Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1797-1816 of 25483
  • Kivelev, Juri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Cavernomas are rare neurovascular lesions, encountered in up to 10% of patients harboring vascular abnormalities of the CNS. Cavernomas consist of dilated thin-walled sinusoids or caverns covered by a single layer of endothelium. Due to advancements in neuroradiology, the number of cavernoma patients coming to be evaluated in neurosurgical practice is increasing. In the present work, we summarized our results on the treatment of cavernomas. Particular attention was paid to uncommon locations or insufficiently investigated cavernomas, including 1. Intraventricular cavernomas; 2. Multiple cavernomas; 3. Spinal cavernomas; and 4. Temporal lobe cavernomas. After analyzing the patient series with these lesions, we concluded that: 1. IVCs are characterized by a high tendency to cause repetitive hemorrhages in a short period of time after the first event. In most patients, hemorrhages were not life-threatening. Surgery is indicated when re-bleedings are frequent and the mass-effect causes progressive neurological deterioration. Modern microsurgical techniques allow safe removal of the IVC, but surgery on fourth ventricle cavernomas carries increased risk of postoperative cranial nerve deficits. 2. In MC cases, when the cavernoma bleeds or generates drug-resistant epilepsy, microsurgical removal of the symptomatic lesion is beneficial to patients. In our series, surgical removal of the most active cavernoma usually the biggest lesion with signs of recent hemorrhage - was safe and prevented further bleedings. Epilepsy outcome showed the effectiveness of active treatment of MCs. However, due to the remaining cavernomas, epileptogenic activity can persist postoperatively, frequently necessitating long-term use of antiepileptic drugs. 3. Spinal cavernomas can cause severe neurological deterioration due to low tolerance of the spinal cord to mass-effect with progressive myelopathy. When aggravated by extralesional massive hemorrhage, neurological decline is usually acute and requires immediate treatment. Microsurgical removal of a cavernoma is effective and safe, improving neurological deficits. Sensorimotor deficits and pain improved postoperatively at a high rate, whereas bladder dysfunction remained essentially unchanged, causing social discomfort to patients. 4. Microsurgical removal of temporal lobe cavernomas is beneficial for patents suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy. In our series, 69% of patients with this condition became seizure-free postoperatively. Duration of epilepsy did not correlate with seizure prognosis. The most frequent disabling symptom at follow-up was memory disorder, considered to be the result of a complex interplay between chronic epilepsy and possible damage to the temporal lobe during surgery.
  • Vartiainen, Nuutti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Acute pain has substantial survival value because of its protective function in the everyday environment. Instead, chronic pain lacks survival and adaptive function, causes great amount of individual suffering, and consumes the resources of the society due to the treatment costs and loss of production. The treatment of chronic pain has remained challenging because of inadequate understanding of mechanisms working at different levels of the nervous system in the development, modulation, and maintenance of chronic pain. Especially in unclear chronic pain conditions the treatment may be suboptimal because it can not be targeted to the underlying mechanisms. Noninvasive neuroimaging techniques have greatly contributed to our understanding of brain activity associated with pain in healthy individuals. Many previous studies, focusing on brain activations to acute experimental pain in healthy individuals, have consistently demonstrated a widely-distributed network of brain regions that participate in the processing of acute pain. The aim of the present thesis was to employ non-invasive brain imaging to better understand the brain mechanisms in patients suffering from chronic pain. In Study I, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure cortical responses to painful laser stimulation in healthy individuals for optimization of the stimulus parameters for patient studies. In Studies II and III, we monitored with MEG the cortical processing of touch and acute pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We found persisting plastic changes in the hand representation area of the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, suggesting that chronic pain causes cortical reorganization. Responses in the posterior parietal cortex to both tactile and painful laser stimulation were attenuated, which could be associated with neglect-like symptoms of the patients. The primary motor cortex reactivity to acute pain was reduced in patients who had stronger spontaneous pain and weaker grip strength in the painful hand. The tight coupling between spontaneous pain and motor dysfunction supports the idea that motor rehabilitation is important in CRPS. In Studies IV and V we used MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the central processing of touch and acute pain in patients who suffered from recurrent herpes simplex virus infections and from chronic widespread pain in one side of the body. With MEG, we found plastic changes in the SI cortex, suggesting that many different types of chronic pain may be associated with similar cortical reorganization. With fMRI, we found functional and morphological changes in the central pain circuitry, as an indication of central contribution for the pain. These results show that chronic pain is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, and that such changes can be measured with functional imaging.
  • Heikkilä, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Aim: So far, most of the cognitive neuroscience studies investigating the development of brain activity in childhood have made comparisons between different age groups and ignored the individual stage of cognitive development. Given the wide variation in the rate of cognitive development, this study argues that chronological age alone cannot explain the developmental changes in brain activity. This study demonstrates how Piaget s theory and information on child s individual stage of development can complement the age-related evaluations of brain oscillatory activity. In addition, the relationship between cognitive development and working memory is investigated. Method: A total of 33 children (17 11-year-olds, 16 14-year-olds) participated in this study. The study consisted of behavioural tests and an EEG experiment. Behavioral tests included two Piagetian tasks (the Volume and Density task, the Pendulum task) and Raven s Standard Progressive Matrices task. During EEG experiment, subjects performed a modified version of the Sternberg s memory search paradigm which consisted of an auditorily presented memory set of 4 words and a probe word following these. The EEG data was analyzed using the event-related desynchronization / synchronization (ERD/ERS) method. The Pendulum task was used to assess the cognitive developmental stage of each subject and to form four groups based on age (11- or 14-year-olds) and cognitive developmental stage (concrete or formal operational stage). Group comparisons between these four groups were performed for the EEG data. Results and conclusions: Both age- and cognitive stage-related differences in brain oscillatory activity were found between the four groups. Importantly, age-related changes similar to those reported by previous studies were found also in this study, but these changes were modified by developmental stage. In addition, the results support a strong link between working memory and cognitive development by demonstrating differences in memory task related brain activity and cognitive developmental stages. Based on these findings it is suggested that in the future, comparisons of development of brain activity should not be based only on age but also on the individual cognitive developmental stage.
  • Laaksonen, Kristina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Brain plasticity and stroke recovery Recovery from stroke is based on the capability of the brain to reorganize its structure and function after lesion. An acute stroke triggers a cascade of time-dependent metabolic and physiological reactions, which enable changes in the organization and function of widespread cortical regions. A wide range of studies, using various functional imaging methods, have thrown light on the reorganizational changes after stroke. However, less is known about the temporal evolution of these changes and their correlation to clinical recovery. In this thesis, different aspects of neurophysiological changes related to sensorimotor recovery were studied in 18 patients with first-ever stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory, affecting upper limb motor function. Follow-up recordings of somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) and spontaneous rhythmic brain activity were performed with whole-head MEG within 1 week (T0), 1 month (T1), and 3 months (T2) after stroke with concomitant evaluation of clinical outcome. MEG suits stroke studies especially well, as it is independent from hemodynamic alterations, and the signals are practically unaffected by morbid tissue. The results indicated that the hand representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in the affected hemisphere (AH) was transiently enlarged at T1 and returned to normal size concomitantly with clinical improvement of hand function (Study I). Study II showed that the activation in the contralateral secondary somatosensory cortex (cSII) was decreased in the AH at T0 and increased during follow-up. The strength of cSII activation paralleled the recovery of hand function during the 3 months follow-up, suggesting that cSII may be an important region in mediating the somatosensory input to the motor cortex. The results in Study III indicated that afferent-input-modulated motor cortex excitability was increased in the AH in the acute phase after stroke and decreased during follow-up in association with recovery of hand function. Study IV showed that the ~10-Hz oscillations were enhanced in the AH at T1 and T2. Moreover, pathological perilesional low-frequency oscillations were detected in 7/16 patients at T0, and the low-frequency oscillations persisted for at least 3 months in 4 patients. These 4 patients had a worse clinical outcome at T2 than the rest of the patients. The results indicate that even small lesions can cause widespread neurophysiological changes in the cortical network. Certain brain regions, such as SII, seem to be specifically important for the recovery of hand function. The results underline the importance of parallel recovery of the somatosensory and motor systems for fluent hand function. The most evident neurophysiological changes were observed within 1 month after stroke in parallel with steepest improvement of clinical recovery, suggesting that the first 4 weeks are critical for functional recovery.
  • Rantamäki, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Reduced actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are linked to the pathophysiology of depression whereas antidepressants induce BDNF synthesis together with neuroplastic alterations in the brain. Still the molecular mechanisms regulating the effects of antidepressants on BDNF synthesis are largely obscure and it is not well known whether this BDNF induction leads to the signaling of BDNF receptor TrkB in vivo. By using an antibody against autophosphorylated TrkB, we show that pharmacologically diverse antidepressants induce TrkB activity in the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus (HC). Lithium (Li+), an antimanic and antidepressant-augmenting agent, produces similar changes in TrkB activity in the ACC. ACC and HC are two key brain areas implicated in depression and antidepressant action. Given that clinically used antidepressants and Li+ act in a lag-time manner, it is interesting that the effects of these agents on brain TrkB signaling are observed rapidly after a single drug administration. Antidepressant-regulated TrkB-induction specifically leads to the activation of phospholipase-Cγ1 (PLCγ1) which in turn, and likely in concert with monoaminergic signaling events, induces the phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP related element binding protein). Through the activation of PLCγ1-CREB cascade, antidepressants may regulate synaptic plasticity and the release and synthesis of BDNF itself. Interestingly however, electroconvulsive shock (ECS), among the most potent antidepressant therapy, rapidly reduces TrkB signalling in the rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC) even in situations were endogenous BDNF levels are high. In contrast, ECS induces the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) neurotrophic pathway in the rodent PFC. The behavioural studies revealed that sustained increase in TrkB signalling is characterized with antidepressant-like behaviour in a rodent model of behavioural despair, the forced swim test (FST). In contrast, basal behaviour of TrkB deficient mice is normal but these mice do not respond to serotonergic antidepressant in the FST. Altogether, the present results provide compelling evidence that chemical antidepressants produce rapid neurotrophic actions through the TrkB-PLCγ1-CREB signaling in the rodent brain and suggest that these changes initiate plastic responses in the neuronal networks implicated in depression.
  • Nevanlinna, Saija (2014)
    Sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen brandiviestinnässä nähdään kasvavana suuntauksena. Sosiaalisen median käytön yleistyminen on johtanut muutoksiin yritysten liiketoimintaympäristössä. Brandiviestinnän suunnittelun pääpainopiste on siirtynyt perinteisistä markkinointimenetelmistä Internetiin ja sosiaaliseen mediaan. Markkinointiviestiväylän tai -väylien valinnasta on samalla tullut yksi merkittävimmistä yritysten brandiviestintästrategiaa koskevista päätöksistä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, miten kuluttajat suhtautuvat brandiviestintään ruokablogeissa. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan ruokablogien toiminnallisuuden ja käyttökulttuurin sopivuutta brandiviestinnän välineeksi. Brandiviestinnän toimivuuden mittarina käytetään kuluttajien suhtautumista brandiviesteihin. Tutkimuksen lähestymistavaksi valittiin kvalitatiivinen tutkimusmenetelmä. Tutkimusaineiston keräämisessä käytettiin aineistotriangulaatiota. Aineisto kerättiin havainnoimalla ja teemahaastatteluilla. Havainnoinnilla kerätty aineisto koostuu ruokablogien keskustelualustojen kommenteista. Havainnoinnin lisäksi haastateltiin 11 ruokablogin seuraajaa. Aineistosta selvisi, että kuluttajien motiivit seurata ruokablogeja ovat yksilöllisiä. Nämä motiivit vaikuttavat siihen, miten kuluttajat suhtautuvat brandiviestintään ruokablogeissa. Ruokablogien selailu ei ole kuluttajille pelkästään ajanvietettä, vaan niistä etsitään myös tietoa, mielipiteitä, kokemuksia ja tukea ostopäätöksille. Kuluttajat osallistuvat brandiviestintään ruokablogeissa. Blogien brandiviestin arvo perustuu pitkälti kuluttajien omaan toimintaan. Haastateltavat kokivat brandiviestinnän vaikuttavan heidän mielikuviin ja käsityksiin brandista, mikäli heillä ei ollut aiempaa omakohtaista kokemusta brandista. Brandiviestin ja sen lähettäjän tunnistaminen koettiin vaikeaksi. Brandiviestinnän nähtiin olevan olennainen osa ruokablogien sisältöä ja toimintaa. Parhaassa tapauksessa ruokablogit ovat tehokas brandiviestintäväylä. Kuluttajista on tullut yhä pysyvämpi osa yritysten brandiviestintää. Brandiviestintä ja brandimaininnat blogeissa ovat kuluttajien silmissä usein sama asia. Kaikki brandimaininnat nähdään brandin ilmentymänä, mikä tarkoittaa sitä, että ne voivat vaikuttaa kuluttajien mielikuviin brandista. Blogien kautta tapahtuvan brandiviestinnän haasteena on tuottaa mielenkiintoisia brandiviestejä, jotka jäisivät kuluttajien mieliin.
  • Känkänen, Outi (2006)
    Tämä pro gradu –tutkielma on laadullinen tapaustutkimus, jossa tutkitaan brandin rakentamista ja viestintää www-sivuilla relationaalisen viestintänäkemyksen näkökulmasta. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu Internetissä valmiina olevasta aineistosta, Pampersin ja Libero-vaipan www-sivuista. Työn teoreettisen taustan muodostavat relationaalinen viestintämalli (Karvonen 1999), brandin rinnakkaistermin mielikuvan ja mielikuvien syntymallien tarkastelu sekä brandin markkinointi ja markkinointiviestintä www-sivuilla. Tutkimuksen pääpaino ole pelkkien kirjallisten tekstien tai kuvien analysoinnissa, vaan multimedian keinoin www-sivuilla esitetyn brandia ilmentävän representaation (tekstien, kuvien ja äänien yhdistelmä), kokonaisuuden, tarkastelussa. Brandin representaation tarkastelussa tekijä tukeutuu Mitran ja Cohenin (1999) systemaattisen tekstianalyysin yhteydessä esittämiin seikkoihin www-tekstin erityispiirteiden huomioimisesta sekä Janne Seppäsen (2005) määritelmiin representaatiosta ja multimodaalisuudesta ja Minna Tarkan (2000) ajatukseen käyttöliittymästä vuorovaikutteisena kuvana. Yhteistä näille näkökulmille on se, että niissä kuvaruudulla näkyvä aineisto ymmärretään multimedian keinoin järjestetyksi, erilaisten esitystapojen yhdistelmäksi. Tekstin retoriikan ja hypertekstin lukemista koskevien erityispiirteiden sekä näistä syntyvien mahdollisten luentojen ja niiden merkitysten osalta tekijä tukeutuu Sosnoskin (1999) esitykseen konfiguroinnista retorisena analyysitapana. Kokonaisanalyysi koostuu molempien tutkimustapausten, Liberon ja Pampersin www-sivustojen, osalta seuraavista osa-analyyseista: teemoittelusta, www-sivustojen tekstianalyyseistä, brandi-identiteetin kokonaisuuden ja brandiviestinnän analyyseistä sekä sivustoihin liittyvien mahdollisten luentojen retorisesta analyysista. Analyysin tulosten perusteella varsinaiset tuotteet, vaipat, eivät ominaisuuksiltaan ja toiminnallisilta hyödyiltään oleellisesti eroa toisistaan, minkä vuoksi markkinoijat pyrkivät erilaistamaan tuotteitaan muilla tavoilla. Tarkastellut brandit pyrkivät erilaistumaan toisistaan ja muista kilpailijoistaan brandin persoonallisuuden ja siihen liittyvien symbolien, arvoväittämän tunnepohjaisten ja käyttäjän persoonallisuutta ilmaisevien hyötyjen painotusten sekä tavoittelemansa asiakassuhteen avulla. Persoonallisuuden ja asiakassuhteen osalta voisi tiivistää, että Libero vertautuu vanhemman vertaiseen ystävään, Pampers puolestaan asiantuntijaan. Kaksi jokseenkin samanlaista tuotetta edustavaa markkinoijaa voi erilaistaa tuotteensa viestinnässään mielikuvien avulla, brandia rakentamalla. Brandin www-sivujen lukijat kokevat brandin henkilökohtaisesti. Brandiin liittyvällä näkökulmien ja merkitysten moninaisuudella on yhtymäkohta relationaaliseen viestintänäkemykseen ja relationaaliseen näkemykseen mielikuvista: samoin kuin Karvonen (1999) esittää järviesimerkillään, miten eri ihmiset antavat järvelle eri merkityksiä omasta näkökulmastaan ja todellisuudestaan käsin, myös www-sivujen elementtien synnyttämien erilaisten mielikuvien perusteella syntyvät mahdolliset näkökulmat tai tulkinnat antavat www-sivulle ja brandille erilaisia merkityksiä. Eri osapuolet suhteutuvat brandiin perspektiivisesti vain rajallisessa suhteessa, minkä perusteella kullekin brandista syntyvä merkitys edustaa yksipuolista ymmärrystä. Jos olisi mahdollista kerätä kaikkien osallisten käsitykset yhteen, voisi tarkastella kohteen, brandin, ”todellisuutta”, joka siten edustaisi mahdollisimman monipuolista ymmärrystä. Samasta asiasta, esimerkiksi lasten vaipoista merkityksineen, voidaan siis puhua hyvin monilla toisistaan eroavilla tavoilla.
  • Känkänen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Tämä pro gradu –tutkielma on laadullinen tapaustutkimus, jossa tutkitaan brandin rakentamista ja viestintää www-sivuilla relationaalisen viestintänäkemyksen näkökulmasta. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu Internetissä valmiina olevasta aineistosta, Pampersin ja Libero-vaipan www-sivuista. Työn teoreettisen taustan muodostavat relationaalinen viestintämalli (Karvonen 1999), brandin rinnakkaistermin mielikuvan ja mielikuvien syntymallien tarkastelu sekä brandin markkinointi ja markkinointiviestintä www-sivuilla. Tutkimuksen pääpaino ole pelkkien kirjallisten tekstien tai kuvien analysoinnissa, vaan multimedian keinoin www-sivuilla esitetyn brandia ilmentävän representaation (tekstien, kuvien ja äänien yhdistelmä), kokonaisuuden, tarkastelussa. Brandin representaation tarkastelussa tekijä tukeutuu Mitran ja Cohenin (1999) systemaattisen tekstianalyysin yhteydessä esittämiin seikkoihin www-tekstin erityispiirteiden huomioimisesta sekä Janne Seppäsen (2005) määritelmiin representaatiosta ja multimodaalisuudesta ja Minna Tarkan (2000) ajatukseen käyttöliittymästä vuorovaikutteisena kuvana. Yhteistä näille näkökulmille on se, että niissä kuvaruudulla näkyvä aineisto ymmärretään multimedian keinoin järjestetyksi, erilaisten esitystapojen yhdistelmäksi. Tekstin retoriikan ja hypertekstin lukemista koskevien erityispiirteiden sekä näistä syntyvien mahdollisten luentojen ja niiden merkitysten osalta tekijä tukeutuu Sosnoskin (1999) esitykseen konfiguroinnista retorisena analyysitapana. Kokonaisanalyysi koostuu molempien tutkimustapausten, Liberon ja Pampersin www-sivustojen, osalta seuraavista osa-analyyseista: teemoittelusta, www-sivustojen tekstianalyyseistä, brandi-identiteetin kokonaisuuden ja brandiviestinnän analyyseistä sekä sivustoihin liittyvien mahdollisten luentojen retorisesta analyysista. Analyysin tulosten perusteella varsinaiset tuotteet, vaipat, eivät ominaisuuksiltaan ja toiminnallisilta hyödyiltään oleellisesti eroa toisistaan, minkä vuoksi markkinoijat pyrkivät erilaistamaan tuotteitaan muilla tavoilla. Tarkastellut brandit pyrkivät erilaistumaan toisistaan ja muista kilpailijoistaan brandin persoonallisuuden ja siihen liittyvien symbolien, arvoväittämän tunnepohjaisten ja käyttäjän persoonallisuutta ilmaisevien hyötyjen painotusten sekä tavoittelemansa asiakassuhteen avulla. Persoonallisuuden ja asiakassuhteen osalta voisi tiivistää, että Libero vertautuu vanhemman vertaiseen ystävään, Pampers puolestaan asiantuntijaan. Kaksi jokseenkin samanlaista tuotetta edustavaa markkinoijaa voi erilaistaa tuotteensa viestinnässään mielikuvien avulla, brandia rakentamalla. Brandin www-sivujen lukijat kokevat brandin henkilökohtaisesti. Brandiin liittyvällä näkökulmien ja merkitysten moninaisuudella on yhtymäkohta relationaaliseen viestintänäkemykseen ja relationaaliseen näkemykseen mielikuvista: samoin kuin Karvonen (1999) esittää järviesimerkillään, miten eri ihmiset antavat järvelle eri merkityksiä omasta näkökulmastaan ja todellisuudestaan käsin, myös www-sivujen elementtien synnyttämien erilaisten mielikuvien perusteella syntyvät mahdolliset näkökulmat tai tulkinnat antavat www-sivulle ja brandille erilaisia merkityksiä. Eri osapuolet suhteutuvat brandiin perspektiivisesti vain rajallisessa suhteessa, minkä perusteella kullekin brandista syntyvä merkitys edustaa yksipuolista ymmärrystä. Jos olisi mahdollista kerätä kaikkien osallisten käsitykset yhteen, voisi tarkastella kohteen, brandin, ”todellisuutta”, joka siten edustaisi mahdollisimman monipuolista ymmärrystä. Samasta asiasta, esimerkiksi lasten vaipoista merkityksineen, voidaan siis puhua hyvin monilla toisistaan eroavilla tavoilla.
  • Puolamäki, Kai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Eerola, Hannaleena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Tervonen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of this work was to examine how breathing, swallowing and voicing are affected in different laryngeal disorders. For this purpose, we examined four different patient groups: patients who had undergone total laryngectomy, anterior cervical decompression (ACD), or injection laryngoplasty with autologous fascia (ILAF), and patients with dyspnea during exercise. We studied the problems and benefits related to the automatic speech valve used for the rehabilitation of speech in laryngectomized patients. The device was given to 14 total laryngectomized patients who used the traditional valve especially well. The usefulness of voice and intelligibility of speech were assessed by speech pathologists. The results demonstrated better performance with the traditional valve in both dimensions. Most of the patients considered the automatic valve a helpful additional device but because of heavier breathing and the greater work needed for speech production, it was not suitable as a sole device in speech rehabilitation. Dysphonia and dysphagia are known complications of ACD. These symptoms are caused due to the stretching of tissue needed during the surgery, but the extent and the recovery from them was not well known before our study. We studied two patient groups, an early group with 50 patients who were examined immediately before and after the surgery and a late group with 64 patients who were examined 3 9 months postoperatively. Altogether, 60% reported dysphonia and 69% dysphagia immediately after the operation. Even though dysphagia and dysphonia often appeared after surgery, permanent problems seldom occurred. Six (12 %) cases of transient and two (3 %) permanent vocal cord paresis were detected. In our third study, the long-term results of ILAF in 43 patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis were examined. The mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range 3 10). Perceptual evaluation demonstrated improved results for voice quality, and videostroboscopy revealed complete or partial glottal closure in 83% of the patients. Fascia showed to be a stable injection material with good vocal results. In our final study we developed a new diagnostic method for exertional laryngeal dyspnea by combining a cardiovascular exercise test with simultaneous fiberoptic observation of the larynx. With this method, it is possible to visualize paradoxal closure of the vocal cords during inspiration, which is a diagnostic criterion for vocal cord dysfunction (VCD). We examined 30 patients referred to our hospital because of suspicion of exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (EIVCD). Twenty seven out of thirty patients were able to perform the test. Dyspnea was induced in 15 patients, and of them five had EIVCD and four high suspicion of EIVCD. With our test it is possible to set an accurate diagnosis for exertional laryngeal dyspnea. Moreover, the often seen unnecessary use of asthma drugs among these patients can be avoided.
  • Laakso, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Technical or contaminated ethanol products are sometimes ingested either accidentally or on purpose. Typical misused products are black-market liquor and automotive products, e.g., windshield washer fluids. In addition to less toxic solvents, these liquids may contain the deadly methanol. Symptoms of even lethal solvent poisoning are often non-specific at the early stage. The present series of studies was carried out to develop a method for solvent intoxication breath diagnostics to speed up the diagnosis procedure conventionally based on blood tests. Especially in the case of methanol ingestion, the analysis method should be sufficiently sensitive and accurate to determine the presence of even small amounts of methanol from the mixture of ethanol and other less-toxic components. In addition to the studies on the FT-IR method, the Dräger 7110 evidential breath analyzer was examined to determine its ability to reveal a coexisting toxic solvent. An industrial Fourier transform infrared analyzer was modified for breath testing. The sample cell fittings were widened and the cell size reduced in order to get an alveolar sample directly from a single exhalation. The performance and the feasibility of the Gasmet FT-IR analyzer were tested in clinical settings and in the laboratory. Actual human breath screening studies were carried out with healthy volunteers, inebriated homeless men, emergency room patients and methanol-intoxicated patients. A number of the breath analysis results were compared to blood test results in order to approximate the blood-breath relationship. In the laboratory experiments, the analytical performance of the Gasmet FT-IR analyzer and Dräger 7110 evidential breath analyzer was evaluated by means of artificial samples resembling exhaled breath. The investigations demonstrated that a successful breath ethanol analysis by Dräger 7110 evidential breath analyzer could exclude any significant methanol intoxication. In contrast, the device did not detect very high levels of acetone, 1-propanol and 2-propanol in simulated breath. The Dräger 7110 evidential breath ethanol analyzer was not equipped to recognize the interfering component. According to the studies the Gasmet FT-IR analyzer was adequately sensitive, selective and accurate for solvent intoxication diagnostics. In addition to diagnostics, the fast breath solvent analysis proved feasible for controlling the ethanol and methanol concentration during haemodialysis treatment. Because of the simplicity of the sampling and analysis procedure, non-laboratory personnel, such as police officers or social workers, could also operate the analyzer for screening purposes.
  • Mäki, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Liinamo, Anna-Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Valtonen, Laura (2014)
    This thesis is an ethnographic case study on project Safety Net, which provides psychosocial peer support for unaccompanied minor asylum seekers in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 150 underage asylum seekers unaccompanied by family arrive in Finland yearly. Project Safety Net peer tutors visit the group homes that the children live in, and provide an opportunity for them to share their experiences in their own languages. The aims of this research were to understand the circumstances of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, and to gain insight into the ways in which the provided peer support works. This study also critically considers how child asylum seekers are represented in the practices and rhetoric of the Finnish asylum process, and how project Safety Net relates to these representations. Methods used in this research included participant observation, interviews, and group discussions. The data was analyzed thematically and systematically. For unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, factors that increase the need for support were found to be separation from family, the inherent temporariness of the asylum seeker status and a concern for the future, language difficulties, a feeling of isolation, and developmental issues related to adolescence. The weekly visits from Safety Net peer tutors was found to be significant in providing support. This research shows that Safety Net peer tutors have many different roles through which peer support works. As friends, they offer a change to the daily routines of group home life and are trusted confidants. Often they take on the role of a family member. They may also act as spokespersons on the children’s behalf, while also offering advice on how to navigate in the Finnish society. They can be significant role models as people who have once been refugees themselves and have successfully adapted to the Finnish society. Elements that make project Safety Net successful were found to be most importantly the use of the children’s own languages, a communal nature within the project, and the shared experience of being a refugee. Peer tutors also experienced benefits from working in the project. The analysis of refugee representations uncovered certain distancing and silencing practices such as the isolated placement of the asylum seekers, bureaucratic expression, and the representation of asylum seekers as essentially untrustworthy. Safety Net was found to offer several significant counter-representations, notwithstanding the fact that it is not completely immune to the prevailing political representations.
  • Riska-Campbell, Leena (The Finnish Society of Science and Letters, 2011)
    The dissertation examines the foreign policies of the United States through the prism of science and technology. In the focal point of scrutiny is the policy establishing the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the development of the multilateral part of bridge building in American foreign policy during the 1960s and early 1970s. After a long and arduous negotiation process, the institute was finally established by twelve national member organizations from the following countries: Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), France, German Democratic Republic (GDR), Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Poland, Soviet Union and United States; a few years later Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands also joined. It is said that the goal of the institute was to bring together researchers from East and West to solve pertinent problems caused by the modernization process experienced in industrialized world. It originates from President Lyndon B. Johnson s bridge building policies that were launched in 1964, and was set in a well-contested and crowded domain of other international organizations of environmental and social planning. Since the distinct need for yet another organization was not evident, the process of negotiations in this multinational environment enlightens the foreign policy ambitions of the United States on the road to the Cold War détente. The study places this project within its political era, and juxtaposes it with other international organizations, especially that of the OECD, ECE and NATO. Conventionally, Lyndon Johnson s bridge building policies have been seen as a means to normalize its international relations bilaterally with different East European countries, and the multilateral dimension of the policy has been ignored. This is why IIASA s establishment process in this multilateral environment brings forth new information on US foreign policy goals, the means to achieve these goals, as well as its relations to other advanced industrialized societies before the time of détente, during the 1960s and early 1970s. Furthermore, the substance of the institute applied systems analysis illuminates the differences between European and American methodological thinking in social planning. Systems analysis is closely associated with (American) science and technology policies of the 1960s, especially in its military administrative applications, thus analysis within the foreign policy environment of the United States proved particularly fruitful. In the 1960s the institutional structures of European continent with faltering, and the growing tendencies of integration were in flux. One example of this was the long, drawn-out process of British membership in the EEC, another is de Gaulle s withdrawal from NATO s military-political cooperation. On the other hand, however, economic cooperation in Europe between East and West, and especially with the Soviet Union was expanding rapidly. This American initiative to form a new institutional actor has to be seen in that structural context, showing that bridge building was needed not only to the East, but also to the West. The narrative amounts to an analysis of how the United States managed both cooperation and conflict in its hegemonic aspirations in the emerging modern world, and how it used its special relationship with the United Kingdom to achieve its goals. The research is based on the archives of the United States, Great Britain, Sweden, Finland, and IIASA. The primary sources have been complemented with both contemporary and present day research literature, periodicals, and interviews.