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  • Johansson, Tino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Human-wildlife conflicts are today an integral part of the rural development discourse. In this research, the main focus is on the spatial explanation which is not a very common approach in the reviewed literature. My research hypothesis is based on the assumption that human-wildlife conflicts occur when a wild animal crosses a perceived borderline between the nature and culture and enters into the realms of the other. The borderline between nature and culture marks a perceived division of spatial content in our senses of place. The animal subject that crosses this border becomes a subject out of place meaning that the animal is then spatially located in a space where it should not be or where it does not belong according to tradition, custom, rules, law, public opinion, prevailing discourse or some other criteria set by human beings. An appearance of a wild animal in a domesticated space brings an uncontrolled subject into that space where humans have previously commanded total control of all other natural elements. A wild animal out of place may also threaten the biosecurity of the place in question. I carried out a case study in the Liwale district in south-eastern Tanzania to test my hypothesis during June and July 2002. I also collected documents and carried out interviews in Dar es Salaam in 2003. I studied the human-wildlife conflicts in six rural villages, where a total of 183 persons participated in the village meetings. My research methods included semi-structured interviews, participatory mapping, questionnaire survey and Q- methodology. The rural communities in the Liwale district have a long-history of co-existing with wildlife and they still have traditional knowledge of wildlife management and hunting. Wildlife conservation through the establishment of game reserves during the colonial era has escalated human-wildlife conflicts in the Liwale district. This study shows that the villagers perceive some wild animals differently in their images of the African countryside than the district and regional level civil servants do. From the small scale subsistence farmers point of views, wild animals continue to challenge the separation of the wild (the forests) and the domestics spaces (the cultivated fields) by moving across the perceived borders in search of food and shelter. As a result, the farmers may loose their crops, livestock or even their own lives in the confrontations of wild animals. Human-wildlife conflicts in the Liwale district are manifold and cannot be explained simply on the basis of attitudes or perceived images of landscapes. However, the spatial explanation of these conflicts provides us some more understanding of why human-wildlife conflicts are so widely found across the world.
  • Kitanov, Severin (Severin Valentinov Kitanov, 2006)
    This dissertation examines the concept of beatific enjoyment (fruitio beatifica) in scholastic theology and philosophy in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century. The aim of the study is to explain what is enjoyment and to show why scholastic thinkers were interested in discussing it. The dissertation consists of five chapters. The first chapter deals with Aurelius Augustine's distinction between enjoyment and use and the place of enjoyment in the framework of Augustine's view of the passions and the human will. The first chapter also focuses upon the importance of Peter Lombard's Sentences for the transmission of Augustine's treatment of enjoyment in scholastic thought as well as upon Lombard's understanding of enjoyment. The second chapter treats thirteenth-century conceptions of the object and psychology of enjoyment. Material for this chapter is provided by the writings - mostly Sentences commentaries - of Alexander of Hales, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Peter of Tarentaise, Robert Kilwardby, William de la Mare, Giles of Rome, and Richard of Middleton. The third chapter inspects early fourteenth-century views of the object and psychology of enjoyment. The fourth chapter focuses upon discussions of the enjoyment of the Holy Trinity. The fifth chapter discusses the contingency of beatific enjoyment. The main writers studied in the third, fourth and fifth chapters are John Duns Scotus, Peter Aureoli, Durandus of Saint Pourçain, William of Ockham, Walter Chatton, Robert Holcot, and Adam Wodeham. Historians of medieval intellectual history have emphasized the significance of the concept of beatific enjoyment for understanding the character and aims of scholastic theology and philosophy. The concept of beatific enjoyment was developed by Augustine on the basis of the insight that only God can satisfy our heart's desire. The possibility of satisfying this desire requires a right ordering of the human mind and a detachment of the will from the relative goals of earthly existence. Augustine placed this insight at the very foundation of the notion of Christian learning and education in his treatise On Christian Doctrine. Following Augustine, the twelfth-century scholastic theologian Peter Lombard made the concept of enjoyment the first topic in his plan of systematic theology. The official inclusion of Lombard's Sentences in the curriculum of theological studies in the early universities stimulated vigorous discussions of enjoyment. Enjoyment was understood as a volition and was analyzed in relation to cognition and other psychic features such as rest and pleasure. This study shows that early fourteenth-century authors deepened the analysis of enjoyment by concentrating upon the relationship between enjoyment and mental pleasure, the relationship between cognition and volition, and the relationship between the will and the beatific object (i.e., the Holy Trinity). The study also demonstrates the way in which the idea of enjoyment was affected by changes in the method of theological analysis - the application of Aristotelian logic in a Trinitarian context and the shift from virtue ethics to normative ethics.
  • Stubb, Jenni Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation focused on exploring doctoral students conceptions of the scholarly community and research, and further, on analysing the relation between these conceptions and well-being as well as study persistence in the doctoral process. The first two studies concentrated on analysing students conceptions of the scholarly community and their meaning with respect to one s own thesis process. The last two studies focused on students conceptions of the personal meaning of the thesis work and conceptions of research in the context of their own doctoral journeys. The data were collected by surveys and interviews. Altogether 669 students from different disciplines participated in the surveys and 32 in the interviews. The analysis was conducted by combining both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study I examined how doctoral students perceived their own role in the scholarly community and their experiences of their learning environment. The relation between their experienced role in the community and well-being as well as study persistence was also analysed. The results indicated that the experienced role in the community varied from a sense of belonging to feeling like an outsider and perceiving one s own role as incoherent or contradictory. Students who experienced a sense of being part of the academic community also reported experiencing their learning environment in a more positive way. These students also reported less stress, anxiety, and exhaustion and greater interest in their own doctoral projects. Moreover, students who felt themselves to be part of the community had considered interrupting their studies less often than others. Their conceptions were also related to the faculties in question. Study II took a more in-depth look at students experienced socio-psychological well-being by focusing on how they saw the scholarly community in terms of one s own doctoral process. The results suggested that experiences of the community varied from perceiving it as empowering to experiencing it as a burden. Seeing one s own scholarly community as empowering was related to lower levels of reported stress, anxiety, and exhaustion and higher levels of interest in one s own doctoral project. The students who experienced empowerment had also considered interrupting their studies less often. Study III explored the thesis work s personal meaning for the doctoral students and its relation to the experienced well-being as well as study persistence. The relations between the personal meaning of the thesis work and discipline were also looked at. The results suggested that personal meaning varied between emphasizing the process, the product, or both. Highlighting the meaning of the process was related to lower levels of reported stress, anxiety, and exhaustion, but to higher levels of interest. Students who emphasized the meaning of the process had considered interrupting their doctoral studies less often than other students. Differences were also apparent between faculties: students in medicine emphasized the meaning of the end-product more often than students in other faculties. Study IV analysed doctoral students conceptions of research and whether these were discipline-related. The results indicated that research was most often seen as a personal journey. Rather typical was also seeing it as a job to do , as answering certain demands. Research was also seen as a means to qualify oneself or as making a difference by contributing to the discipline or to society. The students conceptions were found to be related to the discipline: students in medicine most often described research as a job to do while those in natural science and behavioural sciences emphasized research as a personal journey. The results suggested that doctoral students experienced the meaning of research and the academic community very differently. Their conceptions were related to well-being and study persistence during the Ph.D. process, and were found to be discipline-related. The results encourage viewing the doctoral process not only as a cognitive effort but also as a process that is mediated by experiencing a sense of belonging and meaningfulness.
  • Krzywacki, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This research examines three aspects of becoming a teacher, teacher identity formation in mathematics teacher education: the cognitive and affective aspect, the image of an ideal teacher directing the developmental process, and as an on-going process. The formation of emerging teacher identity was approached in a social psychological framework, in which individual development takes place in social interaction with the context through various experiences. Formation of teacher identity is seen as a dynamic, on-going developmental process, in which an individual intentionally aspires after the ideal image of being a teacher by developing his/her own competence as a teacher. The starting-point was that it is possible to examine formation of teacher identity through conceptualisation of observations that the individual and others have about teacher identity in different situations. The research uses the qualitative case study approach to formation of emerging teacher identity, the individual developmental process and the socially constructed image of an ideal mathematics teacher. Two student cases, John and Mary, and the collective case of teacher educators representing socially shared views of becoming and being a mathematics teacher are presented. The development of each student was examined based on three semi-structured interviews supplemented with written products. The data-gathering took place during the 2005 2006 academic year. The collective case about the ideal image provided during the programme was composed of separate case displays of each teacher educator, which were mainly based on semi-structured interviews in spring term 2006. The intentions and aims set for students were of special interest in the interviews with teacher educators. The interview data was analysed following the modified idea of analytic induction. The formation of teacher identity is elaborated through three themes emerging from theoretical considerations and the cases. First, the profile of one s present state as a teacher may be scrutinised through separate affective and cognitive aspects associated with the teaching profession. The differences between individuals arise through dif-ferent emphasis on these aspects. Similarly, the socially constructed image of an ideal teacher may be profiled through a combination of aspects associated with the teaching profession. Second, the ideal image directing the individual developmental process is the level at which individual and social processes meet. Third, formation of teacher identity is about becoming a teacher both in the eyes of the individual self as well as of others in the context. It is a challenge in academic mathematics teacher education to support the various cognitive and affective aspects associated with being a teacher in a way that being a professional and further development could have a coherent starting-point that an individual can internalise.
  • Sandström, Charlotta (2012)
    Forskningsobjektet i avhandlingen var socialarbetare i vuxenpsykiatrin vid Helsingfors och Nylands sjukvårdsdistrikt (HNS). Avhandlingens syfte var att studera hur socialarbetare bedömer patienters beredskap till förändring, som en del av den mångprofessionella arbetsgruppens utredning och bedömning av patientens situation, och vilken kunskapsbasen för detta var. Som teoretiskt utgångsläge har beredskapsbedömning genom indikatorer och kritisk reflektion använts. Undersökningen genomfördes genom vinjettundersökning och djupintervjuer. Vinjetten var en beskrivning på en typisk patientsituation i psykiatrin. Socialarbetama tog ställning till vilket långsiktigt mål och vilka delmål de kunde tänka sig att planera med patienten. Undersökningen har analyserats både kvalitativt och kvantitativt med slutna och öppna frågor. Undersökningen gjordes som en intemetundersökning och länken till hemsidan skickades till socialarbetarna per e-post. Intervjuernas syfte var att fördjupa kunskapen om bedömningar av patientens situation från ett socialarbetarperspektiv. Sammanlagt 26 socialarbetare svarade på vinjettundersökningen, av vilka 5 intervjuades. En inledande kvantitativ analys av beredskapsindikatorerna gjordes. Analysen gjordes med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Det visade sig att socialarbetama inte beaktade indikatorema i hög bemärkelse. Inte heller kunde bedömningen fastslås till att utgå enbart från enskilda aspekter i patientens situation. Vinjettsvaren utvecklades till professionella narrativ. De professionella narrativen visade att socialarbetarna bedömde beredskapen i en pågående process, genom reflexiv/reflektiv expertis. Socialarbetarna bedömde delvis patientens beredskap mot den långsiktiga målsättningen, på basen av den givna bakgrundsinformationen i vinjetten. Majoriteten ansåg att patienten har beredskap att återvända till arbetslivet, vilket är en relativt hög beredskap. I bedömningen av patientens beredskap på lång sikt var socialarbetarna eniga. Vid bedömningen av beredskapen för första interventionen varierade bedömningen. En del socialarbetare planerade interventioner där det behövs låg beredskap och andra ansåg att patienten hade en beredskap till lite mer krävande interventioner. Intervjuerna skilde sig på en väsentlig punkt åt från vinjettsvaren: materialinsamlingen skedde några månader efter att HNS i praktiken genomfört en enorm organisationsförändring och detta diskuteras under intervjuerna. Tidsmässigt har materialinsamlingen för avhandlingen skett i ett brytningsskede, där det införts praktiker som överensstämmer med New Public Management-tänkande.
  • Lindroos, Sivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Tutkielmassa käsitellään ruotsin suullisen kielitaidon kriteeripohjaista arviointia Eurooppalaiseen viitekehykseen perustuvan arviointiskaalan avulla arvioijan näkökulmasta. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan seitsemän arvioijan arviointiprosessin reflektointia. Arvioijat osallistuvat poikkitieteelliseen HY-TALK-pilottitutkimukseen Helsingin yliopistossa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on eritellä, miten arvioijat kokevat peruskoulu- ja lukio-opetuksen opetussuunnitelmiin sisältyvän kriteeripohjaisen kielitaidon skaalan käytön ruotsin kielen suullisen taidon arviointityön pohjana. Erityisesti painotetaan arvioijien subjektiivista kokemusta skaalan avulla arvioinnista. Lisäksi analysoidaan kyseisten arvioijien arviointitulosten reliabiliteettia HY-TALK-tutkimuksessa. Aineistona käytetään arvioijien avoimilla haastatteluilla kerättyjä kommentteja skaalan käytöstä ja arvioinnista, sekä samojen arvioijien oppilasarviointituloksia HY-TALK-pilottitutkimuksesta. Tutkimusmetodi on kvalitatiivinen kokeenjälkeinen tapaustutkimus. Tutkielman teoriatausta nojautuu suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnin tutkimukseen. Suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnin perustana voidaan pitää Bachman ja Palmerin (1996) teoriaa kommunikatiivisesta kielitaidosta. Kielitaito jaetaan organisatoriseen ja pragmaattiseen kompetenssiin. Kokeen reliabiliteetti ja validiteetti nousevat tutkielmassa keskeisiksi käsitteiksi. Suullisen kielitaidon mittaamisessa ongelmana on kommunikaation arviointi. Koetyyppinä suorituskoe, jossa kokelas arvioidaan kommunikatiivisessa tilanteessa, ei yleisen käsityksen mukaan vastaa autenttista kielenkäyttötilannetta. Kokeen perusteella halutaan kuitenkin tehdä yleistys kokelaan kielitaidosta ja selviytymisestä oikeissa kielenkäyttötilanteissa. Arvioinnissa tehdään ero analyyttisen ja holistisen arvioinnin välille. Kriteeripohjaisessa arvioinnissa pyritään pitäytymään analyyttisessa arvioinnissa, jolloin arvioija kiinnittää huomiota monipuolisesti kokelaan kielitaidon eri osa-alueisiin. Tutkielman tuloksena seitsemän analysoidun arvioijan välillä on suuria eroja arvioinnin lähtökohdissa ja subjektiivisissa painotuksissa. Osa arvioijista painotti organisatorista kompetenssia, ja osa taas pragmaattista kompetenssia. Interaktion ja kommunikaation roolista suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnissa oli suuria mielipide-eroja. Osa arvioijista painotti arvioinnissa kommunikaation tärkeyttä ja muita pragmaattiseen kompetenssiin kuuluvia osa-alueita, kun taas osa mainitsi esimerkiksi oikeakielisyyden ja rakenteiden hallinnan. Kolme arvioijaa painotti pragmaattista kompetenssia, kaksi mainitsi piirteitä molemmista, ja kaksi painotti organisatorista kompetenssia. Osa eroista selittyy arviointitapahtumien eroilla sekä arvioijien kokemuksella. Toisaalta, nämä erot arvioinnin subjektiivisissa painotuksissa eivät suuresti näy itse pilottitutkimuksen viitekehyspohjaisen arviointiskaalan avulla saaduissa oppilasarviointituloksissa. Arvioijien välisiä eroja oppilasarvioinnissa kuitenkin esiintyy. Organisatorista kompetenssia painottavat antoivat osalle oppilaista hieman muita parempia arvosanoja. Tutkielman päätelmä on, että tässä tapaustutkimuksessa arviointityössä oli subjektiivisia painotuksia, ja että jonkin verran eroja kriteeripohjaisessa oppilasarvioinnissa löytyi. Erot eivät kuitenkaan yleisesti ottaen olleet kovin suuria.
  • Latus, Jessica (2014)
    Urbanization is occurring at rapid rates worldwide. While the effects of urbanization are numerous, those on wildlife are of utmost concern in the continued fight for biodiversity conservation. Specifically, the focus on global pollinator declines is of interest due to the interconnectedness between pollinators and plant communities. It is feared that urban areas could become dead zones to these species, specifically bumblebees. Bumblebees are one of the native pollinators of Finland, and therefore were the focus of this study, which was conducted in Helsinki (southern Finland). This project’s focus was on the influence of both local (i.e. flowering resources) and landscape (i.e. levels of urbanization) features on bumblebee communities. More specifically, I was interested in the effects of urbanization on bumblebee abundance and species richness. To study this question, community gardens (allotment gardens) were used as study sites along a gradient of urbanization from low to high (chosen by GIS mapping of the levels of impervious surfaces within 500 m of the sites). It is thought that these greenspaces could function as habitat for bumblebees in cities. This study was conducted during the summer of 2013 in 12 community gardens across the city of Helsinki. Two methods to survey bee populations were utilized, pan traps as well as sweep netting. Furthermore, a vegetation analysis was conducted to assess the level of resources present within the gardens, while GIS was used to measure a set of landscape variables in and around each garden. At the end of the season (June to September) the bees were identified and Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models were used to analyze the data. This study found that local variables more strongly predicted both bee abundance and species richness. Even though landscape variables were not strong predictors, this does not make them irrelevant in future conservation strategies. However, it is thought that as long as community gardens are planted appropriately (i.e. native flowers) the bees will be present in these gardens despite the surrounding matrix of inhospitable land (sealed surfaces). In conjunction with the investigation into the effects of local versus landscape determinants, this study also aimed to investigate the perception of gardeners towards bees. A questionnaire was utilized in order to gauge gardeners’ opinions towards the bees in their plot and the garden as a whole. These results helped to evaluate the overall attitude towards bees, and in short, were very favorable. This extrapolates to a possibility of working in conjunction with gardeners to conserve habitat for pollinators in the continued effort for interconnected greenspaces in urban areas.
  • Puumalainen, Tanja (2014)
    Beetalaktaamiantibiootteja käytetään paljon koirilla ja kissoilla Suomessa. Beetalaktaameihin kuuluvia aminopenisilliinejä ja ensimmäisen polven kefalosporiineja suositellaan moneen infektiosairauteen elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Eviran mikrobilääkesuosituksissa. Beetalaktaameilla on vähän sivuvaikutuksia ja niiden turvallisuusmarginaali on leveä. Suomessa koirilla ja kissoilla käytetään etenkin aminopenisilliinejä, amoksisilliini-klavulaanihapon yhdistelmää ja kefaleksiinia. Saatavilla on myös kolmannen polven kefalosporiineihin kuuluva kefovesiini, jota saa käyttää vain valmisteyhteenvedossa mainittuihin käyttöaiheisiin. Beetalaktamaasit estävät bakteerien soluseinän rakentumisen. Vaikutus on bakterisidinen. Beetalaktaamit ovat aikariippuvaisia eli parhaimman tehon saamiseksi niiden pitoisuuden tulee pysyä riittävän korkealla koko annostelu ajan. Beetalaktaameihin kuuluvat myös beetalaktamaasin estäjät. Beetalaktamaasit ovat bakteerien tuottamia beetalaktaamiantibiootteja hajottavia entsyymejä. Uusien beetalaktamaasien ilmeneminen ja beetalaktamaasigeenien leviäminen bakteerien joukossa on johtanut beetalaktaamiresistenssin leviämiseen. Metisilliiniresistenteillä stafylokokeilla beetalaktaamien sitoutuminen vaikutuskohteeseen on vähentynyt ja ne ovat resistenttejä kaikille beetalaktaameille. Fluorokinolonit häiritsevät bakteerien solun jakautumista, proteiinisynteesiä ja DNA:n virheiden korjaamista sitoutumalla DNAgyraasi ja topoisomeraasi IV entsyymeihin. Niiden vaikutus on bakterisidinen. Fluorokinolonit ovat konsentraatioriippuvaisia eli niitä annosteltaessa pyritään saavuttamaan suuri pitoisuus mutta annosten välillä pitoisuus voi laskea pieneksi. Suomessa koirilla ja kissoilla käytetään fluorokinoloneista enrofloksasiinia, marbofloksasiinia ja pradofloksasiinia. Fluorokinolonit ovat laajakirjoisia mikrobilääkkeitä ja niitä käytetään etenkin gramnegatiivisten bakteerien aiheuttamien infektioiden hoitoon. Fluorokinoloneja tulisi käyttää vain bakteeriviljelyn ja herkkyysmäärityksen perusteella. Uusilla fluorokinoloneilla, kuten pradofloksasiinilla, on hyvä teho myös grampositiivisia ja anaerobeja bakteereita vastaan. Myös fluorokinoloneja pidetään turvallisina mikrobilääkkeinä. Niiden käyttöön on kuitenkin todettu liittyvän rustovaurioita kasvavilla koirilla, ja enrofloksasiinin käyttö korkeilla annoksilla on aiheuttanut kissoilla sokeutumiseen johtavaa verkkokalvon rappeumaa. Resistenssi fluorokinoloneita vastaan voi kehittyä nopeasti. Bakteerien resistenssimekanismeja on muun muassa DNA-gyraasin tai topoisomeraasin IV:n muuntelu, jolloin fluorokinolonien sitoutuminen niihin heikkenee. Resistenssin kehittyminen yhdelle fluorokinolonille voi johtaa resistenssiin kaikkia fluorokinoloneita vastaan. Tässä tutkielmassa on keskitytty siihen mitä patogeenejä on yleisimmissä infektiosairauksissa, joihin beetalaktaameja ja fluorokinoloneita suositellaan tai käytetään, sekä mitä kliinisiä tutkimuksia näiden mikrobilääkkeiden käytöstä on. Kirjallisuudessa yleisesti suositeltuja hoitoaikoja ja annoksia on myös mainittu. Kliiniset tutkimukset beetalaktaamien ja fluorokinolonien käytössä ovat yleensä tutkimuksia, joissa verrataan kahden tai useamman mikrobilääkkeen tehoa jonkin infektiosairauden hoidossa. Usein mikrobilääkkeiden tehoa verrataan amoksisilliini-klavulaanihapon tehoon, sillä se on hyvin yleisesti käytetty mikrobilääke koirien ja kissojen infektioissa.
  • Inkinen, Saara (2012)
    Most authoritarian regimes now organise national-level elections that allow the opposition to compete against the dictator for political power, albeit on unfair and unequal terms. Although the dictator seeks to contain this element of competition in order to thwart opposition victories and enforce his own rule, the decision to organise competitive elections ultimately rests the fate of electoral authoritarian regimes in the hands of the voters. By deciding to cast their ballots either for the dictator or the opposition, individual voters determine the degree of electoral competitiveness – the margin of victory between the dictator and his challengers – and, consequently, whether the elections lead to continued authoritarian rule or potential democratisation. Yet, with the literature predominantly focusing on authoritarian elections from the perspective of the dictator and the opposition, the question of how and why heterogeneous voters make diverging choices at the polls remains poorly understood. Using Beatriz Magaloni’s theory of voter behaviour under electoral authoritarianism, this thesis explores how the electorate’s socio-demographic heterogeneity translates into conflicting preferences, thus giving rise to different types of voting behaviours that lead the voters to either support or oppose the dictator, and what the consequences of this heterogeneity are for the degree of electoral competitiveness at the aggregate level. The relationship between voter heterogeneity and the degree of electoral competitiveness is tested empirically by employing a random effects regression analysis on time-series cross-sectional data that cover the universe of competitive authoritarian elections held at the national level from 1974 to 2006. Based on this analysis, the author shows the composition of the electorate to be systematically linked to the degree of competitiveness, with the voter’s ethnic affiliation and level of income operating as the primary factors mediating vote choice alongside economic growth. The findings are furthermore found to be robust to a number of alternative explanations that involve the strategies of the dictator and the opposition. Finally, the thesis discusses some of the problems and broader implications of the analysis for the study of electoral authoritarian regimes and electoral competitiveness.
  • Litonius, Henrik (2013)
    Begreppskartor utvecklades ursprungligen på 1980-talet av Joseph Novak och Bob Gowin som ett sätt att strukturera och därmed få djupare förståelse för ny kunskap. Sedan dess har de utvecklats och undersökts som inlärnings-, utbildnings- och bedömningsmetod, inte minsta av forskare som Maria Ruiz-Primo. Den här avhandlingen utgår till stor del från Ruiz-Primos utveckling av begreppskartan som ett verktyg för att bedöma elevers prestationer och undersöker huruvida traditionella prov kunde ersättas med begreppskartsuppgifter inom fysiken. Begreppskartor har en bevisligen positiv effekt vad gäller inlärning, men de används sällan i våra skolor och det är svårt att få elever att anamma en ny och ointuitiv inlärningsmetod. Att använda begreppskartan som en bedömningsmetod i klassen skulle knuffa eleverna mot ett mer begreppsbaserat tänkande och kunde hjälpa dem i sin förståelse av ämnet. Som provuppgift är begreppskartan snabb att göra och rätta men ger läraren goda insikter i elevens förståelse för ett ämne. Ifall man kunde tänka sig att använda begreppskartan som provuppgift åtminstone diagnostiskt skulle det föra med sig en hel drös fördelar. Två klasser undersöktes, en i grundskolan på årskurs sju och en kurs i gymnasiet. Bägge grupper fick lära sig grunderna i att göra begreppskartor på förhand, gymnasisterna hade lite erfarenhet av det också från tidigare. Båda grupperna fick sedan under en kurs skriva ett traditionellt prov samt göra en begreppskarta av materialet de nyligen gått igenom. Begreppskartorna bedömdes med en femstegs-modell utvecklad av Ruiz-Primo och Shavelson och gavs ett vitsord beroende på hur väl de jämfördes med en expertkarta. Resultaten undersöktes skilt för de två grupperna och granskades för svårighetsgrad, korrelation och överensstämning enligt en statistisk metod utvecklad av Bland och Altman 1986. Svårighetsgraden för uppgiften fanns vara lämplig, bägge gruppernas medeltal var något lägre för begreppskartan än för det traditionella provet vilket kan motiveras med att eleverna trots allt har större erfarenhet av traditionella prov än begreppskartor. Korrelationen för grundskolegruppen fanns vara god, 0,825 medanden för gymnasiet var betydligt svagare, 0,412. Bland-Altman metoden gav vidare negativa resultat för gymnasiet med mycket stora kast mellan de enskilda elevernas prestationer i de två uppgifterna. Grundskolegruppen presterade lite mer konsekvent men visade en trend där de verkligt svaga och de verkligt starka eleverna gynnades av begreppskartsuppgiften medan eleverna med medeltal kring 7 gjorde sämre ifrån sig än i det traditionella provet. Korrelationen för grundskolan är så pass stark att det är tänkbart att begreppskartan kunde användas som en bedömningsmetod inom grundskolan. Grundskolans begränsade matematik gör att också en stor del av naturvetenskaperna är fenomen- och begreppsbaserade snarare än baserade på problemlösning. I gymnasiet är det tvärtom, största delen av gymnasiekursen inom fysiken går ut på matematisk uträkning av fenomen, inte på att kunna förklara dem med ord och förstå samband. Som en följd av detta är begreppskartorna mer användbara som en alternativ bedömningsmetod i grundskolan än i gymnasiet.
  • Svaetichin, Janina (2011)
    Att ha tillträde till olika arenor i samhället är viktigt, speciellt för unga är känslan av tillhörighet väsentligt för välbefinnandet. I min pro gradu-avhandling synliggör jag de ungas beskrivningar av sina liv och sina erfarenheter av vad det innebär att vara ”invandrare” i Helsingforsregionen med svenska som första främmande språk. Språkkunskaper och förmåga att uttrycka sig samt att använda språket väl blir allt mer relevant i det mångkulturella samhället där människor med olika kulturella bakgrunder möts. Med hjälp av språkkunskaper ges tillträde till den värld som uttrycks och förutsätts via språket. Min teoretiska referensram är förankrad i finländsk och svensk forskning om invandring, tillhörighet, etnicitet och identitetsom tar fasta på ungdomar. Viktiga källor är bland andra Tuomas Martikainen & Lotta Haikkola (2010) och Karmela Liebkind (2000, 2007 m.fl.) Tore Otterups (2005) avhandling om ungdomars flerspråkighet och identitetskonstruktion ger bakgrundskunskap till min studie. Med hjälp av kvalitativa temaintervjuer som undersökningsmetod ger min studie en bild av invandrarungdomarnas uppfattningar, erfarenheter och känslor. De unga som är intervjuade i min pro gradu-avhandling studerar alla vid en svenskspråkig skolinstans i södra Finland. Mina informater är alla födda utanför Finlands gränser och ingendera föräldern är född finländsk, de har alla lärt sig svenska som första främmande språk i Finland. Mitt material består av elva temaintervjuer. De unga i min pro gradu-avhandling poängterar att deras känsla av tillhörighet och tillträde till olika kulturella kontexter är sammankopplat med språkkunskaper. Forskningsresultaten visar att språkkunskaper ger tillträde och ökade möjligheter i det mångkulturella samhället som vi lever i.
  • Parland-von Essen, Jessica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    By the end of the 18th century the daughters of the nobility in the northern parts of Europe received a quite different kind of education from their brothers. Although the cultural aims of the upbringing of girls were similar to that of boys, the practice of the raising of girls was less influenced by tradition. The education of boys was one of classical humanistic and military training, but the girls were more freely educated. The unity and exclusiveness of the culture of nobility were of great importance to the continued influence of this elite. The importance of education became even greater, partly because of the unstable political situation, and partly because of the changes the Enlightenment had caused in the perception of the human essence. The delicate and ambitious hônnete homme was expected to constantly strive to a greater perfection as a Christian. On the other hand, the great weight given to aesthetics - etiquette and taste - made individual variation of the contents of education possible. Education consisted mainly in aesthetic studies; girls studied music, dancing, fine arts, epistolary skills and also the art of polite conversation. On the other hand, there was a demand for enlightenment, and one often finds personal political and social ambitions, which made competition in all skills necessary for the daughters as well. Literary sources for the education of girls are Madame LePrince de Beaumont, Madame d'Epinay, Madame de Genlis and Charles Rollin. Other, perhaps even more important sources are the letters between parents and children and papers originating from studies. Diaries and memoirs also tell us about the practice of education in day to day life. The approach of this study is semiotic. It can be stated that the code of the culture was well hidden from the outsider. This was achieved, for instance, by the adaptation of the foreign French language and culture. The core of the culture consisted of texts which only thorough examples stated the norms which were expressed as good taste. Another important feature of the culture was its tendency towards theatricalisation. The way of life was dictated by taste, and moral values were included in the aesthetic norms through the constant striving for modesty. Pleasant manners were also correct in an ethical perspective. Morality could thus also be taught through etiquette.
  • Lindholm, Jesse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of people every year and produces significant human suffering and economic burden to society. The symptomatology of MDD is heterogeneous and multidimensional, and only two core symptoms, depressed mood and anhedonia, are frequently shared by patients. Consequently, modeling of MDD is challenging, and only depression-related phenomena, not depressed mood itself, can be examined in animals. MDD is commonly treated with antidepressant drugs (or antidepressants, ADs). However, monoamine-based ADs act in a delayed-onset manner and often exhibit only moderate clinical efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and for cases for which a rapid clinical response is required. Given the practical and ethical limitations of ECT, the development of fast-acting ADs is needed. Importantly, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been shown to produce rapid and long-lasting AD effects in TRD patients. Changes in the levels and signaling of neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with the etiology of MDD. However, studies of genetically modified mice expressing altered levels of BDNF have not provided a solid link between BDNF deficiency and depression-related behavior. By contrast, emerging evidence indicates that the effects of ADs are mediated by BDNF and its tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor, TrkB. ADs enhance BDNF-TrkB signaling and thereby facilitate neuronal plasticity in the brain. Recent evidence indicates that these changes in plasticity lead to the restoration of juvenile-type plasticity in the adult rodent cortex, which allows environment-driven reorganization of brain networks. Based on these data, the network theory of AD action was formulated. However, it is unclear if this concept can be generalized to diverse neuronal networks. The main aims of this thesis were to investigate the importance of TrkB signaling in the anxiety- and depression-like behavioral phenotype in mice, to examine the role of BDNF-TrkB signaling in the antidepressant-like effects of glutamatergic drugs in mice, to study the network theory of ADs in a mouse fear extinction paradigm and to investigate the behavioral effects of adult fluoxetine treatment in mice exposed to fluoxetine early in life. When examining TrkB signaling-deficient mice (TrkB.T1), we observed that young and aged TrkB.T1 mice exhibited alterations in their exploration and emotional behavior and increased behavioral despair. These findings suggest that altered TrkB signaling leads to depression-like behavior, and thus, TrkB.T1 mice may be used as a genetic model of depression. We next studied selected glutamatergic drugs in behavioral despair models and determined that, similar to their effects in humans, ketamine and the AMPA receptor potentiator LY 451646 produce an antidepressant-like effect in mice. In contrast to classical ADs, these drugs were also effective in BDNF heterozygote knock-out mice. Furthermore, neither of these drugs influenced BDNF protein or Trk-phosphorylation levels in wild-type or BDNF-deficient mice. These data suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine may be independent of BDNF-TrkB signaling. Disturbances in the serotonergic system during early development may cause permanent behavioral effect in adult animals. In our study, early life exposure to fluoxetine, an AD that enhances serotonergic transmission, led to specific and persistent behavioral changes in adult animals. Intriguingly, adult fluoxetine treatment normalized some of these changes. We therefore examined whether fluoxetine can enable plastic changes in fear circuits in mice in conjunction with an environmental stimulus. We observed that the combination of fear exposure and fluoxetine treatment produced permanent fear extinction in the classical fear conditioning paradigm in mice. Importantly, neither fluoxetine nor extinction alone produced permanent fear erasure. This finding supports the network theory of AD action and clinical observations demonstrating the superiority of the combination of drug administration and psychotherapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. In conclusion, these data strengthen the connection between BDNF-TrkB signaling and the antidepressant-like effects of classical ADs and support the network hypothesis of AD action. In addition, these results also suggest that there may be fast-acting AD treatments with a mechanism of action that is independent of BDNF-TrkB signaling.
  • Maksimovic, Milica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are extremely debilitating illnesses that encompass affective and/or psychotic symptoms. Not only is there common symptomatology and genetic susceptibility, but the pharmacotherapy approaches are also similar. Nonetheless, molecular mechanisms underpinning these diseases are not yet fully understood. The theory that there is a dopaminergic dysfunction cannot account for all of the symptoms. Nor can the compounds that act on dopaminergic mechanisms successfully alleviate the symptoms. There is evidence to suggest that there are imbalances in other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the main excitatory pathway - the glutamatergic system. Glutamatergic transmission is essential for development,learning and memory and many other physiological functions of the brain. Glutamatergic receptors of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type mediate the majority of the fast synaptic neurotransmission. Here, Gria1−/− mice, lacking the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors, with concurrent schizophrenia-like and affective symptoms were used. The predictive validity was addressed using the standard and novel glutamate-modulating pharmacotherapeutics. The hyperactivity, the most robust feature of Gria1−/− mice and a hallmark of psychotic disorders, was attenuated by drug-treatments. Importantly, chronic treatments with lithium, valproate, topiramate, lamotrigine and perampanel were effective, evidence of their pharmacological efficacy after the acute, often sedative, treatment phase. In addition, excessive novelty-induced activation of the dorsal hippocampus of Gria1−/− mice as measured by c-Fos expression was blunted by the drug-treatments of which all are known to reduce the activity of the glutamatergic transmission. Other behaviours relevant to the schizoaffective symptomatology such as disinhibited risk-taking, less despair-like behaviour and highly exploratory phenotype as well as social deficits were partially responsive to treatment with mood-stabilisers. Moreover, Gria1−/− mice exhibited a slightly higher preference for sucrose and made more impulsive choices towards sucrose. The Gria1−/− mice may represent a suitable model for the screening of the preclinical efficacy of novel drugs on the hyperactive behaviour linked to manic episode of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
  • Laakkonen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Predation forms one of the main selective forces in nature and in a vast number of prey species the behavioural responses form the main way to avoid predation. World wide numerous captive breeding programs are used to produce fish and other animal species for conservational reintroductions. However, rearing animals in the absence of predators in captivity has been shown to weaken their predator avoidance skills and lead to behavioural divergence between wild and captive-bred populations. In my thesis I studied the effects of predator odour exposures on antipredator behavioural and physiological responses of captive reared Saimaa Arctic charr. This charr population is the most endangered fish population in Finland and a sample of the remaining population has been taken to captive breeding and used for an extensive reintroduction program. Lowered responsiveness to predators is probably one of the major reasons for the poor survival probability of the charr after release into the wild. The main aims of my thesis were to explore the reasons for behavioural phenotypic variation in this charr population and whether naïve charr young could be trained to recognise their natural predators. The predator species in my thesis were burbot (Lota lota) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). In my thesis I showed that the captive-bred charr responded to chemical cues from burbot and pikeperch, but the magnitude of responses was linked to the predator species. The burbot odour increased the spatial odour avoidance of the charr young. On the other hand, in the pikeperch treatment charr reduced their relative swimming activity and tended to show more freezing behaviour relative to the burbot treatment. It seems evident that these different responses are related to the different hunting tactics of predator species. Furthermore, I detected wide between-family differences in antipredator responsiveness (i.e. inherited variation in antipredator behaviours) in this captive stock. Detected differences were greater in the response towards burbot than towards pikeperch. These results, in addition to predator-specific antipredator responses, suggest that there is a clear inherited component in antipredator responsiveness in Saimaa charr population and that the detected inherited differences could explain a part of the behavioural phenotypic variation in this population. In my thesis I also found out that both social learning and direct exposure to live predators enhance the antipredator responsiveness of charr young. In addition, I obtained indications that predator odour exposures (i.e. life-skills training) in alevin and fry stages can fine-tune the innate antipredator responsiveness of charr. Thus, all these methods have the potential to enhance the innate antipredator responsiveness of naïve charr young, possibly also improving the post-release survival of these trained individuals in the wild. However, the next logical phase would be to carry out large scale survival studies in the wild to test this hypothesis. Finally, the results of my thesis emphasize that possible long-term life-skills training methods should take into account not only the behavioural but also the physiological effects of training.
  • Sarhan, Alia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In my thesis I have been studying the effects of population fragmentation and extinction-recolonization dynamics on genetic and evolutionary processes in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). By conducting crosses within and among newly-colonized populations and using several fitness measures, I found a strong decrease in fitness following colonization by a few related individuals, and a strong negative relationship between parental relatedness and offspring fitness. Thereafter, I was interested in determining the number and relatedness of individuals colonizing new populations, which I did using a set of microsatellites I had previously developed for this species. Additionally, I am interested in the evolution of key life-history traits. By following the lifetime reproductive success of males emerging at different times in a semi-natural setup, I demonstrated that protandry is adaptive in males, and I was able to rule out, for M. cinxia, alternative incidental hypotheses evoked to explain the evolution of protandry in insects. Finally, in work I did together with Prof. Hanna Kokko, I am proposing bet-hedging as a new mechanism that could explain the evolution of polyandry in M. cinxia.
  • Tuomainen, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    When a habitat undergoes change, the first response of an individual is often behavioural adjustment. This immediate response can determine whether the population will survive or not, as behavioural flexibility gives time for genetic changes to arise later on. Habitat changes that alter reproductive behaviours can have long-lasting effects on populations. If the selective regime has changed under the new conditions, mate choice cues may no longer reliably reflect an individual s quality. Thus, animals have to be able to adjust their reproductive behaviours to the local conditions. The aim of my thesis was to discuss if and how animals are able to respond to rapid anthropogenic environmental change, and to study the mechanisms of the responses and the evolutionary consequences. The main focus was on the effects of human-induced eutrophication on the reproductive behaviour of fishes. Eutrophication is the result of increased nutrient input and can cause dense underwater vegetation and algal blooms. I used fishes from two very different ecosystems as model species, the Baltic Sea threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius), an endemic species of the Lake Eyre region in Central Australia. I investigated the effects of increased habitat complexity on courtship behaviour and the possibility of local differentiation in courtship and nest building behaviour depending on the level eutrophication in the habitat of origin. Furthermore, I observed the effect of turbidity on stickleback nest building behaviour. The results show that threespine stickleback males, which were born in areas that have been eutrophied for decades, court females at a higher intensity than males from clear water areas. Similarly, male desert gobies increased their courtship effort in dense vegetation. Intense courtship could be an adjustment to reduced visibility and lowered predation risk in the densely vegetated sites. However, there were no clear differences in nest building between males from clear and eutrophied areas under standardized conditions. This was expected as Baltic Sea sticklebacks prefer to nest under vegetation cover and are fairly rigid in adjusting their nest characteristics. Nest building was affected by increased turbidity: males built smaller nests with a larger nest entrance in turbid water. The large variation in the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms may require a rapid adjustment of the optimal nest structure to the current conditions. This thesis highlights the complex interactions that are set- off by human-induced changes in habitats and are followed by the immediate behavioural responses. It also encourages more research to tease apart the phenotypic and genetic components of the observed behavioural differences.
  • Hellstedt, Paavo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)