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  • Mikkola, Reija (2013)
    Carbon capture and storage may become an inevitable means in mitigating climate change. However, it is a new technology involving a great deal of uncertainties. It is of utmost importance to understand on one hand, the risks caused by the technology and on the other, what is holding it back. This way unforeseen setbacks and environmental or other damage could be avoided. This thesis is a part of a wider research project on the risk governance of carbon dioxide capture and storage (RICCS). The present study gives additional insights to CCS risk analysis by diving into the stories that the media tells about the risks. I analyze the media coverage on the risks of CCS in the most wide spread newspapers of Norway and Finland with the aim of identifying what kind of risk framings are portrayed by the media; how strong is the presence of uncertainties and what kind of uncertainties are brought up. The media is seen as a mirror of public perception, but also one of the players influencing it. The possible effects that the analyzed articles could have on public perception of risks are discussed. The theoretical framework consists of theories of systemic risks, narrative policy analysis and framing of environmental risks in the media. I describe the nature of systemic risks. Then I move on to framing, more specifically how environmental risks are framed in the media and how it can effect public perception. After this I explain how narrative analysis can be used as a tool for identifying framings. Then I describe Klinke and Renn’s Prometheus theory that I will use for analyzing the level of uncertainty in the framing of the articles and for discussing the implications of my findings. The results show that the risks caused by CCS are mainly the lock-in in fossil fuels, it’s possible negative effect on developing renewable energy and environmental and health risks in general. The risks towards successful CCS seem to be mainly connected to funding, which connects to emissions’ prices, the climate agreement and viability of investments. The differences between the two countries are quite related to the situation in which each country is in terms of CCS development. Norway is very active and pushing CCS forward. Consequently, the Norwegian articles are generally not very critical of the technology itself, but discuss what is holding it back. Generally, the Finnish articles bring out more aspects on the issue, both positive and negative, leaving quite an ambiguous image to the reader. The implications of my findings for future policy practices are quite extensive and therefore not very useful, since most policy recommendations seem more or less relevant. What is interesting though, is that based on my findings I could identify the turning points in which public perception is most relevant. These are: What kind of energy production is supported? Is CCS an acceptable mitigation means? Is the risk of leakage taken as severe? These issues represent turning points for the future of CCS technology and deliberative processes can be crucial when discussing them.
  • Huotari, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Lakes serve as sites for terrestrially fixed carbon to be remineralized and transferred back to the atmosphere. Their role in regional carbon cycling is especially important in the Boreal Zone, where lakes can cover up to 20% of the land area. Boreal lakes are often characterized by the presence of a brown water colour, which implies high levels of dissolved organic carbon from the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but the load of inorganic carbon from the catchment is largely unknown. Organic carbon is transformed to methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in biological processes that result in lake water gas concentrations that increase above atmospheric equilibrium, thus making boreal lakes as sources of these important greenhouse gases. However, flux estimates are often based on sporadic sampling and modelling and actual flux measurements are scarce. Thus, the detailed temporal flux dynamics of greenhouse gases are still largely unknown. ----- One aim here was to reveal the natural dynamics of CH4 and CO2 concentrations and fluxes in a small boreal lake. The other aim was to test the applicability of a measuring technique for CO2 flux, i.e. the eddy covariance (EC) technique, and a computational method for estimation of primary production and community respiration, both commonly used in terrestrial research, in this lake. Continuous surface water CO2 concentration measurements, also needed in free-water applications to estimate primary production and community respiration, were used over two open water periods in a study of CO2 concentration dynamics. Traditional methods were also used to measure gas concentration and fluxes. The study lake, Valkea-Kotinen, is a small, humic, headwater lake within an old-growth forest catchment with no local anthropogenic disturbance and thus possible changes in gas dynamics reflect the natural variability in lake ecosystems. CH4 accumulated under the ice and in the hypolimnion during summer stratification. The surface water CH4 concentration was always above atmospheric equilibrium and thus the lake was a continuous source of CH4 to the atmosphere. However, the annual CH4 fluxes were small, i.e. 0.11 mol m-2 yr-1, and the timing of fluxes differed from that of other published estimates. The highest fluxes are usually measured in spring after ice melt but in Lake Valkea-Kotinen CH4 was effectively oxidised in spring and highest effluxes occurred in autumn after summer stratification period. CO2 also accumulated under the ice and the hypolimnetic CO2 concentration increased steadily during stratification period. The surface water CO2 concentration was highest in spring and in autumn, whereas during the stable stratification it was sometimes under atmospheric equilibrium. It showed diel, daily and seasonal variation; the diel cycle was clearly driven by light and thus reflected the metabolism of the lacustrine ecosystem. However, the diel cycle was sometimes blurred by injection of hypolimnetic water rich in CO2 and the surface water CO2 concentration was thus controlled by stratification dynamics. The highest CO2 fluxes were measured in spring, autumn and during those hypolimnetic injections causing bursts of CO2 comparable with the spring and autumn fluxes. The annual fluxes averaged 77 (±11 SD) g C m-2 yr-1. In estimating the importance of the lake in recycling terrestrial carbon, the flux was normalized to the catchment area and this normalized flux was compared with net ecosystem production estimates of -50 to 200 g C m-2 yr-1 from unmanaged forests in corresponding temperature and precipitation regimes in the literature. Within this range the flux of Lake Valkea-Kotinen yielded from the increase in source of the surrounding forest by 20% to decrease in sink by 5%. The free water approach gave primary production and community respiration estimates of 5- and 16-fold, respectively, compared with traditional bottle incubations during a 5-day testing period in autumn. The results are in parallel with findings in the literature. Both methods adopted from the terrestrial community also proved useful in lake studies. A large percentage of the EC data was rejected, due to the unfulfilled prerequisites of the method. However, the amount of data accepted remained large compared with what would be feasible with traditional methods. Use of the EC method revealed underestimation of the widely used gas exchange model and suggests simultaneous measurements of actual turbulence at the water surface with comparison of the different gas flux methods to revise the parameterization of the gas transfer velocity used in the models.
  • Strakova, Petra (Finnish Society of Forest Science, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, School of Forest Sciences of the University of Eastern Finland, 2010)
    Pristine peatlands are carbon (C) accumulating wetland ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL) and consequent anoxia that slows down decomposition. Persistent WL drawdown as a response to climate and/or land-use change directly affects decomposition: increased oxygenation stimulates decomposition of the old C (peat) sequestered under prior anoxic conditions. Responses of the new C (plant litter) in terms of quality, production and decomposability, and the consequences for the whole C cycle of peatlands are not fully understood. WL drawdown induces changes in plant community resulting in shift in dominance from Sphagnum and graminoids to shrubs and trees. There is increasing evidence that the indirect effects of WL drawdown via the changes in plant communities will have more impact on the ecosystem C cycling than any direct effects. The aim of this study is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on the new C by measuring the relative importance of 1) environmental parameters (WL depth, temperature, soil chemistry) and 2) plant community composition on litter production, microbial activity, litter decomposition rates and, consequently, on the C accumulation. This information is crucial for modelling C cycle under changing climate and/or land-use. The effects of WL drawdown were tested in a large-scale experiment with manipulated WL at two time scales and three nutrient regimes. Furthermore, the effect of climate on litter decomposability was tested along a north-south gradient. Additionally, a novel method for estimating litter chemical quality and decomposability was explored by combining Near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate modelling. WL drawdown had direct effects on litter quality, microbial community composition and activity and litter decomposition rates. However, the direct effects of WL drawdown were overruled by the indirect effects via changes in litter type composition and production. Short-term (years) responses to WL drawdown were small. In long-term (decades), dramatically increased litter inputs resulted in large accumulation of organic matter in spite of increased decomposition rates. Further, the quality of the accumulated matter greatly changed from that accumulated in pristine conditions. The response of a peatland ecosystem to persistent WL drawdown was more pronounced at sites with more nutrients. The study demonstrates that the shift in vegetation composition as a response to climate and/or land-use change is the main factor affecting peatland ecosystem C cycle and thus dynamic vegetation is a necessity in any models applied for estimating responses of C fluxes to changes in the environment. The time scale for vegetation changes caused by hydrological changes needs to extend to decades. This study provides grouping of litter types (plant species and part) into functional types based on their chemical quality and/or decomposability that the models could utilize. Further, the results clearly show a drop in soil temperature as a response to WL drawdown when an initially open peatland converts into a forest ecosystem, which has not yet been considered in the existing models.
  • Zhang, Huizhong (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Lakes play an important role in both global and regional carbon cycling, especially, the role of lakes is pronounced in the boreal zone, where lakes cover up to 20% of the land area. Allochthonous carbon is discharged mainly from terrestrial processes, but also through anthropogenic eutrophication. The role of allochthonous carbon load in lacustrine ecosystems is important, which can have far-reaching effects on lacustrine biogeochemistry in general and especially on carbon cycling. Part of dissolved organic carbon is transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in biological processes that result in carbon gas concentrations in water that increase above atmospheric equilibrium, thus making boreal lakes serve as sources of the important greenhouse gases. Lake Vesijärvi is renowned for its clear-water, but it has suffered eutrophication for a long history. The severely affected Enonslkä lake basin is the most eutrophic part since it surrounded mainly by urban area (28%) and forests (31%). To improve the water quality, large scale aeration in the autumn 2009 was started with the Mixox-oxygenerators. Aeration is used to weaken thermal stratification and recharge oxygen by increasing vertical flow circulation within the water columns. This leads to most chemical cocnetrations become more homogenous with depth and concentrations of reduced forms decrease in the hypolimnion. The aeration units were operated on campaign basis in summer 2013. One aim here was to investigate carbon gas concentrations and fluxes from the urban boreal lake basin, and examine the impacts of artificial aeration on greenhouse gases during the open water period in 2013. Besides CO2 and CH4 concentrations and fluxes, I measured also the water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration of the water columns for monitoring the efficiency of artificial aeration. All gas samples were analyzed at the Lammi Biological Station of University of Helsinki with gas chromatography using the head space technique. As background data I used the information on temperature and oxygen profiles collected from the measuring platform on Lake Vesijärvi, and a reference study on CO2 and CH4 concentrations and fluxes dating back to 2005 when there was no aeration going on. In 2013, the studied lake basin was a source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the open water period, although the lake basin showed uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere for short times. The lake acted as a steady source of CH4 to the atmosphere throughout the measuring period. The mean CO2 flux was 34.1 mmol m-2 d-1, which was over 2.5 times higher than in the reference year 2005 when there was no the aeration yet. During the campaigns, the CO2 fluxes were higher from aerated than non-aerated water column and from the longer aerations as well. Therefore, aeration mixed stratified water columns and thus enhanced release of gases such as CO2 from surface water to the atmosphere. The mean CH4 flux was 0.2 mmol m-2 d-1. The CH4 fluxes from the Enonselkä basin were slightly decreased in 2013. These decreased CH4 fluxes in Enonselkä basin can be attributed to the limited CH4 production and high rate of CH4 oxidation in the oxygenated hypolimnion and surface of sediment. The daily CH4 fluxes fluxes during the long time aerated operations decreased. The significance of aeration to carbon cycling processes dpended on the residual CH4 concentrations in the water column.
  • Lehtonen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Pienimäki, Arttu (2014)
    The most extensive dry forest and woodland formation in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique, is formed by miombo woodlands. Because of their wide distribution, the miombo woodlands carry significance in global carbon cycle. Previous studies have indicated that while the miombo aboveground carbon stocks appear modest in comparison with tropical rainforests, they have a potential to retain high stocks of soil organic carbon. The miombo landscape is nowadays characterized by widespread deforestation and forest degradation, with woodlands being replaced by anthropogenic land uses such as small-scale agriculture and charcoal harvesting. A new land use type spreading in northern Mozambique is formed by industrial forest plantations. The emerging plantations further change the landscape in transition, allegedly affecting the carbon stocks in the process as well. The purpose of this study was to quantify carbon stocks on locally relevant land use classes in Niassa province, northern Mozambique, and evaluate the change of carbon stocks caused by forest plantations. Six major land use classes were identified: dense miombo, open miombo, other woody vegetation, fallow land, eucalypt plantations and pine plantations. A sample plot grid was laid on chosen areas representing each of the classes. Vegetation aboveground carbon stocks (trees, shrubs and herbaceous vegetation) were recorded in the inventory and topsoil (30 cm) was sampled for soil organic carbon content, to be determined in laboratory. Vegetation belowground carbon stocks were calculated based on existing root to shoot ratios. Since plantations were generally juvenile on the study area, their average yield during rotation period was estimated based on growth models to provide comparable results. Forest plantations were found to have carbon stocks of the same order of magnitude as the two miombo land use classes. Open and dense miombo carried mean vegetation aboveground carbon stocks of 27.47 ± 5.77 and 37.65 ± 7.20 Mg ha-1 respectively, and mean total carbon stocks of 67.81 ± 17.09 and 86.81 ± 18.91 Mg ha-1 respectively, which was consistent with pre-existing results. Pine plantations placed in between with a partially modelled total aboveground mean carbon stock of 34.59 Mg ha-1, whereas the corresponding figure for eucalypt plantations was 21.04 Mg ha-1. Dense miombo had the highest mean total carbon stock of all the land use classes, and fallow land the smallest with 42.59 Mg ha-1. Soil organic carbon did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between any of the land use classes. The result was unexpected, and may be explained either by (i) limited time frame since the land use conversions or (ii) soil mineralogical properties buffering carbon stock changes.
  • Alam, Syed Ashraful (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 ºN; 21-36 °E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world s major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed woodland and contributes to deforestation and GHG emissions (Study I). While GHG emissions from BMIs only account for a small part of Sudan s total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern. Implementation of better regulation, use of biomass fuel from sustainable sources and technological improvement in BMIs kilns will reduce deforestation and GHG emissions. Savannah woodland C densities, both biomass and soil, were low and clearly below potential C sequestration capacity (Study II). The loss of trees across the region was indicated by very low biomass C density values in comparison to modelled NPP (net primary production) values. The estimated SOC densities although low, were higher than reported in some recent soil C studies from the region. This was attributed to the use of old data in the global soil database and indicates the degree of land degradation and loss of SOC that has taken place over the last few decades. However, in spite of woodland and soil degradation, biomass C and SOC densities remained positively and significantly correlated with each other and both were significantly correlated to MAP. The results highlighted the need for improved land-use management and stewardship, which should involve increasing the cover of trees, and the need for up-to-date regional and integrated soils and forest (woodland) inventories to be made. Water-use (AET) of savannah woodlands is strongly limited by rainfall. Rainfall exceeded AET only during some of the wet season months resulting in a small increase in soil moisture storage and production of surface runoff for some areas (Study III). Drainage (to groundwater) was negligible. Since AET was strongly limited by MAP, AET for both Arenosol and Vertisol soil types increased southwards across the study region. Runoff also increased southwards across the study region for both soil types but were highest in south western and eastern areas. The restoration of woodlands may be expected to improve the soil-water conditions. Compared to baseline (1961-1990) climate values, General Circulation Model (GCM) based results for 2080s indicated that MAT would increase across the study region but that MAP would either increase or decrease depending on climate change scenario (Study IV). Biomass C densities will be significantly affected by climate change. However, the impact varies with climate change scenario, with either increases or decreases in biomass C density being indicated for the same area. In general, water-use on Arenosols will increase while that on Vertisols will decrease. The largest relative changes in AET were associated with the areas receiving the lowest rainfall. Thus, even if MAP increases, the increase will have little impact on biomass levels in the driest areas of the region.
  • Eerola, Anneli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Background: The incidence of all forms of congenital heart defects is 0.75%. For patients with congenital heart defects, life-expectancy has improved with new treatment modalities. Structural heart defects may require surgical or catheter treatment which may be corrective or palliative. Even those with corrective therapy need regular follow-up due to residual lesions, late sequelae, and possible complications after interventions. Aims: The aim of this thesis was to evaluate cardiac function before and after treatment for volume overload of the right ventricle (RV) caused by atrial septal defect (ASD), volume overload of the left ventricle (LV) caused by patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and pressure overload of the LV caused by coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and to evaluate cardiac function in patients with Mulibrey nanism. Methods: In Study I, of the 24 children with ASD, 7 underwent surgical correction and 17 percutaneous occlusion of ASD. Study II had 33 patients with PDA undergoing percutaneous occlusion. In Study III, 28 patients with CoA underwent either surgical correction or percutaneous balloon dilatation of CoA. Study IV comprised 26 children with Mulibrey nanism. A total of 76 healthy voluntary children were examined as a control group. In each study, controls were matched to patients. All patients and controls underwent clinical cardiovascular examinations, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic examinations, and blood sampling for measurement of natriuretic peptides prior to the intervention and twice or three times thereafter. Control children were examined once by 2D and 3D echocardiography. M-mode echocardiography was performed from the parasternal long axis view directed by 2D echocardiography. The left atrium-to-aorta (LA/Ao) ratio was calculated as an index of LA size. The end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions of LV as well as the end-diastolic thicknesses of the interventricular septum and LV posterior wall were measured. LV volumes, and the fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) as indices of contractility were then calculated, and the z scores of LV dimensions determined. Diastolic function of LV was estimated from the mitral inflow signal obtained by Doppler echocardiography. In three-dimensional echocardiography, time-volume curves were used to determine end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and EF. Diastolic and systolic function of LV was estimated from the calculated first derivatives of these curves. Results: (I): In all children with ASD, during the one-year follow-up, the z score of the RV end-diastolic diameter decreased and that of LV increased. However, dilatation of RV did not resolve entirely during the follow-up in either treatment group. In addition, the size of LV increased more slowly in the surgical subgroup but reached control levels in both groups. Concentrations of natriuretic peptides in patients treated percutaneously increased during the first month after ASD closure and normalized thereafter, but in patients treated surgically, they remained higher than in controls. (II): In the PDA group, at baseline, the end-diastolic diameter of LV measured over 2SD in 5 of 33 patients. The median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) concentration before closure measured 72 ng/l in the control group and 141 ng/l in the PDA group (P = 0.001) and 6 months after closure measured 78.5 ng/l (P = NS). Patients differed from control subjects in indices of LV diastolic and systolic function at baseline, but by the end of follow-up, all these differences had disappeared. Even in the subgroup of patients with normal-sized LV at baseline, the LV end-diastolic volume decreased significantly during follow-up. (III): Before repair, the size and wall thickness of LV were higher in patients with CoA than in controls. Systolic blood pressure measured a median 123 mm Hg in patients before repair (P < 0.001) and 103 mm Hg one year thereafter, and 101 mm Hg in controls. The diameter of the coarctation segment measured a median 3.0 mm at baseline, and 7.9 at the 12-month (P = 0.006) follow-up. Thicknesses of the interventricular septum and posterior wall of the LV decreased after repair but increased to the initial level one year thereafter. The velocity time integrals of mitral inflow increased, but no changes were evident in LV dimensions or contractility. During follow-up, serum levels of natriuretic peptides decreased correlating with diastolic and systolic indices of LV function in 2D and 3D echocardiography. (IV): In 2D echocardiography, the interventricular septum and LV posterior wall were thicker, and velocity time integrals of mitral inflow shorter in patients with Mulibrey nanism than in controls. In 3D echocardiography, LV end-diastolic volume measured a median 51.9 (range 33.3 to 73.4) ml/m² in patients and 59.7 (range 37.6 to 87.6) ml/m² in controls (P = 0.040), and serum levels of ANPN and proBNP a median 0.54 (range 0.04 to 4.7) nmol/l and 289 (range 18 to 9170) ng/l, in patients and 0.28 (range 0.09 to 0.72) nmol/l (P < 0.001) and 54 (range 26 to 139) ng/l (P < 0.001) in controls. They correlated with several indices of diastolic LV function. Conclusions (I): During the one-year follow-up after the ASD closure, RV size decreased but did not normalize in all patients. The size of the LV normalized after ASD closure but the increase in LV size was slower in patients treated surgically than in those treated with the percutaneous technique. Serum levels of ANPN and proBNP were elevated prior to ASD closure but decreased thereafter to control levels in patients treated with the percutaneous technique but not in those treated surgically. (II): Changes in LV volume and function caused by PDA disappeared by 6 months after percutaneous closure. Even the children with normal-sized LV benefited from the procedure. (III): After repair of CoA, the RV size and the velocity time integrals of mitral inflow increased, and serum levels of natriuretic peptides decreased. Patients need close follow-up, despite cessation of LV pressure overload, since LV hypertrophy persisted even in normotensive patients with normal growth of the coarctation segment. (IV): In children with Mulibrey nanism, the LV wall was hypertrophied, with myocardial restriction and impairment of LV function. Significant correlations appeared between indices of LV function, size of the left atrium, and levels of natriuretic peptides, indicating that measurement of serum levels of natriuretic peptides can be used in the clinical follow-up of this patient group despite its dependence on loading conditions.
  • Laine, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Cardiometabolic health among male former elite athletes Regular physical activity is one of the cornerstones in the prevention of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether a former career as a male elite athlete associates with various cardiometabolic disorders and whether it has any effect on leukocyte telomere length in later life. The original study population (N=4136) consists of 2424 male former elite athletes and 1712 matched controls. Of those, 599 (392 former athletes, 207 controls) participated in a clinical study in 2008. The athletes were divided into three groups based upon their previous career: endurance, mixed and power sports. The clinical study in 2008 included a physical examination, laboratory tests, and several questionnaires. Data on use of medication was obtained from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Among the participants, the former elite athletes tend to have lower age-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with the controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.01). The male former athletes also had lower age-adjusted risk for hypertension (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.98), metabolic syndrome (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) compared to the controls. The former athletes had significantly lower age-adjusted body fat percentage compared to the controls (p=0.021) whereas no significant differences in mean age-adjusted leukocyte telomere lenght between the athlete and control groups (p = 0.845) were observed. Moreover, with aging the former athletes maintained their physically active lifestyle better than their controls. A male former elite athlete career seems to protect from type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at older age. It was also associated with a more favorable body composition. The volume of current leisure time physical activity was inversely associated with these cardiometabolic outcomes.
  • Granholm, Mikael (1993)
    In veterinary practice intraveneous anaesthesia has numerous advantages. An important advantage is the ease and rapidity of induction. Compared to administration of inhalant anaesthetics, a minimum of apparatus is necessary in administration of intraveneous anaesthetic agents. The possibility of antagonization of certain drugs used as intraveneous anaesthetics increases the safety of anaesthesia. The unpleasant recovery period can also be shortened, which for a busy veterinarian and also the owner can be of great relief. Ideally, a postoperative patient should be conscious, co-operative, calm and free of pain.This will provide better homeostasis of vital functions, allow early diagnosis and treatment of complications and decrease the need for nursing care. The aim of these studies was to analyze the sedative/ analgetic / anaesthetic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects produced by a combination of medetomidine and climazolam at two different dose levels (1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg). Climazolam was also combined with fentanyl. Antagonization followed anaesthesia, using atipamezole, nalorphine and a new benzodiazepine antagonist, sarmazenil. 7 laboratory beagles were used inthis experimental study. In combination with medetomidine, climazolam produced smooth anaesthesia and had only small effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Total analgesia was not achived. Intubation was easily performed. The antagonization proved to be fast and complete. When combining climazolam with fentanyl, dose levels were chosen according to previous studies (Erhardt et al., 1986). The anaesthesia was light and short, probably due to the short action of fentanyl. This combination depressed the respiratory system in a much larger scale than the combination of medetomidine and climazolam did. Antagonization was effective.
  • Ruonavaara, Aila (1953)
  • Salmi, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation concentrates on a particular exemplification of the ideal of the unity of science in the history of twentieth-century philosophy. Taking Rudolf Carnap (1891--1970) as an exemplar of a scholar whose work in philosophy of science was at bottom motivated by the ideal of a unified conception of science, it attempts to distillate the essential characteristics and methodological significance of such a conception by a combination of historical and systematic analysis. Given the conspicuously holoscopic character of Carnap's philosophical orientation, there arises an interesting question about the relation of his work to that of other prominent ``seekers of the wider view'' in the history of philosophy (and history of science). On a more general level, we ask what kind of intellectual and moral characteristics are associated with a scholar who is motivated by the unification of science. Making it explicit: if a coherent conception of a unified conception of science is conceivable, what kind of normative criteria can then be applied to a scholar and his actions? In other words, what are the external and internal qualifications of scholar's vocation under the unified conception of science? In the first part of the dissertation we provide a general account of the problem's background in the intersection of intellectual history and systematics. In the first chapter main emphasis will be put to the dialectic between agent-based and structural explanations in historiography. The survey of a few exemplars of models of historical explanation is intended to provide a background framework for discussing the relation between descriptive analysis and analysis of values. In as much as our modern scientific world conception and the general, essentially human, consciousness of the domain of validity seem to be in a fundamental conflict, a philosophical clarification of the issues that depend on this fundamental distinction is contingent on having proper tools at its disposal. Indeed, it is necessary to acknowledge -- with respect to both scientific knowledge and moral positions -- that the issues of genesis and validity have little in common. Both the image of nature, built upon the masses of scientific and technological knowledge gathered, and the modern conceptions of the moral have developed in the course of history. The lesson that historicism can teach us is the possibility to adopt a symmetrical attitude with respect to the status of the questions of genesis and validity within these (very different) domains. This symmetric attitude enables us to see that the validity of a theory or position (in science or in moral philosophy) cannot depend on the diachronic aspects of its genesis. Rather, it is precisely the case that the late appearance of certain scientific theories and certain moral positions is an index that they are complex and presuppose a great deal genetically, and this is seen to be a common feature of all good theories. Thus, in order to approach the evolution of these ideas from a general perspective, we have to acknowledge their fundamental ontological difference and adopt a variety of tools to study these domains. I present four different approaches to the study of historical phenomena that appertain to the themes of this dissertation. In the second chapter we provide a synopsis of the important thematic about the relationship between morals and science. After a brief examination of the concepts of the moral and the scientific, we proceed to give an account of the concept of scientific self which acts as a kind of normative meta-concept co-ordinating the interaction between the epistemic and the ethical requirements appertaining to the education and professional formation of a scientist. From a historical perspective it is easy to to see that the intension of the concept of scientific self varies according to the contingent factors such as the external conditions of education and the requirements set by new experimental techniques, but the essential, axiologically relevant, internal determinates of the concept are seen to accumulate over time in a conservative manner. Especially interesting here are the determinates that can be traced back to the complementary intellectual traditions of Enlightenment and Romanticism. One of the most important exemplifications of an articulated conception of scientific self can be found in J. G. Fichte's ``Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten'' of 1794. In these lectures Fichte develops a beautiful -- and still highly relevant -- conception of the true goals of a scholar as well as the qualifications he must fulfill to attain those goals. From Fichte we turn to study the history of one particular intellectual virtue that has direct relevance for the questions tackled in the second part of the dissertation, viz. tolerance. In the third chapter we focus on the importance of a priori knowledge for both ethics and science. These themes are developed only in their barest outlines in order to provide some theoretical support to the fundamental philosophical thesis of the dissertation concerning the distinction between Is and Ought, and its relevance for the question of the unity of science. We will briefly touch upon the question about the relationship of a priori and empirical knowledge in ethics, and provide a brief synopsis of the relevance of the distinction analytic/synthetic in this domain. Finally we address cursorily the ontologically crucial problem about the moral element in man and present -- with a view to the Enlightenment virtues -- a synopsis of the process of the dissociation of the concept of the moral from the concept of the scientific. We describe the characteristics of ethical impulse in modern times and the quite idiosyncratic view on morals and especially on moral justification advocated by the members of Vienna Circle. We will see how the dissociation of the moral from the domain of the rational discourse inevitably results in the philosophically poverished stance of moral non-cognitivism which Carnap maintained throughout his career. In the second part of the dissertation we can finally address the adduced problem in its particular ramifications in the philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Given this general problematic, we attempt to vindicate the underlying overall motivation of Carnap's philosophy and to reconstruct the architectonic of Carnap's systematic thought in the light of recent research. One of the main tasks is to evaluate the coherence of interpretations provided in the research literature which place Carnap in the continuum of thinkers that are, in some sense, committed to the ideals and values of Enlightenment. The most explicit rendering of this line of thought is the recent monograph, Carnap and Twentieth-Century Thought, by A.W. Carus which puts Carnap's method of explication on center stage. I critically examine this line of interpretation indicated by Carus and explore more deeply its historical dimensions. Over and above the interpretation of Carus, we assess to what extent Carnap's philosophical program fulfills the criteria that are imposed upon it by the requirement of an Enlightenment conception of unified science. The central significance of logic and mathematics in Carnap's philosophical program is seen to derive from the fundamental conception of Carnap that within the total system of knowledge logic and mathematics are performing the essential role of supplying the forms of concepts, statements, and inferences, forms which are then applicable everywhere, hence also to non-logical knowledge. Therefore, the demarcation between logical and non-logical expressions, along with the Principle of Tolerance and logical pluralism, constitutes one of the central strands of Carnap's thought. Indeed, the Principle of Tolerance and the logicality criterion are seen to be two inextricably entwined aspects of a solution to a fundamental problem that Carnap searches a solution to and which characterizes his aspirations throughout the period under consideration here, i.e. the problem of the rationality of scientific discourse under the variability of linguistic systems of knowledge representation. I depict the overall development of Carnap's philosophy with this central idea continually in focus. As a supplement to the interpretation of Carnap's program as a concerted attempt to look for the fundamental invariants of thought and experience, I provide the view that a necessary condition for implementing his ideal of explication is a coherent formulation of what might be called the task of providing genealogies of important scientific concepts and ideas. This complies with the attractive account represented by Howard Stein about the two basic functions of philosophy, i.e., a distinction between ``the enterprise of knowledge'' and the ``enterprise of understanding''. It is argued here that an essential ingredient of Carnap's method of explication is a variety of philosophical history of science which provides the necessary insight into the problem complex one is tackling with under the purview of explication. Therefore, a significant role is bestowed upon historical knowledge and historiography. I attempt to accommodate this aspect of the ``enterprise of understanding'' within the more explicitly confined ``enterprise of knowledge'' that Carnap was overtly concerned with. However, it is argued that the ``enterprise of understanding'' constituted an equally important aspect of Carnap's philosophical program, although it remained covert in his publications.