusrakenteen ja oikeudenmukaisen kaupan liikkeen suhde nähdään vuorovaikutuksellisena. Diskurssianalyysi ymmärretään tässä kielenkäytön tarkastelemisena tekemisenä, joka muotoutuu sosiaalisissa prosesseissa ja rakentaa sosiaalista todellisuutta. Erityisesti hyödynnetään Pauli Kettusen soveltamaa määritelmää diskurssista legitiimien kysymysten kentän määrittelynä ja rajaamisena. Aineiston esittämisessä on pyritty huomioimaan poikkeamat ja nostamaan ristiriitaisuudet esiin. Kehitysmaakauppaliike oli osa 1970- ja 1980-lukujen vaihtoehtoliikehdintää, ja siinä voi nähdä linkkejä myös 1960-luvun uusvasemmistolaiseen ajatteluun. Liikkeelle oli ominaista “aitouden” etsiminen kehitysmaista ja länsimaisten kehitysmallien sekä kulutusorientoituneen yhteiskunnan kritiikki. Liikkeelle oli keskeistä myös vuonna 1974 YK:ssa hyväksytyn Uuden kansainvälisen talousjärjestelmän (UKTJ) edistäminen. UKTJ:n ajatuksista poimittiin erityisesti tavoite nostaa kehitysmaiden vientituotteiden jalostusastetta. 1980-luvun lopulta lähtien markkinasuuntautuneen kehitysmaakaupan diskurssi on alkanut korvata vaihtoehtodiskurssia. Afrikan Tähti -hankkeessa markkinasuuntautuneisuus oli vielä kehitysmaakauppaliikettä korostuneemmalla tavalla toimintaa leimaavaa ja suuntaus jatkui ja vahvistui Reilun kaupan merkkijärjestelmän myötä. Markkinasuuntautuneen diskurssin kasvun trendiä monimutkaistaa kuitenkin kehitysmaakauppaliikkeen sisäinen moniäänisyys. Turun kehitysmaakaupassa kauppa- ja kulutuskriittisyys kasvaa yleisen trendin vastaisesti 1990-luvun lopulla. Markkinaorientaation kasvu on merkinnyt, että Reilun kaupan merkkijärjestelmä on pystynyt käytännössä tekemään paljon kehitysmaakauppaliikettä enemmän mitattuna myytyjen tuotteiden määrällä. Toisaalta konventionaalisten markkinoiden sisällä toimivan merkkijärjestelmän toimintavapaus on rajoitetumpi, kun taas kehitysmaakauppaliike pystyy edelleen riippumattomana toimijana esittämään radikaaliakin kritiikkiä.
  • Pusa, Taneli (2015)
    The objective of this work is to generalize the pseudolikelihood-based inference method from ordinary Markov networks to an extension of the model containing context-specific independencies: the labelled graphical model. Probabilistic graphical models like the Markov and Bayes networks are used to represent the dependence structure of multivariate probability distributions. Machine learning methodology can then be used to learn these dependence structures from sample data. The Markov network is a model, which assigns no directionality to interactions between variables: the probability distribution is represented by an undirected graph, where nodes correspond to variables and edges to direct interactions. A labelled graphical model extends this idea by assigning labels to edges to represent contexts, i.e outcomes of other variables in the distribution, in which the associated variables are independent. Bayesian inference can be used to learn the dependence structure of a set of variables using data. The standard procedure is to consider the posterior probability of a model given the data and aim to maximize this score. This involves explicitly calculating the marginal likelihood of the model. In the case of Markov networks and consequently labelled models, this can not be done analytically and approximation methods must be used. Pseudolikelihood is one such method, which allows for both the analytical calculation of the so-called marginal pseudolikehood replacing the actual marginal likelihood of a model and the computationally very advantageous property of a node-wise factorizable score-function. This thesis presents the general theory behind the labelled graphical models and the basics of Bayesian inference. The pseudolikelihood approximation is introduced and applied to labelled models and the consistency of the score is proved. Lastly a greedy hill climb -algorithm is used to demonstrate the inference in practice by a synthetic and a real data example.
  • Aarnio, P. (1934)
  • Niemi, Irmeli (1960)
  • Saarinen, Sirkka (1991)