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  • Patrikainen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this research was to describe and understand class teacher s pedagogical thinking and action in mathematics education. At first we investigated how teachers taught mathematics as well as their reasons for their pedagogical decisions. Based on these empirical findings, the second essential aim was to consider the quality of mathematics education relative to socio-constructivistic curriculum thinking and to model it with theoretical conceptions. The conceptualizing of mathematics education was based on the didactical relation included in the didactical triangle. The research is qualitative by nature and can be characterized as a qualitative collective multiple-case study. The participants, three class teachers, were followed up during one mathematical teaching-studying-learning process. The research material was gathered by two different methods: first the teachers pedagogical action was observed using video recordings, and then the pedagogical thinking connected to this action was depicted with the help of stimulated recall interview. The video data was analysed using a theory based set of concepts which described the mathematics teaching-studying-learning process. The purpose of the theory-bounded interview data analysis was to deepen the tentative understanding of mathematics education gained through the video analysis. The results describe the teachers pedagogical thinking and action in the context of mathematics education. All three teachers shared a constructivistic conception of mathematics teaching and learning, but each emphasized different viewpoints. These personal conceptions of teaching were defined as humanistic-constructive, cognitive-constructive and contextual-constructive. Finally, a model of mathematics education consisting of four factors was constructed. This model also included the didactical relation which was defined as the teacher s relation to the student, the content and the life-world. The research results and methodological inventions can be used in the context of school teaching, teacher education and research on teaching. Teachers and teacher students can utilize the results when reflecting on their own pedagogical thinking and action. In addition the research provides topical information concerning Finnish mathematics education as well as new perspectives for national and international research, development and curriculum work.
  • Wilén, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The research‐based approach is the main organising theme in Finnish teacher education (Kansanen, 2014, 279). Previous researches (Jyrhämä et al., 2008; 2009; 2009) indicate that student teachers and teacher educators appreciate the research‐based approach as the main organising theme of teacher education. The previous researches also indicate that the students presume that the research-based approach is detectable in their studies and so was the case in most of the courses. The aim of this research is to describe student class teachers' perspectives on the research-based approach and the vision of the class teacher education at the University of Helsinki. The aim is also to provide knowledge of the research‐based class teacher education at the University of Helsinki and its vision. The research was carried out as a web-based survey, which was sent to every student class teacher education major at the University of Helsinki. 27 student class teachers responded to the questionnaire. The research was carried out as a survey research and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used side by side. The research analysis methods were content analysis and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. The research results indicated that the student class teachers at the University of Helsinki appreciate the research‐based approach in the teacher education. Although the students presumed that the research-based approach is more detectable in their studies, as was the case. The student class teachers also appreciated the Master’s degree level and methodological studies in their education. All students did not however consider the possibility to continue studies to the doctoral level important. The student class teachers understood the vision of the class teacher education to be to develop students to experts, who have metacognitive skills, master pedagogic thinking, are capable of integrating theory and practise and improve the society. Therefore the research results indicate that the students have accepted the idea of a research-based approach.
  • Lipiäinen, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Goals. In recent decades Finnish society and beliefs of Finnish citizens have undergo a lot of changes. Previous research has even indicated the current model of Religious Education teaching in schools to be inconsistent with the changed needs of the society. Since the Finnish educational system is based on scientific research, there has to be other than purely attitudinal reasons behind this antichange climate of teachers. The goal of this study is to identify those underlying values of class teachers’ attitudes and to clarify their general attitudes about the beliefs related to the Religious Education in school. Attitudes are examined through three themes, which are beliefs in school, Religious Education and the current teaching model of Religious Education. Methods. For the study, eight teachers working in Kouvola or Helsinki Metropolitan Area were interviewed. The data was collected in the spring of 2015. The interviews were conducted individually by using qualitative attitudinal research methods. The transcribed material was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on this study, class teachers Religious Education is important for the development of the students’ all-round education, answering to fundamental questions of life, to the development of ethical thinking, students’ personal growth and to the development of student’s worldview. Based on the results strong valuation of Christianity of the Finnish society and significance of the Christian cultural heritage at school can be detected. In the teaching of faiths, the role of the class teachers was emphasized. Therefore in Teacher Education this should take more attention in the future. The current model of Religious Education was seen problematic because the content do not correspond to the needs of the society, the responsibility of preventing the separation of faith is only for teachers and faiths are in an unequal position. It was also found from this study that the teachers strongly dignify the changes in Religious Education. Teachers’ opinion is that the most important content of the subjects could be taught in an integrated way and that would be the most relevant in terms of the students’ holistic development.
  • Johansson, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Mathematical learning disability has been studied relatively little in relation to the difficulty of reading and writing, even though estimates of the prevalence of these various difficulties do not appear to differ from each other. The aim of this study was to describe class teachers’ and mathematics teachers` perceptions of the mathematical learning disability and different support actions concerning it. Research questions were 1. What type of conceptions does class teachers and mathematics teachers have about mathematics learning difficulty? 2. What type of conceptions does class teachers and mathematics teachers have about supporting students? This case study research data was collected by interviewing two class teachers and two mathematics teachers. The form of the interview was theme interview. Interview data analysis was carried out by using a content analysis. The result showed that class teachers had difficulties to define mathematical learning disability. They reported how the disability appears at the everyday school life. The cause of mathematical disability was related to other learning disabilities, especially dyslexia. Teachers felt that early support was important to the students who have mathematical disability. The same time the teachers felt puzzlement and inadequate. This was largely due to lack of resources, for example, special education resources are used mainly to support the difficulties of Finnish language. This means that the mathematical learning difficulties are often ignored. Mathematics teachers saw that special education as an important means of support.
  • Muhonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. All students, regardless of their capacity, should be offered impartial learning opportunities. Usually, it is well attended that each student will achieve learning goals. The gifted students are often unrecognized and ignored in school in everyday life. We must learn to recognize gifted students to provide them teaching that corresponds to their abilities. The reliable identification of giftedness is challenging. The mathematically gifted student brings both challenges and opportunities for teaching. There is a variety of differentiation methods to be used in teaching mathematics depending on pupils’ needs and on the resources of the schools. The purpose of this study was to find out how the class teachers define mathematically gifted students, to find out the differentiation ways of teaching mathematics and to find out the class teachers’ experiences of differentiation in mathematics. Methods. The study was a qualitative case study. The survey was conducted by interviewing the three class teachers, who had been selected for the research because of their interest of differentiation in mathematics. The direction based content analysis was used for the analysis of the research material. Results and conclusions. The teachers recognized the features of mathematical giftedness in their pupils. However, it was challenging for them to identify whether the students are really gifted or only a very successful at school work. The teachers used many ways to differentiate teaching of mathematics. Especially functional teaching was used as a mean to differentiate teaching. The teachers’ experiences of differentiation in mathematics were very positive. The results of the study can be used by class teachers when they plan their differentiation in mathematics.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school´s festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn´t been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school´s festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers´ experience was that pupil´s religious diversity didn´t make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers´ conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn´t that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school´s festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn´t been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school´s festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers´ experience was that pupil´s religious diversity didn´t make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers´ conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn´t that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Taskinen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Objectives. The development plan for education and research 2003 - 2008 (report of the Ministry of Education) highlights the development and promotion of special education and integration. In the end of the year 2007, there was Special education strategy published, a proposal for a long-term strategy for the development of special education in pre - and primary schools. Today there are a growing number of special education pupils studying in their neighbourhood schools and in regular teaching groups. Class teachers are so confronting new challenges in their classes. It is pointed out in the researches that teachers´ positive attitudes and professional skills are essential for successful mainstreaming / inclusion in schools. The object of this thesis is to examine primary school class teachers´ conceptions of working and teaching in the regular education which include special education pupils. This issue will be approached by these research problems: what kind of conceptions do teachers who work in basic education with special education pupils have, what kind of significance does teachers education has for these conceptions, what kind of significance does teachers work experience has for their working and is there a some kind of connection between teacher´s conceptions and the nature of special education pupil´s disability? Methods. In the spring 2009, the half structured questionnaire was send to all primary schools in Helsinki (N=86). One class teacher in each school was asked to fill in the questionnaire. Altogether 38 teachers answered this questionnaire. The data was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questions were processed by using the SPSS- statistics program and qualitative questions were analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Class teachers were satisfied with their work and most of them felt that they master the teaching situations sufficiently. They reported that they get support and help most from the special needs assistants and special education teachers but they also felt that they need it more from them. Remedial instruction- lessons were also needed more. Those who had the class teacher qualification got a bit more support from special education teachers than those without qualification. Both, longer work experience and studies of special pedagogy correlated with the amount of help from the assistant. There was also positive connection between the work experience and the amount of remedial instruction. Teachers urge for updating education was clearly shown in this study. About half of these teachers wished more education related to special needs pupils / education. Teachers felt that the lack of time is the most challenging in their work. About half of the teachers felt that the regular studying environment supports special education pupils well or very well and felt mainstreaming valuable for all. They pointed out that the nature and the degree of disability is relevant. They felt that pupils with behavioral difficulties had most negative influence for the whole class, and felt themselves helpless and frustrated because of these pupils.
  • Kaartinen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to describe, analyse and interpret teacher’s perceptions on temperament and effects of temperament on student evaluations. There’s hardly any research done in Finland on how class teacher’s receive temperament and how it effects evaluations. The subject is important to further research since each student will be evaluated throughout their school years. There were two research questions: 1. What is the teacher’s level of knowledge on tempera-ment? 2. How does temperament effect on students evaluation? Research methodology: Answers to research questions were searched by interviewing six (6) classteachers and by analyzing their answers through Grounded theory and through content analysis. Results and conclusions: Teachers had not really received any education on temperament during their studies. Part of the teachers had searched information on temperament outside of their studies. However teachers had some kind of perception on temperament (inherent way to function and to react in different situations) and the different features of temperament (activity level, shyness etc.). Temperament seems to have effect on student evaluations relating to learning, working and behavior even that according to the Perusopetuksen Opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 (Foundation teaching Learning Plan) students temperament should not have effect on evaluation. On the other hand in the same document teacher´s are obligated to evaluate working methods and behavior as a part of subject grade. Therefore teachers have contradictory instructions on how evaluations should be performed.
  • Laine, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Education for sustainable development related to efficacy beliefs has been studied in the past, for example, among the subject teachers, but among the class teachers, research-based information is still scarce. Aim of this study was to investigate the class teachers efficacy beliefs and their connection to school action culture in context of education for sustainable development. The study also surveyed the realization of education for sustainable development with classroom teaching and school action culture. In addition the study examined the class teachers and their schools, the differences between their efficacy beliefs and the implementation of education for sustainable development. Methods. The study was conducted utilizing SEED research, supported by the Academy of Finland, sub-project by University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education, collected survey data. The SEED projects (Sustainable Food Education for Self-Efficacy Development) aim has been to study and develop the education for sustainable development in Finnish basic education. Sub-project of University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education surveyed teachers and students factors which influenced sustainable development actions. The questionnaires question sets were analyzed by statistical methods and the questionnaires open questions were analyzed utilizing content analysis. The study was conducted in spring 2010 with national stratified sampling and the questionnaire was answered by 231 class teachers from 80 schools. Results and conclusions. Class teachers described their efficacy beliefs in education for sustainable development as mediocre. Best known was ecological sustainability and the least known part was economic sustainability. The knowledge of the curriculums cross-curricularity of sustainable development was mediocre. From aspects of the Sustainable development the ecological point of view was best achieved in school culture and the worst one of them was the economic aspect. The school action culture which supports sustainable development was found to affect class teachers education for sustainable development positively. Between class teachers there did not show up any differences in sustainability education based on sex, age, class level, the school or the schools classification in the municipality. Schools showed differences in teaching of sustainable development, schoolwork and school culture influence, as well as in the implementation of sustainable development in socio-cultural dimension.
  • Korhonen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Deskriptiivisessä vaativuusteoriassa tutkitaan laskennan vaativuuteen liittyviä kysymyksiä logiikan työkalujen avulla. Tällöin käsitellään tilannetta, jossa laskennan syötteenä toimivat äärelliset mallit. Tässä kehyksessä erinäisiä vaativuusluokkia voidaan karakterisoida etsimällä logiikoita, joilla on kyseistä vaativuusluokkaa vastaava ilmaisuvoima. Klassiset esimerkit tällaisista tuloksista ovat Faginin esittämä epädeterministisen polynomiaalisen ajan karakterisaatio logiikan Σ_1^1 avulla ja Immermanin, Livchakin ja Vardin esittämä deterministisen polynomiaalisen ajan karakterisaatio ensimmäisen kertaluvun inflatorisen kiintopistelogiikan avulla. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan Gurevichin esittämää kysymystä polynomiaalisessa ajassa ratkeavien kielten luokan P vahvasta loogisesta karakterisaatiosta. Kyseinen kysymys on yksi äärellisen malliteorian haastavimpia ongelmia. Kysymyksen esittelyyn tarvittavan peruskoneiston läpikäynnin lisäksi tässä käsi- tellään myös sen yhteyksiä laskennan vaativuusteoriassa keskeiseen P-NP-ongelmaan. Gurevichin kysymyksestä voidaan esittää myös rajoitetumpia versioita, mikäli käsitellään tilannetta, jossa laskennan syötteenä voi olla vain kiinnitetyn malliluokan K malleja. Tällöin luokan P karakterisointi helpottuu, ainakin jos luokka K on riittävän suppea. Tässä opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi Grohen esittämä tulos siitä, että mikäli luokaksi K valitaan 3-yhtenäisten tasoverkkojen luokka, niin ensimmäisen kertaluvun inflatorinen kiintopistelogiikka karakterisoi polynomiaalisessa ajassa laskettavat kielet.
  • Uuksulainen, Sanna (2007)
    Tutkielmassa selvitetään luokka-aseman merkitystä suomalaisten nuorten lehtien lukutottumuksissa. Tutkimus pyrkii vastaamaan kysymykseen, onko lehtien lukemisessa nähtävissä yhteiskunnallisiin luokkarakenteisiin viittaavaa eriarvoisuutta? Haastateltavina on 12 pääkaupunkiseudulla asuvaa nuorta opiskelijaa. Opiskelijat on valittu eritasoisista oppilaitoksista aina ammattikoulusta yliopistoon. Erilaisten opintolinjojen lisäksi haastateltavien luokka-asemaa määrittää heidän vanhempiensa koulutus ja nykyinen ammatti. Haastatteluissa on pääpaino neljällä haastatteluja varten valitsemallani lehdellä: Suomen Kuvalehdellä, Helsingin Sanomilla, Iltalehdellä ja 7 Päivää -lehdellä. Lisäksi haastatteluissa käsitellään jonkin verran muita lehtiä ja sähköistä mediaa. Tutkimuksessa käyn läpi Suomen yhteiskuntaluokkien historiaa alkaen 1900-luvulta edeten keskustelemaan siitä, millä tavoin luokkien eriarvoisuus on nähtävissä nykypäivänä. Lisäksi käsittelen sitä, kuinka yhteiskuntaluokat näkyvät lehdissä ja niiden lukijoissa. Vertailukohteena ovat brittiläiset lehdet ja Englannissa tekemäni kandidaatin työ ulkosuomalaisten nuorten lehtien lukemisesta. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytän teemahaastatteluja. Teemoinani ovat lehtien lukutottumukset, lähipiirin vaikutus nuorten lukutottumuksiin sekä mielikuvat lehdistä ja niiden lukijoista. Ensimmäisessä osiossa kartoitan sitä, kuinka paljon haastateltavat lukevat haastatteluja varten valittuja lehtiä ja muita julkaisuja. Toisessa teemaosiossa tarkastelen haastateltavien lapsuudenperheen ja ystäväpiirin lukutottumuksia ja niiden vaikutusta haastateltaviin. Kolmannessa teemaosiossa käsittelen sitä, kuinka luokkasidonnaisia mielikuvia haastateltavilla on tietyistä lehdistä ja niiden lukijoista. Käytän myös apuna koko väestöä kartoittavia tutkimuksia, erityisesti suoraan lehdiltä saamiani Taloustutkimus Oy:n (2006) KMT Lukija Syksy05/Kevät06:n (Levikintarkastus Oy) tuloksia. Tutkimukseni keskeinen tulos on, että luokka-asemalla on haastatteluotoksessani vaikutusta lehtien lukemiseen ja muista lukijoista muodostettuihin mielikuviin. Opiskeluala vaikuttaa lukutottumuksiin. Myös lähipiiri, erityisesti vanhemmat, ovat tärkeällä sijalla siinä, mitä lehtiä nuoret alkavat itse lukea. Joissakin tapauksissa pelkkä vanhempien antama esimerkki tietyn lehden lukemisesta riittää, mutta yhtä lailla merkittäviä ovat vanhempien kanssa yhdessä vietetyt lukuhetket lapsuudessa ja sitä kautta saatu innostus tietyntyyppiseen lukemiseen. Myös koko väestöä kartoittava tutkimustieto tukee sitä, että luokka-asema vaikuttaa lukemiseen. Esimerkiksi akateemisesti koulutetut ovat yliedustettuina tiettyjen lehtien lukijaprofiileissa. Tärkeimpiä tutkimuksessa käytettyjä lähteitä ovat Pierre Bourdieun (1984) Distinction, Beverly Skeggsin (2004) Class, self, culture, Sanna Sanaksenahon (2006) Eriarvoisuus ja luottamus 2000-luvun Suomessa, suomalaista luokkayhteiskuntaa käsitteleviä teoksia (esim. Blom 1999) sekä sosiaalista pääomaa käsittelevät teoriat (Putnam 2000, Halpern 2005).
  • Turkka, Jaakko (2014)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan luokkahuonekeskusteluja kemian opettamisessa. Tutkimuksen taustalla on sosiokulttuurinen oppimiskäsitys sekä opetussuunnitelmien muutos, joka korostaa keskustelun merkitystä osana mielekästä oppimista ja tulevaisuudessa tarvittavaa osaamista. Luokkahuonekeskustelu mielletään opetuskeskusteluna, joissa oppilaiden äänille pyritään antamaan lisää tilaa osana opetusta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on lisätä ymmärrystä luokkahuonekeskusteluiden merkityksestä kemian opetuksessa. Tutkimus kokoaa yhteen opetuskeskusteluja sivuavaa teoriaa ja tieteellistä tutkimusta sekä opettajien kokemusperäistä tietoa yhtenäiseksi kuvaukseksi luokkahuonekeskusteluista. Aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla viittä kemian opettajaa. Haastatteluissa ilmeni opetuskeskustelun tutkimuksessa aiemmin huomioimaton puoli. Opettajat asettavat luokkahuonekeskusteluille ristiriitaisia odotuksia. Keskusteluun osallistuvan oppilaan odotetaan ideaalisessa tilanteessa esittävän sekä johdonmukaisia perusteluja että varauksettomia ja suodattamattomia kommentteja. Haastatteluissa havaittiin, että luokkahuonekeskusteluissa korostuu entisestään opettajien tasapainoilu tieteellisen tiedon opettamisen ja oppilaiden mahdollisimman laajan osallisuuden välillä. Dialogisen opettamisen lähestymistapa sopii tämän tasapainottelun ymmärtämiseen kemian opettamisessa ja se on siksi mielekästä ottaa huomioon monipuolisempien keskusteluvälineiden kehittämisessä. Tarkemman kokonaiskuvan saamiseksi luokkahuonekeskusteluista olisi jatkossa tärkeää tutkia opetuskeskusteluiden etenemistä luokkahuoneista käsin sekä selvittää oppilaiden kokemuksia keskusteluista.
  • Piirainen, Eliisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The goal of this thesis was to find out what kind of visual representations the sixth graders classrooms have. The aim also was to research how and by whom the visual representations are formed and what kind of aims objects and pictures of classrooms have from the point of teaching and education. In addition, this thesis is looking for an answer to what is a dream come true classroom in pupils visions. There are only few studies about classrooms from the point of visuality or aesthetics. The data were collected in May 2011 in Kainuu and in May 2012 in Helsinki. Six sixth graders classrooms were photographed and six class teachers working in photographed classrooms were interviewed. According to that the data was also collected by interviewing ten pupils from three classrooms in Helsinki in May 2012. The visual data was analyzed by content analysis and the interview data by discourse analysis. The visual representations in classrooms have been formed from basic school furnitures and from the objects and pictures which teachers have brought to the classrooms or which have been in the classrooms before teachers even have been working in there. Also the seating arrangements affect to visual representations forming. Pupils role is to make art, presentations and posters and in some cases also hang them on the classroom walls but often following rules given by the teacher. Visual representations with pedagogical goals are such as student work, maps and books. Those pictures and objects are teaching and learning tools. Visual representations with educational goals are for example student work, timetables and common rules of the school. The educational goals seem to relate to behaviour control and evaluation. Pupils dream about classrooms that support action. On the basis of the collected data, it seems that teachers are not aware of the visual impact of their classrooms visual representations and neither of the visual representations possibilities in teaching and education. This thesis gives information about sixth graders classrooms as a visual learning environment. It also points out the areas where teachers should pay attention when organizing and decorating classrooms in the way that supports learning and increases school enjoyment.
  • Ojala, Jaakko (2006)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on tutkia luokkakoon muuttamisen vaikutusta oppimistuloksiin. Pyrkimyksenä on selvittää, miten suomalaisten peruskoulun yläasteen 15-vuotiaiden oppilaiden itse raportoima äidinkielen opetuksen ryhmäkoko on yhteydessä oppilaan lukutaidon oppimistuloksiin PISA 2000 -oppimistulos-arviointiaineistossa, kun eroja opiskelijoiden ominaisuuksissa kontrolloidaan aineistoon sisältyvillä taustamuuttujilla. Käytettävä aineisto on vuonna 2000 kerätty otanta peruskoulun kaikista oppilaista, jotka ovat syntyneet helmikuun 1984 ja tammikuun 1985 välisenä aikana. Se on vapaasti saatavilla Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentin (OECD) nettisivuilta osana kansainvälistä Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) -oppimistulosarviointiaineistoa. Tutkielmassa käytettävä aineisto sisältää yksilötason tietoja 4864 oppilaan oppimistuloksesta, luokkakoosta sekä useista muista ominaisuuksista. Aineiston keräämisessä on pyritty kattamaan 15-vuotiaiden joukko mahdollisimman laajasti. Ahvenanmaan koulut on kuitenkin rajattu aineiston ulkopuolelle. PISA-aineiston keräämisen on Suomessa toteuttanut Jyväskylässä sijaitseva Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos. Tutkimuksen pääpaino on luokkakoon vaikutusta oppimistuloksiin kuvaavien erilaisten parametrien suhteen lineaaristen regressiomallien estimoimisella. Tulosten mukaan luokkakooltaan tavanomaisten (luokassa 20–25 oppilasta) suomalaisten yhdeksännen luokan lukutaidon opetuksen luokkien luokkakoon pienentäminen ei vaikuta luokissa opiskelevien oppilaiden oppimistuloksiin merkittävästi, jos muutoksen jälkeenkin oppilaan luokkakoko säilyy vaihteluvälillä 15–25 oppilasta luokkaa kohden. Tutkielman tulokset osoittavat, että suomalaisten kansainvälisesti jo ennestään pienten luokkakokojen pienentämisen vaikutus oppilaan menestymiseen ei ole ilmeinen. Keskimääräisen luokkakoon pienentäminen on kallis toimenpide, opetuskustannusten muodostaessa noin 60 prosenttia kunnallisen peruskoulutuksen kustannuksista (Kirjavainen 1991), ja siitä saatavat hyödyt vallitsevassa tilanteessa keskimääräisen oppilaan kannalta ovat vähintäänkin kyseenalaiset. Luokkakoko on yksi helposti havaittavimpia koulutuksen indikaattoreita, ja siksi on luonnollista, että sen kehitykseen kiinnitetään erityistä huomiota. Tästä syystä luokkakoon pienentäminen on saatettu kuitenkin nähdä myös ratkaisuna oppimiseen liittyviin ongelmiin silloinkin, kun pienentämisen vaikutus ei ole oppimista parantava. Luokkakooltaan tavallisessa luokassa opiskelevan yhdeksäsluokkalaisen suomalaisen tavallisen oppilaan kannalta ei luokkakoon pienentäminen parilla oppilaalla opettajaa kohti ole oppimista parantava. Kuitenkin on todennäköisesti olosuhteita, jossa luokkakoon pienentämisellä on oppimistuloksia parantava vaikutus. Tutkielman perusteella luokkakoon pienentäminen onkin nähtävä pikemmin tarkkaa suunnittelua vaativana tilanneriippuvaisena täsmätoimena kuin yleisenä ratkaisuna kaikkiin oppimiseen liittyviin ongelmiin. Tulos tukee sitä aikaisempaa aiheeseen liittyvää tilastollista tutkimusta, jonka mukaan viimeisinä vuosikymmeninä tapahtuneen luokkakoon laajamittaisen pienentämisen positiivinen vaikutus oppimistuloksiin ja yhteiskunnallinen kannattavuus on erityisesti rikkaissa länsimaissa asetettu kyseenalaiseksi (ks. esim. Hanushek 2005).
  • Tuominen, Juho Kustaa Viktorinus (1906)
  • Vallas, Kyllikki (1965)
  • Hakalahti, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Luomuelintarvikkeiden vähittäishintojen muodostumista, ja erityisesti kuluttajien luomuruoasta mahdollisesti maksamaa lisähintaa ei ole juurikaan tutkittu Suomessa. Yksi syy tähän on aineiston rajallinen saatavuus. Vähittäiskaupan toimijat ovat haluttomia luovuttamaan hintatietoja ja niiden kerääminen on työlästä. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on ensiksi esitellä tekijät, jotka vaikuttavat luomuelintarvikkeiden hinnanmuodostukseen Suomessa. Luonnonmukaisen maatalouden erityispiirteistä näitä ovat tuotantotapa ja sen ympäristövaikutukset sekä kysyntään vaikuttavat kuluttajien mieltymykset. Toisaalta hinnanmuodostukseen vaikuttaa vähittäiskauppamarkkinoiden kilpailullisuus sekä kaupan tai tuottajien erikoistuminen suhteellisesti pienen kysynnän hyödykkeeseen. Tutkielman poikkileikkausaineisto koostuu erilaisten tuoreiden tomaattien vähittäishintatiedoista. Sen on kerännyt MTT: n henkilökunta vapaa-ajallaan Uudenmaan alueelta. Mallinnus pohjautuu hedonisten hintojen teoriaan, jonka mukaan tomaattien ominaisuuksille voidaan määrittää implisiittiset rajahinnat. Aineiston analyysin tavoitteena on ensiksi tarkastella tomaattien vähittäishintoihin vaikuttavia markkinatekijöitä ja tämän jälkeen selvittää luomutomaatin ja tavanomaisen tomaatin hintojen erotus. Ekonometrisessä estimoinnissa lineaariset regressioyhtälöt muodostetaan tomaatin yhteenlaskettua hintaa sekä luomutomaatin ja tavanomaisen tomaatin hintojen erotusta selittäville malleille. Luomutomaatin lisähinnaksi saadaan 5,9 €/kg. Tutkielman toinen aineisto on kerätty kahden Helsingin asuinalueen kaupoista ja sen avulla tutkitaan tomaattien tasapainohintoja ja kauppojen strategista hinnoittelua. Huomataan, että pakattujen luomutomaattien hinnat ovat havaintokertojen aikana muuttumattomat, kun tavanomaisen ja pakatun luumutomaatin hinnat muuttuvat samanaikaisesti ja – suuntaisesti. Aineistojen analyysissä yhdenkään vähittäiskaupparyhmän ei havaita käyttävän markkinavoimaa luomutomaattien hinnoittelussa.