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  • Tabarracci, Daniela Andrea (2012)
    In 1987, the United Nations concerned with global challenges to human development called for a new model of growth to be erected upon the notion of sustainable development. Today, twenty five years later, the world continues to be beset by these global challenges and a governance gap around this issue has become manifest. Overtime, the international community came to the realization that, first, tackling these challenges requires the collective action of a multiplicity of relevant actors. And second, that the private sector, with its resources, know-how, experience and jurisdiction, could have a pivotal role to play to this end. The problem with these assumptions was the scepticism generated by mainstream interpretations of corporate nature and rationality. Despite the potential for contribution, corporations as self-interested agents in the struggle for the maximization of individual advantage could not be expected to contribute to the promotion of sustainable development; let alone through collective action. And yet contemporary evidence shows, that this scepticism is unwarranted. For that reason, the main purpose of this descriptive study was to account for the existing cases of collective action, and identify by listening to corporate actors, what was the rationale that underpinned their decisions to engage in these forms of collective action. In doing so, the aim was to assess the current suitability of mainstream approaches to reflect reality. Because of that, special attention was devoted to the notion of corporate self-interest (the key concept used by mainstream approaches to nurture the egoistic interpretation of the corporate actor). In listening to corporate actors two related qualitative analyses were conducted. On the one hand, a set of archival material - corporate responsibility reports and codes of conduct - was approached through a story-line narrative technique the purpose of which was to set the contextual and notional framework for the content analysis of interview transcripts that was to follow. On the other hand, semi-structured elite interviews were conducted on corporate executives of four transnational corporations, all of which are leaders in their respective industries and have a record of collective action that contributes to sustainable development. These corporations were Novartis, UPM, Tetra-Pak and Nokia and the overall purpose of the analytical chapter has been learn from corporate actors themselves what drove them to engage in these forms of collective action. At first glance the results of the analyses revealed that the rationale behind corporate engagement, continued to be explained by reference to corporate self-interest; just as mainstream approaches suggested. However, the point of divergence between these two interpretations was to be found in the way corporate self-interest was defined. According to mainstream approaches, corporate self-interest was defined in terms of profit maximization. Conversely, the findings unveiled in this study highlight the necessity to separate interests (instrumental reasons) from corporate self-interest (teleological reasons). In line with that differentiation, self-interest is defined as long-term survival, and all other interests are interpreted as instrumental to it. These findings have encouraging implications on the relevance of mainstream approaches to represent. Insofar a reassessment of the notion of corporate self-interest is undertaken to account for teleological reasons as distinct from instrumental reasons, mainstream approaches would be able to provide a fairer account of contemporary circumstances than they do today. In the absence of such an update, not only do they run the risk of not being able to reflect reality and becoming irrelevant, but they would also run the risk of rendering themselves unsuitable to account for changes in behaviours and interests, ultimately, downplaying rather than strengthening the rationality of actors. All in all, if what unrevised mainstream standards provide us with is an account for corporate rational behaviour, then what this study contributes is the possibility of moving past scepticism and understanding the potential for corporate behaviour to be better than rational. Keywords: mainstream, corporate self-interest, collective action, sustainable development, global collective goods, survival, profit, instrumental reasons, teleological reasons
  • Mäkinen, Martti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This study reports a corpus-based study of medieval English herbals, which are texts conveying information on medicinal plants. Herbals belong to the medieval medical register. The study charts intertextual parallels within the medieval genre, and between herbals and other contemporary medical texts. It seeks to answer questions where and how herbal texts are linked to each other, and to other medical writing. The theoretical framework of the study draws on intertextuality and genre studies, manuscript studies, corpus linguistics, and multi-dimensional text analysis. The method combines qualitative and quantitative analyses of textual material from three historical special-language corpora of Middle and Early Modern English, one of which was compiled for the purposes of this study. The text material contains over 800,000 words of medical texts. The time span of the material is from c. 1330 to 1550. Text material is retrieved from the corpora by using plant name lists as search criteria. The raw data is filtered through qualitative analysis which produces input for the quantitative analysis, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). In MDS, the textual space that parallel text passages form is observed, and the observations are explained by a qualitative analysis. This study concentrates on evidence of material and structural intertextuality. The analysis shows patterns of affinity between the texts of the herbal genre, and between herbals and other texts in the medical register. Herbals are most closely linked with recipe collections and regimens of health: they comprise over 95 per cent of the intertextual links between herbals and other medical writing. Links to surgical texts, or to specialised medical texts are very few. This can be explained by the history of the herbal genre: as herbals carry information on medical ingredients, herbs, they are relevant for genres that are related to pharmacological therapy. Conversely, herbals draw material from recipe collections in order to illustrate the medicinal properties of the herbs they describe. The study points out the close relationship between medical recipes and recipe-like passages in herbals (recipe paraphrases). The examples of recipe paraphrases show that they may have been perceived as indirect instruction. Keywords: medieval herbals, early English medicine, corpus linguistics, intertextuality, manuscript studies
  • Raiskila, Riikka Alina (2015)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine socio-political perspectives of water scarcity in a Moroccan oasis. Drawing from political ecology, it describes the results of a transfer from community-based resource management to institutional hybridity comprising of customary and formal socio-legal institutions and actors, and evaluates how the transfer of authority from customary water user communities to individuals and state organisations, and the adoption or rejection of formal property rights, have affected water access and availability in the oasis. Data was collected during fieldwork in southeast Morocco in October-December 2014 through semi-structured interviews and water point mapping with a GPS device. In total I conducted more than 50 interviews among water users and government authorities gaining access to unpublished secondary data on water resources. Data was analysed applying qualitative and quantitative methods. Results indicate that water scarcity in Ferkla is deepest among those without any permanently available modes of access or only common-property access to water. Customary water rights have lost their value as guarantors of water access due to physical water shortages and legal reforms. Water scarcity is least severe either among individuals who rely on private irrigation with (tube)wells and who have formalised their property, or those who have abandoned farming and rely on tap water. In conclusion, water management laws and policies have targeted and benefited small- and large-scale farmers differently resulting in a clear division between formal water users with improved water security and customary water users with inferior water access and availability. State attempts to improve water management by introducing formal private property rights have resulted in the creation of illegal water users who have been deprived of their customary water and land rights. At the same time, large-scale farmers have gained numerous benefits from formalising their land and water assets resulting in a decreased equity of resource distribution. While customary village councils still retain some power over common-property infrastructure, formal institutions have taken over the management of other modes of water access.
  • Saarikoski, Elina (2012)
    This research discusses how macro-level changes like the collapse of the Soviet Union and Estonia’s EU accession have influenced the experiences of Estonians’ living in Finland. The topic is approached with three main research questions. Firstly, have temporal and structural changes influenced Estonians’ lives in Finland. Secondly, what is the influence of the social position and various encounterings on one’s experiences and how one interprets them. Thirdly, how immigrant’s previous life in Estonia and his or her relations with family members and friends influence his or her current situation in the new country of residence. The main theoretical concepts of the study are ethnic identity, otherness, acculturation and transnationalism. The data collected for the study consists of eight interviews of Estonian women living in Finland. The interviews were semi-structured and emphasized informants’ own interpretations and conceptions of the past. The used method, oral history, is interested in the interpretations of the past and the meaning that the happenings have in the present situation and not only the actual happenings. Reminiscence of the past is a way to share experiences and compare them with those of the others’. It is a way to produce interpretations that supplement, comply and criticize public understandings of the past. Oral history and interviews bring forth new standpoints while they concentrate on informants’ own interpretations of the past. The informants have moved to Finland between 1990 and 2007 and their backgrounds and reasons to move vary. During the time frame of the research, there have been some practical changes that have influenced informants’ possibilities to move and to live in Finland. Residence permits, for example, are not needed anymore. In addition, the reasons to move have changed from returning migration to work based migration. At the same time, also attitudes among Finns towards Estonians have developed into a more tolerant direction. Immigration from Estonia to Finland is often temporary and movers do not necessarily have exact plans how long they are going to stay. This has become possible as crossing borders has eased since Estonia’s EU membership. Even though all the informants are women and Estonian, there are, however, differences in their experiences depending on, for instance, the time of the move, social position, occupation, family situation and personality. These variations influence the way in which they explain their experiences and construct their own identity in relation to the others. Besides, also conceptions of one’s own ethnic group and its past have an impact on the self-understanding. According to the interviews, Estonians seem to be a particular immigrant group in Finland that is regarded mainly positively. However, even though they, in general, speak fluent Finnish and there are similarities in the histories of the two countries, the acceptance of immigrants is always relative and depends on the other factors as well. According to this research, various factors influence the ways how informants experience their everyday life situations in Finland, how differently they explain their experiences and construct their own identities through them. Avainsanat
  • Smedman, Joakim (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to examine the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in the light of the principle of subsidiarity in EU law. The Charter constitutes a point of intersection of subsidiarity and fundamental rights, brought together by their common purpose of guiding the exercise of public powers and reconciling a diversity of Member State values with the need for European unity. With a particular focus on the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the study embraces the principle of subsidiarity for the purpose of interpreting the legal nature of the Charter and systemising its application. The formal link between subsidiarity and fundamental rights under the Charter is found in Article 51(1). In order to clarify the legal nature of the Charter and the context in which it operates, the study looks into how fundamental rights and subsidiarity have developed in EU law as well as how they are interrelated. The subsidiary nature of EU fundamental rights law is demonstrated by the restrictive personal and material scope of the Charter. Similarly, the principle of subsidiarity is used to analyse the Charter’s minimum and maximum level of protection. The Court’s application of the Charter is analysed by examining the expressions that the principle of subsidiarity takes when the Charter is balanced with economic freedoms, applied in conjunction with other norms, used to invalidate EU norms or called to set aside national legal acts. In addition to this, the analysis considers the role of subsidiarity in cases where the Charter was not applied, either because the Court lacked jurisdiction or remained silent on its applicability. The study demonstrates how the legal nature of the Charter to a great extent can be explained through the principle of subsidiarity. However, the EU legal order has its proper understanding of subsidiarity in relation to fundamental rights. Fundamental rights protection is only one of several EU objectives that need to be balanced when determining the appropriate level of action. Ultimately, the application of the Charter is triggered by the need to preserve the primacy, unity and effectiveness of EU law. Only in exceptional circumstances, these requirements may be overridden with reference to the principle of legal certainty, as recognised by the Charter. Conversely, subsidiarity as an interpretative principle of EU fundamental rights law may also contribute to enhanced legal certainty regarding the application of the Charter.
  • Baltscheffsky, Daniela (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Melanom är den mest maligna formen av hudcancer. De viktigaste prognosfaktorerna för lokalt melanom är tumörtjockleken (Breslow), eventuell ulceration, mitosindexet samt eventuella metastaser i de lokala lymfknutarna (stadium III). Vid behandlingen av stadium III melanom med hög recidivrisk ges adjuvant strålbehandling efter lymfadenektomi för att minska lokalrecidivrisken. I denna retrospektiva studie analyserades ifall den adjuvanta strålbehandlingen förbättrar patienternas lokalkontroll samt helhetsöverlevnad i jämförelse med hittills rapporterade studier. I studien analyserades 92 stadium III melanompatienter som behandlats med adjuvant strålbehandling vid HUCS’ klinik för cancersjukdomar åren 1989-2009. Recidivmönster samt överlevnad analyserades skilt för tre patientgrupper baserat på ifall de fått lymfknutsmetastaser eller satellitmetastaser samt ifall de fått den adjuvanta strålbehandlingen före eller efter år 2000, då man infört biopsi av portvaktskörteln (SNB) till behandlingen. Resultaten är jämförbara med resultat från tidigare publicerade studier där adjuvant strålbehandling efter lymfknutsresektion anses förbättra den lokala kontrollen, medan helhetsöverlevnaden inte nämnvärt påverkas.
  • Lejonqvist-Jurvanen, Nina (2004)
    Föremålet för denna pro gradu-avhandling är det kvinnliga nätverket i Finlands riksdag. Begreppet kvinnligt intresse innehar en central ställning i arbetet. Syftet är utreda huruvida nätverket i sin verksamhet utgår ifrån detta intresse och om det i så fall och på vilket sätt driver ett sådant intresse. Kärnan i avhandlingen är studera i vilken grad nätverket har praktiska påverkningsmöjligheter i den grad att den lyckas bryta partidisciplinen. Strävan är alltså att utreda om det kvinnliga intresset syns i innehållet i de stiftade lagarna. Materialet i avhandlingen utgörs dels av nätverkets protokoll förda vid arbetsutskottets möten under åren 1991-1999. Under denna period sammankom arbetsutskottet till 103 ordinarie möten. Dessa protokoll ger en helhetsbild av nätverkets verksamhet. Dels består materialet av riksdagens plenar- och utskottsprotokoll. Dessa protokoll för sin del berättar om hur riksdagens kvinnliga ledamöter förhållit sig till de konkreta förslag till lagar som arbetsutskottet gjort och genom dem får man en faktisk uppfattning om nätverkets påverkningsmöjligheter. Med hänvisning till undersökningar gjorda i de nordiska länderna ställdes följande hypotes upp: Riksdagens kvinnliga nätverk inriktar sin verksamhet på frågor som hör till området kvinnligt intresse och lyfter särskilt fram social- och jämställdhetsfrågor. Samtidigt driver de i liten grad lösningar som avviker från det egna partiets och den egna riksdagsgruppens ståndpunkt. Undersökningen bekräftade hypotesen. Av de frågor näverket hade på sin agenda under den undersökta perioden samlade rubriken allmän jämställdhet flest antal frågor. Därefter följde ekonomisk självständighet, kvinnligt perspektiv på olika frågor samt kroppslig integritet i nämnd ordning. Sålunda kan vi med fog säga att vad gäller innehållet driver nätverket frågor som faller inom området kvinnligt intresse. Den vanligaste formen för att bedriva verksamhet var att erbjuda möjlighet till diskussion och kontakter. Däremot gjordes konkreta förslag till lagstiftning endast nio gånger. Vidare visade undersökningen att det kvinnliga intresset nog ger upphov till parti- och blocköverskridande allianser. Men allianserna samlade endast en begränsad grupp kvinnor och i de flesta fallen var partiet viktigare än könet. I flera frågor finns det klara skillnader mellan könen men inga kategoriska sådana. Snarare kan vi säga att det är mera sannolikt att en kvinna agerar för en viss syn och en man för en annan.
  • Lassus, Jannika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis concerns Swedish and Finland-Swedish brochures to families with children, presenting family allowances from the social insurance institutions in the two countries. The aim of the study is to analyse what meanings are conveyed with reference to the conceivable reader and the institution in the brochures. The material consists of information brochures in Swedish from Kela, the social insurance institution of Finland, and Försäkringskassan, the Swedish social insurance agency, issued during 2003–2006. The general theoretical framework is systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) as presented by Halliday & Matthiessen (2004) and Holmberg & Karlsson (2006). The study consists of a quantitative study of the lexical choices of the social insurance brochures. Furthermore, a qualitative process and participant analysis is annotated with the UAM Corpus tool and the results are quantified. Speech functions and modal auxiliaries are analysed qualitatively. The analysis shows that material and relational processes are most common. The relational and verbal processes are used more in the Sweden-Swedish brochures, while the material processes are more common in the Finland-Swedish brochures. The participants in the brochures are the institution, mentioned by its name, and the conceivable reader, directly addressed with “you” (du). In addition, the referent “child” is often mentioned. The participants assigned for the reader are Actor, Receiver, Carrier and Speaker. In the Finland-Swedish texts, the reader is often an Actor, while the reader in the Sweden-Swedish texts is a Carrier. Thus, the conceivable reader is an active participant who takes care of his or her own matters using the internet, communicates actively to the institution and has legal rights and obligations. The institution is visible in the texts but does not have an active role as the name of the institution is mostly used in circumstances. The institution is not often a participant, but when it is, it is Actor, Receiver, Listener and Carrier, expecting the clients to address it. Speech functions are performed in different ways. For instance, questions structure the reading process and commands are realised by modal auxiliaries, not by imperatives. The most common modal auxiliary is kan (can, may), and another common auxiliary is ska (shall, must). Statements are surrounded by subordinate clauses and adverbs that describe situations and criteria. The results of the study suggest that the brochures in the two countries are similar, in particular when produced in similar ways, that is, when the Finland-Swedish texts are not translated. Existing differences reflect the differences in the institutions, the social insurance systems and the cultural contexts. KEYWORDS: Finland-Swedish, Swedish, comparative analysis, SFL, discourse analysis, administrative language, institutional discourse, institutional communication
  • Lehtonen, Riikka Maria (Mars)
    Avsikten med undersökningen var att utforska VeiJari fanklubbens symboliska betydelser och gemenskap. Genom att fråga vilka kollektiva betydelser som särskiljer fanklubben och vad de innehåller, och vilken symbolik som förknippas med objekten och aktiviteterna, ville jag visa vilka etablerade och upprepade uttryckssätt som profilerar gruppen samt vilken verklighet som uttrycks. Jag tolkade huvudmaterialet, VeiJari tidningens fotografier med visuell semiotik och använde tematisering som analysmetod för sidomaterialet, meddelandena i Jari Sillanpääs webbforum. Metodologiskt sett var Roses (2001) samt Hodge & Kress (1988) forskningsansatser väsentliga. De centralaste källorna och avspeglingsytorna utgjordes av Ahos (2003) bok om finska schlagerstjärnor, ett inhemskt samlingsverk redigerat av Kovala (2003) om samtida kultfenomen, Söderholms (1990) beskrivning av Jim Morrison-kulten, Niemeläs (1999) avhandling om Jari Sillanpää som ett populärkulturellt fenomen samt Ohrankämmens (1997) avhandling om beundran av Joel Hallikainen. Jag använde Émile Durkheims och Georg Simmels klassiska sociologiska teorier i begrundan av empirin. Michel Maffesolis och Zygmunt Baumans tankar fick bistå med det samtida perspektivet. För det första visar resultaten, att det i idoliseringsförhållandet skapas ömsesidighet genom rituella diskussioner, kramar, gåvor och sång. För det andra framställs samhörighet och vi-känsla bland annat med det betecknande namnspråksgbegreppet VeiJari, behandlandet av gemensamma upplevelser i bild och text och genom bruk av gruppspecifika symboler. För det tredje utmärker ett vanligt, moget och finskt utförande idolens och beundrarnas yttre, som i kombination med en mytologiserande biografi underlättar likställningen mellan idol och beundrare. När man med simmelska termer kunde säga att det är frågan om sällskapande i en liten grupp, kunde det durkheimianska perspektivet visa att de olika aktiviteterna genom vilka gruppen möter varandra är annorlunda. Gemenskapen är informell eftersom den genomgår olika dimensioner, den är platsbunden till bland annat internet, den symboliseras av specifika rituella handlingar och den innehåller delade övertygelser, till exempel ömsesidighet och en positiv inställning.
  • Ristimäki, Annette (Helsingfors universitet, )
    Avhandlingen analyserar bevisvärdering av anonyma vittnens utsagor i straffprocess. Justitieministeriets arbetsgrupp, bevisningskommissionen, har utarbetat ett förslag till en reform av Rättegångs Balkens 17 kap. om bevisning. Förslaget är att i framtiden skall anonymitet tillåtas för vittnen som hotats och som har en objektiv, grundad orsak att frukta för sitt liv eller sin hälsa. Anonymitet skulle komma ifråga endast vid mycket grova brott. Det mest extensiva sättet att trygga vittnets säkerhet vore, enligt utskottsbetänkandet, att vittnet hörs genom videoförbindelse samt att hans röst förvrängs. Domaren som handlägger ärendet skulle inte känna till vittnets identitet. Den enda i rättsprocessen som vet vem vittnet är, är åklagaren. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utreda huruvida de anonyma utsagorna kommer att kunna beaktas som effektiva bevismedel. Kommer anonymiteten att inverka på vilket bevisvärde utsagan ges och till vilken grad? I avhandlingen upptas argument både pro et contra anonymitetens inverkan på bevisvärdet i vittnesutlåtandet. Ekelöfs bevisvärdemetod har valts som grund för bevisvärderingen. Diesens analysprocess fungerar som ett komplement för att få fram ett tillförlitligare bevisvärde. I avhandlingen har lyfts fram några av de felkällor som måste beaktas särskilt vid värdering av anonyma utlåtanden, då man använder sig av de nämnda värderingsmetoderna. Bevisvärdering är en komplex process, i vilken skall beaktas faktorer som inverkar både på utsagegivaren och på bedömaren. Särskilt personbevisningen kan skapa problem, ty dess tillförlitlighet kan inte bestämmas lika exakt som sakbevisning. En utsagas innehåll är aldrig det samma som verkligheten de facto varit vid tidpunkten för den händelse som gett upphov till vittnesutsagan. För att kunna värdera en vittnesutsaga på ett adekvat sätt, krävs det kunskap om vilka faktorer som inverkar på bevisvärdet. Stöd fås av relevanta erfarenhetssatser. Problem uppstår dock då domaren inte känner till vittnets identitet. Slutsatsen är att ett anonymt vittnesutlåtande måste ges ett lägre värde än ett normalt vittnesutlåtande.
  • Lindblom, Seppo (2002)
    The method of the present study has been influenced by "Zeitdiagnose", which can be considered as a special genre of modern sociological research. The starting points of this study are the great Finnish depression, the turning point in the 20th century, and the anxiety and uncertainty concerning future adjustment of the welfare state which followed. The need of a new analysis becomes clear when uncertainty is confronted with certainty, and traditional ways of thinking do not any more offer relevant questions and answers in the field of welfare policy. The antagonism between left and right is loosing its relevance. Therefore, alternative co-ordinates must be built. The welfare state has not faced ideological enemies but instead a more and more complex world and the era of uncertainty. The welfare state is seen as a receipt of certainty characterised by a wide political consensus. This study examines what happens when the receipt of certainty confronts with the era of uncertainty. Political confidence is in danger. The main claim is that the welfare state has to be undressed of excessive demands and of expectations it cannot fulfil. This research is guided by society-policy themes in which the uncertainty is accepted and the limits and content of the reflexive accountability of the welfare state is being analysed. The concept of reflexive accountability is considered as one welfare-policy way of thinking. The research searches for an active intervention policy which could create confidence in the era of uncertainty. The study introduces three alternative concepts of policy: reflexive accountability, expansive and frustrated politics. Reflexive accountability refers to a restricted political responsibility in which global distribution of income, democratic dialogue, pragmatic creativity and contingency are emphasised. The expansive concept of policy, on the other hand, searches for solutions from rapid economic growth and expansive welfare state and social policies. Opposite to the latter is reaction of frustration and disappointment which arises when expansion reaches its conceptual and material limits. Uncertainty and contingence are the basic concepts of this research. Uncertainty refers to a mental ambivalence on choosing the right policies. It is characterised by the volatility of global know-how intensive economy, difficulties in choosing between right and wrong and by the tendency to question the legitimacy of science. Contingency refers to a possibility to choose and to act differently. It means carefulness and deliberation in order to recognise unknown possibilities. As a room of manoeuvre in the welfare policy, contingency can be understood as unexhausted mental and material resources to stand the test of unexpected trials as well as to take benefit from new opening opportunities.
  • Paunio, Elina (Unigrafia, 2011)
    This study addresses the issue of multilingualism in EU law. More specifically, it explores the implications of multilingualism for conceptualising legal certainty, a central principle of law both in domestic and EU legal systems. The main question addressed is how multilingualism and legal certainty may be reconciled in the EU legal system. The study begins with a discussion on the role of translation in drafting EU legislation and its implications for interpreting EU law at the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Uncertainty regarding the meaning of multilingual EU law and the interrelationship between multilingualism and ECJ methods of interpretation are explored. This analysis leads to questioning the importance of linguistic-semantic methods of interpretation, especially the role of comparing language versions for clarifying meaning and the ordinary meaning thesis, and to placing emphasis on other, especially the teleological, purpose-oriented method of interpretation. As regards the principle of legal certainty, the starting-point is a two-dimensional concept consisting of both formal and substantive elements; of predictability and acceptability. Formal legal certainty implies that laws and adjudication, in particular, must be predictable. Substantive legal certainty is related to rational acceptability of judicial decision-making placing emphasis on its acceptability to the legal community in question. Contrary to predictability that one might intuitively relate to linguistic-semantic methods of interpretation, the study suggests a new conception of legal certainty where purpose, telos, and other dynamic methods of interpretation are of particular significance for meaning construction in multilingual EU law. Accordingly, the importance of purposive, teleological interpretation as the standard doctrine of interpretation in a multilingual legal system is highlighted. The focus on rational, substantive acceptability results in emphasising discourse among legal actors among the EU legal community and stressing the need to give reasons in favour of proposed meaning in accordance with dynamic methods of interpretation including considerations related to purposes, aims, objectives and consequences. In this context, the role of ideal discourse situations and communicative action taking the form of interaction among the EU legal community in an ongoing dialogue especially in the preliminary ruling procedure is brought into focus. In order for this dialogue to function, it requires that the ECJ gives persuasive, convincing and acceptable reasons in justifying its decisions. This necessitates transparency, sincerity, and dialogue with the relevant audience.
  • Jokitalo, Maija (2003)
  • Tuominen, Pasi (2015)
    Tietovarannoissa esiintyy monesti useita tietueita, jotka kuvaavat samaa objektia. Tässä tutkielmassa on vertailtu näiden tietueiden löytämiseen käytettäviä menetelmiä. Kokeet on suoritettu aineistolla, jossa on 6,4 miljoonaa bibliografista tietuetta. Menetelmien vertailussa käytettiin aineistossa olevien teosten nimekkeitä. Eri menetelmien kahta keskeistä piirrettä on mitattu: löydettyjen duplikaattien lukumäärää ja niiden suhdetta muodostettujen kandidaattien lukumäärään. Kahden menetelmän yhdistelmä osoittautui parhaaksi aineiston deduplikointiin. Järjestetyllä naapurustolla löytyi eniten varsinaisia duplikaatteja, mutta myös eniten irrelevantteja kandidaatteja. Suffiksitauluryhmittelyn avulla löytyi lisäksi joukko duplikaatteja joita muilla menetelmillä ei löytynyt. Yhdessä nämä kaksi menetelmää löysivät lähes kaikki duplikaatit mitä kaikki tutkielmassa verratut menetelmät löysivät. Levenshtein-etäisyyteen perustuvat virhesietoiset menetelmät osoittautuivat tehottomiksi nimekkeiden deduplikoinnissa.
  • Fagerholm, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Heikkilä, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    My academic dissertation "Bidrag till Fennoskandiens språkliga förhistoria i tid och rum" ("Spatiotemporal Contributions to the Linguistic Prehistory of Fennoscandia") is an interdisciplinary study of the linguistic prehistory of Northern Europe chiefly in the Iron Age (ca. 700 BC―AD 1200), but also to some extent in the Bronze Age (ca. 1700―700 BC) and the Early Finnish Middle Ages (ca. AD 1200―1323). The disciplines represented in this study are Germanistics, Nordistics, Finnougristics, history and archaeology. The language-forms studied are Proto-Germanic, Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Finnic and Proto-Sami. This dissertation uses historical-comparative linguistics and especially loanword study to examine the relative and absolute chronology of the sound changes that have taken place in the proto-forms of the Germanic, Finnic and Samic languages. Phonetic history is the basis of historical linguistics studying the diachronic development of languages. To my knowledge, this study is the first in the history of the disciplines mentioned above to examine the systematic dating of the phonetic development of these proto-languages in relation to each other. In addition to the dating and relating of the phonetic development of the proto-languages, I study Fennoscandian toponyms. The oldest datable and etymologizable place-names throw new light on the ethnic history and history of settlement of Fennoscandia. For instance, I deal with the etymology of the following place-names: Ahvenanmaa/Åland, Eura(joki), Inari(järvi), Kemi(joki), Kvenland, Kymi(joki), Sarsa, Satakunta, Vanaja, Vantaa and Ähtäri. My dissertation shows that Proto-Germanic, Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Finnic and Proto-Sami all date to different periods of the Iron Age. I argue that the present study along with my earlier published research also proves that a (West-)Uralic language – the pre-form of the Finnic and Samic languages – was spoken in the region of the present-day Finland in the Bronze Age, but not earlier than that. In the centuries before the Common Era, Proto-Sami was spoken in the whole region of what is now called Finland, excluding Lapland. At the beginning of the Common Era, Proto-Sami was spoken in the whole region of Finland, including Southern Finland, from where the Sami idiom first began to recede. An archaic (Northwest-)Indo-European language and a subsequently extinct Paleo-European language were likely spoken in what is now called Finland and Estonia, when the linguistic ancestors of the Finns and the Sami arrived in the eastern and northern Baltic Sea region from the Volga-Kama region probably at the beginning of the Bronze Age. For example, the names Suomi ʻFinlandʼ and Viro ʻEstoniaʼ are likely to have been borrowed from the Indo-European idiom in question. (Proto-)Germanic waves of influence have come from Scandinavia to Finland since the Bronze Age. A considerable part of the Finnic and Samic vocabulary is indeed Germanic loanwords of different ages which form strata in these languages. Besides mere etymological research, these numerous Germanic loanwords make it possible to relate to each other the temporal development of the language-forms that have been in contact with each other. That is what I have done in my extensive dissertation, which attempts to be both a detailed and a holistic treatise.