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  • Kauppi, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Karvala, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Indoor dampness and mold are associated with adverse respiratory health effects, of which asthma is the most frequently diagnosed disease. Respiratory and non-specific symptoms related to building dampness are usually transient, but persistent symptoms appear to be common for some persons, even despite building repairs or a change to an alternative work environment. The study assessed methods for diagnosing occupational asthma induced by indoor dampness and mold. A retrospective analysis of a group of patients examined at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1995-2004 was conducted. All of the examined 2200 workers had respiratory symptoms related to workplace dampness. According to this study, serial PEF monitoring is an applicable method in the clinical evaluation of occupational asthma induced by indoor dampness. An individual exposure assessment can be based on descriptions of the extent and location of the moisture and mold damage in the building structures and on microbial measurements. Specific IgE-mediated sensitization to molds occurs, but in a small proportion of cases only. Mechanisms of dampness-related asthma remain largely unknown. The patients were followed-up with a questionnaire survey 3-12 years after the baseline examinations. The results suggest that, for workers with work-related asthma-like symptoms occurring in relation to indoor dampness and molds at work, continuing to work in such environments creates a risk for developing asthma. Preventive measures to avoid further exposure seem to be relevant in order to prevent the development of asthma. In practice, such measures would involve the remediation of moisture and mold damage or the relocation of workers to a non-moisture damaged environment. Follow-up at occupational health services is recommended for patients with respiratory symptoms related to workplace dampness. In addition, the long-term effects on the quality of life and work ability of these workers were evaluated. Patients diagnosed with occupational asthma had worse outcomes than did patients with non-occupational asthma or only respiratory symptoms without asthma at the baseline. A perceived poor social climate at work and poor experiences with the supervisor s cooperation at an early stage of symptoms were determinants for impaired self-assessed work ability and early withdrawal from work. In addition, multiple, persistent, indoor-air symptoms at the time of the follow-up increased the risk of poor self-assessed work ability. The results are in accordance with the widely recognized fact that the causes of disability are multifactorial and are not associated with medical conditions only. More apt measures, for example, early support and workplace management practices concerning work ability, are required.
  • Tervahauta, Ulla (2013)
    This study on the Authentikos Logos (NHC VI,3) analyses the writing and its story of the soul s descent and ascent. The aim of the work was to find a context to the little studied Nag Hammadi writing that has been thus far dated to the second century. On the basis of comparative analysis this study agues that that date is too early. It is proposed instead that AL was composed sometime between the third and the fifth centuries. The manuscript, language, and the genre of AL are first discussed, and the broad lines of late ancient Egyptian Christianity are sketched. To shed light on the Christianity of the text, use of scriptures in AL is analysed in several chapters. The story of the soul s descent and ascent is compared with Christian and Platonic authors. The closest point of comparison is The Exegesis on the Soul (NHC II,6), but despite the general similarity between the texts, this study argues that the emphasis in the AL is on the soul s struggle towards its goal, whereas Exeg. Soul emphasises repentance and the help of the heavenly Father. The relationship of AL with the Valentinian Wisdom myth is discussed, with the outcome that there is no firm evidence to connect the writing closely with Valentinian traditions. Comparisons with Plato, Origen, and Plotinus suggest a Platonic mind-set; however, no literary dependency can be assumed. AL contains four specific epithets attached to the soul: the invisible soul , the pneumatic soul , the material soul , and the rational soul . The combination of the epithets is unique, and the individual terms point in different directions. The invisible soul is not used otherwise in the Nag Hammadi library. The pneumatic soul is a rare term only used by Synesius of Cyrene and John Chrysostom. The material soul is known in Sethian and Valentinian texts, whereas the rational soul is widely attested in ancient texts, but in the Nag Hammadi library it only appears in the AL and the Asclepius excerpt (NHC VI,8). Analysis on the views on matter in the AL suggest an emphasis on ethics, and the evilness of matter. Matter is furthermore combined with Christian scriptural allusions. Views on the soul are connected with views on the body and human life. The body is the soul s place of contest and progress. To ascend, the soul, enveloped in a pneumatic body must pass aerial powers invisibly; the Pauline term is used allusively, but with a Platonic perspective. Several texts that circulated amongst Christians in late ancient Egypt and discuss the soul s ascent are brought into the discussion (The Apocalypse of Paul, The First Apocalypse of James, the Gospel of Mary, Asclepius, and Life of Antony). The comparison reveals that AL aligns more with the two latter that emphasise ethics and stands at some distance from the Codex V accounts and the Gospel of Mary.
  • Virkkunen, Matleena (2008)
    This research paper examines the subject positions of the Nicaraguan peasant women who participated in development projects. The women are a part of the target group of the projects. The concept of subject position refers in this research to the women's socially constructed position in the development projects. I also analyse the discourses of development and poverty that the Nicaraguan women produce. The discourses of the women are compared to the so called hegemonic discourses of development. The hegemonic discourses and their critique are introduced during the research. The theoretical framework of the research is constructed by social constructionism and critical discourse analysis. I have approached the subject positions of the Nicaraguan women with the help of textual analysis and narratology. This research can be conceptualised as a part of the ethnographic development research. I have investigated two development projects funded by foreign donors. The research material consists of the private and group interviews of the Nicaraguan women. In the women's narratives, four different subject positions were found. One of them represents active participation in the development project. The rest of the subject positions represent passive positions. The fatalistic subject position was especially strong. The poverty discourses of the women emphasized the lack of education (or knowledge) and the condition of a house and clothes. Poverty was also seen for instance as social inequality and as happiness. The strongest development discourse the women emphasized was education, work and a good salary. On the other hand, development was seen as the social services produced by the state. Research shows that the discourses produced by the Nicaraguan women are many times in conflict with the discourses that emphasize the economical well-being in development. On the other hand, the results of this research are similar with those of so called participatory poverty research. The research also shows the conflict between the hegemonic development discourses and the positioning of the development project's target group. The main argument of the research is that the target group's passive (or even fatalistic) subject position may threat the aims of a development project. On the other hand, becoming aware of the target group's subject positions may help the project to achieve its aims.
  • Utge, Siddheshwar J. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder that comprises a variety of symptoms. In addition to depressed mood state, depression has symptoms of disturbed sleep such as early morning awakenings and fatigue. Poor sleep has been demonstrated to be one of the modifiable risk factors in the onset of depression. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, depressive patients from the Finnish population-based samples were grouped according to the presence or absence of disturbed sleep. The genetic background of depression was hypothesized to be different between the groups. The regulation of sleep, and of mood, was assumed to partly share a common genetic background. The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic variants associated with depression and disturbed sleep in order to gain a better understanding of this hypothesis in the population-based Finnish samples. First, the association between genetic markers from 14 functionally-relevant candidate genes was assessed. These genes were related to serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, to neural plasticity, and to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with depression, depression with early morning awakenings, and depression with fatigue in a sample from the population-based Health 2000 survey. Overall, 1654 individuals were studied (384 depressed patients and 1270 population-matched controls). The data suggested that allelic variants from a gene coding for a key regulatory protein of the serotonergic neurotransmission system, TPH2, is associated with depression accompanied by fatigue in females. An association between a numbers of genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission and neural plasticity, such as GAD1, GRIA3, and BDNF with depression accompanied by fatigue in females. A significant association between CREB1, a neural plasticity related gene, and depression in men, was also identified. Of the genes related to the HPA-axis, an association was found between CRHR1 and depression accompanied by early morning awakenings in females. The hypothesis was then expanded to encompass 18 genes from the circadian system in the same study subjects (N=1654) from the Health 2000 cohort. In this study, a significant association of two distinctive allelic variants of TIMELESS was associated with depression accompanied by fatigue (Permutation-based corrected empirical P=0.0056), to seasonal mood fluctuation (Pointwise P=0.016) in females, and with depression accompanied by early morning awakenings (Permutation-based corrected empirical P=0.0374) in males. In an independent set of 1512 control individuals (Genmets (D-) sample) from the complete Health 2000 cohort, the same variant was also associated with seasonal mood fluctuation (Pointwise P=0.036) in females, and with early morning awakenings (Pointwise P=0.038) or fatigue (Pointwise P=0.0016) in healthy males. Finally, the shared genetic background for sleep and mood in healthy individuals (N=3147) drawn from the population-based Health 2000 and FINRISK study 2007 survey was examined. In this study, for association analyses with sleep duration, 23 variants from 12 candidate genes were selected that had shown association (P less than 0.05) with depression and disturbed sleep in studies I and II. A significant association of a GRIA3 variation with sleep duration in females (Permutation-based corrected empirical P=0.00001) was identified. The frequency of the allele which associated with depression was highest among females who slept for 8 hours or less in all age groups younger than 70 years. However, no prominent associations were found among males, suggesting a sex-specific effect for the X-chromosomal GRIA3 gene. In conclusion, these results support the involvement of genes related to serotonergic (TPH2) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (GAD1, GRIA3), to neural plasticity (CREB1), to the HPA-axis (CRHR1), and the circadian system (TIMELESS), in the genetic aetiology of depression and disturbed sleep. The results obtained in this thesis support the hypothesis that the different phenotypes of depression and disturbed sleep would also be genetically distinct. Depression is heterogeneous and its genetic background may be partly different in women and men. This study also shows that the regulation of sleep and of mood may have a common genetic background.
  • Murto, Laura (2002)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan ympäristödiskursseja ympäristöhuolen käsitteen kautta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kartoittaa nyky-Suomessa esiintyviä ympäristödiskursseja. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu 14 teemahaastattelusta. Vaikka haastattelujen määrä on verrattain pieni, ovat kaikki haastateltavat jonkin kunnallisen ympäristöorganisaation edustajia (ympäristölautakunnan, paikallisen luonnonsuojeluyhdistyksen ja paikallisen asukasyhdistyksen). Heidän käytettävissään olevan ympäristödiskurssien repertuuarin oletetaan olevan tavallista laajampi, ja täten edustavampi. Toisessa luvussa ympäristöhuolen käsitettä tarkastellaan ensin yleisellä tasolla käymällä läpi sekä Suomen ympäristöhistoriaa että nykyistä kunnallista ympäristöorganisaatiota. Kolmannessa luvussa käydään läpi ympäristöpolitiikkaa tutkimusalueena. Luvussa tarkastellaan mm. itse ympäristöliikettä, ympäristöliikkeen eri muotoja ja kolmea ekologisen modernisaation teoriaa hyödyntävää suomalaista tutkimusta kunnallisesta ympäristöpolitiikasta. Teorian tarkastelu auttaa tarkentamaan varsinaista teoreettista viitekehystä, joka rakentuu Youngin ja Eckersleyn deliberatiivisen teorian kritiikkiin. Soveltamalla ympäristöhuolen käsitettä kumpaakin teoriaan, saa ympäristöhuoli kaksi mahdollista teoreettista merkitystä: se on joko elinympäristöön liittyvä huoli tai luonnon etuihin liittyvä kannanotto. Nämä kaksi merkitystä usein sekottuvat arkipuheessa, mikä on tärkeää pitää mielessä analyysiä tehdessä. Varsinaisessa analyysissä jokainen haastattelu analysoidaan diskurssianalyysi –menetelmää hyödyntäen. Haastatteluista analysoidaan aina ensin vastaus kysymykseen “Mikä sinusta on hyväksyttävä tapa hyödyntää luontoa tai ympäristöä?”, minkä jälkeen tarkastellaan erikseen muita haastattelussa esiintyviä ympäristödiskursseja. Analyysin lopputulos on se, että haastatteluista löytyy hyvin laaja ympäristödiskurssien repertuaari. Repertuaarin yhdessä ääripäässä oleva ympäristödiskurssi on yksitysomaisuuteen ja henkilökohtaiseen kokemukseen rajoittuva, kun taas toisessa ääripäässä oleva perustuu hyvin laajaan käsitteeseen yhteisöstä. Tämän perusteella haastattelut/ympäristödiskurssit jaettiin kolmeen isoon ryhmään: “tarkkailijan sijainti määrää ympäristön”, “puhdas ympäristö on erottamaton osa ihmisen hyvinvointia” ja “luonto osana laajempaa (moraalista) yhteisöä”. Tämän lisäksi jokaiselle haastattelulle annettiin oma otsikko, jotta ryhmien sisällä oleva repertuaarien kirjo tulisi paremmin esille. Repertuaarikirjosta huolimatta suurin osa ympäristödiskursseista ilmentyy huolena ihmisen terveydestä.
  • Acharya, Abha (2014)
    This thesis examines the potential fungibility of foreign assistance to the Government of Nepal using two methods: an econometric model and a modified ORANI-G, a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. I use the econometric model to corroborate the findings of the CGE model and to determine whether such a model can produce credible empirical evidence on aid fungibility. Both models indicate presence of general and categorical fungibility, and non-additionality in the use of aid in Nepal. I begin with a partial equilibrium econometric model to estimate government expenditures using a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR). At the sectoral level, categorical aid is prone to reshuffling generating overall negative development investments in most of the sectors. At the aggregate level, a unit of aid produces a meagre 0.33 units of additional development expenditures in the Nepalese government budget. In addition, aid partially finances non-development expenditures, but only slightly enhances the governments’ own revenue effort. Next, I utilize the ORANI-G model with a Klein-Rubin functional form for government behaviour, rigidities in the labour market, and some additional parameters to study aid fungibility in Nepal. This produces results that are analogous to the econometric model. Foreign assistance to Nepal exhibits a high level of general and categorical fungibility, with an insignificant increase in revenue collection. Overall, a unit of aid stimulates only a 0.45 units of additional development expenditures in the Nepalese government budget. In using the CGE model to study fungibility, this thesis develops a new method of analyzing the research question whereas, previous studies use models in a partial equilibrium setting, failing to account for decision-making processes of the government. This thesis is an attempt to expand on the existing literature by introducing CGE models in the study of aid fungibility and to motivate further study into fungibility using CGE modelling.
  • Andersson, Seppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The purpose of this study was to develop practical and reliable x-ray scattering methods to study the nanostructure of the wood cell wall and to use these methods to systematically study the nanostructure of Norway spruce and Scots pine grown in Finland and Sweden. Methods to determine the microfibril angle (MFA) distribution, the crystallinity of wood, and the average size of cellulose crystallites using wide-angle x-ray scattering were developed and these parameters were determined as a function of the number of the year ring. The mean MFA in Norway spruce decreases rapidly as a function of the number of the year ring and after the 7th year ring it varies between 6° and 10°. The mean MFA of Scots pine behaves the same way as the mean MFA of Norway spruce. The thickness of cellulose crystallites for Norway spruce and Scots pine appears to be constant as a function of the number of the year ring. The obtained mean values are 32 Å for Norway spruce and 31 Å for Scots pine. The length of the cellulose crystallites was also quite constant as a function of the year ring. The mean length of the crystallites for Norway spruce was 364 Å, while the standard deviation was 27 Å. The mass fraction of crystalline cellulose in wood is the crystallinity of wood and the intrinsic crystallinity of cellulose is the crystallinity of cellulose. The crystallinity of wood increases from the 2nd year ring to the 10th year ring from the pith and is constant after the 10th year ring. The crystallinity of cellulose obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was 52% for both species. The crystallinity of wood and the crystallinity of cellulose behave the same way in Norway spruce and Scots pine. The methods were also applied to studies on thermally modified Scots pine wood grown in Finland. Wood is modified thermally by heating and steaming in order to improve its properties such as biological resistance and dimensional stability. Modification temperatures varied from 100 °C to 240 °C. The thermal modification increases the crystallinity of wood and the thickness of cellulose crystallites but does not influence the MFA distribution. When the modification temperature was 230 °C and time 4 h, the thickness of the cellulose crystallites increased from 31 Å to 34 Å.
  • Poudel, Arati; Poudel, Arati (2015)
    It has been globally accepted that women are integral part of the society and we should leave no stone unturned to empower them. In spite of this global consensus, in many parts of the world, women are marginalized and treated unequally. Nepal, one of the poorest countries by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, is not an exception and faces multitude of challenges with regard to women. Decade long civil war left many women widowed and made them even more vulnerable. The aim of this thesis is to assess the level of participation in decision making of those war widows from Nepal. The study is based on the primary data collected in from four districts in Nepal from November 2011 to February 2012. Participation in decision making is used as a dependent variable and four socioeconomic measures are used as independent variables. Binary regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios in the final model. The results showed that human poverty measures affect the most in decision making among war widows in Nepal. Specifically, social restriction was found to be the main factor that is limiting participation in decision making. Lack of education and early age marriage were also found to diminish participation in decision making.
  • Pan, Xiayuan (2010)
    As an attempt to obtain a brief image of the acculturation process of the Chinese in Finland, this study examines the acculturation attitudes of three different groups of ethnic Han Chinese in Helsinki: masters students, employees in non-ethnic business sector and owners of ethnic businesses. Through semi-structured interviews focusing on a series of intercultural variables, such as cultural identities, language proficiency and usage as well as social contacts, the study shows the maintenance of heritage culture and identity as well as the intentions to seek intergroup relations of the informants, based on which the acculturation strategies adopted by the chosen informants are judged. Findings of the study reveal that integration attitude is the strongest among employees in non-ethnic business, followed by master students and ethnic business owners. However, due to limited number of informants accessed, this pattern needs to be further examined by extended research in the future with a larger scale of informants covering more categories and more regions in Finland. Discussions are made based on the findings of the study regarding the construction of multiculturalism in Finland as well as Finland’s international competitiveness in the process of European integration and globalisation as regards the friendliness of its domestic social environment (especially language environment and employment market) toward other groups. It is also pointed out in the discussions that sufficient communication is one of the keys to a better understanding among ethnic groups to create favourable inter-group relations.
  • Kreander, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    More and more drugs are becoming useless as a result of increasing numbers of drug resistant pathogen bacteria strains. The urge to find new active drugs, pure or modified, has become a critical task to overcome the limitations that older, still in use, drugs have faced. Drug companies and research facilities are screening different sources with different techniques to fill this need. For a successful screening process, optimized high-quality methods are needed. In this study, erythromycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains, mefA, ermB and ermTR, and the Staphylococcus simulans ermC strain of Finnish origin were used to optimize a turbidometric screening assay using a 96-well microplate for detecting new antimicrobials. Optimization was assisted by using quality parameters S/N (signal-to-noise), S/B (signal-to-background) and Z' factor (screening window coefficient) to confirm the reliability and repeatability. The optimized assay was used for screening a small-scale library of natural compounds and their derivatives against the antibiotic resistant strains. The results showed that gallic esters, specially octyl gallate, had potential inhibition effect against tested strains. Lichen acids were also found to be good inhibitors against all tested strains. The search for novel antibacterial agents can be facilitated by virtual screening of compound databases against a known bacterial target. Following this approach, approx. 200 000 compounds were screened in silico for binding to ErmC' and used for selecting the 49 best-binding, drug-like compounds for in vitro evaluation. As a primary screen, a fluorometric, biochemical assay measuring the inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), structurally very similar to ErmC', was employed to evaluate the potential activity against ErmC. Out of the selected 49 compounds, two structurally very similar compounds were identified as confirmed hits with reasonable activity (IC50 values of 26 and 73 µM). However, no marked activity was observed in a cell-based assay performed with the Staphylococcus aureus ermC strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for microfractionation of natural extracts to overcome limitations of photometric measurement of colored samples that can affect the results of a screening assay. The microfractionation was successfully combined with the 96-well microplate antibacterial assay. The study demonstrated that the use of microfractionation coupled with bioactivity screening is a powerful tool for the identification of active components in natural extracts. To study natural extracts and their safety, a miniaturized Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains in a 6-well plate was used. With a miniaturized method, the cost of the test can be decreased, and less time, workspace and amounts of compound are needed than in a normal Ames test. The assay was used to screen mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of rapeseed, pine bark and raspberry extracts and their factions with vinylsyringol, a pure compound from crude rapeseed oil. None of the extracts were shown to be mutagenic. When the metabolic activator (rat liver S9 enzyme) was not added with known positive control (mutagen) and extract, all of the extracts were observed to have antimutagenic properties. The natural extracts were further studied with the Caco-2 model to evaluate their ability to affect the permeability of co-administrated drugs across the cell monolayer. It has been previously shown that some natural extracts can have drug interactions and affect the drug's cellular permeability. Here, the permeability of verapamil, ketoprofen, metoprolol, and paracetamol under the influence of co-administered natural extracts were studied. As a result, none of the extracts had notable effects. In conclusion, it is important to have a proper approach when screening natural products for biological activity. Using the latest technology can be the key for finding new promising drug candidates. Assay validation and miniaturization are good ways to get results quickly and with less money and work. High-quality methods and a thorough investigation that also take safety aspects into account can have a significant effect on the overall success of the screening process.
  • Polinati, Padmini (Unigrafia, 2015)
    Mitochondrial diseases are generally caused by genetic variants that may affect cell function during the process of energy generation: right from the start of protein translocation to the fatty acid degradation by beta-oxidation (β-oxidation). The main objective of this PhD thesis is to study genetic variants that cause mitochondrial diseases and also to understand the disease pathogenesis of a known disease using the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) method, a revolutionary approach in regenerative medicine. In the first study, we carried out a long-term follow up of six metabolic diseased patients and subsequently we performed a carrier frequency study of the identified carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) gene variant in the Finnish population. We identified a novel homozygous variant c.1364A>C (p.Lys455Thr) in exon 12 of the CPT1A gene. No carriers of the variant c.1364A>C were detected upon minisequencing of 150 control samples but the allele frequency of CPT1A variant in global population is 0.0002142 (ExAC Browser) whereas in the Finnish population (6614 allele number) the frequency is 0.001966. The identified variant was predicted to cause improper folding of the CPT1A protein, which leads to its degradation. All patients were treated with a high-carbohydrate and a low fat diet. In the second study, we focused on the human DnaJ (Hsp40 homolog) subfamily C, member 19 (DNAJC19) deficiency. Our studies showed that it causes early onset dilated cardiomyopathy syndrome (DCMA). This is the first report of a genetic defect in the mitochondrial protein, DNAJC19, outside of the Canadian Dariusleut Hutterite population. This defect is characterized by an unusual aetiology for an early onset recessively inherited dilated cardiomyopathy that is associated with ataxia and male genital anomalies. Sequencing of the human DNAJC19 gene revealed a homozygous single nucleotide (A) deletion in exon 6 that cause a frameshift and lead to the premature termination of the protein. In the third study, the pathogenesis of retinopathy in long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) was studied using iPSC technology. Retinopathy is an unusual manifestation of LCHADD, as mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAβO) has not been considered to play a major role in the metabolism of the retina. Among all defects of mitochondrial FAβO, only long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiencies have developed pigmentary retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy. We elucidated how a genetic variant in the FAβO cycle can disrupt the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that can eventually lead to blindness. In addition, we developed a new in vitro cell model; iPSC clones were generated from LCHADD patient fibroblasts and further differentiated into RPE cells. Several changes were observed in patient RPE cells such as decreased cell size, lower pigmentation and irregular pattern of morphology. Electron microscopy analysis showed an accumulation of a few melanosomes, more melanolysosomes, and large sized lipid droplets in patient RPE cells. Furthermore, increased levels of triglycerides in patient RPE cells were observed upon mass spectrometric analysis. We concluded that all these changes had contributed to the disruption of the RPE layer that leads to blindness in LCHAD deficiency patients. Finally, the research done for this thesis succeeded in identifying novel variants in CPT1A and DNAJC19 genes in Finnish patients. Our long-term follow up studies on CPT1A deficiency can help patients in better diagnosis, which further helps clinicians to identify the genetic cause. We also found a novel phenotype with DNAJC19 deficiency. Further we established the groundwork to understand the pathogenesis of retinopathy in LCHADD patients using an advanced method that helps to study in depth pathogenesis mechanism.
  • Böckerman, Petri (2000)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan bruttovirtoja Suomen työmarkkinoilla. Tutkimuksen ensimmäisessä osassa luodaan laaja katsaus olemassaolevaan kirjallisuuteen. Tutkimuksen empiirisessä osassa tarkastellaan bruttovirtojen tasoa ja kehitystä koulutus- ja työkokemusryhmittäin Suomessa, koska työvoiman heterogeenisuutta ei ole juurikaan huomioitu aiemmassa kirjallisuudessa. Bruttovirtoja tutkitaan käyttäen yritystasoista paneeliaineistoa, joka perustuu työssäkäyntitilastoon. Aineisto kattaa neljä Suomen kansantalouden päätoimialaa; teollisuuden, rakentamisen, kaupan ja kokonaisuuden, joka koostuu liike-elämän palveluista. Tulosten mukaan bruttovirrat ovat suuria suhteessa työllisyyden nettomuutoksiin. Työpaikkojen syntymisaste on ollut korkeampi korkeimmin koulutetuille verrattuna ainoastaan peruskoulutuksen hankkineisiin työntekijöihin teollisuudessa. Työpaikkojen rakenteellinen syntymiaste on ollut myös korkeampi nuorille työntekijöille verrattuna ikääntyneisiin työntekijöihin. Lisäksi korkeimmin koulutettujen todennäköisyys menettää työpaikkansa oli huomattavasti alhaisempi laman aikana. Tulokset antavatkin tukea näkemykselle, jonka mukaan heikoimmin koulutetut ja nuoret työntekijät kantoivat suurimman taakan rakennemuutoksesta laman aikana. 1990-luvun syvän laman aikana työpaikkojen syntymisasteessa tapahtui huomattavaa alenemista. Työpaikkojen vaihtuvuusaste ei ole siten käyttäytynyt selkeän vastasyklisesti Suomessa. Työpaikkojen ylimääräinen vaihtuvuusaste sitävastoin aleni laman aikana tutkimuksen kaikissa koulutus- ja työkokemusryhmissä. Havainto tarkoittaa sitä, että laman aikana samanaikainen työpaikkojen syntyminen ja häviäminen (eli työpanoksen sopeuttaminen heterogeenisuus yritystasolla) aleni, joten "rakennemuutos" hidastui taloudellisen taantuman aikana.