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Now showing items 13122-13141 of 24304
  • Sato, Mariko (2013)
    This thesis explores women’s voluntary return migration in the context of Somaliland. In recent years, return migration has increasingly become a topic of interest within the migration-development discourse. However, the real-life experiences of returnees remain a less researched topic. Return migration is often seen simply as a ‘return home’. In this thesis the notions of transnationalism, intersectionality, return preparedness and embeddedness are utilized to analyze the complex and gendered process of return. The aim of this thesis is to explore how do women experience, practice, and express return and embeddedness in Somaliland. This study provides an analysis of: 1) the female Somali return migrants’ motivations and expectations for return, 2) the central opportunities and challenges in the process of becoming economically, socially, and psychosocially embedded within the society of return, and 3) the ways how returnees negotiate the opportunities and challenges in becoming embedded. This study was carried out with an ethnographic approach, including a six-month field research period in Somaliland. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews (24) and participatory observations. Theory directed content analysis was employed to analyze the research data. The data demonstrates that return migration of Somali women in Somaliland is a complex social process. The return migrant women’s motivations and expectations for return are often constructed transnational interactions with the diaspora and the original home country. Upon return, return migrants need to negotiate their belonging and identities within a web of social norms, mutual expectations, and intersectional encounters. The social categories of generation, clan, religion, and ‘returnee women’ situate the return migrant women within the society. The meanings of these categories are reproduced and renegotiated in everyday encounters with locals. Generally the return migrant women are able to successfully embed themselves economically, but encounter notable intersectional challenges in becoming embedded socially and psychosocially. Furthermore the analysis reveals that women’s return migration to Somaliland is characterized with onward migration as full embeddedness is rarely achieved. The study concludes that return migration is a gendered, transnational, and intersectional phenomenon. This study suggests a need to further study the experiences and practices of return migration in different localities, as return migration is shown to be a highly contextual and situational process.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri (Waxmann, 2014)
    This qualitative case study examines the practices of Islamic education in Finnish schools. Through analysing the Finnish approach to religious education from the perspective of education according to Islam, this study participates in the European discussion concerning the search for legitimate and successful forms of religious education. The aim is to investigate how common aims given to liberal religious education in contemporary European multicultural societies can be pursued in a single-faith approach to religious education, and what kind of processes of negotiation are involved in teaching and studying Islam in a modern liberal context. These issues are studied through the following research questions: 1) How are the students religious identities developed in the classroom? What are the practical implications of the shift from religious socialisation to the aim of identity development? 2) How is the students willingness to deal with difference developed in the classroom? How do the ways to develop the willingness to encounter a) interreligious b) cultural c) intrareligious difference differ from each other? 3) How do the students deal with religious and cultural difference? What kind of ideological influences can be detected in their understandings of difference and tolerance? 4) How do teachers mediate contested meanings and practices of Islam as well as values and ideals of liberal democracies as these are negotiated through the Finnish curriculum for religious education? What kind of representation of Islam do these negotiations lead to? The data of the study consist of 1) observations of three courses of Islamic education in comprehensive and upper secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, and 2) interviews of teachers (n=3) and students (n=16). The methodological design draws from educational ethnography and critical ethnography. The data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Both Islamic education teachers and their students were found to negotiate between Islamic tradition and liberal ideals. Teachers introduced liberal educational values, such as autonomy, tolerance and citizenship, through religion. Students identities as Finnish Muslims as well as their willingness to deal with difference were supported in many ways and these educational practices were grounded on the representation of autonomy, tolerance and responsible citizenship as Islamic virtues. Besides negotiating liberal educational values in the Islamic framework, the teachers also negotiated Islam in relation to its context. They represented Islam in a way that emphasised its compatibility within a Finnish, and more generally, within a modern Western context. This required them also to negotiate the diversity in Islam which was done by distinguishing between culture and religion and focusing on commonalities. Students negotiations on diversity and tolerance brought out distinct challenges in dealing with interreligious, intrareligious and cultural differences. Furthermore, students different understandings of tolerance in the Islamic and liberal frameworks caused confusion. The conclusion, however, was that through offering a space for these kinds of negotiations of teachers and students, Islamic education contributed to the emergence of Finnish Islam and the organisation of a peaceful, multicultural society.
  • LUO, Jianing (2014)
    The present research explores the status of the Chinese traditional norm of Filial piety among the Chinese immigrants living in Finland. During the past decades, the quintessential place of the norm in Chinese family and society is believed to be challenged and in decline along such macro changes in structural and policy terms such as the economic transformation, urbanization, Individualization and demographic changes. Its constitutive role in the traditional Chinese eldercare model where adult children take major responsibility in providing support and care for their elderly parents in the family setting makes it necessary to have nuanced pictures with a micro-scale examination of individuals’ interaction with the norm in their particular circumstances. Taking careful notes of individuals’ subjective configuration of their relation with family and society, it presents the ethical, emotive weightiness of the norm for the self-constructed individuals, as well as its implications in their practical life. While resources have been drawn from 20 interviews conducted with respondents of different age cohort, the born-post-80s and singles were paid special attention. It further suggests that it is such “unlost tradition” that promises their “mobility” and “independence” in the risk society and creates their paradoxical position of being both “tied to” and “cut from” their family.
  • Leppänen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This is an ethnographic study of the lived worlds of the keepers of small shops in a residential neighborhood in Seoul, South Korea. It outlines, discusses, and analyses the categories and conceptualizations of South Korean capitalism at the level of households, neighborhoods, and Korean society. These cultural categories were investigated through the neighborhood shopkeepers practices of work and reciprocal interaction as well as through the shopkeepers articulations of their lived experience. In South Korea, the keepers of small businesses have continued to be a large occupational category despite of societal and economic changes, occupying approximately one fourth of the population in active work force. In spite of that, these people, their livelihoods and their cultural and social worlds have rarely been in the focus of social science inquiry. The ethnographic field research for this study was conducted during a 14-month period between November 1998 and December 1999 and in three subsequent short visits to Korea and to the research neighborhood. The fieldwork was conducted during the aftermath of the Asian currency crisis, colloquially termed at the time as the IMF crisis, which highlighted the social and cultural circumstances of small businesskeeper in a specific way. The livelihoods of small-scale entrepreneurs became even more precarious than before; self-employment became an involuntary choice for many middle-class salaried employees who were laid off; and the cultural categories and concepts of society and economy South Korean capitalism were articulated more sharply than before. This study begins with an overview of the contemporary setting, the Korean society under the socially and economically painful outcomes of the economic crisis, and continues with an overview of relevant literature. After introducing the research area and the informants, I discuss the Korean notion of neighborhood, which incorporates both the notions of culturally valued Koreanness and deficiency in the sense of modernity and development. This study further analyses the ways in which the businesskeepers appropriate and reproduce the Korean ideas of men s and women s gender roles and spheres of work. As the appropriation of children s labor is conditional to intergenerational family trajectories which aim not to reproduce parents occupational status but to gain entry to salaried occupations via educational credentials, the work of a married couple is the most common organization of work in small businesses, to which the Korean ideas of family and kin continuity are not applied. While the lack of generational businesskeeping succession suggests that the proprietors mainly subscribe to the notions of familial status that emanate from the practices of the white-collar middle class, the cases of certain women shopkeepers show that their proprietorship and the ensuing economic standing in the family prompts and invites inversed interpretations and uses of common cultural notions of gender. After discussing and analyzing the concept of money and the cultural categorization of leisure and work, topics that emerged as very significant in the lived world of the shopkeepers, this study charts and analyses the categories of identification which the shopkeepers employ for their cultural and social locations and identities. Particular attention is paid to the idea of ordinary people (seomin), which shopkeepers are commonly considered to be most representative of, and which also sums up the ambivalence of neighborhood shopkeepers as a social category: they are not committed to familial reproduction and continuity of the business but aspire non-entrepreneurial careers for their children, while they occupy a significant position in the elaborations of culturally valued notions and ideologies defining Koreanness such as warmheartedness and sociability.
  • Wang, Luying (2014)
    During the last decades, internal migrants, particularly those from rural to urban constitute the major urban population growth in China. This thesis studies migrants’ residential choices and adaptation in Southeast China. Specifically, the purpose of this study is threefold: firstly, I ask whether migrants concentrate in their destination towns; secondly, I identify the determinants for their concentration in particular neighbourhoods; thirdly, I aim to understand how migrants’ residential concentration in particular neighbourhoods influences their adaptation.. The assumption underlying this research is that neighbourhoods matter to migrants. The theoretical framework is based on studies of urban neighbourhoods and migrants’ social networks, and theories explaining sociospatial changes in transitional China. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The 20 interviewees found by snowball method were asked in depth about their housing conditions and choices, and their relationship with the locals and other migrants. The cases were two small towns in Zhejiang, a southeast province in China. The purpose is to fill the gap in internal migrant studies in China: the majority of previous research focuses on big cities while migrants in small towns are overlooked. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse transcripts and field notes. Three themes are constructed from the data: residential concentration, determinants of concentration and migrants’ adaptation. Findings on the basis of themes are presented as follows. Migrants concentrate in their destination small towns. The reasons for their residential concentration are the tenure type (owning, renting, dormitory) and socioeconomic factors. Migrants tend to live close to people with the same type of tenure and from a similar socioeconomic background. External and internal factors drive migrants to concentrate in particular neighbourhoods. External factors include institutional marginalisation and discrimination both by the landlord and other local people. The major internal factor is migrants’ social network. Different types of concentration based on tenure types were identified, and these indicate different ways of adaptation: tolerating bad housing conditions as an economic strategy to survive; migrants and the locals viewing each other as “others”; the perception of “others” practiced and reinforced through everyday life. This research contributes to the former literature by systematically analysing social networks and migrants’ adaptation in respect of residential concentration. However, the differentiation among migrants still needs further studies. In addition, the temporary feature of Chinese migrants and their floating between urban and rural areas contest the conventional wisdom of urbanisation, requiring more investigation.
  • Wiljanen, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation deals with the Önningeby artists colony in Åland. The colony's heyday occurred during 1886-1892, but operations continued sporadically until 1914. Victor Westerholm (1860-1919) became the colony's promoter. He invited several artists to Åland. The artists' network contributed to the colony that was attended by several Finnish and Swedish artists. After it ceased to be, knowledge of the colony has been forgotten. The artists colony hasn t been the subject of academic research. The purpose is to explain the history of the Önningeby artists colony, why and how it started and why it ended, and to identify what kind of impact the artists' social networks had on the colony. The thesis is an empirical context study, based on correspondence between the artists (mainly that of the inner circle) and the approach is historical descriptive, from the sociological point of view. First, the history of the colony and its activities is reconstructed. Through various sociograms, the complexity of the artists colony s leadership is determined. In addition, the paintings' subjects, painting manner and subject choices are examined. Jacob L. Moreno s Who shall survive? (1953) and Ylva Hasselberg s, Leon Müller s and Niklas Stenlås Åter till historiens nätverk (2002) have offered a theoretical framework and tools for constructing the sociograms. Rubert Brown s Group Processes. Dynamics within and between Groups (1988) has been useful when trying to understand different relationships within the group and the group membership. Griselda Pollock and Janet Wolff have offered critical approaches when discussing the position of women in the colony. Artists Colonies formed an important phenomenon, especially during the latter half of the 1800s, but they have been overlooked in European Art history. The colonies had no common agenda concerning the paintings, but the main principle was the same: the artists gathered at the small, picturesque villages in the countryside, where they could paint and live without society's conventional rules. The colonies were expanded, as a result of the artists networks. This was true, even in the Önningeby artists colony. The thesis shows that the artists colony phenomenon of Önningeby was born and ceased due to the individual artists' social networks. Its existence would not have been possible without a strong promoter and individual artists, whose actions and networks made the colony known in artistic circles. Sociometric analysis shows that the colony s structure was hierarchical and that the leadership was not as clear as previously thought. The leadership was a fragmented structure and could be divided between several people. A majority of colony artists were women, something that differed from the European artists colonies. The women had different roles, both in the colony and in their relationships. This dissertation shows that they had an important role not only in the development of Önningeby art but also in the matter of the colony's leadership. The impact of the Önningeby artists colony cannot be overlooked. The colony introduced a new way of living life as an artist, far away from the strict rules of academies and society. There was an Önningeby identity, but also Önningeby art, whose characteristics are described.The colony functioned as a kind of laboratory for new trends in art, artist life, artistry and leadership.
  • Ahonen, Irja (1934)
  • Pylvänäinen-Suorsa, Marjatta (1987)
  • Kokko, Laura (2007)
    Tutkimus käsittelee nuoria korkeakoulutettuja naisia heidän ollessaan siirtymässä nuoruudesta aikuisuuteen ja koulutuksesta työelämään. Tutkimuksessa ollaan kiinnostuneita siitä, miten naiset elävät ja kokevat työelämän muutoksen, mitä he ajattelevat työstä ja perheestä sekä näiden kahden elämän osa-alueen yhteensovittamisesta. Harriet Strandellin (1984) tutkimus ”Kolmen naissukupolven kokemuksia työstä ja perheestä” sekä Richard Sennettin (2002) ”Työn uusi järjestys” –kirja ovat toimineet tutkimuksen innoittajina. Tutkimuksessa esitetäänkin sukupolvi- ja työelämätutkimukseen tukeutuen kysymys siitä, voisivatko tämän päivän nuoret korkeakoulutetut, työelämän murrosta elävät naiset muodostaa ”neljännen sukupolven” Strandellin tutkimuksen jatkoksi. Tutkimukseen haastateltiin kolmeatoista nuorta, 24-28-vuotiasta, korkeakoulutuksen saanutta tai saamassa olevaa, naimatonta ja lapsetonta naista. Haastateltavat tavoitettiin tutkijan omien kontaktien ja Kluuvin työvoimatoimiston korkeakouluopiskelijoiden neuvontapalvelun sekä Helsingin yliopiston ura- ja rekrytointipalvelujen kautta. Tutkimuksen pääaineisto koostuu kolmestatoista puolistrukturoidusta teemahaastattelusta, joissa käytettiin Edgar Scheinin (1978, 1990) ura-ankkureita virikemateriaalina. Tukiaineistona toimi noin 200 artikkelin media-aineisto. Tutkimuksessa nousi esiin naisten yhtenevä työelämäkäsitys ja tietoisuus nykytyöelämän vaativuudesta. Tämä tietoisuus ajaa naiset reflektoimaan työn rajojen asettamista omassa elämässään. Naiset ovat mukautuneet muuttuneen työelämän vaatimuksiin, mutta tästä huolimatta heillä on tarve kritisoida uuden työn käytäntöjä. Naiset näyttäytyvät tutkimuksessa aktiivisina toimijoina, jotka uskovat työuran olevan hallittavissa sen haasteellisuudesta huolimatta. Sekä työllä että perheellä on keskeinen asema naisten elämänkokonaisuudessa. Naiset ovat perhemyönteisiä, mutta myöhentävät perheellistymistään työelämän vaatimusten puristuksessa. Työn ja perheen yhteensovittaminen näyttäytyy naisille haasteellisena. Tutkimuksen tuloksen mukaan työelämän muutos näyttäytyy keskeisenä, merkityksellisenä naisten elämää muokkaavana kokemuksena, joka muodostaa eräänlaisen avainkokemuksen ”neljännen sukupolven” muotoutumiselle. Toisen keskeisen tuloksen mukaan sukupolvi näyttää muodostuvan ulottuvuudeksi sukupolvitietoisuuden heikon tai vahvan tuntemisen mukaan. Tutkimuksen kohteena olevat ”neljännen sukupolven” naiset sijoittuvat tällä ulottuvuudella lähemmäs heikkoa kuin vahvaa päätä.
  • Suominen, Riitta (1982)