Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1500-1519 of 24494
  • Sillanpää, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Li, Zitong (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) /association mapping aims to identify the genomic loci associated with the complex traits. From a statistical perspective, multiple linear regression is often used to model, estimate and test the effects of molecular markers on a trait. With genotype data derived from contemporary genomics techniques, however, the number of markers typically exceed the number of individuals, and it is therefore necessary to perform some sort of variable selection or parameter regularization to provide reliable estimates of model parameters. In addition, many quantitative traits are changing during their development process of life. Accordingly, a longitudinal study that jointly maps the repeated measurements of the phenotype over time may increase the statistical power to identify QTLs, compared with the single trait analysis. In this thesis, a series of Bayesian variable selection/regularization linear methods were developed and applied for analyzing quantitative traits measured at either single or multiple time points. The first work provided an overview of the principal frequentist regularization methods for analyzing single traits. The second work also focused on single trait analysis, where a variational Bayesian (VB) algorithm was derived for estimating parameters in several Bayesian regularization methods. The VB methods can be quickly implemented on large data sets in contrast to the classical Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. In the third work, the Bayesian regularization method was extended to a non-parametric varying coefficient model to analyze longitudinal traits. Particularly, an efficient VB stepwise algorithm was used for variable selection, so that the method can be quickly implemented even on data sets with a large number of time points and/or a large number of markers. The fourth work is an application of variable selection methods on forest genetics data collected from Northern Sweden. From several conifer wood properties traits with multiple time points, four QTLs located at genes were identified, which are promising targets for future research in wood molecular biology and breeding.
  • Tang, Jing (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Bacteria play an important role in many ecological systems. The molecular characterization of bacteria using either cultivation-dependent or cultivation-independent methods reveals the large scale of bacterial diversity in natural communities, and the vastness of subpopulations within a species or genus. Understanding how bacterial diversity varies across different environments and also within populations should provide insights into many important questions of bacterial evolution and population dynamics. This thesis presents novel statistical methods for analyzing bacterial diversity using widely employed molecular fingerprinting techniques. The first objective of this thesis was to develop Bayesian clustering models to identify bacterial population structures. Bacterial isolates were identified using multilous sequence typing (MLST), and Bayesian clustering models were used to explore the evolutionary relationships among isolates. Our method involves the inference of genetic population structures via an unsupervised clustering framework where the dependence between loci is represented using graphical models. The population dynamics that generate such a population stratification were investigated using a stochastic model, in which homologous recombination between subpopulations can be quantified within a gene flow network. The second part of the thesis focuses on cluster analysis of community compositional data produced by two different cultivation-independent analyses: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The cluster analysis aims to group bacterial communities that are similar in composition, which is an important step for understanding the overall influences of environmental and ecological perturbations on bacterial diversity. A common feature of T-RFLP and FAME data is zero-inflation, which indicates that the observation of a zero value is much more frequent than would be expected, for example, from a Poisson distribution in the discrete case, or a Gaussian distribution in the continuous case. We provided two strategies for modeling zero-inflation in the clustering framework, which were validated by both synthetic and empirical complex data sets. We show in the thesis that our model that takes into account dependencies between loci in MLST data can produce better clustering results than those methods which assume independent loci. Furthermore, computer algorithms that are efficient in analyzing large scale data were adopted for meeting the increasing computational need. Our method that detects homologous recombination in subpopulations may provide a theoretical criterion for defining bacterial species. The clustering of bacterial community data include T-RFLP and FAME provides an initial effort for discovering the evolutionary dynamics that structure and maintain bacterial diversity in the natural environment.
  • Jääskinen, Väinö (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In various fields of knowledge we can observe that the availability of potentially useful data is increasing fast. A prime example is the DNA sequence data. This increase is both an opportunity and a challenge as new methods are needed to benefit from the big data sets. This has sparked a fruitful line of research in statistics and computer science that can be called machine learning. In this thesis, we develop machine learning methods based on the Bayesian approach to statistics. We address a fairly general problem called clustering, i.e. dividing a set of objects to non-overlapping group based on their similarity, and apply it to models with Markovian dependence structures. We consider sequence data in a finite alphabet and present a model class called the Sparse Markov chain (SMC). It is a special case of a Markov chain (MC) model and offers a parsimonious description of the data generating mechanism. A Variable length Markov chain (VLMC) is a popular sparse model presented earlier in the literature and it has a representation as an SMC model. We develop Bayesian clustering methodology for learning the SMC and other Markovian models. Another problem that we study in this thesis is causal inference. We present a model and an algorithm for learning causal mechanisms from data. The model can be considered as a stochastic extension of the sufficient-component cause model that is popular in epidemiology. In our model there are several causal mechanisms each with its own parameters. A mixture distribution gives a probability that an outcome variable is associated with a mechanism. Applications that are considered in this thesis come mainly from computational biology. We cluster states of Markovian models estimated from DNA sequences. This gives an efficient description of the sequence data when comparing to methods reported in the literature. We also cluster DNA sequences with Markov chains, which results in a method that can be used for example in the estimation of bacterial community composition in a sample from which DNA is extracted. The causal model and the related learning algorithm are able to estimate mechanisms from fairly challenging data. We have developed the learning algorithms with big data sets in mind. Still, there is a need to develop them further to handle ever larger data sets.
  • Blomstedt, Paul (2007)
    Tilastollisessa luokittelussa kiinnostuksen kohteena oleva havaintoyksikkö sijoitetaan tätä kuvaavien havaittujen ominaisuuksien perusteella johonkin luokkaan. Esim. sähköpostiohjelmien roskapostisuodattimet hyödyntävät luokittelumenetelmiä luokitellessaan viestit näiden sisällön perusteella joko roskapostiksi tai ”oikeaksi” sähköpostiviestiksi. Tässä työssä taas tarkastellaan lääketieteellistä sovellusta, jossa potilaan terveydentilaa koskevien tietojen perusteella pyritään päättelemään onko potilaalla jokin määrätty sairaus vai ei. Luokitelussa käytettävä luokittelumalli estimoidaan luokiteltavan havaintoyksikön kanssa samasta perusjoukosta olevasta, valmiiksi luokitellusta aineistosta, jota kutsutaan opetusaineistoksi. Luokittelumalleja voidaan muodostaa monin eri tavoin. Tässä työssä käsiteltävät mallit perustuvat havaintoyksikön ominaisuuksille ehdollistetun, luokkamuuttujan ehdollisen jakauman mallintamiseen. Luokittelija sijoittaa tällöin havaintoyksikön luokkaan, jonka ehdollinen todennäköisyys on suurin. Ehdollisiin todennäköisyyksiin perustuvat luokittelijat voidaan muodostaa joko diskriminatiivisesti tai generatiivisesti. Edellisessä estimoidaan suoraan luokkamuuttujan ehdollista jakaumaa vastaava malli kun taas jälkimmäisessä estimoidaan ensin havaintoyksikön ominaisuuksia kuvaavien muuttujien sekä luokkamuuttujan yhteisjakaumaa vastaava malli, josta etsitty ehdollinen jakauma saadaan käyttämällä Bayesin kaavaa. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan binääriseen luokitteluun soveltuvaa, diskriminatiivisesti muodostettavaa logistista regressiota sekä naiivia Bayes-luokittelijaa, joka tiettyjen oletusten vallitessa on tämän generatiivinen vastine. Modernissa tilastotieteessä on viime vuosina huomattavasti lisääntynyt ns. bayesläisten menetelmien käyttö. Ominaista näille menetelmille on kaiken tilastollisen epävarmuuden ilmaiseminen todennäköisyysjakaumien avulla. Tässä työssä tutkitaan kokeellisesti bayesläisen lähestymistavan vaikutusta naiivin Bayes-luokittelijan ja logistisen regressiomallin luokitustarkkuuteen. Tämän lisäksi tarkastellan diskriminatiivisten ja generatiivisten luokittelumallien välisiä eroja ja arvioidaan opetusaineiston koon vaikutusta näiden luokituskykyyn. Luokittelumallien vertailussa käytetään Tampereen yliopistollisesta sairaalasta peräisin olevaa aineistoa, joka koostuu sepelvaltimovarjoainekuvattujen potilaiden terveydentilaa koskevista tiedoista. Luokitustarkkuudeltaan generatiivinen luokittelija oli diskriminatiivista luokittelijaa parempi, joskin erot pienenivät mitä suuremmaksi opetusaineiston kokoa kasvatettiin. Tämä on sopusoinnussa kirjallisuudessa esitetyn tuloksen kanssa, jonka mukaan generatiiviset luokittelijat ovat diskriminatiivisia luokittelijoita tarkempia juuri pienillä opetusaineistoilla kun taas jälkimmäiset ovat tarkempia suurilla opetusaineistoilla. Bayesläisen lähestymistavan soveltaminen paransi jossain määrin kummankin mallin luokituskykyä etenkin pienimmillä opetusaineistoilla.
  • Koivula, Mari (1998)
    Tutkimuksessa määritettiiin sytologiset viitearvot keuhkohuuhtelunäytteille. 11 koirasta otettiin keuhkohuuhtelu (BAL) 5-7 viikon väliajoin seitsemän kertaa. Jokaiselle koiralle tehtiin yleistutkimus ennen rauhoitusta. Koirat rauhoitettiin medetomidiinilla ja riittävä anestesia saatiin propofolilla. Huuhtelunesteenä käytettiin fysiologista natriumkloridia 1 ml/kg jokaiseen huuhteluerään. Huuhtelu suoritettiin kummallekin pallealohkolle kahdesti peräkkäin fiberoskoopin näytteenottokanavan kautta. Välittömästi näytteenoton jälkeen jäähauteessa lasipurkissa olevat näytteet vietiin laboratorioon käsiteltäviksi. Näytteen kokonaistilavuus ja solupitoisuus (elävät ja kuolleet solut) määritettiin.Yhdenkertaisen sideharson läpi suodatetusta ja kahdesti sentrifugoidusta ja pestystä näytteestä sytosentrifugoitiin 40 000 elävää solua objektilasille. Saadut lasit värjättiin May-Grünwald-Giemsalla. Mikroskopoimalla eriteltiin 300 solua ja laskettiin eri solujen prosenttiosuudet. Sytologiset viitearvot määritettiin kunkin koiran keskiarvojen keskiarvosta 95 %:n luottamusvälillä.Saantoprosentti oli 57-63 % ja saaliin kokonaissolut 0,086-0,153 x 106 solua/ml. BAL-näytteidenerittelylaskennassa oli makrofageja 68,5-76 %, lymfosyyttejä 13,8-18,9 %, neutrofiilejä 3,9-5,8 %, eosinofiilejä 1,0-6,4 %, plasmasoluja 0,3-1,0 %, basofiilejä 1,0-1,9 % ja epiteelisoluja 0,4-1,2 %. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa on käsitelty koiran akuuttien alempien hengitysteiden sairauksien etiologiaa,oireita, diagnoosia ja hoitoa. Kennelyskä ja keuhkokuume ovat tärkeimmät infektiiviset sairaudet.Parasiiteista vaeltavia suolikaistoukkia esiintyy Suomessa, mutta varsinaiset keuhkomadot ovat vielä harvinaisia. Keuhkoödeemi voidaan jaotella kardiogeeniseen ja ei-kardiogeeniseen. Yleisin keuhkoödeemin aiheuttaja on kardiogeeninen sairaus. Muita koiran keuhkosairauksia ovat keuhkojen eosinofiili-infiltraatio syndrooma, keuhkoruhje, keuhkojen tromboembolia, keuhkoverenvuoto ja akuuttihengitysvaikeusoireyhtymä.
  • Sómby, Seija (2003)
  • Hämäläinen, Riku (Tatanka Press, 2011)
    The study is the outcome of two research projects on the North American Indian traditions: the role of the shields within the Plains Indians traditional culture and religion, and the bear ceremonialism of the Native North America, especially the significance of the bear among the Plains Indians. This article-based dissertation includes seven separately published scholar papers, forming Chapters 6 12. The introduction formulates the objectives and frame of reference of the study and the conclusions pulls together its results. The study reconsiders the role of the Plains Indian shields with bear motifs. Such shields are found in rock art, in the Plains Indian s paintings and drawings, and in various collections, the main source material being the shields in European and North American museums. The aim is not only to study shields with bear power motifs and the meanings of the bear, but also to discuss appropriate methods for studying these subjects. There are three major aims of the study: to consider methodical questions in studying Plains Indian shields, to examine the complexity of the Plains Indian shields with the bear power motifs, and to offer new interpretations for the basic meanings of the bear among the Plains Indians and the interrelationship between individualism and collectivism in the Plains Indians visionary art that show bear power motifs on the shields. The study constructs a view on the bear shields taking account of all sources of information available and analysing the shields both as physical artefacts and religious objects from different perspectives, studying them as a part of the ensemble of Plains culture and religious traditions. The bear motifs represented the superhuman power that medicine men and warriors could exploit through visions. For the Plains Indians, the bear was a wise animal from which medicine men could get power for healing but also a dangerous animal from which warriors could get power for warfare. The shields with bear motifs represented the bear powers of the owners of the shields. The bear shield was made to represent the vision, and the principal interpretation of the symbolism was based on the individual experience of spiritual world and its powers. The study argues that the bear shield as personal medicine object is based on wider tribal traditions, and the basic meaning is derived from the collective tradition. This means that the bear seen in vision represented particular affairs and it was represented on the shield surface using conventional ways of traditional artistry. In consequence of this, the bear shields reflect not only the individual experiences of bear power but whole field of tribal traditions that legitimated the experiences and offered acceptable interpretations and conventional modes for the bear symbols.
  • Johansson, Tino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Human-wildlife conflicts are today an integral part of the rural development discourse. In this research, the main focus is on the spatial explanation which is not a very common approach in the reviewed literature. My research hypothesis is based on the assumption that human-wildlife conflicts occur when a wild animal crosses a perceived borderline between the nature and culture and enters into the realms of the other. The borderline between nature and culture marks a perceived division of spatial content in our senses of place. The animal subject that crosses this border becomes a subject out of place meaning that the animal is then spatially located in a space where it should not be or where it does not belong according to tradition, custom, rules, law, public opinion, prevailing discourse or some other criteria set by human beings. An appearance of a wild animal in a domesticated space brings an uncontrolled subject into that space where humans have previously commanded total control of all other natural elements. A wild animal out of place may also threaten the biosecurity of the place in question. I carried out a case study in the Liwale district in south-eastern Tanzania to test my hypothesis during June and July 2002. I also collected documents and carried out interviews in Dar es Salaam in 2003. I studied the human-wildlife conflicts in six rural villages, where a total of 183 persons participated in the village meetings. My research methods included semi-structured interviews, participatory mapping, questionnaire survey and Q- methodology. The rural communities in the Liwale district have a long-history of co-existing with wildlife and they still have traditional knowledge of wildlife management and hunting. Wildlife conservation through the establishment of game reserves during the colonial era has escalated human-wildlife conflicts in the Liwale district. This study shows that the villagers perceive some wild animals differently in their images of the African countryside than the district and regional level civil servants do. From the small scale subsistence farmers point of views, wild animals continue to challenge the separation of the wild (the forests) and the domestics spaces (the cultivated fields) by moving across the perceived borders in search of food and shelter. As a result, the farmers may loose their crops, livestock or even their own lives in the confrontations of wild animals. Human-wildlife conflicts in the Liwale district are manifold and cannot be explained simply on the basis of attitudes or perceived images of landscapes. However, the spatial explanation of these conflicts provides us some more understanding of why human-wildlife conflicts are so widely found across the world.
  • Kitanov, Severin (Severin Valentinov Kitanov, 2006)
    This dissertation examines the concept of beatific enjoyment (fruitio beatifica) in scholastic theology and philosophy in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century. The aim of the study is to explain what is enjoyment and to show why scholastic thinkers were interested in discussing it. The dissertation consists of five chapters. The first chapter deals with Aurelius Augustine's distinction between enjoyment and use and the place of enjoyment in the framework of Augustine's view of the passions and the human will. The first chapter also focuses upon the importance of Peter Lombard's Sentences for the transmission of Augustine's treatment of enjoyment in scholastic thought as well as upon Lombard's understanding of enjoyment. The second chapter treats thirteenth-century conceptions of the object and psychology of enjoyment. Material for this chapter is provided by the writings - mostly Sentences commentaries - of Alexander of Hales, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Peter of Tarentaise, Robert Kilwardby, William de la Mare, Giles of Rome, and Richard of Middleton. The third chapter inspects early fourteenth-century views of the object and psychology of enjoyment. The fourth chapter focuses upon discussions of the enjoyment of the Holy Trinity. The fifth chapter discusses the contingency of beatific enjoyment. The main writers studied in the third, fourth and fifth chapters are John Duns Scotus, Peter Aureoli, Durandus of Saint Pourçain, William of Ockham, Walter Chatton, Robert Holcot, and Adam Wodeham. Historians of medieval intellectual history have emphasized the significance of the concept of beatific enjoyment for understanding the character and aims of scholastic theology and philosophy. The concept of beatific enjoyment was developed by Augustine on the basis of the insight that only God can satisfy our heart's desire. The possibility of satisfying this desire requires a right ordering of the human mind and a detachment of the will from the relative goals of earthly existence. Augustine placed this insight at the very foundation of the notion of Christian learning and education in his treatise On Christian Doctrine. Following Augustine, the twelfth-century scholastic theologian Peter Lombard made the concept of enjoyment the first topic in his plan of systematic theology. The official inclusion of Lombard's Sentences in the curriculum of theological studies in the early universities stimulated vigorous discussions of enjoyment. Enjoyment was understood as a volition and was analyzed in relation to cognition and other psychic features such as rest and pleasure. This study shows that early fourteenth-century authors deepened the analysis of enjoyment by concentrating upon the relationship between enjoyment and mental pleasure, the relationship between cognition and volition, and the relationship between the will and the beatific object (i.e., the Holy Trinity). The study also demonstrates the way in which the idea of enjoyment was affected by changes in the method of theological analysis - the application of Aristotelian logic in a Trinitarian context and the shift from virtue ethics to normative ethics.
  • Stubb, Jenni Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation focused on exploring doctoral students conceptions of the scholarly community and research, and further, on analysing the relation between these conceptions and well-being as well as study persistence in the doctoral process. The first two studies concentrated on analysing students conceptions of the scholarly community and their meaning with respect to one s own thesis process. The last two studies focused on students conceptions of the personal meaning of the thesis work and conceptions of research in the context of their own doctoral journeys. The data were collected by surveys and interviews. Altogether 669 students from different disciplines participated in the surveys and 32 in the interviews. The analysis was conducted by combining both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study I examined how doctoral students perceived their own role in the scholarly community and their experiences of their learning environment. The relation between their experienced role in the community and well-being as well as study persistence was also analysed. The results indicated that the experienced role in the community varied from a sense of belonging to feeling like an outsider and perceiving one s own role as incoherent or contradictory. Students who experienced a sense of being part of the academic community also reported experiencing their learning environment in a more positive way. These students also reported less stress, anxiety, and exhaustion and greater interest in their own doctoral projects. Moreover, students who felt themselves to be part of the community had considered interrupting their studies less often than others. Their conceptions were also related to the faculties in question. Study II took a more in-depth look at students experienced socio-psychological well-being by focusing on how they saw the scholarly community in terms of one s own doctoral process. The results suggested that experiences of the community varied from perceiving it as empowering to experiencing it as a burden. Seeing one s own scholarly community as empowering was related to lower levels of reported stress, anxiety, and exhaustion and higher levels of interest in one s own doctoral project. The students who experienced empowerment had also considered interrupting their studies less often. Study III explored the thesis work s personal meaning for the doctoral students and its relation to the experienced well-being as well as study persistence. The relations between the personal meaning of the thesis work and discipline were also looked at. The results suggested that personal meaning varied between emphasizing the process, the product, or both. Highlighting the meaning of the process was related to lower levels of reported stress, anxiety, and exhaustion, but to higher levels of interest. Students who emphasized the meaning of the process had considered interrupting their doctoral studies less often than other students. Differences were also apparent between faculties: students in medicine emphasized the meaning of the end-product more often than students in other faculties. Study IV analysed doctoral students conceptions of research and whether these were discipline-related. The results indicated that research was most often seen as a personal journey. Rather typical was also seeing it as a job to do , as answering certain demands. Research was also seen as a means to qualify oneself or as making a difference by contributing to the discipline or to society. The students conceptions were found to be related to the discipline: students in medicine most often described research as a job to do while those in natural science and behavioural sciences emphasized research as a personal journey. The results suggested that doctoral students experienced the meaning of research and the academic community very differently. Their conceptions were related to well-being and study persistence during the Ph.D. process, and were found to be discipline-related. The results encourage viewing the doctoral process not only as a cognitive effort but also as a process that is mediated by experiencing a sense of belonging and meaningfulness.
  • Krzywacki, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This research examines three aspects of becoming a teacher, teacher identity formation in mathematics teacher education: the cognitive and affective aspect, the image of an ideal teacher directing the developmental process, and as an on-going process. The formation of emerging teacher identity was approached in a social psychological framework, in which individual development takes place in social interaction with the context through various experiences. Formation of teacher identity is seen as a dynamic, on-going developmental process, in which an individual intentionally aspires after the ideal image of being a teacher by developing his/her own competence as a teacher. The starting-point was that it is possible to examine formation of teacher identity through conceptualisation of observations that the individual and others have about teacher identity in different situations. The research uses the qualitative case study approach to formation of emerging teacher identity, the individual developmental process and the socially constructed image of an ideal mathematics teacher. Two student cases, John and Mary, and the collective case of teacher educators representing socially shared views of becoming and being a mathematics teacher are presented. The development of each student was examined based on three semi-structured interviews supplemented with written products. The data-gathering took place during the 2005 2006 academic year. The collective case about the ideal image provided during the programme was composed of separate case displays of each teacher educator, which were mainly based on semi-structured interviews in spring term 2006. The intentions and aims set for students were of special interest in the interviews with teacher educators. The interview data was analysed following the modified idea of analytic induction. The formation of teacher identity is elaborated through three themes emerging from theoretical considerations and the cases. First, the profile of one s present state as a teacher may be scrutinised through separate affective and cognitive aspects associated with the teaching profession. The differences between individuals arise through dif-ferent emphasis on these aspects. Similarly, the socially constructed image of an ideal teacher may be profiled through a combination of aspects associated with the teaching profession. Second, the ideal image directing the individual developmental process is the level at which individual and social processes meet. Third, formation of teacher identity is about becoming a teacher both in the eyes of the individual self as well as of others in the context. It is a challenge in academic mathematics teacher education to support the various cognitive and affective aspects associated with being a teacher in a way that being a professional and further development could have a coherent starting-point that an individual can internalise.
  • Sandström, Charlotta (2012)
    Forskningsobjektet i avhandlingen var socialarbetare i vuxenpsykiatrin vid Helsingfors och Nylands sjukvårdsdistrikt (HNS). Avhandlingens syfte var att studera hur socialarbetare bedömer patienters beredskap till förändring, som en del av den mångprofessionella arbetsgruppens utredning och bedömning av patientens situation, och vilken kunskapsbasen för detta var. Som teoretiskt utgångsläge har beredskapsbedömning genom indikatorer och kritisk reflektion använts. Undersökningen genomfördes genom vinjettundersökning och djupintervjuer. Vinjetten var en beskrivning på en typisk patientsituation i psykiatrin. Socialarbetama tog ställning till vilket långsiktigt mål och vilka delmål de kunde tänka sig att planera med patienten. Undersökningen har analyserats både kvalitativt och kvantitativt med slutna och öppna frågor. Undersökningen gjordes som en intemetundersökning och länken till hemsidan skickades till socialarbetarna per e-post. Intervjuernas syfte var att fördjupa kunskapen om bedömningar av patientens situation från ett socialarbetarperspektiv. Sammanlagt 26 socialarbetare svarade på vinjettundersökningen, av vilka 5 intervjuades. En inledande kvantitativ analys av beredskapsindikatorerna gjordes. Analysen gjordes med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Det visade sig att socialarbetama inte beaktade indikatorema i hög bemärkelse. Inte heller kunde bedömningen fastslås till att utgå enbart från enskilda aspekter i patientens situation. Vinjettsvaren utvecklades till professionella narrativ. De professionella narrativen visade att socialarbetarna bedömde beredskapen i en pågående process, genom reflexiv/reflektiv expertis. Socialarbetarna bedömde delvis patientens beredskap mot den långsiktiga målsättningen, på basen av den givna bakgrundsinformationen i vinjetten. Majoriteten ansåg att patienten har beredskap att återvända till arbetslivet, vilket är en relativt hög beredskap. I bedömningen av patientens beredskap på lång sikt var socialarbetarna eniga. Vid bedömningen av beredskapen för första interventionen varierade bedömningen. En del socialarbetare planerade interventioner där det behövs låg beredskap och andra ansåg att patienten hade en beredskap till lite mer krävande interventioner. Intervjuerna skilde sig på en väsentlig punkt åt från vinjettsvaren: materialinsamlingen skedde några månader efter att HNS i praktiken genomfört en enorm organisationsförändring och detta diskuteras under intervjuerna. Tidsmässigt har materialinsamlingen för avhandlingen skett i ett brytningsskede, där det införts praktiker som överensstämmer med New Public Management-tänkande.
  • Lindroos, Sivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Tutkielmassa käsitellään ruotsin suullisen kielitaidon kriteeripohjaista arviointia Eurooppalaiseen viitekehykseen perustuvan arviointiskaalan avulla arvioijan näkökulmasta. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan seitsemän arvioijan arviointiprosessin reflektointia. Arvioijat osallistuvat poikkitieteelliseen HY-TALK-pilottitutkimukseen Helsingin yliopistossa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on eritellä, miten arvioijat kokevat peruskoulu- ja lukio-opetuksen opetussuunnitelmiin sisältyvän kriteeripohjaisen kielitaidon skaalan käytön ruotsin kielen suullisen taidon arviointityön pohjana. Erityisesti painotetaan arvioijien subjektiivista kokemusta skaalan avulla arvioinnista. Lisäksi analysoidaan kyseisten arvioijien arviointitulosten reliabiliteettia HY-TALK-tutkimuksessa. Aineistona käytetään arvioijien avoimilla haastatteluilla kerättyjä kommentteja skaalan käytöstä ja arvioinnista, sekä samojen arvioijien oppilasarviointituloksia HY-TALK-pilottitutkimuksesta. Tutkimusmetodi on kvalitatiivinen kokeenjälkeinen tapaustutkimus. Tutkielman teoriatausta nojautuu suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnin tutkimukseen. Suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnin perustana voidaan pitää Bachman ja Palmerin (1996) teoriaa kommunikatiivisesta kielitaidosta. Kielitaito jaetaan organisatoriseen ja pragmaattiseen kompetenssiin. Kokeen reliabiliteetti ja validiteetti nousevat tutkielmassa keskeisiksi käsitteiksi. Suullisen kielitaidon mittaamisessa ongelmana on kommunikaation arviointi. Koetyyppinä suorituskoe, jossa kokelas arvioidaan kommunikatiivisessa tilanteessa, ei yleisen käsityksen mukaan vastaa autenttista kielenkäyttötilannetta. Kokeen perusteella halutaan kuitenkin tehdä yleistys kokelaan kielitaidosta ja selviytymisestä oikeissa kielenkäyttötilanteissa. Arvioinnissa tehdään ero analyyttisen ja holistisen arvioinnin välille. Kriteeripohjaisessa arvioinnissa pyritään pitäytymään analyyttisessa arvioinnissa, jolloin arvioija kiinnittää huomiota monipuolisesti kokelaan kielitaidon eri osa-alueisiin. Tutkielman tuloksena seitsemän analysoidun arvioijan välillä on suuria eroja arvioinnin lähtökohdissa ja subjektiivisissa painotuksissa. Osa arvioijista painotti organisatorista kompetenssia, ja osa taas pragmaattista kompetenssia. Interaktion ja kommunikaation roolista suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnissa oli suuria mielipide-eroja. Osa arvioijista painotti arvioinnissa kommunikaation tärkeyttä ja muita pragmaattiseen kompetenssiin kuuluvia osa-alueita, kun taas osa mainitsi esimerkiksi oikeakielisyyden ja rakenteiden hallinnan. Kolme arvioijaa painotti pragmaattista kompetenssia, kaksi mainitsi piirteitä molemmista, ja kaksi painotti organisatorista kompetenssia. Osa eroista selittyy arviointitapahtumien eroilla sekä arvioijien kokemuksella. Toisaalta, nämä erot arvioinnin subjektiivisissa painotuksissa eivät suuresti näy itse pilottitutkimuksen viitekehyspohjaisen arviointiskaalan avulla saaduissa oppilasarviointituloksissa. Arvioijien välisiä eroja oppilasarvioinnissa kuitenkin esiintyy. Organisatorista kompetenssia painottavat antoivat osalle oppilaista hieman muita parempia arvosanoja. Tutkielman päätelmä on, että tässä tapaustutkimuksessa arviointityössä oli subjektiivisia painotuksia, ja että jonkin verran eroja kriteeripohjaisessa oppilasarvioinnissa löytyi. Erot eivät kuitenkaan yleisesti ottaen olleet kovin suuria.
  • Latus, Jessica (2014)
    Urbanization is occurring at rapid rates worldwide. While the effects of urbanization are numerous, those on wildlife are of utmost concern in the continued fight for biodiversity conservation. Specifically, the focus on global pollinator declines is of interest due to the interconnectedness between pollinators and plant communities. It is feared that urban areas could become dead zones to these species, specifically bumblebees. Bumblebees are one of the native pollinators of Finland, and therefore were the focus of this study, which was conducted in Helsinki (southern Finland). This project’s focus was on the influence of both local (i.e. flowering resources) and landscape (i.e. levels of urbanization) features on bumblebee communities. More specifically, I was interested in the effects of urbanization on bumblebee abundance and species richness. To study this question, community gardens (allotment gardens) were used as study sites along a gradient of urbanization from low to high (chosen by GIS mapping of the levels of impervious surfaces within 500 m of the sites). It is thought that these greenspaces could function as habitat for bumblebees in cities. This study was conducted during the summer of 2013 in 12 community gardens across the city of Helsinki. Two methods to survey bee populations were utilized, pan traps as well as sweep netting. Furthermore, a vegetation analysis was conducted to assess the level of resources present within the gardens, while GIS was used to measure a set of landscape variables in and around each garden. At the end of the season (June to September) the bees were identified and Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models were used to analyze the data. This study found that local variables more strongly predicted both bee abundance and species richness. Even though landscape variables were not strong predictors, this does not make them irrelevant in future conservation strategies. However, it is thought that as long as community gardens are planted appropriately (i.e. native flowers) the bees will be present in these gardens despite the surrounding matrix of inhospitable land (sealed surfaces). In conjunction with the investigation into the effects of local versus landscape determinants, this study also aimed to investigate the perception of gardeners towards bees. A questionnaire was utilized in order to gauge gardeners’ opinions towards the bees in their plot and the garden as a whole. These results helped to evaluate the overall attitude towards bees, and in short, were very favorable. This extrapolates to a possibility of working in conjunction with gardeners to conserve habitat for pollinators in the continued effort for interconnected greenspaces in urban areas.
  • Puumalainen, Tanja (2014)
    Beetalaktaamiantibiootteja käytetään paljon koirilla ja kissoilla Suomessa. Beetalaktaameihin kuuluvia aminopenisilliinejä ja ensimmäisen polven kefalosporiineja suositellaan moneen infektiosairauteen elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Eviran mikrobilääkesuosituksissa. Beetalaktaameilla on vähän sivuvaikutuksia ja niiden turvallisuusmarginaali on leveä. Suomessa koirilla ja kissoilla käytetään etenkin aminopenisilliinejä, amoksisilliini-klavulaanihapon yhdistelmää ja kefaleksiinia. Saatavilla on myös kolmannen polven kefalosporiineihin kuuluva kefovesiini, jota saa käyttää vain valmisteyhteenvedossa mainittuihin käyttöaiheisiin. Beetalaktamaasit estävät bakteerien soluseinän rakentumisen. Vaikutus on bakterisidinen. Beetalaktaamit ovat aikariippuvaisia eli parhaimman tehon saamiseksi niiden pitoisuuden tulee pysyä riittävän korkealla koko annostelu ajan. Beetalaktaameihin kuuluvat myös beetalaktamaasin estäjät. Beetalaktamaasit ovat bakteerien tuottamia beetalaktaamiantibiootteja hajottavia entsyymejä. Uusien beetalaktamaasien ilmeneminen ja beetalaktamaasigeenien leviäminen bakteerien joukossa on johtanut beetalaktaamiresistenssin leviämiseen. Metisilliiniresistenteillä stafylokokeilla beetalaktaamien sitoutuminen vaikutuskohteeseen on vähentynyt ja ne ovat resistenttejä kaikille beetalaktaameille. Fluorokinolonit häiritsevät bakteerien solun jakautumista, proteiinisynteesiä ja DNA:n virheiden korjaamista sitoutumalla DNAgyraasi ja topoisomeraasi IV entsyymeihin. Niiden vaikutus on bakterisidinen. Fluorokinolonit ovat konsentraatioriippuvaisia eli niitä annosteltaessa pyritään saavuttamaan suuri pitoisuus mutta annosten välillä pitoisuus voi laskea pieneksi. Suomessa koirilla ja kissoilla käytetään fluorokinoloneista enrofloksasiinia, marbofloksasiinia ja pradofloksasiinia. Fluorokinolonit ovat laajakirjoisia mikrobilääkkeitä ja niitä käytetään etenkin gramnegatiivisten bakteerien aiheuttamien infektioiden hoitoon. Fluorokinoloneja tulisi käyttää vain bakteeriviljelyn ja herkkyysmäärityksen perusteella. Uusilla fluorokinoloneilla, kuten pradofloksasiinilla, on hyvä teho myös grampositiivisia ja anaerobeja bakteereita vastaan. Myös fluorokinoloneja pidetään turvallisina mikrobilääkkeinä. Niiden käyttöön on kuitenkin todettu liittyvän rustovaurioita kasvavilla koirilla, ja enrofloksasiinin käyttö korkeilla annoksilla on aiheuttanut kissoilla sokeutumiseen johtavaa verkkokalvon rappeumaa. Resistenssi fluorokinoloneita vastaan voi kehittyä nopeasti. Bakteerien resistenssimekanismeja on muun muassa DNA-gyraasin tai topoisomeraasin IV:n muuntelu, jolloin fluorokinolonien sitoutuminen niihin heikkenee. Resistenssin kehittyminen yhdelle fluorokinolonille voi johtaa resistenssiin kaikkia fluorokinoloneita vastaan. Tässä tutkielmassa on keskitytty siihen mitä patogeenejä on yleisimmissä infektiosairauksissa, joihin beetalaktaameja ja fluorokinoloneita suositellaan tai käytetään, sekä mitä kliinisiä tutkimuksia näiden mikrobilääkkeiden käytöstä on. Kirjallisuudessa yleisesti suositeltuja hoitoaikoja ja annoksia on myös mainittu. Kliiniset tutkimukset beetalaktaamien ja fluorokinolonien käytössä ovat yleensä tutkimuksia, joissa verrataan kahden tai useamman mikrobilääkkeen tehoa jonkin infektiosairauden hoidossa. Usein mikrobilääkkeiden tehoa verrataan amoksisilliini-klavulaanihapon tehoon, sillä se on hyvin yleisesti käytetty mikrobilääke koirien ja kissojen infektioissa.
  • Inkinen, Saara (2012)
    Most authoritarian regimes now organise national-level elections that allow the opposition to compete against the dictator for political power, albeit on unfair and unequal terms. Although the dictator seeks to contain this element of competition in order to thwart opposition victories and enforce his own rule, the decision to organise competitive elections ultimately rests the fate of electoral authoritarian regimes in the hands of the voters. By deciding to cast their ballots either for the dictator or the opposition, individual voters determine the degree of electoral competitiveness – the margin of victory between the dictator and his challengers – and, consequently, whether the elections lead to continued authoritarian rule or potential democratisation. Yet, with the literature predominantly focusing on authoritarian elections from the perspective of the dictator and the opposition, the question of how and why heterogeneous voters make diverging choices at the polls remains poorly understood. Using Beatriz Magaloni’s theory of voter behaviour under electoral authoritarianism, this thesis explores how the electorate’s socio-demographic heterogeneity translates into conflicting preferences, thus giving rise to different types of voting behaviours that lead the voters to either support or oppose the dictator, and what the consequences of this heterogeneity are for the degree of electoral competitiveness at the aggregate level. The relationship between voter heterogeneity and the degree of electoral competitiveness is tested empirically by employing a random effects regression analysis on time-series cross-sectional data that cover the universe of competitive authoritarian elections held at the national level from 1974 to 2006. Based on this analysis, the author shows the composition of the electorate to be systematically linked to the degree of competitiveness, with the voter’s ethnic affiliation and level of income operating as the primary factors mediating vote choice alongside economic growth. The findings are furthermore found to be robust to a number of alternative explanations that involve the strategies of the dictator and the opposition. Finally, the thesis discusses some of the problems and broader implications of the analysis for the study of electoral authoritarian regimes and electoral competitiveness.
  • Litonius, Henrik (2013)
    Begreppskartor utvecklades ursprungligen på 1980-talet av Joseph Novak och Bob Gowin som ett sätt att strukturera och därmed få djupare förståelse för ny kunskap. Sedan dess har de utvecklats och undersökts som inlärnings-, utbildnings- och bedömningsmetod, inte minsta av forskare som Maria Ruiz-Primo. Den här avhandlingen utgår till stor del från Ruiz-Primos utveckling av begreppskartan som ett verktyg för att bedöma elevers prestationer och undersöker huruvida traditionella prov kunde ersättas med begreppskartsuppgifter inom fysiken. Begreppskartor har en bevisligen positiv effekt vad gäller inlärning, men de används sällan i våra skolor och det är svårt att få elever att anamma en ny och ointuitiv inlärningsmetod. Att använda begreppskartan som en bedömningsmetod i klassen skulle knuffa eleverna mot ett mer begreppsbaserat tänkande och kunde hjälpa dem i sin förståelse av ämnet. Som provuppgift är begreppskartan snabb att göra och rätta men ger läraren goda insikter i elevens förståelse för ett ämne. Ifall man kunde tänka sig att använda begreppskartan som provuppgift åtminstone diagnostiskt skulle det föra med sig en hel drös fördelar. Två klasser undersöktes, en i grundskolan på årskurs sju och en kurs i gymnasiet. Bägge grupper fick lära sig grunderna i att göra begreppskartor på förhand, gymnasisterna hade lite erfarenhet av det också från tidigare. Båda grupperna fick sedan under en kurs skriva ett traditionellt prov samt göra en begreppskarta av materialet de nyligen gått igenom. Begreppskartorna bedömdes med en femstegs-modell utvecklad av Ruiz-Primo och Shavelson och gavs ett vitsord beroende på hur väl de jämfördes med en expertkarta. Resultaten undersöktes skilt för de två grupperna och granskades för svårighetsgrad, korrelation och överensstämning enligt en statistisk metod utvecklad av Bland och Altman 1986. Svårighetsgraden för uppgiften fanns vara lämplig, bägge gruppernas medeltal var något lägre för begreppskartan än för det traditionella provet vilket kan motiveras med att eleverna trots allt har större erfarenhet av traditionella prov än begreppskartor. Korrelationen för grundskolegruppen fanns vara god, 0,825 medanden för gymnasiet var betydligt svagare, 0,412. Bland-Altman metoden gav vidare negativa resultat för gymnasiet med mycket stora kast mellan de enskilda elevernas prestationer i de två uppgifterna. Grundskolegruppen presterade lite mer konsekvent men visade en trend där de verkligt svaga och de verkligt starka eleverna gynnades av begreppskartsuppgiften medan eleverna med medeltal kring 7 gjorde sämre ifrån sig än i det traditionella provet. Korrelationen för grundskolan är så pass stark att det är tänkbart att begreppskartan kunde användas som en bedömningsmetod inom grundskolan. Grundskolans begränsade matematik gör att också en stor del av naturvetenskaperna är fenomen- och begreppsbaserade snarare än baserade på problemlösning. I gymnasiet är det tvärtom, största delen av gymnasiekursen inom fysiken går ut på matematisk uträkning av fenomen, inte på att kunna förklara dem med ord och förstå samband. Som en följd av detta är begreppskartorna mer användbara som en alternativ bedömningsmetod i grundskolan än i gymnasiet.
  • Svaetichin, Janina (2011)
    Att ha tillträde till olika arenor i samhället är viktigt, speciellt för unga är känslan av tillhörighet väsentligt för välbefinnandet. I min pro gradu-avhandling synliggör jag de ungas beskrivningar av sina liv och sina erfarenheter av vad det innebär att vara ”invandrare” i Helsingforsregionen med svenska som första främmande språk. Språkkunskaper och förmåga att uttrycka sig samt att använda språket väl blir allt mer relevant i det mångkulturella samhället där människor med olika kulturella bakgrunder möts. Med hjälp av språkkunskaper ges tillträde till den värld som uttrycks och förutsätts via språket. Min teoretiska referensram är förankrad i finländsk och svensk forskning om invandring, tillhörighet, etnicitet och identitetsom tar fasta på ungdomar. Viktiga källor är bland andra Tuomas Martikainen & Lotta Haikkola (2010) och Karmela Liebkind (2000, 2007 m.fl.) Tore Otterups (2005) avhandling om ungdomars flerspråkighet och identitetskonstruktion ger bakgrundskunskap till min studie. Med hjälp av kvalitativa temaintervjuer som undersökningsmetod ger min studie en bild av invandrarungdomarnas uppfattningar, erfarenheter och känslor. De unga som är intervjuade i min pro gradu-avhandling studerar alla vid en svenskspråkig skolinstans i södra Finland. Mina informater är alla födda utanför Finlands gränser och ingendera föräldern är född finländsk, de har alla lärt sig svenska som första främmande språk i Finland. Mitt material består av elva temaintervjuer. De unga i min pro gradu-avhandling poängterar att deras känsla av tillhörighet och tillträde till olika kulturella kontexter är sammankopplat med språkkunskaper. Forskningsresultaten visar att språkkunskaper ger tillträde och ökade möjligheter i det mångkulturella samhället som vi lever i.
  • Parland-von Essen, Jessica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    By the end of the 18th century the daughters of the nobility in the northern parts of Europe received a quite different kind of education from their brothers. Although the cultural aims of the upbringing of girls were similar to that of boys, the practice of the raising of girls was less influenced by tradition. The education of boys was one of classical humanistic and military training, but the girls were more freely educated. The unity and exclusiveness of the culture of nobility were of great importance to the continued influence of this elite. The importance of education became even greater, partly because of the unstable political situation, and partly because of the changes the Enlightenment had caused in the perception of the human essence. The delicate and ambitious hônnete homme was expected to constantly strive to a greater perfection as a Christian. On the other hand, the great weight given to aesthetics - etiquette and taste - made individual variation of the contents of education possible. Education consisted mainly in aesthetic studies; girls studied music, dancing, fine arts, epistolary skills and also the art of polite conversation. On the other hand, there was a demand for enlightenment, and one often finds personal political and social ambitions, which made competition in all skills necessary for the daughters as well. Literary sources for the education of girls are Madame LePrince de Beaumont, Madame d'Epinay, Madame de Genlis and Charles Rollin. Other, perhaps even more important sources are the letters between parents and children and papers originating from studies. Diaries and memoirs also tell us about the practice of education in day to day life. The approach of this study is semiotic. It can be stated that the code of the culture was well hidden from the outsider. This was achieved, for instance, by the adaptation of the foreign French language and culture. The core of the culture consisted of texts which only thorough examples stated the norms which were expressed as good taste. Another important feature of the culture was its tendency towards theatricalisation. The way of life was dictated by taste, and moral values were included in the aesthetic norms through the constant striving for modesty. Pleasant manners were also correct in an ethical perspective. Morality could thus also be taught through etiquette.