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  • Tukiainen, Tomi (2013)
    Työssä esitellään lukijalle tietokonepelit ja mobiilipelimoottorit, jonka jälkeen edetään arvioimaan markkinoilta löytyviä pelimoottoreita pienen mobiilipelejä tuottavan peliyrityksen näkökulmasta. Arvioinnin tarkoituksena on löytää yritykselle parhaiten sopiva pelimoottori. Arvioinnissa hyödynnetään ISO/IEC 25000 sarjan ohjelmistojen laatustandardeja. Kahdestakymmenestä mobiilipelien tuottamiseen soveltuvasta pelimoottorista muodostetaan objektiivinen arvio, jonka perusteella yritykselle parhaalta vaikuttavaa pelimoottoria arvioidaan syvemmin prototyyppipeliprojektissa. Työn perusteella löydetään yritykselle hyvin soveltuva pelimoottori.
  • Järvi, Otso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tämä pro gradu –tutkielma tutkii pappien työajattoman työn hallinnan ja mobiiliteknologian suhdetta. Tutkimustehtävästä johdetut tutkimuskysymykset ovat seuraavat: 1. Miten papit käyttävät työssään mobiiliteknologiaa ja miten se vaikuttaa työhyvinvointiin ja työajan hallintaan? 2. Mikä on sosiaalisen median rooli pappien työajan hallinnassa? 3. Miten mobiiliteknologia sopii pappien usein sirpaloituneeseen työaikaan? 4. Miten mobiiliteknologian ja siihen liittyvien palvelujen kehitys on muuttanut pappien kokemuksia työstään? Tutkielman aineisto kerättiin kysymyslomakkeella, johon vastasi 609 pappia eri puolelta Suomea. Aineisto kerättiin pääasiassa Pappisliiton työelämäjäseniltä ja aineisto pyrki antamaan suurin piirtein yleistettävän kuvan Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon pappien tilanteesta. Tutkimusote oli pääasiassa määrällinen, mutta laadullista otetta käytettiin täydentämään määrällisen tutkimusotteen aukkoja. Aina tavoitettavissa olemisen ongelma on vaivannut pappeja jo pitkään, mutta ongelma korostuu entisestään teknologian mahdollisuuksilla: Ennen kasvokkain tapahtuvan kohtaamisen lisäksi pappi saattoi olla tavoitettavissa kotipuhelimen äärellä, mutta nyt yhteydenottoja voi tulla monista uusista medioista, joista monet muistuttavat olemassaolostaan ajasta ja paikasta riippumatta taskun pohjalta. Keskimääräisesti pappien mobiiliteknologian hallinta korreloi positiivisesti työhyvinvoinnin kanssa. Työmääriä ja käytettyjä työtunteja mobiiliteknologia ei kuitenkaan vähentänyt. Merkittävänä tekijänä tässä vaikutti olevan sosiaalinen media, jota huomioidaan työaikasuunnittelussa vielä varsin rajallisesti. Samalla myös monenlaisen byrokratian koetaan lisääntyneen. Tutkimus tuo esille erilaisia hyötyjä ja haasteita, joita papit kokevat mobiiliteknologian tuoneen mukanaan papin työhön. Vaikka asenteet mobiiliteknologiaa ovat pappien piirissä vielä toisinaan varauksellisia, kokevat tutkimukseen osallistuneet vastaajat mobiiliteknologian tuovan työhön enemmän hyvää kuin huonoa.
  • Lindholm, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Ojaluoma, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Employees and students in University of Helsinki use various services which require authentication. Some of these services require strong authentication. Traditionally this has been realized by meeting in person and presenting an official identification card. Some of these online services can be automatized by implementing existing techniques for strong authentication. Currently strong authentication is implemented by VETUMA-service. Mobile authentication is interesting alternative method. The purpose of this paper is to study the Mobile Signature Service technology and to find out the benefits and possibilities of its use for mobile authentication in University of Helsinki. Mobile authentication is suitable method for implementing strong authentication and for signing documents digitally. Mobile authentication can be used in many different ways in Helsinki university.
  • Martela, Anna (2013)
    This Master’s Thesis will reflect on how information can empower women in urban West Jakarta through examining two different forums that provide crucial healthcare information for women in lower income families. My main focus is on analyzing a mobile phone service, which was a pilot project by Nokia Life and Mercy Corps in West Jakarta, targeted for pregnant women and women with small children. My research is based on participatory observation, focus group discussions, and interviews in late 2011 and early 2012. Anthropological research does not provide many studies on how women in development countries use mobile phones. My Master’s Thesis tries to shed light on this area. In addition to this, the study tackles the growing but little researched field of mobile phone use in health services; the so-called Mhealth use. In my thesis I will look at technology use from a gender perspective. I am especially interested in the feelings mobile phone services such as Nokia Life generates in its women users. I will thus show how information via mobile phones can have the potential to empower women, even though some barriers to the empowerment process occur in developing countries. As a theoretical basis I will utilize, for example, Chib et al.’s (2008) ICTs for development model. I will also discuss how women in West Jakarta use their mobile phones, and argue that mobile phones can impact women’s lives, but only if the socio-cultural setting allows this. In West-Jakarta, mobile phone and Mhealth use broadened mothers’ lives within the domain of motherhood. Their cultural and social setting thus set the limits on how the mobile phones could alter their lives.
  • Fortelius, Sabina Maria Blanka (2014)
    The context of the thesis is found in the sociological discussion on migration and labour market integration of immigrants. The theoretic foothold builds on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory on forms of capital and fields. The point of departure for the study is Swedish citizens’ paths to employment in Helsinki at the time recently after migration. Swedish migrants without a previous connection to Finland through kin have not been studied in the Finnish context, and the aim is to describe how these migrants gain access to the local labour market in Helsinki. What assets do the Swedish citizens use in order to gain employment in Helsinki? How are these assets achieved? Are the resources migrated from Sweden valued on the field, or do the Swedish migrants have to take further measures in Finland, in order to gain employment? By answering these questions a definition of the prevailing rules on the labour market will also be made. The thesis is written as an independent part of the research project Svenska invandrare i Finland, led by senior lecturer Östen Wahlbeck. The empirical data for the study consists of 14 semi-structured in-depth interviews with Swedish Citizens in Helsinki. The interviews were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 and have been analysed from an inductive angle. As an immigrant group, the Swedish citizens in Finland are in a specific position as their first language is one of the national languages in Finland. The Swedish citizens actively use the Swedish-speaking labour market as a gateway to employment. The initial occupations of Swedish citizens in Helsinki are on the one hand often situated in Swedish-speaking sectors where the level of required skills or assets might be low, entry-level sectors, and sectors where the specific skills required are corresponding to the national background of the employee, ethno-specific occupations. On the other hand, the interviews also show that some of the interviewed have managed to gain employment that corresponds to their work experience from Sweden. The study shows that the Swedish immigrants only to a limited extent have to rely on unofficial channels to gain employment, and that the assets of the Swedish applicants in many cases have been recognised in their migrated state. In many cases, the applicants have also managed to mobilise their ties to or knowledge of Sweden into a valued asset which enables them to gain employment in Helsinki.
  • Warro, Eeva (2012)
    This thesis scrutinises EU civilian crisis management as an instrument of global liberal governance. Critical Theorists’ views on peace operations form the starting point of the thesis. In their view peace operations are instrumental in spreading liberal common sense and state-centric and managerialist in nature turning subjects of security into objects. Instead they call for more complex operations based on local leadership and wide civil society engagement. This thesis sides, however, with an alternative problematisation of political power, government and war, namely the Foucaultian governmentality approach. Besides Foucault (1977; 1990; 2003; 2007) the theoretical background of this thesis is inspired especially by the works of Dillon and Reid (2008; 2009). With their advancements global liberal governance is seen as a security dispositif with which a biopolitical world order is upheld. EU civilian crisis management, itself a complex ensemble, is argued to be an instance of the dispositif and the analysis focuses on showing how. The research material of this thesis consists in speeches of the EU High Representative for ESDP, Javier Solana, in official EU policy documents, notably the European Security Strategy; in guidelines and policy documents pertaining more specifically to ESDP civilian crisis management and to civilian crisis management training as well as in documents and web-pages of the EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo. The methodological orientation for scrutinising this material is the Foucaultian governmentality approach, relying mainly on works of Rose (1992; 1993; 1999; 2006; 2007). Political rationalities, governmental technologies and subjects are the central analytical concepts utilised for the analysis. The security rationality of the EU, in particular in the field of ESDP civilian crisis management, is biopolitical. Contingency and the Union’s ability to discern threatening developments from good ones figure as the greatest security concerns in the material analysed. These are addressed by emergency thinking, whereby the security of the governmental mechanisms of crisis management themselves becomes central. In order to be resilient in the face of contingency, the system needs to be in constant transformation. This logic of constant transformation and adaptation are governmentalised in the EU civilian crisis management system by various biopolitical techniques and mechanisms that in the discussion are grouped as technologies of reflexive government, harmonisation and co-location. These technologies are instrumental in producing also subjects, which are capable in living out the rationality of emergency and which thus reproduce it and maintain the governmental technologies. The civilian crisis management experts are articulated as relays and objects of governmental power. On one hand, they collect information through which different instances are made governable thus ensuring government without Government, and on another, mechanisms upon mechanisms are introduced to keep the experts and the civilian crisis management system itself on check in the fear of it turning acerbic. It is concluded that the thus biostrategised EU civilian crisis management is instrumental in mobilising different civilian sectors of societies to the biopolitical war waged by global liberal governance. Thereby, the view adopted is akin to that of the Critical Theorists about liberal peace operations, but this thesis goes into depth about the actual processes and techniques of global liberal governance and makes reference to no relation of subjugation, but sees power as productive, not merely restrictive.
  • Kullman, Kim (2015)
    Working between and beyond the interdisciplinary areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, this thesis explores how children learn practices of everyday mobility in metropolitan Helsinki (population 1.4 million). Children’s urban movement has become a contested issue in Euro-American settings due to a range of developments, among them the growth in car traffic, the increase in travel distances to school and the widening influence of risk thinking on cultural understandings of childhood. Such tendencies have conspired to intensify the regulation of children’s engagements with urban environments, thereby circumscribing their agencies and sociabilities. Elaborating a more affirmative account of children’s mobility, this thesis gives prominence to the varied competencies, experiences and knowledges of movement that are already in place in the daily lives of families. Through a close exploration of the actual practices whereby children foster their mobilities, the thesis indicates that some of the current concerns around children’s urban movement are misplaced and that societies need to reconsider how children are involved in the shaping of present and future mobilities. The thesis draws on empirical research in two specific sites where children in Helsinki learn mobility: a model traffic area for 5-10-year-olds and the school journeys of 7-12-year-olds, the first of these providing an entry-point into formal pedagogical practices, the second into informal learning through mundane urban travel. The study has deployed various qualitative and participatory methods—including mobile ethnography, digital picture-making and visual interviews—to create an open-ended and flexible arena for children, parents and educators to experiment with diverse ways of becoming mobile and to convey their experiences of such becomings. Further extending this approach, the thesis allies itself with Donald Woods Winnicott, Daniel Stern, Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour and other thinkers to trace out a series of mobility experiments, transformative relational arrangements, which suggest a three-fold argument about mobile learning. First, the thesis develops a detailed account of children’s mobility that eschews generalised assumptions about their agency, stressing instead its dynamic and relational emergence as part of daily practices of movement. Children’s mobility in Helsinki is often constituted in collective experiments that draw together a variety of people and materials, from parents and siblings to zebra crossings and bicycles—all carefully composed to engage children in an equally safe and playful elaboration of their agency in relation to other urban bodies. Describing these heterogeneous set-ups and their intricate workings, the thesis brings out the creativity and diversity of children’s everyday movements. Second, the thesis proposes an affirmative view of children’s mundane mobilities by demonstrating that the experimental forms of learning cultivated by the families and educators in Helsinki contribute to children’s sense of belonging in urban and traffic environments. Such experimental learning speaks of more caring and collaborative styles of movement that this thesis further clarifies in an attempt to develop alternative ways of understanding children’s mobility that bypass some of the control-oriented and risk-averse attitudes surrounding the geographies of childhood in present Euro-American societies. This also enables a closer examination of how mobility experiments could help academics, educators, planners and other professionals to support and stimulate children’s mobility in a manner that enriches their civic agency and participation. Third, the thesis elaborates a methodological argument about the importance for childhood research to move beyond the effort to describe the world as it appears towards a more active and collective experimentation with the ways in which the world could become otherwise, as dealing with ever-complex empirical challenges asks for more dynamic and open-ended modes of working. The thesis indicates that understanding issues such as children’s mobility requires continuous experimentation with concepts, devices and methods so that both researchers and participants have an opportunity to detect and amplify unexplored possibilities in their practices. The areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, through their interdisciplinary inclinations and sensitivities to human potential and transformation, are particularly well placed to contribute to such an exploration of more responsive forms of engagement.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Senni (2010)
    This is an ethnographic study of the mobility of women in Upper Egypt. It is based on two months of fieldwork conducted in the governorate of Sohag. A central argument of this study is that the critical re-evaluation of spatial divisions is needed to come to grips with the complexity of ways in which space is actually understood. Upper Egypt or the Sa’id is a culturally specific region that is labelled as traditionalist, family-centred and patriarchal. Sa'idi women negotiate mobility in public space within the community with regard to such principles as the avoidance of shame and respect towards familial authorities. Despite the small size of the governorate the ideas and practices related to mobility are diverse. The aim of this study is to ethnographically illustrate the heterogeneity that is linked with spatial constructions. Using the theory of practice, I show that women, as active mobile agents, construct, negotiate, regulate, and finally give social meanings to space. By means of participant observation and interviews I study two socially distinguishable groups. I concentrate on highly-educated middle class women living in urban surroundings. As a reference point, I have a group of rural non-educated women. With regard to the two mentioned groups the following themes are studied: how women, as active agents, negotiate their mobility in public space, how the question of women’s mobility is related to the morals of the patriarchally arranged community and how the different social classes regard spatial organisation. Mobility is an embodied activity that is founded on the inseparable relationship between body and space. In feminist anthropology, the theoretical division between male-oriented public and female-oriented private space has evoked a lot of discussion. This study reveals that, not so much the concepts of public and private, but the spatial division between familiar and unfamiliar helps to understand on what basis the mobility of women is regulated and negotiated. Moreover, it is shown that the urban middle class and the rural lower class have very different kinds of spatial practices. The data displays that the ability to regulate privacy and to make spatial divisions requires resources. Finally, the results suggest that there is no single Egyptian understanding of space. Spatial categorisations are renegotiated all the time, as is gender. As commonly shared ideas of womanhood change, spatial practices find new forms. This study is an attempt to understand contemporary spatial practices in the relatively little studied Sa’idi region and to provide a reconsideration of spatial divisions in the light of the ethnographic data.
  • Valros, Niklas Folke Harri (2007)
    Pro gradu -avhandlingens forskningsobjekt är finska mobilkonsumenter i åldern 20–71 år. Syftet med undersökningen är att granska samt kartlägga användningen av nyttiga och nöjaktiga mobiltjänster. Vilka är de populäraste tjänsterna? I bakgrunden fungerar Colin Campbells teori om hedonism i konsumtionssamhället. Även intresset för ny teknologi är ett centralt tema i undersökningen. Med hjälp av teorier från dessa temaområden profileras mobilkonsumenten i nyttokonsumenter respektive nöjeskonsumenter och samtidigt görs en skillnad mellan modern och traditionell hedonism. Med andra ord söks kännetecken för detta slag av konsumtionsbeteende och samtidigt undersöks vilket intresset för nya innovationer och ny teknologi är. Undersökningens material består av ett statistiskt material från år 2003. Materialet härstammar från Konsumtionsforskningscentralen. Materialet är icke-slumpmässigt och behandlar frågor kring användning av mobila tjänster och mobiltelefoner. Inga öppna frågor är inkluderade i undersökningen. Konsumentprofiler har sökts med hjälp av kvantitativa metoder. Materialet är delat i målvariabler och kriterievariabler. Kriterievariablerna är nödvändiga med tanke på konstrueringen av konsumentprofilerna. I avhandlingen uppfattas mobiltjänsterna som relativt ointressanta. Ingen särskild grupp visade sig vara speciellt intresserad av användningen av tjänsterna. Vissa tecken på modern hedonism kunde ändå urskiljas eftersom många hade testat tjänsterna åtminstone en gång och innehavet av nyare mobilmodeller kunde konstateras. Nyttotjänsterna var populärare än nöjestjänsterna. Även om materialet gav goda förutsättningar till en indelning i nytto- och nöjeskonsumtion, visade det sig att dessa två dimensioner inte existerade. Istället handlade det om sk blandkonsumtion, dock med en tyngdpunkt på nyttan. Trots att användningen av mobiltjänster inte är en särskilt bra markör på hedonism kan man dock dra försiktiga slutsatser som baserar sig på innehav av mobilmodeller samt på testandet av tjänsterna. Ju mer avancerad teknologi ägs, desto oftare använder man sig av fördelar den nya teknologin för med sig. Men det handlar inte om traditionell konsumtion, rättare sagt handlar det om modern konsumtion där vikten inte längre ligger på varans praktiskhet eller på ett behov. Snarare handlar det om ett slag av teknologisk nyfikenhet. Konsumtion av mobiltjänster är ett fenomen som inte ännu idag har ett tydligt ansikte.
  • Ollila, Marja-Liisa (1986)
  • Haltia, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään modaaliverbien käytön kehittymistä oppijansuomessa Eurooppalaisen viitekehyksen taitotasoilla A2-C2. Tutkimuskysymyksiä olivat: (1) Millainen modaaliverbien käyttö on tyypillistä kullekin tutkituista taitotasoista? (2) Miten modaaliverbien käyttö kehittyy Eurooppalaisen viitekehyksen tasolta A2 tasolle C2? (3) Mitkä modaaliverbit aiheuttavat suomenoppijoille vaikeuksia ja (4) miten modaaliverbit vaikuttavat suomenoppijoiden viestintäkykyyn? Aineistona käytettiin Oulun yliopiston ICLFI-korpuksesta otettuja tekstejä, joiden kirjoittajat opiskelevat suomea vieraana kielenä ulkomaisissa yliopistoissa. Tutkimuskysymyksiä lähestyttiin kahdella tapaa. Ensinnäkin modaaliverbien käytön kehittymistä tutkittiin DEMfad-mallin mukaisesti frekvenssin, tarkkuuden ja distribuution näkökulmasta. Toiseksi tutkimuksessa pohdittiin kvalitatiivisesti sitä, miten modaaliverbien käyttö vaikuttaa oppijan viestintätaitoihin. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena taustana käytettiin käyttöpohjaisen kieliopin ajatuksia toisen tai vieraan kielen omaksumisesta. Tutkimuksessa huomattiin, että aineiston modaaliverbien käytössä tapahtui kaksi murrosta. Niistä ensimmäinen koski modaaliverbien esiintymäfrekvenssiä ja tapahtui taitotasolta A2 tasolle B siirryttäessä. Tasolla C2 modaaliverbien esiintymäfrekvenssi laski jälleen. Toinen murros koski modaaliverbien tarkkuuden ja distribuution kehitystä ja tapahtui taitotasolla C tultaessa. Tällöin modaaliverbien käyttö muuttui keskeisimpien modaaliverbien osalta kohdekieliseksi sekä varioivaksi. Modaaliverbien käytön variaatio ja tarkkuus olivat verrannollisia taitotason kanssa: mitä ylempää taitotasoa kirjoittaja edusti, sitä varioivampaa ja tarkempaa modaaliverbien käyttö keskimäärin oli. Vastaavaa korrelaatiota ei havaittu esiintymäfrekvenssin ja taitotason välillä. Tutkimuksen perusteella mahdollisuutta ilmaisevien modaaliverbien käyttö aiheuttaa suomenoppijoille enemmän vaikeuksia kuin välttämättömyyttä ilmaisevien. Yleisimpiä ongelmia olivat eri modaaliverbien välisen työnjaon selkeytymättömyys sekä modaaliverbien käyttö kohdekielelle epätyypillisissä konteksteissa. Tutkimus antoi viitteitä sen suuntaan, että ainakin oppijan äidinkielen siirtovaikutus ja tuotettava tekstilaji vaikuttaisivat modaaliverbien käyttöön. Tutkimustulokset poikkesivat modaaliverbien oppimisjärjestyksen puolesta eräistä muista suomea toisena kielenä opiskelevien modaaliverbien käyttöä sivunneiden tutkimusten tuloksista. Tämä antaa viitteitä sen suuntaan, että myös oppimisympäristöllä olisi vaikutusta käytettyihin modaaliverbeihin. Tutkimuksen perusteella modaaliverbien kohdekielinen käyttö parantaa tekstin sidosteisuutta, tehostaa oppijan kykyä ilmaista mielipiteitään sekä parantaa hänen kykyään tuottaa argumentoivia ja akateemisia tekstilajeja. Näin ollen modaaliverbien hallinta on yhteydessä Eurooppalaisen viitekehyksen eri taitotasoille asettamiin viestinnällisiin tavoitteisiin.
  • Sarmola, Jaakko (2001)
  • Hirvelä, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis examines the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge from the perspective of modal epistemology, and thus attempts to explicate the nature of knowledge. This study aims to answer the question what is knowledge? The main hypothesis is that by excluding those beliefs that are true only in virtue of good epistemic luck outside of knowledge, we might find the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge. The structure of the thesis is four folded. The first part defines epistemic luck. After that, two widely discussed modal conditions safety and sensitivity (which aim to define knowledge as essentially as a non-lucky true belief) are evaluated. After critically evaluating both of these conditions and having found them wanting, a novel modal condition is presented which is superior to both safety and sensitivity. The new condition global safety differs from existing modal conditions in terms of what beliefs count as relevant when determining whether a subject has knowledge or not. Global safety is concerned not only about the truth of the belief formed in the actual world, but also about the truth of the beliefs formed in possible worlds. According to global safety a subject has knowledge only if she could not easily have erred. To know is to be safe from error. The condition developed in the study is offered as expressing both the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge. The study presents widely contemporary modal epistemology and evaluates different positions critically. The thesis makes also a positive contribution to contemporary discussion and defends a novel view, which the author hopes to be of significance.