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  • Keinänen, Juho (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Työntekijöiden vapaalla liikkuvuudella on Euroopan unionin yhtenä sisämarkkinavapautena vakiintunut asema eurooppaoikeudessa. Jäsenvaltioiden kansalaisten subjektiivinen oikeus etsiä ja tehdä työtä toisen jäsenvaltion alueella ja nauttia yhdenvertaisesta kohtelusta vastaanottavan jäsenvaltion omien kansalaisten kanssa on turvattu perussopimuksissa, johdetussa oikeudessa ja EU-tuomioistuimen oikeuskäytännössä. Vapaaseen liikkuuvuuteen liittyviin oikeuksiin vetoaminen edellyttää kuitenkin jäsenvaltion kansalaisuutta. Mikäli jäsenvaltion alueella työskentelevä kolmannen valtion kansalainen ei ole liikkumisvapauttaan käyttäneen EU-kansalaisen perheenjäsen, kolmannen valtion kansalainen voi kuitenkin vedota EU:n oikeusjärjestykseen kuuluviin kansainvälisiin sopimuksiin ja unionin työperäistä maahanmuuttoa koskevaan sekundaarilainsäädäntöön. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kolmansien valtioiden kansalaisten asemaa unionin solmimien ulkosopimusten ja yhteistä maahanmuuttopolitiikkaa toteuttavan sekundaarilainsäädännön perusteella sekä näiden oikeuslähteiden välisiä suhteita. Assosiaatiosopimuksilla on perustettu etuoikeutettuja yhteyksiä EU:n ja sen jäsenvaltioiden sekä kolmansien valtioiden välille. Sopimuksissa on voitu määrätä muun muassa sopimuspuolten kansalaisten työskentely- ja oleskeluoikeudesta jäsenvaltioissa sekä oikeudesta yhdenvertaiseen kohteluun vastaanottavan jäsenvaltion omien kansalaisten kanssa. Sopimuksissa turvattujen oikeuksien laajuus kuitenkin vaihtelee, siten kolmansien valtioiden kansalaiset ovat kansalaisuutensa perusteella eriarvoisessa asemassa. EU-tuomioistuimen oikeuskäytännön mukaan työntekijöiden asemaa koskevat sopimusmääräykset ovat välittömästi vaikuttavia kansallisissa oikeusjärjestyksissä mikäli ne asettavat selkeitä, ehdottomia ja tulevista täytäntöönpanotoimista riippumattomia velvoitteita, eikä välittömän vaikutuksen myöntäminen ole sopimuksen tavoitteiden tai luonteen vastaista. EU-tuomioistuin on myöntänyt tavoitteiltaan hyvin erilaisiin sopimuksiin sisältyville määräyksille välittömän vaikutuksen. Tuomioistuin on korostanut ulkosopimuksia koskevassa oikeuskäytännössä erityisesti sopimusmääräysten tehokkaan toteutumisen merkitystä. Tämän lisäksi tuomioistuin on tulkinnut määräysten jäsenvaltioille asettamien velvollisuuksien ulottuvuutta analogisesti työntekijöiden vapaata liikkuvuutta koskevan SEUT 45 artiklan kanssa riippumatta siitä, minkälaiseen sopimuskokonaisuuteen tulkittava sopimusmääräys liittyy. EU:n yhteistyö oikeus- ja sisäasioissa tähtää vapauden, turvallisuuden ja oikeuden alueen perustamiseen. Tämän osana unionin tehtäväksi on SEUT 79 artiklassa asetettu yhteisen maahanmuuttopolitiikan kehittäminen. Työperäistä maahanmuuttoa kolmansista maista säännellään sektorikohtaisen lainsäädännön takia usealla säädöksellä työntekijäryhmäkohtaisesti. Tutkielmassa käydään läpi direktiivien sisältöä sekä arvioidaan sitä, miten hyvin säädöksillä on ratkaistu ne ongelmat, joihin niillä on pyritty vaikuttamaan. Koska työperäistä maahanmuuttoa koskeva sekundaarinormisto on uutta, säädöksiä koskevaa oikeuskäytäntöä ei vielä ole kertynyt. Tutkielmassa käsitellään tämän vuoksi perheenyhdistämisdirektiiviä ja pitkään oleskelleiden kolmansien valtioiden kansalaisten asemasta annettua direktiiviä koskevaa oikeuskäytäntöä. Laillista maahanmuuttoa koskevassa oikeuskäytännössä on assosiaatiosopimuksia koskevan oikeuskäytännön tavoin korostettu säädösten tavoitteiden tehokkaan toteutumisen merkitystä ja rajoitettu jäsenvaltioiden harkintavaltaa. Lisäksi EU-tuomioistuin on oikeuskäytännössä luonut yhteyksiä EU-kansalaisten liikkumisvapauteen liittyvien oikeuksien ja sekundaarioikeudessa turvattujen kolmansien valtioiden kansalaisten oikeuksien välillä. Tutkielmassa pohditaan EU-tuomioistuimen ratkaisujen taustalla vaikuttavia syitä ja tavoitteita sekä sitä, voidaanko oikeuskäytännön perusteella ennakoida työperäistä maahanmuuttoa koskevien direktiivien vaikutuksia niiden soveltamisalaan kuuluvien kolmansien valtioiden kansalaisten oikeusasemaan ja jäsenvaltioiden velvollisuuksiin. Maahanmuuttoa koskeva sekundaarinormisto on kansainvälisiin sopimuksiin nähden toissijaista sääntelyä, sillä direktiivit eivät estä kansainvälisistä sopimuksista johtuvien suotuisampien säännösten soveltamista. Johdetun oikeuden tulkinnan tulee olla sopusoinnussa unionia ja jäsenvaltioita sitovien kansainvälisten velvoitteiden kanssa. Tutkielman lopuksi käydään läpi esimerkkejä kansainvälisten sopimusten etusijan vaikutuksista työperäistä maahanmuuttoa koskevan sekundaarinormiston tulkintaan.
  • Nikkonen, Henri (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study is to observe what kind of environmental impacts are caused by agriculture and what kind of factors causes them. The study is part of ENREFOOD – project, which views the environmental responsibility of food chain. The data was collected from scientific literature and a group interview, where participants were representing experts from different areas of primary production. The experts were shown a draft of the main environmental impacts and their causes basing on life cycle assessment (LCA) impact classes. The chosen main environmental impacts were focusing on climate change, acidification, eutrophication, biodiversity, toxicity and eco-toxicity and natural resources. The experts were supposed to modify this draft in order to achieve their collective perspective. The results were presented as comparing the draft based on scientific literature and perspectives obtained from the experts. Moreover, the terms used when discussing about the causes of the environmental impacts were analysed applying environmental protection process (EPP) framework, which can be used to illustrate how an environmental change is formed. The perspective of experts did not differ much from the scientific literature based on the draft. The names of the main environmental impact classes were slightly modified and one new class was formed. The new class was called landscape change and recreational factors. The terms relating to the causes used by experts were representing different components in the EPP framework. A Part of the terms were more abstract background factors whereas some related direct on farm level action and its emissions. The amount of the environmental impacts of primary production is huge. By more precisely scoping of the chosen environmental themes can result more manageable overall view. For example, as a good starting point the protection areas applied in the end point modelling of the LCA can be recommended. These areas of protection can be, e.g., human health, biodiversity, natural resources and natural environments. Focusing on these areas of protection separately can reduce the causality problem, which makes environmental impact observation challenging.
  • Holmqvist, Mats (2010)
    This thesis studies the political process in Pakistan between 1988 and 1999. The aim of the study is to explain why the transition to democracy failed during this period. Three major problems have been singled out for this purpose: the ethnic structure, the political structure and the role of the military. The thesis also shows how similar problems have appeared throughout Pakistan’s history and for this reason the obstacles to democracy are described as long-term, structural problems. Pakistan’s role as a frontline state in global anti-terrorist efforts has prompted a need for fresh perspectives on the country’s political development. Previous research on Pakistan is characterized as lacking historical understanding. Therefore this thesis attempts to provide a historical dimension by tracing the roots of Pakistan’s political problems. The primary sources for the thesis consist of autobiographical material, speeches, interviews and party manifestos, but the argumentation relies heavily on secondary sources. The theoretical sections of the thesis consult e.g. Dahl, Linz and Stepan for definitions of democracy and democratic transitions, Huntington for the concept of political institutionalisation and Koonings & Kruijt for approaches to political armies. The main result of the thesis is that although Pakistan began a democratic transition in 1988, it was never completed and the political process was rather more like a “nontransition”. Above all, the transition was severely constrained from the outset. The greatest obstacle to democratization was arguably the Pakistani military’s consistent interference in politics through a constitutional amendment enacted during military rule in 1985. Moreover, the lack of commitment to democratic values among the political elite puts into question whether there was a movement towards democracy at all during this period. The inability or unwillingness of successive governments to address the ethnic and regional cleavages in Pakistani society as political issues rather than law and order issues also served to undermine the legitimacy of the entire political system. The thesis concludes that the same problems seem to have halted democratic initiatives in Pakistan since the country became independent in 1947; it therefore seems likely that they will also persist unless the underlying issues are specifically addressed.
  • Christersson, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This case study sheds new light on rural water use and related social, aconomic and environmental dimensions and proposes government intervention in order to ensure water rights and protect public value of fairness. The aim is to highlight farmers’ perspectives on irrigation water use and related obstacles, and specifically distinguish if views are connected to farmers’ underlying socioeconomic or agro-ecologic factors. For further considerations adaptive capacity of community for irrigation water fees is explored. The research material consists of semi-structured interviews for farmers (n=63), government organizations (n=3) and agricultural enterprises (n=2). Economic groups were formed via analysis of asset-based economic status. Grouping based on agricultural water use was conducted through categorization. Costs and lack of knowledge were identified as the main barriers for adopting advanced irrigation technology. The study showed prevailing allocation system is in need of reformation. When designing rural policy, farmers’ perceptions should be respected. Water allocation is considered unfair community-wide and social conflicts are largely faced. Those who do not suffer from conflicts are most commonly rich. Technology transfer offer potential benefits, but community needs to be mobilized. Grouping based on irrigation water usage may be used for targeting policies. Economic grouping may be used for distinguishing farmers’ behavior when designing change in economic conditions or conflict resolution strategy. The complementary role of this study is to bring out special focus on development for institutional capacity-building; strengthening the forcing nature of laws and user rights. This may reduce the attractiveness for corruption in the process. Under these conditions, the greatest benefits may be obtained by giving top priority instead of irrigation improvement, but conflict mediation and establishment of water markets.
  • Oszkiewicz, Dagmara (2012)
    Planetary Science belongs to the so-called fundamental sciences, which do not have to have immediate practical applications or implications. The recent decades have however shown that the study of asteroids may have direct implications on our life. Studies of asteroid dynamics have shown that some of those objects can collide with the Earth. Studies of asteroid mineralogy suggest that some of them contain minerals and elements important for industry. For both of those topics, determining physical and dynamical properties is crucial. Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods and algorithms such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm are growing in popularity and becoming important tools in deriving model parameters in many branches of science today. In this thesis, Bayesian statistics along with the above-mentioned numerical methods have been used to infer dynamical and physical properties of asteroids. First, a new Markov-chain Monte Carlo ranging method is developed for computing asteroid orbits. The method is applicable for asteroids with short observational time intervals and/or small number of observations. The method is particularly useful in deriving orbits for new asteroid discoveries and computing collision probabilities for such objects. The Markov-chain Monte Carlo ranging method is applied to a number of asteroids including a recent Earth impactor - asteroid 2008 TC3. Markov-chain Monte Carlo ranging is available through the open-source orbit-computation package called OpenOrb and is implemented into the Gaia satellite data processing pipeline, where it will be heavily used in the daily data processing. Second, Markov-chain Monte Carlo and Monte Carlo methods are used to assess phase curve photometric parameters and their uncertainties. Absolute magnitudes and photometric parameters are derived for half a million asteroids by fitting phase curves to the Lowell Observatory photometric database. Asteroid phase curves depend on physical properties of regolith and absolute magnitudes are useful in computing sizes and albedos. Fitting the phase functions to a large number of asteroid families suggests homogeneity of photometric parameters in asteroid families. The derived photometric parameters are also found to correspond to asteroid taxonomic complexes and colors.
  • Granvik, Mikael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Granvik, Mikael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    An efficient and statistically robust solution for the identification of asteroids among numerous sets of astrometry is presented. In particular, numerical methods have been developed for the short-term identification of asteroids at discovery, and for the long-term identification of scarcely observed asteroids over apparitions, a task which has been lacking a robust method until now. The methods are based on the solid foundation of statistical orbital inversion properly taking into account the observational uncertainties, which allows for the detection of practically all correct identifications. Through the use of dimensionality-reduction techniques and efficient data structures, the exact methods have a loglinear, that is, O(nlog(n)), computational complexity, where n is the number of included observation sets. The methods developed are thus suitable for future large-scale surveys which anticipate a substantial increase in the astrometric data rate. Due to the discontinuous nature of asteroid astrometry, separate sets of astrometry must be linked to a common asteroid from the very first discovery detections onwards. The reason for the discontinuity in the observed positions is the rotation of the observer with the Earth as well as the motion of the asteroid and the observer about the Sun. Therefore, the aim of identification is to find a set of orbital elements that reproduce the observed positions with residuals similar to the inevitable observational uncertainty. Unless the astrometric observation sets are linked, the corresponding asteroid is eventually lost as the uncertainty of the predicted positions grows too large to allow successful follow-up. Whereas the presented identification theory and the numerical comparison algorithm are generally applicable, that is, also in fields other than astronomy (e.g., in the identification of space debris), the numerical methods developed for asteroid identification can immediately be applied to all objects on heliocentric orbits with negligible effects due to non-gravitational forces in the time frame of the analysis. The methods developed have been successfully applied to various identification problems. Simulations have shown that the methods developed are able to find virtually all correct linkages despite challenges such as numerous scarce observation sets, astrometric uncertainty, numerous objects confined to a limited region on the celestial sphere, long linking intervals, and substantial parallaxes. Tens of previously unknown main-belt asteroids have been identified with the short-term method in a preliminary study to locate asteroids among numerous unidentified sets of single-night astrometry of moving objects, and scarce astrometry obtained nearly simultaneously with Earth-based and space-based telescopes has been successfully linked despite a substantial parallax. Using the long-term method, thousands of realistic 3-linkages typically spanning several apparitions have so far been found among designated observation sets each spanning less than 48 hours.
  • Penttilä, Antti (2009)
    Työssä tutkitaan asteroidien ja komeettojen polarisaatiota ja eteenkin polarisaatiohavainnoille sovitettavia malleja. Työn tarkoituksena on vertailla olemassa olevia polarisaatiomalleja ja niiden ominaisuuksia. Vertailun perusteella voidaan suositella jotain tiettyä mallia sekä sovitustekniikkaa erityyppisille polarisaatiohavaintoaineistoille ja tutkimusasetelmille. Polarisaatiolla tarkoitetaan tässä nimenomaan lineaarista polarisaatiosuhdetta. Aurinko lähettää kohteeseen, tässä työssä joko asteroidiin tai komeettaan, valoa tai yleisemmin sähkömagneettista säteilyä jossa kaikki lineaariset polarisaatiotasot ovat tasaisesti edustettuna, ns. polarisoitumatonta valoa. Kohteen pinta voi kuitenkin sirottaa eri polarisaatiotasoissa olevaa säteilyä eri voimakkuuksilla, jolloin sironnut säteily on polarisoitunutta. Sironneen säteilyn vaaka- ja pystypolarisoitujen komponenttien erotuksen ja summan suhdetta kutsutaan lineaariseksi polarisaatiosuhteeksi. Polarisaatiosuhde voi paljastaa tutkijalle jotain kohteen pinnan ominaisuuksista, kuten pinnan materiaalikoostumuksesta, pakkaustiheydestä ja karheudesta. Lineaariselle polarisaatiosuhteelle on kehitetty joitain malleja joita voidaan sovittaa vaihekulman funktiona havaitulle polarisaatiolle. Nämä mallit ovat perustaltaan kokeellisia eivätkä perustu varsinaisen fysiikan mallintamiseen polarisaatiotapahtumassa. Mallien sovitteet ovat kuitenkin hyödyllisiä kun halutaan verrata eri kohteiden polarisaatio-ominaisuuksia usein varsin harvan ja rajoittuneen havaintoaineiston pohjalta. Mallien sovituksessa käytetään epälineaarista regressioanalyysia sekä bayesilaista epälineaarista regressiota. Bayesin menetelmässä voidaan hyödyntää etukäteistietoa polarisaatiokäyrän käyttäytymisestä jotta sovituksesta saataisiin vakaa myös tapauksissa joissa havaintojen lukumäärä on pieni tai aineisto on muuten puutteellinen. Polarisaatiota tarkastellaan työssä myös valon aallonpituuden funktiona jolloin kiinnostuksen kohteena on aallonpituuden vaikutus polarisaation ominaisuuksiin. Näiden vaikutusten mallintaminen luotettavalla tavalla vaatii mallin ja sovitusmenetelmän huolellista valintaa. Tässä yhteydessä käsitellään mahdollisuutta käyttää usean vasteen regressioanalyysia sekä hierarkkista bayesilaista regressioanalyysia mallin sovituksessa. Työssä esitellään ja vertaillaan malleja ja sovitusmenetelmiä polarisaatiohavaintojen tutkimiseen sekä johdetaan joitain tuloksia aallonpituuden vaikutuksesta polarisaatioon.
  • Virtanen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Boberg, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic phloem colonizing bacteria-like organisms. They can cause severe growth disorders in plants and thus weaken the productivity of crop plants or even kill them. Phytoplasmas have not caused any epidemics on crop plants in Finland and thus they have been little studied. The aim of this study was to find out if plants that have phytoplasma-like symptoms are actually infected by phytoplasmas. Plants with growth disorders were collected and their DNA was extracted. Phytoplasmal DNA was multiplied from the samples using PCR with phytoplasma-specific primers P1 and P7. The products were sequenced and compared with sequences available from databases. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to show the kinship between the phytoplasmas. In this thesis X-disease phytoplasmas were found from dandelion (Taraxacum spp. Weber), scentless mayweed (Tripleurospermun inodorum Schultz Bip.), creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense L.), alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Aster yellows phytoplasma was found from one red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Data on phytoplasmas has not been published in other Nordic countries. In Lithuania phytoplasmas have been detected in several plant species such as raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), apple (Malus sp. Mill.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and several other grasses that also grow in Finland. The climate change can increase the amount of vector insects in Finland, which will most likely help phytoplasmas spread more efficiently and cause diseases also on crop plants. The import of plants from other countries may enable the spread of new vector and phytoplasma species in Finland.
  • Kauppi, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Karvala, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Indoor dampness and mold are associated with adverse respiratory health effects, of which asthma is the most frequently diagnosed disease. Respiratory and non-specific symptoms related to building dampness are usually transient, but persistent symptoms appear to be common for some persons, even despite building repairs or a change to an alternative work environment. The study assessed methods for diagnosing occupational asthma induced by indoor dampness and mold. A retrospective analysis of a group of patients examined at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1995-2004 was conducted. All of the examined 2200 workers had respiratory symptoms related to workplace dampness. According to this study, serial PEF monitoring is an applicable method in the clinical evaluation of occupational asthma induced by indoor dampness. An individual exposure assessment can be based on descriptions of the extent and location of the moisture and mold damage in the building structures and on microbial measurements. Specific IgE-mediated sensitization to molds occurs, but in a small proportion of cases only. Mechanisms of dampness-related asthma remain largely unknown. The patients were followed-up with a questionnaire survey 3-12 years after the baseline examinations. The results suggest that, for workers with work-related asthma-like symptoms occurring in relation to indoor dampness and molds at work, continuing to work in such environments creates a risk for developing asthma. Preventive measures to avoid further exposure seem to be relevant in order to prevent the development of asthma. In practice, such measures would involve the remediation of moisture and mold damage or the relocation of workers to a non-moisture damaged environment. Follow-up at occupational health services is recommended for patients with respiratory symptoms related to workplace dampness. In addition, the long-term effects on the quality of life and work ability of these workers were evaluated. Patients diagnosed with occupational asthma had worse outcomes than did patients with non-occupational asthma or only respiratory symptoms without asthma at the baseline. A perceived poor social climate at work and poor experiences with the supervisor s cooperation at an early stage of symptoms were determinants for impaired self-assessed work ability and early withdrawal from work. In addition, multiple, persistent, indoor-air symptoms at the time of the follow-up increased the risk of poor self-assessed work ability. The results are in accordance with the widely recognized fact that the causes of disability are multifactorial and are not associated with medical conditions only. More apt measures, for example, early support and workplace management practices concerning work ability, are required.
  • Tervahauta, Ulla (2013)
    This study on the Authentikos Logos (NHC VI,3) analyses the writing and its story of the soul s descent and ascent. The aim of the work was to find a context to the little studied Nag Hammadi writing that has been thus far dated to the second century. On the basis of comparative analysis this study agues that that date is too early. It is proposed instead that AL was composed sometime between the third and the fifth centuries. The manuscript, language, and the genre of AL are first discussed, and the broad lines of late ancient Egyptian Christianity are sketched. To shed light on the Christianity of the text, use of scriptures in AL is analysed in several chapters. The story of the soul s descent and ascent is compared with Christian and Platonic authors. The closest point of comparison is The Exegesis on the Soul (NHC II,6), but despite the general similarity between the texts, this study argues that the emphasis in the AL is on the soul s struggle towards its goal, whereas Exeg. Soul emphasises repentance and the help of the heavenly Father. The relationship of AL with the Valentinian Wisdom myth is discussed, with the outcome that there is no firm evidence to connect the writing closely with Valentinian traditions. Comparisons with Plato, Origen, and Plotinus suggest a Platonic mind-set; however, no literary dependency can be assumed. AL contains four specific epithets attached to the soul: the invisible soul , the pneumatic soul , the material soul , and the rational soul . The combination of the epithets is unique, and the individual terms point in different directions. The invisible soul is not used otherwise in the Nag Hammadi library. The pneumatic soul is a rare term only used by Synesius of Cyrene and John Chrysostom. The material soul is known in Sethian and Valentinian texts, whereas the rational soul is widely attested in ancient texts, but in the Nag Hammadi library it only appears in the AL and the Asclepius excerpt (NHC VI,8). Analysis on the views on matter in the AL suggest an emphasis on ethics, and the evilness of matter. Matter is furthermore combined with Christian scriptural allusions. Views on the soul are connected with views on the body and human life. The body is the soul s place of contest and progress. To ascend, the soul, enveloped in a pneumatic body must pass aerial powers invisibly; the Pauline term is used allusively, but with a Platonic perspective. Several texts that circulated amongst Christians in late ancient Egypt and discuss the soul s ascent are brought into the discussion (The Apocalypse of Paul, The First Apocalypse of James, the Gospel of Mary, Asclepius, and Life of Antony). The comparison reveals that AL aligns more with the two latter that emphasise ethics and stands at some distance from the Codex V accounts and the Gospel of Mary.
  • Virkkunen, Matleena (2008)
    This research paper examines the subject positions of the Nicaraguan peasant women who participated in development projects. The women are a part of the target group of the projects. The concept of subject position refers in this research to the women's socially constructed position in the development projects. I also analyse the discourses of development and poverty that the Nicaraguan women produce. The discourses of the women are compared to the so called hegemonic discourses of development. The hegemonic discourses and their critique are introduced during the research. The theoretical framework of the research is constructed by social constructionism and critical discourse analysis. I have approached the subject positions of the Nicaraguan women with the help of textual analysis and narratology. This research can be conceptualised as a part of the ethnographic development research. I have investigated two development projects funded by foreign donors. The research material consists of the private and group interviews of the Nicaraguan women. In the women's narratives, four different subject positions were found. One of them represents active participation in the development project. The rest of the subject positions represent passive positions. The fatalistic subject position was especially strong. The poverty discourses of the women emphasized the lack of education (or knowledge) and the condition of a house and clothes. Poverty was also seen for instance as social inequality and as happiness. The strongest development discourse the women emphasized was education, work and a good salary. On the other hand, development was seen as the social services produced by the state. Research shows that the discourses produced by the Nicaraguan women are many times in conflict with the discourses that emphasize the economical well-being in development. On the other hand, the results of this research are similar with those of so called participatory poverty research. The research also shows the conflict between the hegemonic development discourses and the positioning of the development project's target group. The main argument of the research is that the target group's passive (or even fatalistic) subject position may threat the aims of a development project. On the other hand, becoming aware of the target group's subject positions may help the project to achieve its aims.