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  • Lamminmäki, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant role in sound localization and other auditory functions, e.g. speech comprehension in a noisy environment. However, the neural mechanisms and significance of binaural interaction and the development of crossed auditory pathways are poorly known. This thesis aimed to expand, by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG), knowledge about binaural cortical processing and midline crossing of auditory pathways in subjects with the defective dyslexia susceptibility gene ROBO1 and in healthy individuals. Study I demonstrated that in dyslexic individuals who carry a weakly expressing haplotype of the ROBO1 gene, binaural interaction is strongly impaired as compared with healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Moreover, the observed impairment correlated with the expression level of the ROBO1 gene: the weaker the expression, the more abnormal was the binaural interaction. On the basis of previous animal studies and the quite well known anatomy of the subcortical auditory system, we suggest that the normally extensive crossing of auditory pathways is defective in ROBO1-deficient dyslexic subjects. All auditory illusions emerging in healthy individuals rely on normal neurophysiology, and thus illusions elicited by binaural sounds can be valuable in revealing auditory binaural processing. Studies II and III examined the neural basis of peculiar pitch perception and sound localization during the auditory octave illusion originally described by Diana Deutsch in 1974. In the octave illusion, dichotic tones separated by an octave alternate rapidly between the ears so that when the left ear receives the low tone, the right ear receives the high tone and vice versa. Study II demonstrated that transient 100-ms responses (N100m), generated in the auditory cortices, follow the sound location perceived during the illusion. Study III further showed that modifications in normal binaural interactions contribute to the illusory pitch perception. Currently, binaural interaction can be studied non-invasively in detail by means of cortical steady-state responses and MEG-based frequency-tagging. Steady-state responses have also been used in clinical settings to evaluate hearing in non-collaborative patients. Until now, only simple acoustic stimuli have been used to elicit steady-state responses, although in our daily lives we communicate with physically much more complex sounds, such as speech and music. Study IV demonstrated that natural sounds with carefully selected sound parameters can also be used as reliable stimuli in future steady-state studies, and therefore to scrutinize the role and mechanisms of binaural interaction. This thesis links the dyslexia susceptibility gene, ROBO1, to neurodevelopment of auditory system and binaural processing, reveals the sound localization and pitch perception mechanisms during the octave illusion, and provides knowledge about steady-state responses to natural sounds, thereby advancing future binaural interactions studies.
  • Seppänen, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Music training shapes functional and structural constructs in the brain particularly in the areas related to sound processing. The enhanced brain responses to sounds in musicians when compared to non-musicians might be explained by the intensive auditory perceptual learning that occurs during music training. Yet the relationship between musical expertise and rapid plastic changes in brain potentials during auditory perceptual learning has not been systematically studied. This was the topic of the current thesis, in conditions where participants either actively attended to the sounds or did not. The electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral sound discrimination task results showed that the perceptual learning of complex sound patterns required active attention to the sounds even from musicians, and that the different practice styles of musicians modulated the perceptual learning of sound features. When using simple sounds, musical expertise was found to enhance the rapid plastic changes (i.e., neural learning) even when attention was directed away from listening. The rapid plasticity in musicians was found particularly in temporal lobe areas which have specialized in processing sounds. However, right frontal lobe activation, which is related to involuntary attention shifts to sound changes, did not differ between musicians and non-musicians. Behavioral discrimination accuracy for sounds was found to be at the maximum level initially in musicians, while non-musicians improved their accuracy in discerning behavioral discrimination between active conditions. Yet, the performances in standardized attention and memory tests did not differ between musicians and non-musicians. Taken together, musical expertise seems to enhance the preattentive brain responses during auditory perceptual learning.
  • Törmänen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The present thesis discusses relevant issues in education: 1) learning disabilities including the role of comorbidity in LDs, and 2) the use of research-based interventions. This thesis consists of a series of four studies (three articles), which deepens the knowledge of the field of special education. Intervention studies (N=242) aimed to examine whether training using a nonverbal auditory-visual matching computer program had a remedial effect in different learning disabilities, such as developmental dyslexia, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). These studies were conducted in both Finland and Sweden. The intervention’s non-verbal character made an international perspective possible. The results of the intervention studies confirmed, that the auditory-visual matching computer program, called Audilex had positive intervention effects. In Study I of children with developmental dyslexia there were also improvements in reading skills, specifically in reading nonsense words and reading speed. These improvements in tasks, which are thought to rely on phonological processing, suggest that such reading difficulties in dyslexia may stem in part from more basic perceptual difficulties, including those required to manage the visual and auditory components of the decoding task. In Study II the intervention had a positive effect on children with dyslexia; older students with dyslexia and surprisingly, students with ADD also benefited from this intervention. In conclusion, the role of comorbidity was apparent. An intervention effect was evident also in students’ school behavior. Study III showed that children with SLI experience difficulties very similar to those of children with dyslexia in auditory-visual matching. Children with language-based learning disabilities, such as dyslexia and SLI benefited from the auditory-visual matching intervention. Also comorbidity was evident among these children; in addition to formal diagnoses, comorbidity was explored with an assessment inventory, which was developed for this thesis. Interestingly, an overview of the data of this thesis shows positive intervention effects in all studies despite learning disability, language, gender or age. These findings have been described by a concept inter-modal transpose. Self-evidently these issues need further studies. In learning disabilities the aim in the future will also be to identify individuals at risk rather than by deficit; this aim can be achieved by using research-based interventions, intensified support in general education and inclusive special education. Keywords: learning disabilities, developmental dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, specific language impairment, language-based learning disabilities, comorbidity, auditory-visual matching, research-based interventions, inter-modal transpose
  • Jääskelä-Saari, Hilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Despite advances in combined modality therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) the 5-year survival rate in stage III and IV disease remains at 40% - 60%. Short-range Auger-electron emitters, such as In-111 and In-114m, tagged with a drug, molecule, peptide, protein or nanoparticles brought in close proximity to nuclear DNA represent a fascinating alternative for treating cancer. In this thesis, we studied the usefulness of Indium-111-bleomycin complex (In-111-BLMC) in the diagnostics and potential therapy of HNSCC using in vitro HNSCC cell lines, in vivo nude mice, and in vivo HNSCC patients. In in vitro experiments with HNSCC cell lines, the sensitivity to external beam radiation, BLM, In-111-BLMC, and In-111-Cl3 was studied using the 96-well plate clonogenic assay. The influence of BLM and In-111-BLMC on the cell cycle was measured with flow cytometry. In in vivo nude mice xenograft studies, the activity ratios of In-111-BLMC were obtained in gamma camera images. The effect of In-111-BLMC in HNSCC xenografts was studied. In in vivo patient studies, we determined the tumor uptake of In-111-BLMC with gamma camera and the radioactivity from tumor samples using In-111-BLMC with specific activity of 75, 175, or 375 MBq/mg BLM. The S values, i.e. absorbed dose in a target organ per cumulated activity in a source organ, were simulated for In-111 and In-114m. In vitro studies showed the variation of sensitivity for external beam radiation, BLM, and In-111-BLMC between HNSCC cell lines. IC50 values for BLM were 1.6-, 1.8-, and 2.1-fold higher than In-111-BLMC (40 MBq/mg BLM) in three HNSCC cell lines. Specific In-111 activity of 40 MBq/mgBLM was more effective in killing cells than specific In-111 activity of 195MBq/mgBLM (p=0.0023). In-111-Cl3 alone had no killing effect. The percentage of cells in the G2/M phase increased after exposure to BLM and especially to In-111-BLMC in the three cell lines studied, indicating a G2/M block. The tumor-seeking behavior was shown in the in vivo imaging study of xenografted mice. BLM and In-111-BLMC were more effective than NaCl in reducing xenografted tumor size in HNSCC. The uptake ratios received from gamma images in the in vivo patient study varied from 1.2 to 2.8 in malignant tumors. However, the uptake of In-111-BLMC was unaffected by increasing the injected activity. A positive correlation existed between In-111-BLMC uptake, Ki-67/MIB activity, and number of mitoses. Regarding the S values, In-114m delivered a 4-fold absorbed radiation dose into the tumor compared with In-111, and thus, In-114m-BLMC might be more effective than In-111-BLMC at the DNA level. Auger-electron emitters, such as In-111 and In-114m, might have potential in the treatment of HNSCC. Further studies are needed to develop a radiopharmaceutical agent with appropriate physical properties of the radionuclide and a suitable carrier to bring it to the targeted tissue.
  • Haverinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Nonverbal communication is a very important part of face to face communication. Both explicit and implicit additions to verbal communication augment the information content of communication. Before telephones did not provide any means for adding nonverbal information to the communication, but now, as the technology has advanced, it is possible to start augmenting also the communication on the phone. Adding a haptic I/O device to a regular mobile phone opens possibilities to add value to communication. We conducted two user studies, one for exploring vibration as additional modality to the communication and one on how the contextual issues affect the pressure and behavior. These studies help to understand how the communication could be augmented and whether there is tacit information about the phone usage that could be delivered as part of the communication. Both studies were field studies. Using vibration as additional modality was studied in a longitude study with couples, while contextual impact was studied as a comparison of the laboratory and field discussions. We find that it is possible to add haptic devices to a mobile phone and create a bidirectional communication channel based on the pressure applied on the phone. When the pressure is mapped to a vibration, it offers a new way of messaging. In addition, we find that there are changes in phone usage even in static laboratory conditions, thus it is possible to collect information about pressure, posture and movement of a person and share it with the discussion partner. ACM Computing Classification System (CCS): H.5.2[User Interfaces]: Haptic I/O, I.3.6[Methodology and Techniques]: Interaction techniques,
  • Nisula, Timo (2011)
    This study analyses Augustine s concept of concupiscentia, or evil desire (together with two cognate terms, libido and cupiditas) in the context of his entire oeuvre. By the aid of systematic analysis, the concept and its development is explored in four distinct ways. It is claimed that Augustine used the concept of concupiscentia for several theological purposes, and the task of the study is to represent these distinct functions, and their connections to Augustine s general theological and philosophical convictions. The study opens with a survey on terminology. A general overview of the occurrences of the negatively connoted words for desire in Latin literature precedes a corresponding examination of Augustine s own works. In this introductory chapter it is shown that, despite certain preferences in the uses of the words, a sufficient degree of synonymy reigns so as to allow an analysis of the concept without tightly discriminating between the terms. The theological functions of concupiscentia with its distinct contexts are analysed in separate chapters. The function of concupiscentia as a divine punishment is explored first (Ch 3). It is seen how Augustine links together concupiscentia and ideas about divine justice, and finally suggests that in the inordinate, psychologically experienced sexual desire, the original theological disobedience of Adam and Eve can be perceived. Augustine was criticized for this solution already in his own times, and the analysis of the function of concupiscentia as a divine punishment ends in a discussion on the critical response of punitive concupiscentia by Julian of Aeclanum. Augustine also attached to concupiscentia another central theological function by viewing evil desire as an inward originating cause for all external evil actions. In the study, this function is analysed by surveying two formally distinct images of evil desire, i.e. as the root (radix) of all evil, and as a threefold (triplex) matrix of evil actions (Ch 4). Both of these images were based on a single verse of the Bible (1 Jn 2, 16 and 1 Tim 6, 10). This function of concupiscentia was formed both parallel to, and in answer to, Manichaean insights into concupiscentia. Being familiar with the traditional philosophical discussions on the nature and therapy of emotions, Augustine situated concupiscentia also into this context. It is acknowledged that these philosophical traditions had an obvious impact into his way of explaining psychological processes in connection with concupiscentia. Not only did Augustine implicitly receive and exploit these traditions, but he also explicitly moulded and criticized them in connection with concupiscentia. Eventually, Augustine conceives the philosophical traditions of emotions as partly useful but also partly inadequate to deal with concupiscentia (Ch 5). The role of concupiscentia in connection to divine grace and Christian renewal is analysed in the final chapter of the study. Augustine s gradual development in internalizing the effects of concupiscentia also into the life of a baptized Christian are elucidated, as are the strong limitations and mitigations Augustine makes to the concept when attaching it into the life under grace (sub gratia). A crucial part in the development of this function is played by Augustine s changing interpretation of Rom 7, and the way concupiscentia appears in Augustine s readings of this text is therefore also analysed. As a result of the analysis of these four distinct functions and contexts of concupiscentia, it is concluded that Augustine s concept of concupiscentia is fairly tightly and coherently connected to his views of central theological importance. Especially the functions of concupiscentia as a punishment and the function of concupiscentia in Christian renewal were both tightly interwoven into Augustine s view of God s being and God s grace. The study shows the importance of reading Augustine s discussions on evil desire with a constant awareness of their role in their larger context, that is, of their function in each situation. The study warns against too simplistic and unifying readings of Augustine s concupiscentia, emphasizing the need to acknowledge both the necessitating, sinful aspects of concupiscentia, and the domesticated features of concupiscentia during Christian renewal.
  • Lopes Pereira , Jairzinho (2012)
    This study analyses the relationship between Augustine and Luther in their understandings of the doctrine of Original Sin and the justification of sinners, taking as its main source Augustine's writings addressed against Julian of Aeclanum as well as Luther's Lectures on Romans. I argue that the radical anthropological and soteriological insights with which Augustine opposed the theologians associated with fifth century Pelagianism are the key for understanding the early stages of Luther's call for Reformation of the doctrine of the Catholic Church regarding Original Sin and justification. The study commences with a preliminary discussion on the terminology linked with Augustine's definition of sin. I claim that the Augustinian concept of sin was defined in intimate connection with a concept he inherited from his contact with neo-Platonism the concept of order. Sin is disorder. Original Sin was an expression of disorder which implanted disorder in the very core of human nature. This was a line of thought that Luther fully endorsed. The young Luther's doctrine of Original Sin, I point out, is essentially Augustinian. Although Augustine did not invent the doctrine of Original Sin, he certainly brought a new way of understanding the implications of the Adamic Fall in the human-divine relationship and in the salvation of human beings. I explain that whether Augustine first outlined his radical approach to salvation through the gracious mercy of God and only then developed his theological formulation of Original Sin (or came to it in the reverse order) may be open to dispute. What is certain is that the way Augustine approached the gravity of Original Sin is in harmony with the way he approached the issue of justification of the sinner and the salvation process as a whole. One of the main theses maintained in this study is that the way Augustine approached human beings and their salvation put him on a collision course with the very tradition of the Church Fathers he so eagerly claims to defend. Augustine's understanding of human salvation, I explain, constitutes a break with the patristic tradition precisely because he took the notion of a general condemnation in Adam to radical consequences. After some hesitations in the initial years of his literary career, Augustine broke with the line of thought according to which humans start their salvation by turning to God and God then accomplish their salvation. This turning point was crystallized in two major works authored by the Church Father, Ad Simplicianum and Confessiones. In these two works Augustine unequivocally claims that the very first step one takes towards God is itself a divine gift. The very will to believe is God's grace. This assessment constituted a break with the traditional view of the Fathers on the issue of salvation. It is precisely this crucial detail that explains Luther's reliance upon Augustine. Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone was essentially a deliberate attempt to recover the old Augustinian claim according to which both the beginnings and the accomplishment of the salvation process belong to God and only to God. This is a crucial point because in this assessment lies the main reason why Luther preferred Augustine to any other Church Father. It was based on this Augustinian defense of the radical gratuity of the salvation process that Luther relied to oppose the Nominalist axiom of facere quod in se est Deus non denegat gratiam. The teaching of the Fathers according to which human beings start and God accomplishes the process of salvation may have seemed to Luther dangerously close to the teaching of the recentiores doctores he so vehemently opposed. I show my opposition towards the trend within modern Lutheran scholarship to argue that the young Luther's doctrine of justification found its inspiration elsewhere, not in Augustine's anti-Pelagian writings. Against the common argument that while Augustine taught justification by grace and by love, Luther taught justification by faith alone, I argue that such a claim is not consistent with the evidence in the sources by showing significant affinities between Augustine and Luther's positions. Augustine, some scholars argue, never conceived justification as fides Christi, but rather as a transformation of the human will or disposition for God's commands. A closer look into the two theologians' understandings of justification would suggest otherwise. Augustine taught justification by grace as well as justification as fides Christi. Luther taught justification by faith, justification as a declaration of righteousness on account of the fides Christi, but his doctrine of justification went beyond a mere declaration of righteousness. For both Augustine and Luther, justification starts with the bestowal of the grace of faith and keeps manifesting itself through moral progress throughout the entire earthly life of the justified sinner. I also try to shed some light upon the old discussion regarding Augustine's reading of Gal. 5:6. I argue that this passage was used by Augustine with no other purpose than to characterise the genuine Christian faith, the justifying faith. Augustine's reading of Gal. 5:6 does not collide with Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. The essence of Augustine's doctrine of justification states that humans are justified through or by the grace of faith (gratia fidei). Faith is not acquired by any merit, so it is a grace, that is, freely given. Justification is entirely God's doing since it begins once one is bestowed with the grace of faith and proceeds, impelled by the grace of perseverance (which is deep down what Augustine called gratia cooperativa, a reality not absent in Luther's understanding of the justification process). The Augustinian notion of grace is a very comprehensive one. Grace assumes many forms. Among its main expressions, according to Augustine, are the gifts of faith, hope and love. Luther did not deviate from this path. Perhaps there is only a slight difference in emphasis. Augustine elected love as the great distinctive characteristic of justifying faith, while Luther selected humility. For both theologians, however, faith is the only source of justification. This faith would obviously be useless without love, hope and humility. After all, without these ingredients it would not be the justifying faith.
  • Korhonen, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Tutkielman tehtävänä on selvittää jumalallisen auktoriteetin (auctoritas divina) ja ihmisen järjen (ratio) välinen suhde Augustinuksen tietoteoriassa. Päälähteinä käytetään kolmea Augustinuksen varhaistuotannon manikealaisvastaista teosta De moribus ecclesiae catholicae et de moribus manichaeorum, De vera religione ja De utilitate credendi. Tutkielman metodina on systemaattinen analyysi. Tutkimustehtävä sisältää alakysymyksiä: Kuinka käsitepari auktoriteetti - järki suhteutuu käsitepariin uskominen (credere) - ymmärtäminen (intellegere)? Mitkä ovat järjen kyvyt, rajat ja tehtävät? Mikä on auktoriteetin tehtävä ja miksi auktoriteetteja tarvitaan? Missä määrin päälähteiden välillä on eroja? Luvussa 2 tarkastellaan sitä uskonnollis-filosofista taustaa, jonka kautta Augustinuksen käsitys auktoriteetin ja järjen suhteesta tulee ymmärrettäväksi. Vaikka Augustinus liittyykin uskon ja ymmärryksen suhteen varhaiskristilliseen traditioon, ei hänen käsitystään voida ymmärtää irrallaan platonilaisesta ja uusplatonilaisesta tietoteoriasta. Augustinuksen tietoteoria muotoutui myös vastauksessa skeptisismiin ja manikealaiseen pseudo-rationalismiin. Pääluvuissa 3, 4 ja 5 käsitellään Augustinuksen käsitystä auktoriteetin ja järjen suhteesta siten, että kussakin pääluvussa keskitytään yhteen päälähteeseen. Loppukatsauksessa (luku 6) kootaan yhteen tutkimuksen tulokset. Augustinuksen klassisesta roomalaisesta kirjallisuudesta lanseeraama käsitepari auktoriteetti - järki liittyy läheisesti toiseen käsitepariin uskominen - ymmärtäminen. Usko perustuu auktoriteettiin ja ymmärrys järkeen. Niin kuin usko edeltää ymmärrystä (credo ut intelligam), samoin auktoriteetti edeltää uskoa. Mutta toisaalta myös ymmärrys edeltää uskoa siinä mielessä, että on ymmärrettävä auktoriteetin ilmoittamat väitelauseet, jotta usko tulisi mahdolliseksi. Tietyssä mielessä myös järki edeltää auktoriteettia, sillä järki arvioi, kuka on uskomisen arvoinen. Ilman auktoriteettiin perustuvaa uskoa ihminen kykenee järjen avulla tajuamaan ainakin yhden totuuden, nimittäin sen, että kaiken epäileminen on mahdotonta. Radikaaleinkin epäilijä on varma ainakin siitä totuudesta, että hän epäilee. Augustinus antaa toisinaan ymmärtää, että ilman auktoriteettia voidaan käsittää myös Jumalan olemassaolo. Toisinaan hän taas opettaa, että tieto Jumalan olemassaolosta perustuu jumalalliseen auktoriteettiin. Ihmisen järki on rajallinen kahdessa mielessä. Ensinnäkin se ei kykene saavuttamaan varmaa tietoa aistimaailman ajallisista asioista. Varma tieto eli ymmärrys kohdistuu vain ikuisiin ja intelligiibeleihin totuuksiin. Toiseksi ihmisen järki on osallinen syntiinlankeemuksesta niin, että totuuden tavoittaminen tulee lopulta mahdottomaksi ilman auktoriteettia. Jumalallinen auktoriteetti on Augustinuksen mukaan Kristuksessa, Raamatussa ja katolisessa kirkossa. Jumalallinen auktoriteetti ilmoittaa pelastushistorian totuudet, joiden kautta ihmisen mieli puhdistuu ja kykenee kohoamaan kohti ikuisia jumalallisia totuuksia. Jumalallisen auktoriteetin ilmoittamat ikuiset totuudet ovat luonteeltaan sellaisia, että niihin on ensin uskottava, jotta ne voitaisiin myöhemmin ymmärtää (credo, quod intelligam). Auktoriteetin tehtävä on johdattaa järkeen ja järjen tehtävä on johtaa ymmärrykseen. Teoksen päälähteet opettavat pääsääntöisesti samalla tavalla käsillä olevasta aiheesta. De moribuksessa painopiste on tosin muita selkeämmin rakkaudessa: rakkaus johtaa tietoteoreettiseen täyttymykseen. De vera religionessa on vahvimpana ajatus luonnollisesta jumalatuntemuksesta. De utilitate credendi keskittyy voimakkaimmin auktoriteettiuskon puolustamiseen. Päälähteiden painotuserot johtuvat niiden erilaisesta luonteesta.
  • Korolainen-Virkajärvi, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten auktoriteetit, tässä tutkielmassa seurakunnat, muut kristilliset organisaatiot ja kaupungin eri toimielimet toimivat kasvavalla työläisalueella 1900-luvun alussa. Erityisenä tutkimuskohteena on instituutioiden harjoittama sosiaalinen kontrolli ja väestön suhtautuminen siihen. Helsingissä toteutettiin 1906 kauan odotettu seurakuntajako, jonka seurauksena myös Kallion ja Sörnäisten alue sai omat seurakuntansa. Sörnäisten suomalainen seurakunta ja Sörnäs svenska församling aloittivat toimintansa haasteellisissa oloissa, sillä niillä ei ollut edes omia tiloja seurakunnan alueella. Alusta lähtien seurakunnat tekivätkin hyvin tiivistä yhteistyötä alueella toimivien kristillisten järjestöjen kanssa: muun muassa jumalanpalvelukset pidettiin Luterilaisen Evankeliumiyhdistyksen tiloissa Alppikadulla ja Kaupunkilähetyksen Harjun rukoushuoneessa ennen Kallion kirkon valmistumista syksyllä 1912. Uudet seurakunnat tarttuivat heti jäsentensä moraalin vahvistamiseen. Kummatkin seurakunnat perustivat kirkkolain mukaiset vanhinten neuvostot, joiden tehtävänä oli valvoa seurakuntalaisten siveellisyyttä. Sörnäisten seurakunnat aloittivat poikkeuksellisen kovasanaisen ja laajan moraalikampanjan muun muassa julkaisemalla lentolehtisiä ja tekemällä kotikäyntejä aviottomien pariskuntien luona taivutellen heitä solmimaan avioliiton. Vanhinten siveystyö herätti työläislehdistössä ankaraa arvostelua, eivätkä kehotukset tuntuneet tehoavan väestöön. Seurakuntien toiminnan herättämä kritiikki ei kuitenkaan koskenut kaikkea kristillistä toimintaa alueella. Kristilliset yhdistykset toimivat Sörnäisten hyväntekijöinä, jotka jakoivat köyhäinapua, perustivat erilaisia työlaitoksia ja lastenkoteja sekä hoitivat sairaita. Vaikka myös yhdistykset harjoittivat siveystyötä, niiden toimintaa ei arvosteltu juurikaan. Kun seurakuntien resurssit olivat rajalliset, oli työnjako yhdistysten kanssa selvä: ne hoitivat seurakuntalaisten tavoittamisen diakonia-, lapsi- ja nuorisotyöllä, kun taas seurakunta keskittyi kirkollisiin toimituksiin ja hallintoon. Huomionarvoista kuitenkin on, että kaikki Sörnäisten seurakuntien papit olivat aktiivisia niin yhdistysten hallinnossa kuin toiminnassakin. Kaupungin köyhäinhoito perustui samalle uskonnollismoralistiselle pohjalle kuin kirkonkin toiminta. Sekä kirkon että kaupungin työtä leimasi hoivaava valta, joka oikeutti käyttäjänsä ankariinkin toimenpiteisiin ja pakotti avuntarvitsijat tiukan kontrollin alle. Helsingin poliisiin perustettiin siveysosasto 1900-luvun vaihteessa huolehtimaan erityisesti irtolaisista. Vaivaishoitohallitus taas huolehti kaupungin köyhäihoidosta ja sen työhön liittyi runsaasti kontrollipolitiikkaa. Lasten turvallisuudesta huolehti 1899 perustettu kasvatuslautakunta, jonka lisäksi kaupungissa työväenkysymyksiin perehtyi myös erillinen työväenasiainlautakunta. Nämä tekivät yhteistyötä kaupungin papiston kanssa, mutta erityisen keskeistä oli järjestöjen työn tukeminen. Kaupunki ulkoisti osan palveluistaan yhdistysten tehtäväksi maksamalla niille avustuksia ja luovuttamalla edullisesti tonttimaata. Kristillisillä järjestöillä oli vankka asema kaupungin avustustyössä yhtenevän tunnustuksen ja aatemaailman vuoksi. Kristillisen siveystyön ja köyhäinhoidon konkreettisina yhdistäjinä toimivat erityisesti diakonissat. Sosiaalityön ja sairaanhoidon vasta hakiessa muotoaan olivat diakonissat sekä avustustyön ammattilaisia että moraalikasvatuksen erinomaisia lähettiläitä. He toimivat yhteistyön luojina seurakuntien, kristillisten järjestöjen ja kaupungin välillä. Heidän työtään arvostettiin myös työläisyhteisössä laajalti: diakonissojen voidaankin sanoa toimineen sillanrakentajana auktoriteettien ja työläisyhteiskunnan välissä. Vaikka 1900-luvun alku oli Helsingille kasvunaikaa, oli edelleen kyse pienestä kaupungista, jossa kohtuullisen rajattu piiri vastasi päätöksenteosta. Vain pienellä osalla kaupunkilaisista oli aikaa ja mahdollisuuksia osallistua hyväntekeväisyystyön pyörittämiseen tai ylipäänsä vapaaehtoistoimintaan. Tämä pieni piiri tosin teki työtään hyvin aktiivisesti. Tämä näkyykin tutkimuksessa siinä, että samat henkilöt toimivat ristiin useissa eri luottamuselimissä niin kaupungin, kirkon kuin yhdistystenkin hallinnossa. Tutkimuksen pääteemoja ovat seurakuntien ja kunnallisten toimielinten toiminta muuttuvassa yhteiskunnassa, kristillinen avustustyö sekä järjestöjen ja seurakuntien suhde, kirkon ja työväen kohtaaminen sekä sosiaalinen kontrolli sääty-yhteiskunnan murtuessa. Ajallisesti tutkimus keskittyy vuosiin 1906−1917.
  • Cingi, Rebecca (2015)
    The thesis proposes an interpretative reading of René Descartes’ work Meditations on First Philosophy. This reading is called the unificationist reading and it is contrasted with a tradition of reading The Meditations with an epistemological attitude. These opposing views are called the justificationist reading based on their emphasis on justifications of beliefs. The unificationist reading instead emphasizes a metaphysical approach to The Meditations and is based on Joseph Almog’s reading of Descartes. The reading aims to unify those parts of Descartes’ theory that would in the justificationist tradition lead to strict dualisms and distinctions inside the theory. Almog has presented his reading of Descartes in a series of lecture courses held in Helsinki in 2013. In addition to these courses, class notes, class meetings and correspondence, Edwin Curley’s and John Carriero’s substantial works on Descartes’ are used to present the unificationist view. Interpretation of The Mediations with the help of these works is the main method for contrasting the unificationist and the justificationist view. The benefits of abandoning the epistemological attitude and the justificationist view are shown in the cases of the unity of man and of God. The justificationist reading leads to a strict dualism of mind and body as separate entities whereas the adoption of the unificationist view enables Descartes’ idea of men to be units of one (substance). It is shown that Descartes in fact seems to support a unified concept of men and his metaphysical distinction of mind and body does not seem to apply in the case of men. Furthermore, Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God seem circular or vague when considered within the justificationist tradition. The so-called ontological argument is taken under consideration and shown how it can be interpreted differently within the unificationist reading. The unificationist reading gives God the greatest importance in Descartes’ theory whereas the justificationist tradition sometimes denies God having any or only little importance in The Meditations and this is shown to adduce several issues. It is shown how adopting the unificationist view Descartes’ philosophy appears its integral entirety. The unificationist view leads to a global theory of existence instead of a scattered collection of justified beliefs concerning existence.
  • Knuuttila, Sanna-Riikka (2005)
  • Alitalo, Raija (1996)
  • Kelloniemi, Jarmo (Helsingin yliopisto, Elintarvikekemian ja -teknologian laitos, 2009)
    The objectives of this study was to investigate the cause of the local whiteness in AURAÒ blue cheese and to find the way which reduces the white cheeses. It was studied if white cheeses have a compact or open structure. White cheeses were classified as compact and open. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on compact, open and mouldy cheeses. Factors which cause compact cheese were also studied. At the beginning of blue cheese manufacturing, citrate was analysed at different time points in different vats. The aim was to make compact cheese in one of the trials. Cheese curd was broken before and after moulding. Alternative factors including the effect of addition of salt to the vat on reducing the amount of white cheeses was also studied. Other variables were the speed of the drying belt, heating of vat, the amount of vat whey and the different moulds were also studied. In addition it was studied how separation of whey affects to the amount of compact cheeses in the drying belt. Microbiological and chemical analyses as well as density and texture measurement were performed on the trials. Most of the white cheeses were compact and the small amount of white cheeses had an open structure. The compact cheeses had less mould and yeast than the mouldy cheeses. The pH was lower and the amount of free amino acids was less in the compact cheeses than the mouldy cheeses. The compact cheeses were more dense than the mouldy cheeses. Measurements from texture analyser showed that the hardness of compact cheese were greater and the fracturability of compact cheese was lower than the hardness or fracturability of mouldy cheese. There were no differences in the amount of citrates between days or vats. Broken cheese curd before moulding caused a more compact structure. The addition of salt in the vat did not affect the white cheeses. The compact cheeses decreased when the speed of the drying belt was reduced. With the use of the new mould, less compact cheeses were produced than with older mould. The removal of water from cheese curds is logarithmic the longer they are on an open drying belt. The compact cheese also decreased logarithmically when cheese curds were on drying belt from zero to ten seconds. There was a greater amount of compact cheeses after moulding in the vat.
  • Laakso, Pekka V. K. (1948)
  • Salminen, Päivi (1989)
  • Ropponen, Pia (2013)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kuoleman tematiikan representaatioita suomalaisessa nykyvalokuvataiteessa. Tavoitteena on havainnoida kuoleman kuvauksen tapoja ja motiiveja sekä pohtia, millaisia yhteiskunnallisia ja kulttuurisia suhtautumisia, tottumuksia ja käytäntöjä teoksissa on taiteen keinoin pyritty kommentoimaan. Tutkielma perustuu teosanalyyseille. Aineistona käytetään kahta kuolemaa kuvaavaa valokuvateossarjaa. Nämä ovat Iikka Tolosen The End sekä Minna Havukaisen Exitus, joka sisältää valokuvien ohella kolme videoteosta ja jonka esillepanoon on liittynyt sisällöltään jonkin verran vaihtelevia tapahtumakokonaisuuksia. Teoriataustana toimii kuolemaa eri näkökulmista tarkastellut keskustelu. Teoksia analysoidaan diskursiivisessa; oman aikamme kuolemankulttuuria kirjallisuuden, tutkimuksen, artikkeleiden sekä yleisöluentojen kautta pohtivassa yhteydessä. Teossarjat esittävät kuolemaa ja siihen liittyviä käytäntöjä sellaisina, kuin ne suomalaisessa nykykulttuurissa useimmiten tapahtuvat. Niiden huomataan toistavan monia taidehistorian traditionaalisia, usein metaforisia teeman tarkastelutapoja. Valokuvateoksia tarkastelemalla voidaan ymmärtää kuolemankäsitysten mentaalisen osuuden sitkeys ja tämän jäykkyyden aiheuttama, nykykäsityksiin sisältyvä menneisyyden perintö; sarjat toistavat jossain määrin menneisyydestä kantautuvia kuolleisiin ja kuolemaan liittyviä käsityksiä. Henkiseen kulttuuriperintöön sisältyvien rakenteiden ohella analyysi osoittaa teossarjojen vahvistavan ja uudentavan eräitä nykykeskustelussa kuolemiseen liitettyjä mielikuvia sekä oman aikamme kulttuurille tyypillisiä, kuolemaan liittyviä erityispiirteitä. Teosten tulkinta mahdollistaa myös kuolemaan liittyvien käytäntöjen yhteyteen muodostuneiden uusien traditioiden esiin nostamisen ja arvioimisen. Taideteosten käsittelemien näkökulmien ulkopuolelle jäävien tai vähäistä huomiota saavien kuolemiseen liittyvien aspektien voidaan todeta paljastavan teemaan liittyviä kulttuurisia kipupisteitä. Kuoleman teeman taiteessa tarkastelun sekä aihetta käsittelevien taiteilijoiden saaman vastaanoton ja kritiikin voidaan esittää alleviivaavan motiivin haasteellisuutta. Kirjoitus kyseenalaistaa tutkijoiden taholta usein esitettyä väitettä, jonka mukaan kuolema on puheenaiheena kielletty ja teemana piilotettu. Teosanalyysi korostaa suremisen ja kuoleman yhteydessä esiintyvien, erilaisten ristiriitaistenkin tunteiden ilmaisun, käsittelyn ja purkamisen tärkeyttä. Teokset pyrkivät kuoleman pohdinnan, yhteiskunnallisten suhtautumistapojen ja kuolemankäsitysten näkyväksi tekemisen ohella jakamaan emootioita ja toimimaan suremisen väylinä.