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  • Karlberg, Susann (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Mulibrey nanism (MUL; OMIM 253250) is an autosomal recessive disorder belonging to the Finnish disease heritage and currently classified as a peroxisomal disorder. MUL is characterized by intrauterine-onset growth restriction, typical dysmorphic features, restrictive perimyocardial heart disease, and severe insulin resistance. The causative gene, TRIM37, is located on chromosome 17q22-q23 and encodes for a peroxisomal protein (TRIM37) with ubiquitin E3-ligase activity, suggesting its role in proteasomal protein degradation. All 19 mutations identified to date, including 4 in Finnish patients, are likely to produce a non-functioning protein. For many decades, the clinical care and follow-up of Finnish MUL patients were based at the Children s Hospital in Helsinki, generating a unique clinical experience and data set for this patient group. In follow-up, it became evident that a substantial proportion of these patients developed hypogonadism, were infertile, and had an increased risk of developing tumors. Thus, the principal focus of this study was to characterize the hypogonadism and infertility associated with this disorder, and furthermore to define the tumors and tumor predisposition in MUL, both clinically and immunohistochemically. A total of 92 Finnish patients (0.7-77 years) were included in the study; 22 post pubertal females participated in the female hypogonadism study, and 28 male patients participated in the male hypogonadism study. All hospital records were evaluated, and physical, laboratory, and radiological examinations were performed according to clinical protocols. Biopsies (taken on clinical grounds) and autopsy samples were used for histological and immunohistochemical studies. In addition, 15 freshly frozen samples from sporadic ovarian fibrothecomas were analyzed for the role of TRIM37 in the development of these tumors. All MUL patients developed hypogonadism due to a primary gonadal defect and were either infertile or severely subfertile. Women demonstrated spontaneous puberty, incomplete breast development, and early irregularity of menstrual periods with subsequent ovarian failure. Their ovaries were hypoplastic and their uteri were small. The men also experienced spontaneous puberty with somewhat small testes characterized by varying degrees of degeneration and few mature germ cells. Semen samples showed either severe oligoasthenozoospermia or azoospermia. No spontaneous pregnancies had been conceived among the MUL patients. Four men had undergone infertility treatment, which in one case was successful, resulting in the delivery of a healthy child. The MUL patients displayed a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumors especially of endocrine origin. A total of 232 tumorous lesions in several different organs were discovered in the patient cohort. Histologically, the architecture of several organs was disturbed, indicating aberrant organogenesis. One of the most frequent tumors was ovarian fibrothecomas, which are fairly uncommon in the general population, found in 55% of the female patients. The study of inherited monogenic disorders has contributed substantially to our understanding of gene function and human disease. In MUL, mutations in TRIM37 lead to failure of sexual maturation in both females and males, and fertility is seriously compromised. In addition, the patients are at a very high risk for developing benign and malignant tumors in several different organs. This study suggests a role for TRIM37 protein in the cellular functions governing gametogenesis, gonadal function, and proliferation.
  • Karlberg, Niklas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Background: Mulibrey nanism (MUL; Muscle-liver-brain-eye nanism; OMIM 253250) is an autosomal recessive growth disorder more prevalent in Finland than elsewhere in the world. Clinical characteristics include severe prenatal onset growth restriction, cardiopathy, multiple organ manifestations but no major neurological handicap. MUL is caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene on chromosome 17q22-23, encoding a peroxisomal protein TRIM37 with ubiquitin E3-ligase activity. Nineteen different mutations have been detected, four of them present in the Finnish patients. Objective: This study aimed to characterize clinical and histopathological features of MUL in the national cohort of Finnish patients. Patients and methods: A total of 92 Finnish patients (age 0.7 to 77 years) participated in the clinical follow-up study. Patients hospital records and growth charts were reviewed. Physical, radiographic and laboratory examinations were performed according to a clinical protocol. Thirty patients (18 females) were treated with recombinant human GH for a median period of 5.7 years. Biopsies and autopsy samples were used for the histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: MUL patients were born small for gestational age (SGA) with immature craniofacial features after prenatal-onset growth restriction. They experienced a continuous deceleration in both height SDS and weight-for-height (WFH) postnatally. In infancy feeding difficulties and frequent pneumonias were common problems. At the time of diagnosis (median age 2.1 years) characteristic craniofacial, radiological and ocular features were the most constant findings. MUL patients showed a dramatic change in glucose metabolism with increasing age. While the children had low fasting glucose and insulin levels, 90% of the adults were insulin resistant, half had type 2 diabetes and an additional 42% showed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Seventy percent fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome as adults. GH therapy improved pre-pubertal growth but had only minor impact on adult height (+5 cm). Interestingly, treated subjects were slimmer and had less frequent metabolic concerns as young adults. MUL patients displayed histologically a disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours present in several internal organs. A total of 232 tumorous lesions were detected in our patient cohort. The majority of the tumours showed strong expression of endothelial cell marker CD34 as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Fifteen of the tumours were malignant and seven of them (five Wilms tumours) occurred in the kidney. Conclusions: MUL patients present a distinct postnatal growth pattern. Short-term response of GH treatment is substantial but the long-term impact remains modest. Although MUL patients form a distinct clinical and diagnostic entity, their clinical findings vary considerably from infancy to adulthood. While failure to thrive dominates early life, MUL adults develop metabolic syndrome and have a tendency for malignancies and vascular lesions in several organs. This speaks for a central role of TRIM37 in regulation of key cellular functions, such as proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and insulin signalling.
  • Antikainen, Elina (1989)
  • Suomalainen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Due to the recent development in CCD technology aerial photography is now slowly changing from film to digital cameras. This new aspect in remote sensing allows and requires also new automated analysis methods. Basic research on reflectance properties of natural targets is needed so that computerized processes could be fully utilized. For this reason an instrument was developed at Finnish Geodetic Institute for measurement of multiangular reflectance of small remote sensing targets e.g. forest understorey or asphalt. Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FiGIFiGo) is a portable device that is operated by 1 or 2 persons. It can be reassembled to a new location in 15 minutes and after that a target's multiangular reflectance can be measured in 10 - 30 minutes (with one illumination angle). FiGIFiGo has effective spectral range approximately from 400 nm to 2000 nm. The measurements can be made either outside with sunlight or in laboratory with 1000 W QTH light source. In this thesis FiGIFiGo is introduced and the theoretical basis of such reflectance measurements are discussed. A new method is introduced for extraction of subcomponent proportions from reflectance of a mixture sample, e.g. for retrieving proportion of lingonberry's reflectance in observation of lingonberry-lichen sample. This method was tested by conducting a series of measurements on reflectance properties of artificial samples. The component separation method yielded sound results and brought up interesting aspects in targets' reflectances. The method and the results still need to be verified with further studies, but the preliminary results imply that this method could be a valuable tool in analysis of such mixture samples.
  • Haapamäki, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Bensch, Frank (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Serious injuries of the spine and pelvis are common in level I trauma centers, and are usually the result of high-energy accidents such as motor vehicle accidents (MVA) or falls from a height, but increasingly also sports and recreational accidents. Even presumably minor accidents can result in serious injury depending on the injury mechanism. The risk of acquiring a fracture is also tied to possible predisposing factors such as a weakened bone structure in osteoporosis, or an increased stiffness of the spine in ankylosing spondylitis. ----- Spinal injuries have a potential for catastrophic, life-altering consequences, because they are associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). A missed or inappropriately managed spinal injury can result in secondary SCI or progression of the initial damage. But also pelvic fractures pose a serious threat, as there are large-caliber blood vessels, nerves, and the lower urinary tract in close proximity to the pelvic bones. An acute bleeding into the pelvic area can remain clinically silent for an extended amount of time due to circulatory compensation processes. Exclusion of these occult injuries by imaging techniques is therefore imperative in order to detect a serious injury as early as possible and administer appropriate treatment. Time-, space-, and cost restraints as well as the patient s stability limit the application of imaging modalities in the golden hour of trauma resuscitation, which is arguably the most critical phase for the patient s outcome. The optimal choice of imaging methods is therefore crucial. But also the knowledge of injury patterns and demographic risk factors contributes to the correct diagnosis of a serious injury. This thesis focuses on injury patterns of the spine in conjunction with high-energy accidents, as well as demographic patterns and the optimal choice of imaging modality. It consists of five publications with a total of 2375 patients, covering a time frame from January 2001 to September 2009. There is special emphasis on vertebral burst fracture, which is the most common fracture in the thoracolumbar area, and which has furthermore a high potential for SCI due to its unstable nature. Also the bony pelvis as an extension of the spine receives special reference. According to our results, serious spinal injury as a result of blunt trauma occurs in all age groups and independently of gender, and even minor trauma energies can result in serious trauma. Trauma energy does have an influence though, as the incidence of spine fractures increases with increasing falling height, and burst fractures and spine fractures on multiple levels become more frequent. But also other blunt trauma mechanisms had multiple spine fractures in up to 32 % of cases, whereof 29 % were non-contiguous. Burst fracture was seen on multiple levels in 10 % of cases, with 50 % being non-contiguous. The frequent occurrence of vertebral fractures and especially burst fractures on non-contiguous levels makes imaging of the whole spine necessary in conjunction with high-energy accidents, especially in obtunded patients. Radiography demonstrates unstable vertebral fractures with acceptable accuracy, particularly in the lumbar spine (LS). Summation of overlapping tissue in these areas makes the identification of the hall marks of an unstable facture difficult, which can lead to an injury being missed, or wrongly classified as stable. Neurological deficit was most frequent and serious in the CS. In the pelvic area, radiography detected only 55 % of fractures diagnosed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and in 11 % findings were false negatively normal. Additionally, Tile classification of fractures was correct in 59 % of injuries, whereas the subtype was correct in only 14 %. The pelvis was false negatively classified as stable in 40 % of cases. Sport and recreational accidents had an overall incidence of injury of one in five, of which 71 % were considered to be serious. The three most common types of serious injury were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The most common accident mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports, with bicycling causing most frequently serious injury. In conclusion, it is recommended using MDCT to rule out serious injury of the spine and pelvis in adult victims of high-energy accidents of all age groups and both genders, especially in regard to multilevel injuries and injuries of the cervical spine. Even in presumably minor trauma, a high level of suspicion is required, and MDCT should be employed if the clinical finding is uncertain. MDCT is fast, cost-effective, and demonstrates injuries of the spine and pelvis unambiguously, benefiting the trauma patient s outcome.
  • Kuikko, Janne (2008)
    The investment atmosphere has changed significantly due to the European integration that took place in the 21st century. Thus there has been a need to chart the prevailing risks more carefully. Special attention has been given to risk measures in particular. The focus has been especially on static risk measures, since significant problems have been detected in the application of dynamic risk measures. Attention is paid also on the coherency of risk measure, and the terms of a coherent risk measure are determined. We will adopt a mean-variance approach in this study because it is still common to use the portfolio variance (standard deviation) as a measure for risk, although the concept of market portfolio dating back to the times of Harry Markowitz has been perceived as too much of a sweeping single variable that would hold all risk information occurring in the prevailing market. So models, which use several different variables for measuring risk have been developed. These models attempt to “suck in” exhaustively all risk-information available in the market. Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) functions as a starting point. APT is in principle the first multi-factor model introduced, but it presents the used variables in a very limited manner. Later on, the qualifiers in multi-factor models have been specified, and special attention has been given to defining and choosing the variables. Various theories, which try to model the real activities of the finance market, have been used to justify the choice of variables. Hence, multi-factor models concentrate above all on the choice of variables. These variables have mainly been chosen according to macroeconomic, fundamental and statistical grounds. Macroeconomic models concentrate on explaining the dependency between external forces of the economy and asset returns. Fundamental models on the other hand believe that asset returns are determined mainly based on company-specific factors, and statistical models estimate variables from the historical return development of a single asset. Two fundamental models are described more carefully, a 3-factor model by Fama and French (1993) and a 4-factor model by Carhart (1997). By comparing the explanatory powers of these three different models we can deduct which model can best explain the asset returns and consequently the risk it includes. Connor (1995) gives a thorough study on the explanatory power of these models. After this, by comparing each of them separately with Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) we can discover the optimal risk management instrument. This specific comparison is done by Fletcher and Hillier (2002). The basic idea is therefore to study whether the variables used in multi-factor models include some additional information that single variable models cannot explain. Finally we end up with the conclusion that in certain conditions and with certain restriction, very realistic ones though, the explanation power of a multi-factor models is greater than in single-factor model (CAPM). Thus they include additional information about the prevailing risk compared to single-factor model and give more realistic, detailed and more reliable description of the risk involved with the asset or a portfolio.
  • Kopp, Christine (2006)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tehdä morfologinen kartoitus ayrshire-rotuisella keinosiemennyssonnilla esiintyneistä siittiövioista. Tutkimuksessa oli mukana tapaussonnin lisäksi joukko normaaleja iältään ja rodultaan tapausta vastaavia kontrollisonneja sekä osassa tutkimusta kivesnäytteitä Sertoli cell only -oireyhtymästä kärsineestä sonnista. Giemsalla värjätyistä siemennäytteistä ja HE-värjätyistä kivesleikkeistä selvitettiin kuva-analyysin avulla kiveskudoksen histologisia ominaisuuksia sekä ejakulaatissa esiintyvien solujen rakennetta ja kokoa. Lisäksi tapaussonnilla ejakulaatissa esiintyvät epämuodostuneet siittiöt jaettiin neljään eri ryhmään pään ja hännän rakenteellisten ominaisuuksien mukaan. Kivesnäytteille tehtiin immunohistokemiallinen vimentiinivärjäys Sertolin solujen osoittamiseksi ja fluoresenssivärjäyksiä siemennäytteille osoittamaan sekä kromatiinin että mitokondrioiden jakautumista ejakulaatissa esiintyvissä soluissa. Tutkimuksessa saatujen tulosten perusteella voitiin osoittaa, että tapaussonnilla ei esiintynyt lainkaan rakenteeltaan normaaleja siittiöitä ja kaikki sen siittiöt olivat liikkumattomia. Lisäksi kudostasolla siittiönkehitys oli häiriintynyt selvästi kivesten siementiehyiden tubuluksissa jo spermatosyyttivaiheesta alkaen. Histologinen kuva poikkesi tapaussonnilla selvästi normaaleista kontrollieläimistä eri kehitysvaiheissa olevien siittiöiksi muodostuvien solujen lukumäärien progressiivisesti vähentyessä siittiönkehityksen edetessä. Sertolin solujen lukumäärä puolestaan oli tapauksella huomattavasti kontrollisonneja suurempi. Useimmat tapauksen siittiöistä olivat monihäntäisiä, häntien lukumäärän vaihdellessa yhdestä yli kymmeneen. Fluoresenssivärjäykset osoittivat tapaussonnin siittiöiden olevan useimmiten monitumaisia. Tutkituissa siittiöissä tumia oli 1–6. Mitokondrioita siittiöiden keskikappaleissa esiintyi vain satunnaisesti. Kirjallisuuskatsausosassa käsitellään normaalia siittiönkehitystä ja siittiönkehityksen häiriöitä sekä esitellään tapaussonnin siittiövikojen kaltaisia humaanitapauksia.
  • Järvelä, Emilia (2014)
    High-energy γ-rays produced by powerful relativistic jets are usually associated with blazars and radio galaxies. Recently Fermi/LAT detected γ-rays from a few Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and thus confirmed the presence of relativistic jets in those sources. In the current AGN paradigm powerful relativistic jets are almost exclusively launched from massive elliptical galaxies. Since NLSy1s are young evolving AGN they offer a unique opportunity to study the production of rela- tivistic jets in late-type galaxies. In this study our aim is to determine via which processes and where different kinds of radiation are produced in NLSy1s. We compiled the so far largest multiwavelength database of NLSy1s which allowed us to explore correlations between different wavebands. We did this separately for radio loud and radio quiet sources. Multiwavelength correlations indicate that radio loud sources host a jet whereas radio quiet sources do not or the jet is very weak. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggests also that radio quiet and radio loud sources have different parent populations in redshift, luminosity and black hole mass. Open questions aroused also by this study are e.g. the origin of the infrared emission in NLSy1s and the differences between radio quiet and radio loud sources. In the future the large multiwavelength database of NLSy1s will permit us to easily identify and compare properties of new γ-ray NLSy1s to be detected by Fermi or other facilities.
  • Aalto, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Double-stranded RNA and associated proteins are known to regulate the gene expression of most eukaryotic organisms. These regulation pathways have different components, outcomes and distinct nomenclature depending on the model system, and often they are referred to collectively as RNA silencing. In many cases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) are found to be involved in the RNA silencing, but their targets, activities, interaction partners and reaction products remain enigmatic. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the RdRP QDE-1 is critical for silencing of transgenes a phenomenon known as quelling. In this thesis the structure, biochemical activities and biological functions of QDE-1 were extensively studied. This dimeric RdRP was shown to possess five distinct catalytic in vitro activities that could be dissected by mutagenesis and by altering reaction conditions. The biochemical characterization implied that QDE-1 is actually an active DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that has additional RdRP activity. It also provided a structural explanation for the dimerization and suggested a biological framework for the functions of QDE-1 in vivo. (I) QDE-1 was also studied in a broader context along with the other components of the quelling pathway. It was shown that DNA damage in Neurospora causes a dramatic increase in the expression level of the Argonaute protein QDE-2 as well as the synthesis of a novel class of small RNAs known as qiRNAs. The accumulation of qiRNAs was shown to be dependent on several quelling components, and particularly to be derived from an aberrant ssRNA (aRNA) molecule that is synthesized by QDE-1 in the nucleus. The genomic distribution of qiRNA targets was analyzed and the possible biological significance of qiRNAs was studied. Importantly, qiRNAs are the first class of small RNAs that are induced by DNA damage. (II) After establishing that QDE-1 is a multifunctional RNA polymerase with several activities, template specificities and subcellular locations, the focus was turned onto its interaction partners. It had been previously known that QDE-1 associates with Replication Protein A (RPA), but the RecQ helicase QDE-3 was now shown to regulate this interaction. RPA was also observed to promote QDE-1 dependent dsRNA synthesis in vitro. By characterizing the interplay between QDE-1, QDE-3 and RPA, a working model of quelling and qiRNA pathways in Neurospora was presented. (III) This work sheds light on the complexity of the various RNA silencing pathways of a fungal model system. It shows how an RdRP can regulate gene expression on many levels, and suggests novel lines of research in other eukaryotic organisms.
  • Masche, Philipp (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Lindholm, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Multilingualism and multiculturalism are very common phenomena in the global world of today. People move into other countries and integrate in other cultures more than ever before. This Master´s Thesis is a qualitative study on how multilingual people describe their linguistic and cultural identity and how it is to be a minority within the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge and understanding on people who represent a linguistic minority in the Swedish-speaking linguistic minority in Finland and how they describe their linguistic and cultural identity. The scientific approach of the study is phenomenological, which means that the study aims to describe the phenomenon of multilingualism, multiculturalism and integration based on informants' subjective experiences. Nine people were interviewed for this study, and the collected data were analysed using content analysis. All nine informants were living in the capital area of Finland when the interviews were done, but are born in another country. The results of this study demonstrate the significance of language and culture for a person’s identity. The linguistic and cultural identities form during the entire course of life and can be seen as a lifelong process.
  • Hirvonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present dissertation analyses the representation of space in filmic audio description. The main objective of this study is to shed light on two critical challenges for audio description: (1) how the filmic space becomes audible in audio-described film through spoken language, sound effects, and music, and (2) how the visual representation of space in film can be cued by the linguistic mode in an audio description. This dissertation consists of four articles and a thesis summary. The first article focusses on the multimodal representation of space through auditory cues. The other three articles explore intermodal similarity, which involves the question of how language reflects visual representation. To explain the complex phenomenon of translating images into words, this study applies the theoretical and analytical tools from translation studies, film studies and cognitive linguistics, and also adopts a cognitive orientation to explain both the filmic and linguistic representations as being cognitive representations that are constructed through visual, auditory, and linguistic cues. This research first establishes that the auditory multimodality of an audio-described film creates a variant of the multimodality of the audiovisual film that entails dynamic constellations, perspectives and foci. Secondly, the analysis presents evidence for the varied potential of the linguistic mode in terms of representing space. Thirdly, this study defines strategies for intermodal similarity in terms of the corresponding linguistic signs for the filmic cues of representation and narration. The results of this dissertation may be valuable in justifying the consistency and standards for audio description as well as in developing other, more far-reaching usages of audio description as a mode of transforming information from one system of representation into another.
  • Piipponen, Tiia (2014)
    Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on antaa lukijalle pohjatiedot bayesilaisesta tilastollisesta päättelystä. Tutkielmassa esitellään kaksi usein bayesilaisessa päättelyssä käytettävää todennäköisyysjakaumaa: diskreetti multinomijakauma ja jatkuva Dirichlet-jakauma. Tutkielmassa tutustutaan jakaumien soveltamisen kannalta keskeisimpiin ominaisuuksiin. Lisäksi jakaumien yhteisjakauma Dirichlet-multinomijakauma esitellään. Tilastollisen päättelyn tarkoituksena on tehdä havainnon perusteella johtopäätöksiä mittaamattomista suureista. Bayesilainen päättely sallii arvioitavaan suureeseen kohdistuvien ennakkotietojen huomioonottamisen päättelyprosessissa. Priorijakauma sisältää ennakkokäsitykset arvioitavasta suureesta. Uskottavuusfunktio on puolestaan havainnon todennäköisyysjakauma. Ennakkotieto ja havainnosta saatava tieto voidaan yhdistää Bayesin kaavalla ja näin priorijakauma päivitetään posteriorijakaumaksi. Johtopäätökset tehdään posteriorijakaumasta. Bayesilainen päättely vaatii paljon numeerista integrointia ja sen suosio on kasvanut tietoteknisen kehityksen myötä. Sitä sovelletaan nykyään monilla eri tieteenaloilla. Tutkielmassa käsitellään sitä, kuinka multinomijakaumasta poimitun havainnon perusteella voidaan estimoida multinomijakauman parametreja bayesilaisin menetelmin. Tästä annetaan esimerkki. Dirichlet-multinomijakaumaa voidaan soveltaa esimerkiksi bayesilaisessa mallivertailussa ja myös tästä annetaan käytännön esimerkki. Tutkielman sisällön ymmärtämiseksi vaaditaan, että lukijalla on pohjatiedot todennäköisyyslaskennan peruskäsitteistä. Lisäksi joukko-opilliset operaatiot ja tärkeimmät kuvauksiin, differentiaali- ja intergaalilaskentaan liittyvät asiat oletetaan tunnetuiksi. Tutkielmassa tehdään vertailua bayesilaisen ja frekventistisen tilastollisen päättelyn välillä ja oletetaan, että lukija tuntee frekventistisen tilastollisen päättelyn perusmenetelmät.
  • Laitinen, Klas (2014)
    International commercial arbitration is the de facto method of solving disputes between corporations. Multi-party and multi-contract arbitration situations have increased significantly in recent years, which has led to arbitration institutes creating new mechanisms to increase efficiency in such situations. However, these new rules have not been studied in-depth and compared to each other, to ascertain possible similarities, dissimilarities, and common requirements. This thesis examines joinder, intervention, and consolidation mechanisms at five international arbitration institutes (ʻthe FAIʼ is the Arbitration Institute of the Finland Chamber of Commerce, ʻthe SCCʼ is the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, ʻThe ICCʼ is the International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration, ʻThe HKIACʼ is the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre, and ʻthe SCCAMʼ is the Swiss Chambers of Commerce Association for Arbitration and Mediation) to ascertain common requirements, and effects on the fairness, efficiency, and economy of international commercial arbitration. This thesis finds that the solutions chosen at the studied institutions are largely similar in theory and in practice. There are four common requirements: 1) the consent requirement meaning that party consent is demonstrable both in cases with many agreements, and in cases with non-signatories as potential parties; 2) the timing requirement meaning that the earlier in the process the request is made by a party, the more likely it is to succeed. Different institutions have different deadlines for involuntary consolidation, joinder, and intervention; 3) the connectivity requirement meaning that there needs to be a certain degree of similarity between cases and/or parties. The connectivity requirements in relation to multi-party and multi-contract mechanisms differ among institutions studied; 4) the procedural efficiency requirement meaning that, in addition to fulfilling the other requirements, the request must also enhance procedural efficiency of the process or benefit the institution in some way. Three of five institutions studied have chosen mostly similar rules; the ICC, the FAI and the HKIAC are almost identical in their treatment of multi-party situations. Therefore, they are considered by this thesis to be the new international standard. The SCC is significantly more restrictive than ICC, FAI and HKIAC in allowing involuntary mechanisms. The SCCAM is most liberal of institutes studied, and allows arbitrators a significant amount of freedom, at the cost of party autonomy and confidentiality, to allow third-parties to intervene in arbitration proceedings, whether the third-party is directly involved in the dispute or not. The findings of this thesis show that multi-party and multi-contract mechanisms may increase the effectiveness of international arbitration at a cost to party autonomy. Party autonomy is limited by arbitration institutions nominating all arbitrators in multi-party disputes, and allowing involuntary transformation of bi-party disputes into multi-party disputes through the mechanisms of joinder, intervention, and consolidation. The increased efficiency is however limited to bi-polar multi-party proceedings and is ill equipped to handle multi-polar arbitration proceedings. The choice of an arbitration institution and consequently the process that institution follows involves significant risks, such as longer processes, and additional costs for corporations. Multi-party mechanisms, by themselves, do not significantly enhance the attractiveness of Finland as a seat of arbitration. However, this thesis finds that they are necessary first step. The conclusions in this thesis are that multi-party mechanisms are a good addition to international commercial arbitration and should be readily adopted by institutionsʼ, but the usage of such mechanisms should only be considered when efficiency gains outweigh the costs to party autonomy.
  • Laaksonen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Socioeconomic health inequalities have been widely documented, with a lower social position being associated with poorer physical and general health and higher mortality. For mental health the results have been more varied. However, the mechanisms by which the various dimensions of socioeconomic circumstances are associated with different domains of health are not yet fully understood. This is related to a lack of studies tackling the interrelations and pathways between multiple dimensions of socioeconomic circumstances and domains of health. In particular, evidence from comparative studies of populations from different national contexts that consider the complexity of the causes of socioeconomic health inequalities is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of multiple socioeconomic circumstances with physical and mental health, more specifically physical functioning and common mental disorders. This was done in a comparative setting of two cohorts of white-collar public sector employees, one from Finland and one from Britain. The study also sought to find explanations for the observed associations between economic difficulties and health by analysing the contribution of health behaviours, living arrangements and work-family conflicts. The survey data were derived from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2000-2002 among the City of Helsinki employees aged 40-60 years, and from the fifth phase of the London-based Whitehall II study (1997-9) which is a prospective study of civil servants aged 35-55 years at the time of recruitment. The data collection in the two countries was harmonised to safeguard maximal comparability. Physical functioning was measured with the Short Form (SF-36) physical component summary and common mental disorders with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Socioeconomic circumstances were parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, housing tenure, and current economic difficulties. Further explanatory factors were health behaviours, living arrangements and work-family conflicts. The main statistical method used was logistic regression analysis. Analyses were conducted separately for the two sexes and two cohorts. Childhood and current economic difficulties were associated with poorer physical functioning and common mental disorders generally in both cohorts and sexes. Conventional dimensions of socioeconomic circumstances i.e. education, occupational class and income were associated with physical functioning and mediated each other’s effects, but in different ways in the two cohorts: education was more important in Helsinki and occupational class in London. The associations of economic difficulties with health were partly explained by work-family conflicts and other socioeconomic circumstances in both cohorts and sexes. In conclusion, this study on two country-specific cohorts confirms that different dimensions of socioeconomic circumstances are related but not interchangeable. They are also somewhat differently associated with physical and mental domains of health. In addition to conventionally measured dimensions of past and present socioeconomic circumstances, economic difficulties should be taken into account in studies and attempts to reduce health inequalities. Further explanatory factors, particularly conflicts between work and family, should also be considered when aiming to reduce inequalities and maintain the health of employees.