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  • Hakojärvi, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Precision farming is a set of advanced technologies and cultivation practices that aim to enhance crop growing conditions in a site-specific manner. Current machinery offers many technical tools for such actions, but information about when and where it is necessary to use the developed machinery effectively is lacking. The use of crop models has been proposed to combine the effects of growing season conditions and field spatial properties. However, in a timely and spatially variable environment, which a field often is, much information about site-specific growing conditions should be available in order for an advanced crop model to reproduce the site-specific growth in a detailed manner. Unfortunately the information from fields has often been very limited, and insufficient for such purposes. Furthermore the set of precision farming tools and the number of growth factors that can be managed is limited. For describing maximal biomass accumulation, a simple crop model was introduced and evaluated in this thesis. The model is mechanistic, and it uses a minimal number of parameters that all are based on physics, chemistry or physiology. The model can be used for calculating the radiation or radiation and water limited biomass accumulation of a C3-crop. A field experiment equipped with continuous measurements was used for model establishment and after model establishment the model was evaluated with a field experiment with various radiation, nitrogen fertilization and precipitation conditions. In both the studies the crop model was found to produce the maximal biomass accumulation when parameter values measured in the experiment were used. The model was applied in a study evaluating the effects of selected site- and depth-specific soil properties on yield variation on three different clay soil fields located in southern Finland. In order to evaluate the effects of selected soil properties under various weather conditions a Monte Carlo method was used with the biomass accumulation model and generated precipitations. The yield variation was evaluated according to temporal mean biomass yield and temporal standard deviation of the biomass yield. For studying the use of the model in a spatial environment, the introduced biomass accumulation model was applied in a simulator built for simulating a fully automated crop farm. In addition, the use of continuous soil moisture measurements for measuring the crop water use and further for biomass accumulation was tested. According to the results, the crop model was capable of simulating the highest biomass accumulation of the crops used in the experiments. This was the case for all radiation-limited simulations and for most of the water-limited simulations. In a few cases the values of the observed soil properties were found to cause too low biomass accumulation in simulations but in such cases the problem was also present in the comparisons of observed soil properties and observed soil water content during the growing season. For future research with the model, the next phase will be to test the model use in precision farming-related decision making. The structure of the model enables its use with other C3-crops than small grain cereals. Therefore testing of the model with other C3-crops could be performed in future research.
  • Koskimies, Silka (1999)
    Socialarbetarna bemöts i dag av en allt ökande andel klienter av annan etnisk bakgrund. De sedvanliga arbetsmetoderna är denna nya situation inte alltid ändamålsenliga. Socialtarbete måste därför utveckla nya metoder för att bättre kunna ta i beaktande de nya behoven som uppkommer i detta multietniska samhälle. Avsikten med denna studie är att jämföra hur socialtarbete i England och Finland har bemött de nya klientgrupperna och hur servicen har utvecklats. Denna studie är en fall studie av socialtarbete i två lokala områden, nämligen stadsdelen Islington i London, England och Vanda stad i Finland. Studiematerialet består av tolv halvstrukturerade intervjuer med socialarbetare i både Islington och Vanda, och av dokument om politik och praktik i socialservicen. I studien har kvalitativa metoder använts och intervjumaterialet har analyserats genom "grounded theory", som har utvecklats av Strauss och Corbin (1990), och genom jämförande metoder (Miles & Huberman 1994). Det jämförande perspektivet utvecklades under studiens gång till att möjliggöra en förståelse och jämförelse av situationen i de två olika länderna. Utgångspunkten var att de två samhällena måste noggranna studeras för att omständigheterna för socialtarbete skall förstås. För det första jämfördes olika concept som används i de olika länderna, för det andra jämfördes situationen för de etniska minoriteterna i vardera landet och för det tredje användes teoretisk litteratur för analyserandet av studiematerialet. Den teoretiska ramen för studien byggdes i huvudsak upp av minoritets politiska ideologier (Ely & Denney 1989), teorier om etnisk identitet (Liebkind 1994, Hutnik 1991) och av teorin om multikulturell medvetenhet (Matinheikki-Kokko 1997). I studien analyserades både politiken och praktiken i socialservicebyråerna. Resultaten från studien visar att social servicen i de båda länderna strävar till att ta i beaktande olika etniska grupper. I Vanda är detta dock ännu i ett tidigt stadium. Vanda har baserat sin service på jämlikhetsprincipen, som betyder i Finska förhållanden att alla klienter ges likadan service. Detta har dock visat sig vara problematiskt eftersom servicen då ofta är baserad på majoritetsbehov och stöder inte alltid minoritetsgrupper. Effekten kan därför vara den motsatta, det vill säga "assimilatorisk". I Islington strävade social arbetarna också efter jämlikhet, men utgångspunkten vara mera pluralistisk genom att i servicen ta i beaktande kulturell bakgrund. I studien kom det också fram att politiken, som speciellt tar i beaktande etniska minoriteter, måste tydligt anges för hela personalen och klienterna. Politiken måste också tillämpas i praktiken. Detta betyder för det första att socialbyrån i sin helhet måste vara medveten om olika etniska gruppers behov och om ändamålsenliga tillvägagångssätt för att möta dessa behov. För det andra måste socialarbetarna själva vara medvetna om situationen för deras etniska minoritets klienter. Socialarbetarna kan inte lämnas ensamma med ansvaret att utveckla servicen. Socialbyrån måste stöda socialarbetarna genom att ge medel för utvecklingen av service i form av politiska ståndpunkter, träning för hela personalen i dessa frågor och återkommande diskussioner och handledning om de etniska minoriteternas situation i samhället.
  • Koskimies, Silka (1999)
    Social work is today faced with a bigger diversity in society and ethnically mixed client groups. Mainstream social work methods are not always enough to meet the needs of all these new client groups. Therefore, social work has to develop its practices to be able to meet the challenges of the multi-ethnic society. The aim of this study is to compare how social work in England and Finland has responded to its minority ethnic clients, what policies and practices are developed. The study is a case study of social work in two local areas, namely the London borough of Islington in England and the city of Vantaa in Finland. The study material consists of semi-structured interviews with twelve social workers from different social service departments in Islington and Vantaa and of policy and practice documents. The study is a qualitative study and the interview material is analysed by using grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin 1990) and comparative methodology (Miles & Huberman 1994). A comparative framework was developed firstly by comparing different concepts used in each country concerning social work and minority ethnic groups, secondly by examining the situation of the minority ethnic groups in each country and finally by using theoretical literature for analysing the study material. The theoretical framework was mainly developed by theories about minority political ideologies (Ely and Denney 1989), theories about ethnic identity (Liebkind 1992, Hutnik 1991) and by a multicultural awareness framework (Matinheikki-Kokko 1997). The results of the study show that both countries have developed some responses to take into account the needs of minority ethnic clients. However, in Vantaa the process has just recently started. In Vantaa the services are based on an equality principle, which means in Finnish conditions that all clients are given the same kind of services. This has shown to be problematic as the service are often based on majority needs, which does not support minority groups. The effects might be the opposite, that is assimilationist. In Islington the social workers strive also for equality, but the starting point is more pluralistic, as the social workers attempt to take into account cultural background when providing services. The study showed also the importance of a clearly stated policy, which particularly takes into account minority ethnic groups. The policy has to be clearly outlined for all staff and even for clients. To put policy into practice means that it has to be effectively implemented. This means firstly that the whole social service department has to be aware of the needs of minority ethnic groups and of adequate intervention strategies to meet the needs. Secondly, the social workers have to be aware of the situation of their minority ethnic clients. This means that the social workers cannot be left alone with the responsibility to improve services. The social service department has to support the social workers by providing them means to develop the services. This includes a clear policy statement, training for all staff and regular supervision and discussions in meetings about issues concerning minority ethnic groups.
  • Willgren, Tuuli Maria (2014)
    This thesis deals with two conflicting interests: the privacy of arbitration proceedings and the need for efficient judicial control. The question has been narrowed down to the most fundamental issue of all, review of the existence of a valid arbitration agreement. Arbitration is based on a private contract, a common will of the parties to renounce the right to have their disputes resolved in a court of law. Therefore, there can be no valid arbitration without a valid agreement to arbitrate. The way in which challenges to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal are treated is a reflection of how much trust and leverage arbitrators are given in a specific system. Thus, the question of challenges to jurisdiction is linked to a larger question: the founding theories of arbitration. Many states have adapted their laws in order to attract international disputes. Instead of dealing with national considerations, states now enact legislation in the hopes of better catering for the needs of the international business community. The success of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration is an example of the popularity of arbitration-friendly statutes. Besides the Model Law, the study explores the provisions of French and Swedish arbitration laws in order to illustrate the consequences of opposite solutions to the same question, judicial review of competence/competence. The position of arbitration as the preferred method of dispute resolution in international commercial relationships can be attributed to the neutrality of the proceedings and the extensive enforceability of arbitral awards. Neutrality is attained through the fact that arbitration can take place in a state that is not home ground to either party. If neither party tries to hinder the arbitration, there is a possibility of the dispute remaining private throughout the proceedings. The arbitral award shall be final and carried out by the parties. Depending on the seat of arbitration and the law governing the proceedings, an objecting party may, however, have numerous possible ways in which to disrupt the proceedings and cause losses of time and money by commencing litigation in the neutral and thus foreign court. The benefits of arbitration, i.e. finality, swiftness, efficiency, adaptability, and secrecy, are quashed if one of the parties decides to bring about court action to delay the arbitral proceedings or to set aside the award. Inefficiency and loss of time due to judicial control are reasons that may discourage parties from choosing arbitration as their form of dispute resolution, or at least from choosing a certain state as the seat of arbitration. With this in mind, the paper will illustrate certain situations that parties choosing the seat of arbitration should consider.
  • Hankela, Elina (2013)
    This study engages with ubuntu as a moral notion, and exclusionary social boundaries in the context of refugee ministry at the Central Methodist Mission (CMM) in inner-city Johannesburg. Ubuntu, a Nguni term that can be translated as humanity or humaneness, is often claimed to be the moral backbone of (South) African communities. According to the academic ubuntu discourse that scrutinises this notion, interdependence characterises human existence, as human beings only become, and exist, through other human beings, in a community. Virtues commonly attached to ubuntu include respect, hospitality and compassion. While the ubuntu discourse comprises the theoretical framework and dialogue partner in the study, international migration, socio-economic inequality and xenophobia are among the forces that defined the social location of the CMM. A praxis cycle framework informed the structure of this research, as it offered a way to combine ethnographic fieldwork with notions emphasized in grounded theory and an interest in patterns of socio-moral thinking invoked by the writer s training in systematic theology. Drawing, for instance, on emphases vocalized by liberation theologians, the praxis cycle also underlines the importance of questions about societal context and the researcher s agency. In 2009 when the fieldwork for the study was conducted, the CMM building, a six-storey church in inner-city Johannesburg, both served a large local congregation ( members ) and offered shelter to 2,000-3,000 international migrants and homeless South Africans ( dwellers ). The objective of the scrutiny of the tense relationship between these two groups is to understand grassroots meanings attached to being human(e) and factors that limited or enabled the actualization of ubuntu in this context. The study approaches these meanings and dynamics from two perspectives. Firstly, the liberation-theologically framed vision of the leader of the CMM, Bishop Verryn, is analysed and defined as a contextual Christian ubuntu vision. As the challenges in the vision s material application in the Refugee Ministry are examined, it is noted that the contestation of the notion of interdependence in community in the day-to-day managing of the ministry seemed to reinforce the often exclusionary member/dweller boundary; while, on the other hand, the preaching of the vision and the leader s lifestyle contributed to the bridging of the boundary. Secondly, the study explores the negotiation of exclusionary identities and boundaries within and between the members and the dwellers through examining the collective narratives of xenophobia and dirt circulating at the CMM. Attention is also paid to the forging of affirming relationships between the groups. On the basis of these dynamics the writer presents socio-moral patterns attached to ubuntu and being human(e) in the given context: they involve relational virtues that people were expected to embody; the rules of reciprocity and survival that regulated the actualization of these virtues; limiting structural elements external and internal to the CMM; and the enabling element of encounter.
  • Kraszewski, Kenneth (2013)
    International arbitration is an integral element of the globalized modern economy. It is the principal method of resolving commercial disputes between States, individuals, and corporations in almost every aspect of international trade. Arbitration relies on the notion of party autonomy—that the parties to an agreement may freely choose the law applicable to their agreement and to the resolution of any dispute arising out of it. However, agreements have to be performed and arbitral awards rendered somewhere, and in the modern world in which the preeminent legal authority is the sovereign State, these actions necessarily occur under a legal framework and a public policy not shaped by the parties. When rules of public policy are implicated in the agreement underlying a dispute in arbitration—or in the award resulting from the for arbitration proceedings, a State must navigate between the Scylla and Charybdis of lending its authority to the recognition of an agreement or enforcement of an award contrary to its fundamental principles or of appearing not to respect the principle of finality of arbitral awards underpinning the system of modern international commerce. What route should national courts—the “watchmen of public policy”—choose? Should party autonomy cabined by respect for international public policy? Or should public policy be viewed as a safety valve utilized only in emergencies, where recognition and enforcement would be fundamentally at odds with a State’s most cherished principles and values? This thesis details the provisions for refusal of recognition or enforcement of arbitral awards on the grounds of public policy that currently exist in major international conventions and model legislation as well as in the legislation of the United States and selected European Union Member States. The various ways in which public policy can be understood is explained, and the application of the public policy exceptions in the United States and selected European Union Member States are detailed. Finally, trends in the United States and the European Union with respect to public policy and arbitration are examined.
  • Ahola-Launonen, Johanna (2012)
    This thesis is an analysis of the relationship between the concepts of chance, choice and responsibility in Michael Sandel’s “The Case against Perfection” (2007). Sandel predicts that if genetic enhancements were introduced in the society, the social meaning of these concepts would change significantly and social solidarity would vanish. He argues that that if people were able to control their genome and the element of chance in the genetic lottery would be replaced with choice, individuals could be held responsible for their deficiencies. Thus, the societal motivation to share our wealth with the disadvantaged would be eroded. However, the philosophical premises in Sandel’s argument remain obscure. Therefore, a new means for the philosophical assessment of Sandel’s argument is introduced in my thesis. The method for the analysis is to examine the premises in Sandel’s argument by comparing it to responsibility-sensitive egalitarian theories and their critique. The central literature used in the analysis is Sandel’s “Liberalism and the Limits of Justice” (1982) and “Democracy’s Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy” (1996). The examination of responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism is based on Ronald Dworkin’s article “What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources” (1981) and contrasted to John Rawls’ “A Theory of Justice” (1971), and the critique of responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism is derived from Samuel Scheffler’s article “What is Egalitarianism?” (2003). I suggest that Sandel’s argument is based on the principle of responsibility of the responsibility-sensitive egalitarian theories: unequal outcomes are just if they arise from factors for which individuals can properly be held responsible and are otherwise unjust. As Sandel’s argument entails this principle, the critique of the principle of responsibility can be applied to it. I conclude that due to extensive critique posed to the principle of responsibility, Sandel’s prediction about the changing notions of responsibility and solidarity is not as straightforward as he suggests. Furthermore, I propose that the principle of responsibility is not compatible with the general foundations of Sandel’s philosophy, which are the aspiration for cultivating a strong sense of community and social solidarity. The principle of responsibility does not foster social solidarity and, therefore, is not suitable for Sandel’s vision of a good society. This vision would be better achieved with a principle that guarantees a certain asset of basic needs to each person, regardless of the responsibility and control that people have in particular situations. It remains an open question why Sandel adopts in his argument the principle of responsibility that is contradictory to his general philosophy.
  • Rouvinen, Vilma-Riitta (2010)
    Psychrotrophs, which are mostly gram negative bacteria, can produce heat stable proteases and lipases. Even though these bacteria cannot survive pasteurization of milk, the enzymes can. This can cause problems for the dairy industry. Psychrotrophic milk isolates also have multidrug-resistant traits for antimicrobials and may act as reservoir for resistance genes. The aims of the study were to test denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for PCR products obtained from organic and conventional raw milk bacteria, to optimize DNA-extraction protocols and PCR-conditions for the raw milk samples and study the bacterial population changes during the cold storage. The aim was also to study the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. The DNA was extracted from the raw milk samples, when received and after 4 days cold storage, using commercial kits. Nested-PCR was performed and samples were analysed using DGGE. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by growing bacteria on plates that contained two different concentrations of five antibiotics. From the five antibiotics two were used as a combination. The composition of the bacterial population changed during the cold (4ºC) storage: the difference in DGGE profiles was clear between 0 and 4 days cold storage. Fingerprint profile analysis showed that irrespective of the origin of the raw milk, the sample profiles were clustered according to the sampling date (day 0 or day 4). There was no clear difference between DGGE-profiles from conventional and organic milk. Proportion of psychrotrophic bacteria increased and antimicrobial resistance seemed to be more prevailing in conventional than in organic raw milk. Antimicrobial resistance decreased after four days storage at 4ºC, in most of the cases. We showed that the PCR-DGGE-method is an efficient tool to analyse the changes in bacterial populations in raw milk and that cold storage has an evident effect in population composition.
  • Bauters, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The purpose of this study is to find a framework for a holistic approach to, and form a conceptual toolbox for, investigating changes in signs and in their interpretation. Charles S. Peirce s theory of signs in a communicative perspective is taken as a basis for the framework. The concern directing the study is the problem of a missing framework in analysing signs of visual artefacts from a holistic perspective as well as that of the missing conceptual tools. To discover the possibility of such a holistic approach to semiosic processes and to form a conceptual toolbox the following issues are discussed: i) how the many Objects with two aspects involved in Peirce s definition of sign-action, promote multiple semiosis arising from the same sign by the same Interpretant depending on the domination of the Objects; ii) in which way can the relation of the individual and society or group be made more apparent in the construction of the self since this construction is intertwined with the process of meaning-creation and interpretation; iii) how to account for the fundamental role of emotions in semiosis, and the relation of emotions with the often neglected topic of embodiment; iv) how to take into account the dynamic, mediating and processual nature of sign-action in analysing and understanding the changes in signs and in the interpretation of signs. An interdisciplinary approach is chosen for this dissertation. Concepts that developed within social psychology, developmental psychology, neurosciences and semiotics, are discussed. The common aspect of the approaches is that they in one way or another concentrate on mediation provided by signs in explaining human activity and cognition. The holistic approach and conceptual toolbox found are employed in a case study. This consists of an analysis of beer brands including a comparison of brands from two different cultures. It becomes clear that different theories and approaches have mutual affinities and do complement each other. In addition, the affinities in different disciplines somewhat provide credence to the various views. From the combined approach described, it becomes apparent that by the semiosic process, the emerging semiotic self intertwined with the Umwelt, including emotions, can be described. Seeing the interpretation and meaning-making through semiosis allows for the analysis of groups, taking into account the embodied and emotional component. It is concluded that emotions have a crucial role in all human activity, including so-called reflective thinking, and that emotions and embodiment should be consciously taken into account in analysing signs, the interpretation, and in changes of signs and interpretations from both the social and individual level. The analysis of the beer labels expresses well the intertwined nature of the relationship between signs, individual consumers and society. Many direct influences from society on the label design are found, and also some indirect attitude changes that become apparent from magazines, company reports, etc. In addition, the analysis brings up the issues of the unifying tendency of the visual artefacts of different cultures, but also demonstrates that the visual artefacts are able to hold the local signs and meanings, and sometimes are able to represent the local meanings although the signs have changed in the unifying process.
  • Hämäläinen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) development and related factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) between 15 and 20 years from disease onset (I), in premenopausal women with RA (II), and in young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (III), and to ascertain osteoporosis (OP) drug use in patients with early RA (IV). BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with RA in two longitudinal studies and in young adults with JIA in a cross-sectional study. In assessing BMD at 15 years from disease onset in an inception cohort of RF-positive RA patients, it was found that eighteen out of 59 (31%) patients had OP. However, the decreases in central bone mineral in this patient group were of low degree and after the subsequent five years no essential change in central BMD was found. None of the explanatory variables: sex, age, ESR, HAQ, Larsen score, and cumulative prednisolone dose between 15-20 years from disease onset, proved to be a significant predictor of BMD change at the lumbar spine and femoral neck from 15- to 20-year check-ups (I). In assessment of BMC and BMD development in premenopausal, regularly cycling RA patients with and without GCs and in controls, it was found that RA patients with GCs had lower BMD values than those without GCs at commencement of follow-up. Furthermore, the mean BMD decreased significantly in both lumbar spine (P 0.002) and femoral neck (P smaller than 0.001) only in the RA patients with GCs during the 2-year follow-up. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in change in BMC or projectional area in the lumbar spine or femoral neck. Comparing results on bone mineral density change between the three groups it is relevant to report changes both in bone mineral content and in projectional area to clarify the basics of the bone mineral density change. BMD is expressed as BMC per projectional area. Only weight was found to be a significant predictor of BMD change (II). Assessment of BMC and BMD development in young adults with JIA and controls assumed to have reached their peak bone mass, showed that three (2.6%) out of 116 patients with JIA had OP. The male and female JIA patients had lower weight- and height-adjusted BMD values in the femoral neck than the controls. Dividing the patients into two groups, those with active and those with inactive JIA, both groups had lower BMC values in the femoral neck than the controls (P smaller than 0.001). Comparing BMC values in the femoral neck in both men and women with JIA a difference was found only among men (P 0.006). Among men, use of GCs and weight were significantly associated with BMC in the femoral neck. Among women, use of GCs, weight and also height were associated statistically significantly with BMC in the femoral neck, and among women GC use and height were also associated with BMC in the lumbar spine (III). A total of 14 878 incident cases of RA were studied when evaluating the implementation of pharmaceutical OP drug use. Out of this total, 1351 (9%) patients with RA had purchased OP drugs, mainly bisphosphonates, during the first year after commencement of antirheumatic treatment. Of GC users, 14% of women and 6% of men were prescribed OP drugs. In addition, 8% of females and 3% of males not taking GCs received OP medication. Women were more prone to use OP medication. Of the RA patients who took GCs, 38% of women and 24% of men received concomitant calcium and vitamin D preparations by prescription during the same year, whereas the corresponding percentages for patients without GCs were 21% and 13%. (IV). Study results suggest that bone loss takes place in earlier disease course in RA and JIA and bone loss is in the long-term disease course in RA of low degree. Further studies are needed to elucidate bone loss and OP development in early rheumatoid arthritis and to better focus the timing and means of OP prevention.
  • Arponen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Cranial base and craniocervical junction anatomy can be evaluated from CT and MR scans, and lateral skull radiographs. Cranial base anatomy changes during growth, as the form of the anatomic structures and their relative positions alter. In disorders of compromised bone quality, abnormal changes in the craniocervical junction can lead to pathological conditions with possibly life-threatening neurological complications. In this investigation these issues have first been addressed by making skull base measurements of healthy growing individuals to determine the age-specific normative values used to evaluate cranial base structures. These normative values were then employed in the following analysis of growing patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a disorder of bone fragility due to abnormal collagen composition. In healthy individuals cranial base measurements, young children demonstrated significantly different results from those of older growing individuals and adults. Thus studies on patients younger than 9 years should include age-appropriate controls. Significant individual variation in skull base measurements during growth may appear, as revealed by longitudinal observation. The observed wide ranges, and the fact that the position of the odontoid process in relation to skull base structures may individually display alternating up- and downward movements, are important to consider when conducting follow-up examinations. Nevertheless, a notable deviation from the documented normal values is suggestive of pathological development in the craniocervical junction. When comparing the age-specific normal values, skull base abnormalities were found to be present in approximately one fifth of OI patients; platybasia was the most frequent finding. Patients with haploinsufficiency mutations (which lead to a relatively mild phenotype) were less likely to have skull base abnormalities than patients with helical glycine substitutions. However, the strongest predictor of skull base abnormality was not the type of collagen mutation underlying OI but the clinical severity of the disorder, as expressed by the height Z-score. No evidence was found for a protective effect of bisphosphonate treatment, nor for the progression of craniocervical junction pathology with age. Based on this normative data and the observations made in patients with OI, age-appropriate screening limits for skull base pathology are proposed here, in addition to a recommendation for timing of radiological screening in patients with OI.
  • Vuorenkoski, Juha (2006)
    Työ käsittelee Suomen ulkoministeriön rahoittamaa maaseudun kehitysinterventiota Sambiassa Luapulan maakunnassa vuosina 1980-1999. Työn tarkoituksena on tutkia, miten ja miksi kehitysintervention tavoitteet muuttuvat sekä tarkastella, mitä muutoksia kehitysintervention hallinnossa tapahtuu ja mitä seurauksia näillä muutoksilla on kehitystavoitteiden toteutumiselle. Työssä käytettävä tarkastelutapa on laaja. Siinä otetaan huomiin muutokset laajassa kontekstissa, johon kuuluvat Sambian kansallisessa politiikassa, erityisesti maatalouspolitiikassa; muutokset merkittävien kansainvälisten järjestöjen politiikassa Sambian valtioita kohtaan; muutokset kansainvälisessä kehityskeskustelussa; ja avunantajamaan motivaatiot ja niiden muutos. Nämä tarkasteltavat kokonaisuudet suhteutetaan intervention kehitystavoitteeseen. Näiden kokonaisuuksien lisäksi tarkastellaan erityisesti intervention sisäistä politiikkaa. Sisäisen politiikan osalta otetaan erityisesti huomioon se, että ulkoministeriö kasvavassa määrin on ulkoistanut interventioon liittyviä toimintoja kaupallisille toimijoille. Työssä lähestytään intervention laajaa kontekstia lähdekirjallisuuteen turvautuen. Intervention kehitystavoitetta ja sisäistä politiikkaa on tutkittu interventioon liittyvän arkistomateriaalin avulla (ulkoasiainministeriön tietopalvelu) ja haastattelujen avulla. Arkistomateriaali koostuu hankesuunnitelmista, arvioinneista ja evaluaatioista sekä interventioon liittyvästä kirjeenvaihdosta sekä erityyppisistä raporteista. Työtä varten on haastateltu seitsemää ulkoministeriön virkamiestä sekä kolmea konsulttia. Työssä hyödynnetään kehitysetnografista, toimijakeskeistä tutkimusta, joka painottaa kehitysinterventioiden luonnetta sisäisesti monimuotoisina ja dynaamisina järjestelminä, joiden sisäinen politiikka on otettava huomioon tarkasteltaessa apututkimuksessa. Samoin työssä hyödynnetään uusinstitutionaalisen taloustieteen teorioita, joilla mallinnetaan institutionaalisten toimijoiden suhteita toisiinsa. Työssä havaitaan, että tarkasteltavan kehitysintervention tavoite muuttuu 1990-luvun alkupuolella, pääosin Sambiassa toteutetun rakennesopeutuksen seurauksena. Interventio muuttuu kaupallisen maissinviljelyn tukemisesta osallistumisen, ruokaturvan ja voimaantumisen tukemiseen. Maaseudun kehitysyhteistyötä koskevan kehitysajattelun uusilla virtauksilla on vaikutuksensa muutokseen siten, että rakennesopeutuksen aikaansaamassa politiikkatyhjiössä yksittäiset konsultit sekä maakunnallisen hallinnon maatalousasiantuntijat ovat edistäneet näiden virtauksien toteuttamista. Työssä havaitaan ulkoministeriön hankehallinnolla olleen vajavaisen kyvyn hallita kyseistä kehitysinterventiota. Kaupallinen konsulttitoimisto sekä yksittäiset vastaanottajamaan virkamiehet ovat pystyneet hyödyntämään ministeriön kyvyttömyyttä kontrolloida interventiota koskevaa tietoa. Hankehallinto on myös siten heikosti järjestetty, että kokonaisten hankekomponenttien yllättävä epäonnistuminen väärinkäytöksien ja huolimattomuuksien takia on mahdollista.
  • Nokkonen, Soili (Société Néophilologique, 2015)
    This cumulative dissertation is the first systematic study of semi-modal NEED TO and its semantic variation in Present-day British English. This topic is particularly relevant today, since the use of semi-modals, e.g., HAVE TO, HAVE (GOT) TO and NEED TO has increased in the field of obligation and necessity, while the frequencies of core modals such as MUST and NEED have decreased. The link of modal change with the process of democratization, and the way the semi-modals offer a less authoritarian way of obliging, present an interesting background for a corpus-based sociolinguistic study. The primary material of the five studies in this thesis is drawn from mainly spoken corpora from the 1950s to the 1990s. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied in data retrieval and the empirical analyses. The chosen corpora enable the exploration of NEED TO across variables such as real time, medium, the speaker variables of age, gender and social class, and a number of spoken registers. For comparison, Article 5 studies NEED TO and six other modals as variants of deontic obligation. The findings on the semantic variation indicate that the functions of NEED TO increasingly resemble those of core modals: the directive obligation uses cover most of the instances, and NEED TO is in the process of developing epistemic meaning. However, the original inherent necessity sense is still frequent. NEED TO shows clear social stratification. It is strongly favoured by the younger age groups, and they also use the newer semantic functions more. It is slightly more frequent among men in general, but in certain relevant speaker groups, e.g., among young adults, women have a lead. The upper middle class leads in its use. NEED TO is clearly undergoing change, but Labovian concepts cannot be applied in a rigid way. A finding that stands out is that register variation plays a decisive role. NEED TO is significantly more frequent in spoken public contexts as opposed to private contexts. Both the persuasive nature of a register and its high degree of interactivity increase the use of NEED TO. The basic inherent meaning relates to the strategic value of NEED TO in a deontic situation by softening an imposed obligation as being in the addressee s best interest. Indeed, NEED TO has found a niche in the face-to-face conversations where it is necessary to negotiate power and also to oblige the addressee in the least face-threatening manner.
  • Li, Ting (2010)
    Globalization encourages migration all over the world. Dietary acculturation, the process of adopting the dietary practices of the host country, has become an interesting issue in community nutrition and nutritional anthropology. This is the first study on Chinese immigrants and dietary acculturation in Finland. In this study, the Koctürk model is used as conceptual framework which had showed its usefulness to structure the various foods and changes which may occur. The thesis aims to investigate whether any changes take place in the food habits of Chinese students after migration to Helsinki, Finland, as well as the food habits which are still maintained after migration. If changes or stability occur, the factors that are associated with the changes or stability are analyzed. Data were collected from 16 Chinese students who study in university of Helsinki, and have been staying in Finland at least 6 months. A tape-recorded interview was arranged, which included a questionnaire and an interview with semi-structured questions. After migration, several changes appeared in meal pattern, food choices and food preparation methods among Chinese students. Breakfast seemed to be the first meal to be “Westernized”. In accordance with the Koctürk model, the cultural importance of breakfast and lunch has diminished, and dinner became the most important meal. Weekend diet became more traditional than weekdays’ diet. Chinese participants still keep festival diet in certain Chinese festivals, and they also tried some typical Finnish festival foods, especially mämmi and glögi. Food choices changed among all food groups—staple, complementary and accessory foods. Of 37 foods listed on the questionnaire, the consumption frequency increased significantly for 14 Finnish style foods and decreased significantly for 7 Chinese style foods. The Chinese students also prepared foods more often by methods such as baking, adding cheese or butter/margarine to foods. The interviews revealed various factors influencing changes and stability: Chinese cultural beliefs, attitude, taste preference, stress, social relations, food cost, convenience, availability and perceived freshness of foods.
  • Ahlgrén-Rimpiläinen, Aulikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims and background: The purpose of this study was to investigate movement disturbances in schizophrenia and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) with the help of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and Computerized force platform posturography (CFPP). Motor and postural controls are supported by central regulation of dopamine transmission. Dysregulation of dopamine is considered to be one of the background factors in schizophrenia and RLS. Methods: TMS and intramuscular recording electrodes were applied to study the function of descending motor pathways and the inhibitionary motor control. After stimulation of motor cortex motor evoked potentials, motor conduction time and central silent periods (CSP) were measured in the Abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. CFPP was used to investigate postural control. Center point of pressure forces (CPPF) and the center point of force velocity (CPFV) were measured during the subject`s stance eyes open and eyes closed on a stable computerized platform. Volunteers with schizophrenia having a long-term antipsychotic medication and volunteers with RLS were compared to healthy controls with these two methods. The CFPP in RLS study was repeated after a single day intervention with a dopaminergic agent. Findings: The function of the corticospinal motor pathways was normal in all subjects. Central inhibition was found to be disrupted into multiple separate CSPs. The number of CSPs was significantly higher in the dominant ADM in subjects with schizophrenia and in subjects with RLS compared to the controls. In subjects with schizophrenia the closing of the eyes had less impact on the CPFV than in controls. Subjects with RLS demonstrated lower sway velocity eyes open compared to controls. Pramipexole intervention balanced the CPFV differences. Conclusions: Motor inhibitory control was different in subjects with RLS and with schizophrenia compared to controls, appearing as repeated suppressions of muscle activity preferably in the dominant ADM. The ability of controlling the upright stance was not impaired per se in schizophrenia or in RLS. It was discovered a defect of visual compensation in schizophrenia, and in turn, a hyper compensatory effect of vision on postural control in RLS. The findings may refer to different feedback mechanisms in the CNS and to a shared subcortical CNS origin involved in the changed inhibitionary motor control and related dopamine dysregulation.
  • Chuppin, Ivan (2013)
    This thesis provides a number of examples of changing cofinalities of cardinals using forcing. The main emphasis is put on the forcing notion developed by Prikry, which is used to change the cofinality of a measurable cardinal kappa to omega, while preserving all other cardinals and the universe below kappa . It is shown that the assumption of measurability cannot be weakened. Next, two variations of the original Prikry forcing are explored. Finally, a forcing notion developed by Namba is introduced, which makes the only nontrivial change of cofinality without assuming any large cardinal properties.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis discusses the contemporary construction of the lived worlds of indigenous Amazonian youths. Today’s native peoples are considerably affected by the processes of globalization and urbanization, which have led to new ways of relating to their cultural traditions. This work presents a case study of Manchineri youngsters aged between 14 and 24 years old living in Acre state in Brazilian Amazonia. The Arawak-speaking Manchineri number some 1,000 people; their legally demarcated reserve is situated next to the River Yaco. The research is based on ethnographic material collected in the Mamoadate reserve and in the state capital, Rio Branco. By comparing the youth in different physical and social environments (the reserve and the city), my attempt has been to search for the most typical elements maintained, altered and created in the current lived worlds of Manchineri youths. Fieldwork methods included interviews, participant observation, photographs, video recordings, and drawings. The material was analyzed within the multidisciplinary framework of the social and cultural construction of knowledge. The study applies the concepts of social field, symbolic capital, and habitus as they have been used by Pierre Bourdieu; perspective as developed recently in Amazonian ethnology; the sacred as a cultural category as understood in the study of religion; and individual and person as concepts central to anthropology and sociology. Additionally, the study can be contextualized within youth studies, Latin American studies, and urban studies. The results of the study show that the everyday lives of young Amazonian native people are formed by a complex mixture of ‘modernity’ and ‘tradition’, fragmentation, and transitions between different conceptual frameworks. Part II discusses the ethnographic material in depth and shows that indigenous adolescents act from a variety of social perspectives: the native youth’s own ethnic group, divided into sub-groups, especially into urban residents and those living in the reserve; ancestors, super-human agents and spirits; other indigenous groups and non-natives. Consequently, besides the traditional initiation ritual, we find various contemporary rites of passage to adulthood: state-education, learning traditional practices, shamanism, matrimony, and transitions between the reserve and urban areas. According to these results, new social roles, political organization, responsibilities, and in general the desire to be respected, require both ‘modern’ and ‘traditional’ abilities. In Part III, the study shows that the current power relations constituted by new social contacts, ethnic recognition, and cooperation with different institutions have resulted in the formation of new social fields: youth cultures, the ethnic group, shamanic practices, the ethnopolitical movement, and indigenous students. The capacity of young Amazonian Indians to act in contemporary social fields produces them as full persons. The study also argues that the elements of the lived worlds can be divided into these social fields. When focusing on these fields, it became evident that these comprise the strategies adopted by young Indians to break through social and cultural barriers.
  • Aaltonen, Suvi (2006)
    Tämän työn aiheena on organisaation identiteetti ja mahdollisuus sen muutokseen muuttamalla organisaation nimeä. Tarkoitus on, eri tulkintojen kautta, tutkia mikä organisaation identiteetti on ja mitä se merkitsee organisaatiolle. Tätä selvennetään myöhemmin tapaustutkimuksella Varma-Sammon nimenmuutoksesta Eläkevakuutusyhtiö Varmaksi. Teoreettinen viitekehys on organisaatioista tehty tutkimus, joka selvittää miten identiteetti muodostuu ja vaikuttaa organisaatioon. Lisäksi tutkimus selvittää miten organisaation identiteettiä voidaan johtaa, sekä muutosviestinnän ja muutosjohtamisen tärkeyttä muutoksien aikana. Tutkimus jakautuu teoreettiseen ja empiriseen osaan. Teoreettinen osuus tarkastelee eri tutkijoiden näkemyksiä organisaation identiteettiin ja empiriinen osuus keskittyy tapaustutkimukseen yrityksen nimenmuutoksesta. Tutkimusmetodit ovat tietysti relevantti kirjallisuustutkimus, tutkimus Varman sisäisestä ilmapiiristä, kyselyt henkilökunnalle Varman Intranetissä sekä teemahaastattelut (strukturoimattomat). Tärkeimmät johtopäätökset liittyvät organisaation identiteetin joustavaan ja muuttuvaan luonteeseen, sekä muutosviestinnän tärkeään rooliin muutosten toteuttamisessa. Organisaation identiteetti muodostuu mm. imagosta, historiasta, organisaation tehtävästä ja luonteesta, joten se on altis muutoksille. Tutkimuksesta on myös pääteltävissä kuinka yrityksen nimenmuutoksen on mahdollista vaikuttaa ja vaikuttaakin organisaation identiteettiin. Empiirinen osuus osoittaa mitä johtajisto ja henkilökunta ajattelevat nimenmuutoksesta ja sen suhteesta yritykseen. Tärkeimmät lähteet ovat: Albert, S. & Whetten, D.A. (1985) 'Organizational Identity' in Cummings, L.L. & Staw, B.M. eds., Research in Organizational Behavior; An Annual Series of Analytical Essays and Critical Reviews, vol. 7 (1985), Jai Press, UK Balmer, J.M.T. & Greyser, S.A. (2003) Revealing the corporation, Routledge, UK Ind, N. (1992) The Corporate Image: Strategies for effective identity programmes, revised edition, Kogan Page, UK Markkanen, T.-R. (1999) Yrityksen identiteetin Johtaminen, WSOY, Finland
  • Aaltonen, Suvi (2006)
    The object of this study is organisational identity and the possibilities of changing it through changing the organisation's name. The purpose is, through different interpretations, to examine what organizational identity is and what it means to an organisation. This is farther examined in the case study of Varma-Sampo's name change to Mutual Pension Insurance Company Varma. Theoretical frame work is studies made of organisations, which examine how identity is formed and what is its impact on the organisation. The work examines how organisational identity can be influenced or managed, and the importance of change communication and change management within a company in times of change. The study is divided to theoretical and empirical sections. Theoretical part examines different researchers' views on organisational identity and the empirical part concentrates on case study on the name change of Mutual Pension Company Varma. Methods used are of course general literary study, examination of Varma's study of internal atmosphere, Intranet questionnaires to the personnel and theme (unformatted) interviews. The most important conclusions refer to the flexible and changeable nature of organisational identity and to the importance of change communication to a successful execution of organisational change. Organisational identity is formed by for example image, history, organisations mission and nature. Thus it is highly susceptible to change. The work also concludes that changing a company's name can and probably does have an influence on the organisational identity. The empirical part demonstrates how management and personnel view name change and its relationship with the company. Most significant sources are: Albert, S. & Whetten, D.A. (1985) 'Organizational Identity' in Cummings, L.L. & Staw, B.M. eds., Research in Organizational Behavior; An Annual Series of Analytical Essays and Critical Reviews, vol. 7 (1985), Jai Press, UK Balmer, J.M.T. & Greyser, S.A. (2003) Revealing the corporation, Routledge, UK Ind, N. (1992) The Corporate Image: Strategies for effective identity programmes, revised edition, Kogan Page, UK Markkanen, T.-R. (1999) Yrityksen identiteetin Johtaminen, WSOY, Finland