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  • Arho, Laura (2000)
    Tämän tutkimuksen aiheena on Barentsin euroarktinen alue (BEAR) ja kansainvälinen yhteistyö alueen ydinturvallisuuden parantamiseksi. Tutkimuksen pääasiallisena tavoitteena on selvittää, mitä alueen ydinturvallisuuden parantamiseksi on tehty sekä tarkastella BEAR:a alueena ja kansainvälisen yhteistyön kenttänä. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana on käytetty uusliberelistisia teorioita - regionalismia ja funktionalismia - kuvaamaan kansainvälistä alueellista yhteistyötä. Regionalismin avulla on pyritty kuvaamaan BEAR:n luonnetta alueena sekä aluemuodostuksen kehitystä. Funktionalismi on taas tarjonnut lähtökohdan rajat ylittävän yhteistyön dynamiikan tarkasteluun. Tutkimuksen toinen teoreettinen painopiste liittyy laajaan turvallisuuskäsitteeseen. Tämän käsitteen avulla on tarkasteltu BEAR:n ydinturvallisuuteen liittyviä ongelmia, jotka luokitellaan ns. pehmeään turvallisuuteen (soft security) kuuluviksi ongelmaksi. Tutkimuksessa on todettu BEAR:n edustavan "alueellistettua" aluetta eli aluemuodostuksen lähteneen liikkeelle alueen valtioiden aloitteesta. Alueen yhteistyö on hyvin käytännönläheistä liittyen matalan politiikan (low politics) aihealueisiin. Korkeaan politiikkaan (high politics) liittyvät turvallisuusasiat on jätetty yhteistyön ulkopuolelle. Pehmeään turvallisuuteen liittyvät ympäristö- ja ydinturvallisuusongelmat, ovat nousseet yhdeksi keskeiseksi yhteistyön kohteeksi alueella. Ydinturvallisuuteen liittyvät ongelmat ovat alueella suurelta osin sotilaallisen läsnäolon aiheuttamia. Projektiluontoinen yhteistyö sotilastukikohdissa ydinturvallisuuden parantamiseksi onkin lähentänyt pehmeää turvallisuutta ja perinteistä sotilaallista turvallisuutta toisiinsa.
  • Johansson, Kira (2012)
    Omhändertagande är en åtgärd som starkt påverkar barnets liv. På grund av att omhändertagande gör intrång i barnets frihet och påverkar starkt barnets framtid måste också barnets rättskydd vid förfarandet vara tillräckligt. Barnets deltagande är en dimension av rättskyddet. De viktigaste elementen av barnets deltagande är hörandet av barnet, rätten att få information, rätten att föra talan samt rätten att söka ändring. Vissa av dessa rättigheter har i lagstiftning medgetts endast barn som nått 12 års ålder. Även mindre barns deltagningsmöjligheter skall ändå tryggas i mån av möjlighet. Barnets deltagande är beroende av många omständigheter. För det första skall myndigheterna möjliggöra ett faktiskt deltagande för barnet eftersom barnet som minderårigt inte har möjlighet att själv åberopa sin rätt att delta. För det andra måste barnet självt vara villigt att delta. För att deltagandet dessutom skall vara verkligt måste deltagandet ha en betydelse för processen eller beslutet. Enligt informed consent -principen skall barnets åsikt dessutom vara fritt formad för att den kan ha betydelse för avgörandet. Även om barnets åsikt inte formats fritt fungerar barnet alltid som informant i sitt ärende. Den information som fås av barnet är nämligen viktigt för beslutsfattaren eftersom den berättar mycket om barnets situation. Hur barnet tillåts delta och påverka avgörs med hjälp av ålders- och mogenhetsbedömningar. Ju äldre barnet är desto bättre möjligheter har barnet att få sin röst hörd. Ändå får barnets inflytande inte bli för starkt. Ett av de största problemen gällande barnets deltagande ligger just i sambandet mellan skyddsprincipen och barnets deltagningsrätt. Det är viktigt att barnet deltar så mycket som möjligt men barnet får inte bli domare i sin sak. Det är svårt att avgöra var gränsen skall gå och vilken princip som skall få mera vikt. I dagens läge behandlas de flesta av omhändertagningsfallen i socialnämnden. Vid denna beslutsmodell tryggas inte barnets rättskydd och socialarbetare hamnar i en svår dubbelroll där de måste fungera både som beslutsfattare och som stöd för barnet. I en förstainstansbehandling i förvaltningsrätten skulle däremot barnets deltagningsmöjligheter förmodligen försämras men å andra sidan skulle processen njuta större offentlig tillit.
  • Räsänen, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing disease with a pathophysiology connected to oxidative stress. Exact pre-treatment clinical staging is essential for optimal care of this lethal malignancy. The cost-effectiviness of treatment is increasingly important. We measured oxidative metabolism in the distal and proximal esophagus by myeloperoxidase activity (MPA), glutathione content (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 20 patients operated on with Nissen fundoplication and 9 controls during a 4-year follow-up. Further, we assessed the oxidative damage of DNA by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in esophageal samples of subjects (13 Barrett s metaplasia, 6 Barrett s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia, 18 adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus/GEJ, and 14 normal controls). We estimated the accuracy (42 patients) and preoperative prognostic value (55 patients) of PET compared with computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus/GEJ. Finally, we clarified the specialty-related costs and the utility of either radical (30 patients) or palliative (23 patients) treatment of esophageal/GEJ carcinoma by the 15 D health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaire and the survival rate. The cost-utility of radical treatment of esophageal/GEJ carcinoma was investigated using a decision tree analysis model comparing radical, palliative, and hypothetical new treatment. We found elevated oxidative stress ( measured by MPA) and decreased antioxidant defense (measured by GSH) after antireflux surgery. This indicates that antireflux surgery is not a perfect solution for oxidative stress of the esophageal mucosa. Elevated oxidative stress in turn may partly explain why adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is found even after successful fundoplication. In GERD patients, proximal esophageal mucosal anti-oxidative defense seems to be defective before and even years after successful antireflux surgery. In addition, antireflux surgery apparently does not change the level of oxidative stress in the proximal esophagus, suggesting that defective mucosal anti-oxidative capacity plays a role in development of oxidative damage to the esophageal mucosa in GERD. In the malignant transformation of Barrett s esophagus an important component appears to be oxidative stress. DNA damage may be mediated by 8-OHdG, which we found to be increased in Barrett s epithelium and in high-grade dysplasia as well as in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus/GEJ compared with controls. The entire esophagus of Barrett s patients suffers from increased oxidative stress ( measured by 8-OhdG). PET is a useful tool in the staging and prognostication of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus/GEJ detecting organ metastases better than CT, although its accuracy in staging of paratumoral and distant lymph nodes is limited. Radical surgery for esophageal/GEJ carcinoma provides the greatest benefit in terms of survival, and its cost-utility appears to be the best of currently available treatments.
  • Ally, Kulsoom (2005)
    This study examines the barriers and pathways to the labour market integration of refugees in Finland. Empirical data was collected in conjunction with the RESOURCE research project completed in 2003-2004 by a consortium of agencies in 14 EU member states. In Finland, 22 in-depth interviews were carried out with refugees successfully employed in one of the three target sectors, which included IT, engineering, and social and healthcare. Analysis of interview data indicates that the principle barriers to labour market entry of refugees are: lack of adequate Finnish language skills, prejudice and discrimination on the part of employers, non-recognition of previously acquired qualifications and work experience, and lack of work experience in Finland. Conversely, the main pathways to labour market success are: personal skills and competence in the form of attitudes, perseverance and diligence, strong Finnish language skills, and Finnish educational qualifications and practical training or work experience. Using key theoretical constructs of integration, human and social capital and substantive citizenship, I argue that successful employment provides refugees with a functional base for exercising social and substantive citizenship rights, thereby facilitating overall integration in the new country of residence. In particular, human and social capital elements are found to be the main facilitators of labour market integration amongst refugees, not only providing access to the immediate benefit of employment and economic security, but also leading to long-term positive developments such as increased overall integration and personal satisfaction, as well as an increased sense of belonging resulting from heightened participatory citizenship. Thus, human and social capital factors such as those identified in this study can be considered major determinants of the labour market performance of refugees in Finland.
  • Kuusi, Sakari (1907)
  • Räsänen, Jenni (2014)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta tasogeometrian käsitettä: barysentristä koordinaattisysteemiä sekä pisteen konjugaatiota kolmion suhteen. Barysentriset koordinaatit ovat homogeeninen koordinaattisysteemi, jonka avulla pisteen sijainti tasossa ilmoitetaan suhteessa annettuun kolmioon. Pisteen konjugaatio kolmion suhteen on kuvaus, joka kuvaa tason pisteet toisiksi tietyillä, tyypillisesti geometrisesti luonnehdittavilla ehdoilla. Käsitteet liittyvät toisiinsa siten, että eräät mielenkiintoiset konjugaatiokuvaukset voidaan määritellä barysentristen koordinaattien avulla. Barysentriset koordinaatit otettiin käyttöön 1800-luvun alussa useamman henkilön toimesta. Ne ilmoittavat tason pisteen sijainnin suhteessa annettuun kolmioon järjestetyllä lukukolmikolla, toisin kuin yleisemmin käytetyt karteesiset koordinaatit, jotka ilmoittavat pisteen sijainnin suhteessa annettuun origoon (0,0) lukuparin avulla. Barysentriset koordinaatit voidaan ilmoittaa useammalla, keskenään ekvivalentilla tavalla, mutta niiden määrittäminen tapahtuu kuitenkin aina jonkin kolmion suhteen. Määrittely voidaan tehdä joko tutkittavan pisteen ja kolmion kärkien muodostamien kolmion sivujen jakosuhteiden avulla tai käyttäen hyväksi tutkittavan pisteen ja kolmion kärkien muodostamien kolmioiden pinta-alojen suhteita. Tutkielman kolmannessa luvussa esitetään barysentristen koordinaattien järjestelmä sekä annetaan esimerkkejä mielenkiintoisten pisteiden koordinaateista. Barysentristen koordinaattien kaltainen, toinen homogeeninen koordinaattisysteemi, trilineaariset koordinaatit esitellään myös lyhyesti. Neljännessä luvussa johdetaan muunnoskaavat trilineaaristen ja barysentristen koordinaattien sekä barysentristen ja karteesisten koordinaattien välille. Pisteen konjugaatio kolmion suhteen on eräs pistetransformaation erityistapaus. Tutkielman viidennessä luvussa tarkastellaan aluksi pistetransformaation käsitettä yleisesti, jotta pisteen konjugaatiota kolmion suhteen voidaan ymmärtää paremmin. Isotominen ja isogonaalinen konjugaatio ovat mielenkiintoiset, paljon tutkitut ja geometriassa sovelletut erikoistapaukset pisteen konjugaatiosta kolmion suhteen. Ne ovat mielenkiintoisia myös tämän työn kannalta, sillä niiden määrittelyssä käytetään sekä barysentrisiä että trilineaarisia koordinaatteja. Isotominen ja isogonaalinen konjugaatio esitellään tutkielman viimeisessä luvussa.
  • Poduval, Praseet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aim of this study was twofold- Firstly, to determine the composition of the type IV collagen which are the major components of the basement membrane (BM), in the synovial lining of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient and in the BM in the labial salivary gland of the Sjögrens syndrome (SS) patient. Secondly, this thesis aimed to investigate the role of the BM component laminin α4 and laminin α5 in the migration of neutrophils from the blood vessels thorough the synovial lining layer into synovial fluid and the presence of vWF in the microvasculature of labial salivary gland in SS. Our studies showed that certain α chains type IV collagen are low in RA compared to control synovial linings, while laminin α5 exhibited a pattern of low expression regions at the synovial lining interface towards the joint cavity and fluid. Also, high numbers of macrophage-like lining cells containing MMP-9 were found in the lining. MMP-9 was also found in the synovial fluid. Collagen α1/2 (IV) mRNA was found to be present in high amount compared to the other α(IV) chains and also showed intense labelling in immunohistochemical staining in normal and SS patients. In healthy glands α5(IV) and α6(IV) chains were found to be continuous around ducts but discontinuous around acini. The α5(IV) and α6(IV) mRNAs were present in LSG explants and HSG cell line, while in SS these chains seemed to be absent or appear only in patches around the ductal BM and tended to be absent around acini in immunohistochemical staining, indicating that their synthesis and/or degradation seemed to be locally regulated around acinar cells. The provisional matrix component vWF serves as a marker of vascular damage. Microvasculature in SS showed signs of focal damage which in turn might impair arteriolar feeding, capillary transudation and venular drainage of blood. However, capillary density was not decreased but rather increased, perhaps as a result of angiogenesis compensatory to microvascular damage. Microvascular involvement of LSG may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. This twofold approach allows us to understand the intricate relation between the ECM components and the immunopathological changes that occur during the pathogenesis of these inflammatory rheumatic disease processes. Also notably this study highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy ECM to prevent the progression or possibly allow reversal of the disease to a considerable level. Furthermore, it can be speculated that a healthy BM could quarantine the inflamed region or in case of cancer cells barricade the movement of malignant cells thereby preventing further spread to the surrounding areas. This understanding can be further applied to design appropriate drugs which act specifically to maintain a proper BM/BM like intercellular matrix composition.
  • Wang, Hongjie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Human adenoviruses (Ads) have been classified into six species (A to F) currently containing 55 serotypes. For almost 2 decades vectors derived from group C serotype Ad5 have been extensively used for gene transfer studies. These Ad5 based vectors are able to efficiently infect many mammalian cell types (including both mitotic and post-mitotic cells) through interaction with a primary attachment receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Despite the many advantages of Ad5 based vectors a number of limitations have affected their therapeutic application to many diseases. Although they can transduce many tissue types, Ad5 based vectors are unable to efficiently transduce several potential disease target cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells and malignant tumor cells. Therefore, newer vectors have been developed based on Ad serotypes other than Ad5. This thesis focuses on species B Ads. Species B Ads are comprised of three groups based on their receptor usage. Group 1 of species B Ads (Ad16, 21, 35, 50) nearly exclusively utilize CD46 as a receptor; Group 2 (Ad3, Ad7, 14) share a common, unidentified receptor/s, which is not CD46 and which was tentatively named receptor X; Group 3 (Ad11) preferentially interacts with CD46, but also utilizes receptor X if CD46 is blocked. Species B group Ads are important human pathogens. Species B group 2 serotypes are isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections, whereas the Group 1 viruses are described as causing kidney and urinary tract infections. B-group Ad infections often occur in immunocompromised patients, including AIDS patients, recipients of bone marrow transplants, or chemotherapy patients. Recent studies performed in U.S. military training facilities indicate an emergence of diverse species B serotypes at the majority of sites. This included the group 1 serotype 21 and the group 2 serotypes 3, 7, and 14. CD46-targeting vectors derived from Ad35 and Ad11 are important tools for in vitro gene transfer into human stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Ad35 and Ad11 have been used as tools for cancer therapy, because CD46 appears to be uniformely overexpressed on many cancers. Furthermore, receptor X-targeting vectors, i.e vectors derived from Ad3 or vectors containing Ad3 fibers have shown superior in the transduction of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo and are currently being used clinically in cancer patients. While extensive basic virology studies have been done on Ad5, the information of species B group 1 interaction with CD46 is limited. Furthermore, the receptor for a major subgroup of species B Ads (receptor X) is unknown. The goal of this thesis was it therefore to better understand virological and translational aspects of species B Ads. The specific findings described in this thesis include i) the identification of CD46 binding sites within the Ad35 fiber knob, ii) the study of the in vitro and in vivo properties of Ad vectors with increased affinity to CD46. iii) the study of the receptor usage of a newly emergent Ad14a, iv) the identification of desmoglein 2 as the receptor for Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14, v) the delineation of structural details of Ad3 virus interaction with DSG2, and vi) the analysis of functional consequences of Ad3-DSG2 interaction. As a result of these basic virology studies two Ad-derived recombinant proteins have been generated that can be used to enhance cancer therapy by monoclonal antibodies.
  • Koivula, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study was carried out in a Finnish steel company. It had two main goals. First, the structure of values postulated by S. H. Schwartz’s value theory was examined among the company employees (N=1314). The values of manual workers were of special interest, given that people with little education have seldom been studied in value research. Second, the association of value priorities with attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were examined both at the individual and at the workplace level. Value priorities were measured by means of the 40-item Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). Multidimensional scaling and transformation analysis were used to test the universality of the value structures among manual workers and white-collar workers. The validity of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the steel worker sample with Finnish university student samples. The value structures of the white-collar employees and of the manual workers were similar and in line with Schwartz’s model with the exception of security, which was located within self-transcendence values in both groups. The measures for attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were constructed for the present research by means of a qualitative study. Attitudes towards organisational change were weakly predicted by self-transcendence (+), tradition (-), and hedonism (-). Stronger results were obtained starting from the assumption that positive attitudes were the company norm and that conformity values partly determine whether attitude is guided by social norms or by other values. When the associations were examined separately for employees high on conformity on the one hand and those low on conformity on the other, the values largely failed to predict attitudes among the high conformity respondents, but among those low on conformity, universalism and benevolence were positively and power negatively associated with the attitudes. Interestingly, achievement predicted positive change attitudes among employees high on conformity, but negative change attitudes among those low on conformity. For knowledge sharing, self-direction predicted less favourable perceptions of change, while benevolence and conformity predicted more positive perceptions. Achievement was associated with sharing only when conformity was high. When mean scores for workplaces (N=19) were used, workplaces high on self-transcendence and conformity and low on self-enhancement values showed higher levels of sharing. The sample was divided into three occupational environments: conventional, realistic, and enterprising. Differences between the environments were explained by age, gender, and education. Independently, no differences were found between the first two. An enterprising environment stood out as valuing power, self-direction, and achievement more than a realistic environment. For a realistic environment, tradition and hedonism values were more important than for an enterprising environment.
  • Palomäki, Anu Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis studies the basic income grant proposal in Namibia. The proposal suggests a monthly grant of N$100 (approximately 10€) to all those Namibian citizens who do not receive the state pension. This thesis concentrates on the Basic Income Grant (BIG) Coalition and on its work. The formation and transformation of the coalition during the time period between 2003 and 2009 is analyzed with the help of data collected during two field work periods in 2008 and 2009. The data includes interviews, newspaper articles, observations and other background material. The analysis of this material is mainly conducted from organizational viewpoint. The final part of the thesis applies the results to the theory of Mosse, whose propositions about policy and practice will be discussed in relation to the basic income grant pilot project. The thesis argues that social legitimacy has been a vital resource for the work of the BIG Coalition and it has sought for it in various ways. The concept of social legitimacy originates from the resource dependence perspective of Pfeffer and Salancik, who propose that organizations are dependent on their environments, and on the resources provided by the surrounding environment. This thesis studies the concept of social legitimacy in the context of resource dependence theory. Social legitimacy is analyzed in the relations between the coalition and its environment, in the formation of the coalition, in the responses towards criticism, and finally in relation to the propositions concerning policy and practice. The work of the coalition in the pilot project will be analyzed through the propositions of Mosse concerning policy and practice. The results will describe and analyze key events in the formation of the BIG Coalition from the South African proposal until the end of the basic income pilot project. This BIG pilot project conducted in 2008-2009 is one of the most well-known activities of the coalition. The clashes between the coalition and its environment will be analyzed through four case studies. It will be shown that the project has been conducted in order to gain more legitimacy to the basic income grant proposal. The conclusion questions the legitimacy of the BIG Coalition as a research and development organization, and requests for more transparent research on the basic income proposal in Namibia.
  • Palomäki, Anu Pauliina (2011)
    This thesis studies the basic income grant proposal in Namibia. The proposal suggests a monthly grant of N$100 (approximately 10€) to all those Namibian citizens who do not receive the state pension. This thesis concentrates on the Basic Income Grant (BIG) Coalition and on its work. The formation and transformation of the coalition during the time period between 2003 and 2009 is analyzed with the help of data collected during two field work periods in 2008 and 2009. The data includes interviews, newspaper articles, observations and other background material. The analysis of this material is mainly conducted from organizational viewpoint. The final part of the thesis applies the results to the theory of Mosse, whose propositions about policy and practice will be discussed in relation to the basic income grant pilot project. The thesis argues that social legitimacy has been a vital resource for the work of the BIG Coalition and it has sought for it in various ways. The concept of social legitimacy originates from the resource dependence perspective of Pfeffer and Salancik, who propose that organizations are dependent on their environments, and on the resources provided by the surrounding environment. This thesis studies the concept of social legitimacy in the context of resource dependence theory. Social legitimacy is analyzed in the relations between the coalition and its environment, in the formation of the coalition, in the responses towards criticism, and finally in relation to the propositions concerning policy and practice. The work of the coalition in the pilot project will be analyzed through the propositions of Mosse concerning policy and practice. The results will describe and analyze key events in the formation of the BIG Coalition from the South African proposal until the end of the basic income pilot project. This BIG pilot project conducted in 2008-2009 is one of the most well-known activities of the coalition. The clashes between the coalition and its environment will be analyzed through four case studies. It will be shown that the project has been conducted in order to gain more legitimacy to the basic income grant proposal. The conclusion questions the legitimacy of the BIG Coalition as a research and development organization, and requests for more transparent research on the basic income proposal in Namibia.
  • Timgren, Henrikki (2005)
    The aim of this thesis is to critically assess theories of global distributive justice against their statist and nationalist rivals, especially against liberal nationalism. For the sake of convenience these so-called cosmopolitan theories have been divided into "naïve" and "mature" variants. The main argument of this thesis is that while naïve theories - global contractarianism and utilitarianism - are morally over-demanding and insensitive to cultural pluralism and people's local attachments, mature theories steer clear of these problems, and hence vindicate the demand for a more just global distribution of economic and social goods. It is argued, however, that these mature theories, represented by the human rights-based approaches of Henry Shue and Thomas Pogge, have to limit their redistributive demands, at least initially, to securing the basic subsistence of people. Additionally, cosmopolitan theories are criticized for not providing specific enough blueprints for building a just global community.
  • Timgren, Henrikki (2005)
    Tässä pro gradu -työssä tarkastellaan globaalia distributiivista oikeudenmukaisuutta puolustavia teorioita. Näitä niin sanottuja kosmopolitanistisia teorioita vertaillaan kriittisesti teorioihin, jotka kannattavat tulonjakoa kansallisella tai valtiollisella tasolla. Kaikkein tarkimmin kosmopolitanismia vertaillaan niin sanottuun liberaaliin nationalismiin. Tässä työssä kosmopolitanistiset teoriat on jaettu kahteen ryhmään: "naiiveihin" ja "kypsiin". Työn pääväite on, että naiivit teoriat, joihin luetaan kuuluviksi globaalit sopimusteoriat sekä utilitarismi, ovat moraalisesti liian vaativia, eivätkä kiinnitä tarpeeksi huomiota kulttuuriseen pluralismiin ja ihmisten paikallisiin siteisiin. Sen sijaan kypsät teoriat, joita edustavat Thomas Poggen ja Henry Shuen kehittämät ihmisoikeusperustaiset teoriat, välttävät nämä ongelmat ja osoittavat, että oikeudenmukaisemman tulonjaon vaatimien ylikansallisella tasolla on filosofisesti perusteltua. Työssä kuitenkin korostetaan, että kypsien teorioiden täytyy ainakin aluksi tyytyä ihmisten perustoimeentulon oikeuttamiseen ja turvaamiseen. Lisäksi työssä arvostellaan kosmopolitanististen teorioiden haluttomuutta tarjota konkreettisia suuntaviivoja oikeudenmukaisemman kansainvälisen yhteisön rakentamiseksi.
  • Meurman, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Kirkkoisä Basileios Kesarealainen ( = Basileios Suuri, n. 330 378) oli piispa ja teologi Kappadokiassa Vähässä-Aasiassa. Tämän tutkielman päälähteenä on hänen ensimmäistä Psalmia käsittelevän homiliansa prologi, joka on yksi tunnetuimmista 300-luvun loppupuolen psalmilaulun hyödyllisyyttä ylistävistä kristillisistä dokumenteista. Tämä systemaattisen analyysin menetelmällä etenevä tutkielma esittelee ja analysoi Basileioksen käsitystä musiikin teologisesta merkityksestä. Myös muita Basileioksen teoksia hyödynnetään tutkielmassa lähdemateriaalina. 300-luvun lopulla kristillisen kirkon yli pyyhkäisi ennennäkemätön innostus psalmilaulua kohtaan, mikä heijastuu Basileioksen prologissa. Psalmodisen liikkeen taustalla on tutkimuksessa nähty egyptiläisten erämaa-anakoreettimunkkien jatkuvan psalmodian käytäntö, joka askeettisen kristillisyyden leviämisen mukana tuli osaksi kaupunkien kirkollista elämää. Basileios oli tässä suhteessa eräs pioneereista, sillä hän ymmärsi ensimmäisten joukossa, että laulamisen aiheuttama mielihyvä voi olla hyödyksi kristitylle. Keskeiseksi psalmilaulun teologian kannalta nousee musiikin tunneterapeuttinen vaikutus. Basileioksen musiikin teologiassa yhdistyvät filosofiset käsitteet ja kristillinen spiritualiteetti. Hänen ajattelussaan vahingollisista tunteista vapautuminen tai niiden hillitseminen on keskeinen osa kristillistä kilvoitusta. Näin psalmilaulu tuottaa hyvää, kun se yhtäältä saa kristillisen opetuksen paremmin juurtumaan ihmisten mieliin, toisaalta hillitsee voimakkaita tunteita ja kolmanneksi luo yhteyttä ihmisten keskuuteen. Keskeisiksi käsitteiksi Basileioksen psalmilaulun teologiassa nousevat mielihyvä ja harmonia. Harmoniasta puhuessaan Basileios liittyy antiikin filosofiseen traditioon, jossa maailmankaikkeuden järjestys ymmärretään harmoniaksi. Ihminen taas on sama pienoiskoossa, niin kutsuttu mikrokosmos. Tästä syystä musiikilla maailmankaikkeuden perimmäistä rakennetta ilmentävänä ilmiönä on suora vaikutus ihmisen sieluun. Tämän filosofisen rakenteen Basileios soveltaa kristillisessä kirkossa ykseyden mahdollistajaksi. Luodessaan harmoniaa ihmisten sieluihin psalmilaulu Basileioksen mukaan myös tuo ihmiset toistensa yhteyteen ja poistaa riidan ja vihanpidon heidän väliltään. Psalmihomilioiden prologissa korostuu, että psalmilaulu on Pyhän Hengen keksintöä ja siis Jumalan aktiivista toimintaa ihmisen hyväksi. Tutkielman loppuun on liitetty sen päälähteen, Psalmihomilioiden prologin käännös.
  • Dominguez Moreno, Áurea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation is a theoretical study of bassoon performance practice in the first half of the nineteenth century, analysing the temporal changes that took place in the different musical traditions of France, Germany and Britain. It emphasizes methodological problems inherent in historical performance studies in general, as well as those specifically related to nineteenth-century music, from the performer s point of view. Moreover, woodwind performance practice finds itself lagging behind keyboard or string instruments as a relevant research topic. The research is based on the analysis of bassoon performance practice from a double perspective, combining research on historical written sources with a practical experimentation and application of data on period instruments. As a result, the conclusions derived from the investigation have ample and immediate practical applications. The thesis theoretical framework is interdisciplinary, bringing together different questions on history and music theory. This research seeks to be a new approach to understanding bassoon performance practice, in this historical period and in its relationship with the present-day practice of nineteenth-century repertoire. Furthermore, by using the bassoon as a case study, the research gives some hints that may be used to understand performance practice in a wider context. The most important subject that gives structure to this thesis comes from what has been a constant presence in all historical sources. This is the concept of character as it is understood by arts in the early nineteenth century. Hence, character is used in the research to give unity to the analysis of the different parameters like tempo, articulation, ornamentation, and even the performance of repertoire in general. Therefore character lies at the core of the whole performance in this research. The conclusion of this thesis is based on research which shows that performance in the first half of the nineteenth century finds its balance between the influences of some baroque practice, and the germ of some ideas, marked by a positivist mentality, that will fully develop by the end of the century. Somehow, the bassoon like other woodwind instruments also finds itself in a similar position. It is undeniable, according to the data, that singing and its new techniques had a great influence as the main source of inspiration for every performer. However, the period studied witnesses a new trend whereby bassoonists start to look into how string players developed new features that become personal marks, especially, in virtuoso performance.
  • Wermundsen, Terhi (2010)
    Knowledge of the habitat requirements of bat species is needed in decision making in land use planning. Bats' hibernation requirements were studied both in Estonia and in southern Finland. In both countries, the northern bat and the brown long-eared bat hibernated in colder and drier locations, whereas Daubenton's bat and Brandt's/whiskered bats hibernated in warmer and more humid locations. In Estonia, the pond bat hibernated in the warmest and most humid conditions, whereas Natterer's bat hibernated in the coldest and driest conditions. Hibernacula were at their coldest in mid-season and became warmer towards the end of the season. The results suggest that bats made an active choice of colder hibernation temperatures at the seasons end. They minimised the negative effects of hibernation early in the hibernation season by hibernating in warmer locations and energy expenditure late in the hibernation season by hibernating in colder locations. The use of foraging habitats was studied in northern and southern Finland. The northern bat used foraging sites opportunistically. Daubenton's bat foraged mainly in water habitats, whereas Brandt's/whiskered bats and the brown long-eared bat foraged mainly in forest habitats. In northern Finland, Daubenton's bats foraged almost exclusively on rivers and typically together with the northern bat. Daubenton's bats and Brandt's/whiskered bats were found only where there were lower ambient light levels. One of the most important things in the management of foraging areas for them is to keep them shady. Hibernacula in Finland typically housed few bats, suggesting that hibernation sites used by even a small number of bats are important. Bats typically used natural stone for hibernation suggesting that natural underground sites in rocks or cliffs or man-made underground sites built using natural stone are important for them. The results suggest that appropriate timing of surveys may vary according to the species and latitude.
  • Korpela, Anna Liisa ([s. )
  • Mutshinda Mwanza, Crispin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Elucidating the mechanisms responsible for the patterns of species abundance, diversity, and distribution within and across ecological systems is a fundamental research focus in ecology. Species abundance patterns are shaped in a convoluted way by interplays between inter-/intra-specific interactions, environmental forcing, demographic stochasticity, and dispersal. Comprehensive models and suitable inferential and computational tools for teasing out these different factors are quite limited, even though such tools are critically needed to guide the implementation of management and conservation strategies, the efficacy of which rests on a realistic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms. This is even more so in the prevailing context of concerns over climate change progress and its potential impacts on ecosystems. This thesis utilized the flexible hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework in combination with the computer intensive methods known as Markov chain Monte Carlo, to develop methodologies for identifying and evaluating the factors that control the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. These methodologies were used to analyze data from a range of taxa: macro-moths (Lepidoptera), fish, crustaceans, birds, and rodents. Environmental stochasticity emerged as the most important driver of community dynamics, followed by density dependent regulation; the influence of inter-specific interactions on community-level variances was broadly minor. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, by showing directly that environmental fluctuations rather than inter-specific competition dominate the dynamics of several systems. This finding emphasizes the need to better understand how species are affected by the environment and acknowledge species differences in their responses to environmental heterogeneity, if we are to effectively model and predict their dynamics (e.g. for management and conservation purposes). The thesis also proposes a model-based approach to integrating the niche and neutral perspectives on community structure and dynamics, making it possible for the relative importance of each category of factors to be evaluated in light of field data.
  • Benner, Christian (2013)
    Background. DNA microarrays measure the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. Some differentially expressed genes may be useful as markers for the diagnosis of diseases. Available statistical tests examine genes individually, which causes challenges due to multiple testing and variance estimation. In this Master’s thesis, Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is proposed as a novel approach for the detection of differential gene expression. Methods. The factor scores represent summary measures that combine the expression levels from biological samples under the same condition. Differential gene expression is assessed by utilizing their distributional assumptions. A mean-field variational Bayesian approximation is employed for computationally fast estimation. Results. Its estimation performance is equal to Gibbs sampling. Point estimation errors of model parameters decrease with increasing number of variables. However, mean centering of the data matrix and standardization of factor scores resulted in an inflation of the false positive rate. Conclusion. Avoiding mean centering and revision of the CFA model is required so that location parameters of factor score distributions can be estimated. The utility of CFA for the detection of differential gene expression needs also to be confirmed by a comparison with different statistical procedures to benchmark its false positive rate and statistical power.
  • Mäntyniemi, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In this thesis the use of the Bayesian approach to statistical inference in fisheries stock assessment is studied. The work was conducted in collaboration of the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute by using the problem of monitoring and prediction of the juvenile salmon population in the River Tornionjoki as an example application. The River Tornionjoki is the largest salmon river flowing into the Baltic Sea. This thesis tackles the issues of model formulation and model checking as well as computational problems related to Bayesian modelling in the context of fisheries stock assessment. Each article of the thesis provides a novel method either for extracting information from data obtained via a particular type of sampling system or for integrating the information about the fish stock from multiple sources in terms of a population dynamics model. Mark-recapture and removal sampling schemes and a random catch sampling method are covered for the estimation of the population size. In addition, a method for estimating the stock composition of a salmon catch based on DNA samples is also presented. For most of the articles, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation has been used as a tool to approximate the posterior distribution. Problems arising from the sampling method are also briefly discussed and potential solutions for these problems are proposed. Special emphasis in the discussion is given to the philosophical foundation of the Bayesian approach in the context of fisheries stock assessment. It is argued that the role of subjective prior knowledge needed in practically all parts of a Bayesian model should be recognized and consequently fully utilised in the process of model formulation.