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  • Veikkolainen, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    A branch of science concentrated on studying the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field has emerged in the last half century. This is called paleomagnetism, and its applications include calculations of field directions and intensity in the past, plate tectonic reconstructions, variations in the conditions in the Earth s deep interior and the climatic history. With the increasing quantity and quality of observations, it has been even possible to construct models of conterminous continent blocks, or supercontinents, of the Pre-Pangaea time. These are crucial for the understanding of the evolution of our planet from the Archean to today. Paleomagnetists have traditionally heavily relied on the theory that when averaged over a period long enough, the Earth s magnetic field can be approximated as being equivalent to that generated by a magnetic dipole located at the center of the Earth and aligned with the axis of rotation. The credibility of this GAD (Geocentric Axial Dipole) hypothesis is strongest in the geologically most recent eras, such as most of the Phanerozoic and notably in the last 400 million years. Attempts to get an adequate view of the magnetic field in the Earth's earlier history have for a long time been challenged by the reliability limitations of Precambrian paleomagnetic data. With the absence of marine magnetic anomalies, observational data need to be gathered from terrestrial rocks, notably those formed within cratonic nuclei, the oldest and most stable parts of continents. To answer the call for a concise and comprehensive compilation of paleomagnetic data from the early history of the Earth, this dissertation introduces a unique database of over 3300 Precambrian paleomagnetic observations worldwide. The data are freely available at the server of the University of Helsinki (http://h175.it.helsinki.fi/database) and can be accessed via an online query form. All database entries have been coded according to their terranes, rock formation names, ages, rock types and paleomagnetic reliabilities. A new modified version of the commonly applied Van der Voo (MV) classification criteria for filtering the paleomagnetic data is also presented, along with a novel method for binning the entries cratonically to revise the previously employed way of applying binning via a simple evenly spaced geographic grid. Besides compiling data, tests of the validity of the GAD hypothesis in the Precambrian have been conducted using inclination frequency analysis and asymmetries of magnetic field reversals. Results from two self-contained tests of the GAD hypothesis suggest that the time-averaged Precambrian geomagnetic field may include the geocentric axial quadrupole and the geocentric axial octupole, but both with strengths less than 10% of the geocentric axial dipole, with the quadrupole perhaps being smaller than the octupole. In no other study a model so close to GAD has been reasonably fitted to the Precambrian paleomagnetic data. The weakness of the non-dipolar coefficients required also implies that no substantial adjustments need to be made to the novel models of Precambrian continental assemblies (supercontinents), such as the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Columbia (Nuna) or the Neoproterozoic Rodinia. Although the supercontinent science still has plenty of uncertainty, it is more plausibly caused by the geological incoherence of the data and the lack of precise age information rather than by long-lived non-dipolar geomagnetic fields.
  • Pervilä, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Within the field of computer science, data centers (DCs) are a major consumer of energy. A large part of that energy is used for cooling down the exhaust heat of the servers contained in the DCs. This thesis describes both the aggregate numbers of DCs and key flagship installations in detail. We then introduce the concept of Data Center Energy Retrofits, a set of low cost, easy to install techniques that may be used by the majority of DCs for reducing their energy consumption. The main contributions are a feasibility study of direct free air cooling, two techniques that explore air stream containment, a wired sensor network for temperature measurements, and a prototype greenhouse that harvests and reuses the exhaust heat of the servers for growing edible plants, including chili peppers. We also project the energy savings attainable by implementing the proposed techniques, and show that global savings are possible even when very conservative installation numbers and payback times are modelled. Using the results obtained, we make a lower bound estimate that direct free air cooling could reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 9.4 MtCO2e already by the year 2005 footprint of the DCs. Air stream containment could reduce the GHG emissions by a further 0.7 MtCO2e, and finally heat harvesting can turn the waste heat into additional profits. Much larger savings are already possible, since the DC footprint has increased considerably since 2005.
  • Junninen, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this thesis the concept of data cycle is introduced. The concept itself is general and only gets the real content when the field of application is defined. If applied in the field of atmospheric physics the data cycle includes measurements, data acquisition, processing, analysis and interpretation. The atmosphere is a complex system in which everything is in a constantly moving equilibrium. The scientific community agrees unanimously that it is human activity, which is accelerating the climate change. Nevertheless a complete understanding of the process is still lacking. The biggest uncertainty in our understanding is connected to the role of nano- to micro-scale atmospheric aerosol particles, which are emitted to the atmosphere directly or formed from precursor gases. The latter process has only been discovered recently in the long history of science and links nature s own processes to human activities. The incomplete understanding of atmospheric aerosol formation and the intricacy of the process has motivated scientists to develop novel ways to acquire data, new methods to explore already acquired data, and unprecedented ways to extract information from the examined complex systems - in other words to compete a full data cycle. Until recently it has been impossible to directly measure the chemical composition of precursor gases and clusters that participate in atmospheric particle formation. However, with the arrival of the so-called atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer we are now able to detect atmospheric ions that are taking part in particle formation. The amount of data generated from on-line analysis of atmospheric particle formation with this instrument is vast and requires efficient processing. For this purpose dedicated software was developed and tested in this thesis. When combining processed data from multiple instruments, the information content is increasing which requires special tools to extract useful information. Source apportionment and data mining techniques were explored as well as utilized to investigate the origin of atmospheric aerosol in urban environments (two case studies: Krakow and Helsinki) and to uncover indirect variables influencing the atmospheric formation of new particles.
  • Tripathi, Abhishek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The core aim of machine learning is to make a computer program learn from the experience. Learning from data is usually defined as a task of learning regularities or patterns in data in order to extract useful information, or to learn the underlying concept. An important sub-field of machine learning is called multi-view learning where the task is to learn from multiple data sets or views describing the same underlying concept. A typical example of such scenario would be to study a biological concept using several biological measurements like gene expression, protein expression and metabolic profiles, or to classify web pages based on their content and the contents of their hyperlinks. In this thesis, novel problem formulations and methods for multi-view learning are presented. The contributions include a linear data fusion approach during exploratory data analysis, a new measure to evaluate different kinds of representations for textual data, and an extension of multi-view learning for novel scenarios where the correspondence of samples in the different views or data sets is not known in advance. In order to infer the one-to-one correspondence of samples between two views, a novel concept of multi-view matching is proposed. The matching algorithm is completely data-driven and is demonstrated in several applications such as matching of metabolites between humans and mice, and matching of sentences between documents in two languages.
  • Ray, Debarshi (2012)
    Pervasive longitudinal studies in people's intimate surroundings involve gathering data about how people behave in their various places of presence. It is hard to be fully pervasive as it has traditionally required sophisticated instrumentation that may be di ffult to acquire and prohibitively expensive. Moreover, setting up such an experiment is laborious. We present a system, in the form of its requirements, design and implementation, that is primarily aimed at collecting data from people's homes. It aims to be as pervasive as possible, and can collect data about a family in the form of audio and video feed from microphones and cameras, network logs and home appliance (eg., TV) usage patterns. The data is then transported over the Internet to a server placed in the close proximity of the researcher, while protecting it from unauthorised access. Instead of instrumenting the test subjects' existing devices, we build our own integrated appliance which is to be placed inside their houses, and has all the necessary features for data collection and transportation. We build the system using cheap off -the-shelf commodity hardware and free and open source software, and evaluate di fferent hardware and software con gurations to see how well they can be integrated and how performant or reliable they are in real life scenarios. Finally, we demonstrate a few simple techniques that can be used to analyze the data to gain some insights into the behaviour of the participants.
  • Laakso, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The genetic alterations of cancer cells vary between individuals and during the progression of the disease. The advances in measurement techniques have enabled genome-scale profiling of mutations, transcription, and DNA methylation. These methods can be used to address the complexity of the disease but also raise an acute demand for the analysis of the high dimensional data sets produced. An integrative and scalable computational infrastructure is advantageous in cancer research. First, a multitude of programs and analytic steps are needed when integrating various measurement types. An efficient execution and management of such projects saves time and reduces the probability of mistakes. Second, new information and methods can be utilised with a minor effort of re-executing the workflow. Third, a formal description of the program interfaces and the workflows aids collaboration, testing, and reuse of the work done. Fourth, the number of samples available is often small in comparison with the unknown variables, such as possibly affected genes, of interest. The interpretation of new measurements in the context of existing information may limit the number of false positives when sensitive methods are needed. We have introduced new computational methods for the data integration and for the management of large and heterogeneous data sets. The suitability of the methods has been demonstrated with four cancer studies covering a wide spectrum of data from population genetics to the details of the transcriptional regulation of proteins, such as androgen receptor and forkhead box protein A1. The repeatable workflows established for these colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, and prostate cancer studies have been used to maintain up-to-date registries of results for follow-up studies.
  • Hätönen, Kimmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Telecommunications network management is based on huge amounts of data that are continuously collected from elements and devices from all around the network. The data is monitored and analysed to provide information for decision making in all operation functions. Knowledge discovery and data mining methods can support fast-pace decision making in network operations. In this thesis, I analyse decision making on different levels of network operations. I identify the requirements decision-making sets for knowledge discovery and data mining tools and methods, and I study resources that are available to them. I then propose two methods for augmenting and applying frequent sets to support everyday decision making. The proposed methods are Comprehensive Log Compression for log data summarisation and Queryable Log Compression for semantic compression of log data. Finally I suggest a model for a continuous knowledge discovery process and outline how it can be implemented and integrated to the existing network operations infrastructure.
  • Salminen, Hanna (2004)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastelen erilaisia tapoja, miten organisaatio voi luoda uutta tietoa, hallita jo olemassa olevaa tietoa sekä oppia. Tavoitteeni on löytää vastauksia siihen, miten sirpaleisesta datasta voi jalostua viisautta, miten hiljaista tietoa voidaan saada esiin, miten organisaatio oppii, ja miten organisaation oppiminen ja tiedonluontiprosessi ovat yhteydessä organisaation menestykseen. Näiden kysymysten pohjalta on mielestäni mahdollista saavuttaa kokonaiskuva organisaation kehittymiseen kriittisesti vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Tarkastelen tutkimuskysymyksiä kirjallisuuden perusteella. Selvitän kysymystä ”Miten sirpaleisesta datasta voi jalostua viisautta?” Saint-Ongen tiedon jalostumisprosessimallin kautta. ”Miten hiljaista tietoa voidaan saada esiin? -kysymystä lähestyn Nonakan ja Takeuchin tietämysspiraalin eli tiedon muuntumisen teorian, sekä Choon tietämyssyklin, joka yhdistää tiedonluonnin, päätöksenteon ja tolkunoton eli yhteisen ymmärryksen saavuttamisen, avulla. Kysymystä ”Miten organisaatio oppii?” selvitän Argyriksen silmukkaoppimisen, Sengen viiden oppimisen osatekijän, Otalan oppivan organisaation ja Sydänmaanlakan älykkään organisaation mallin pohjalta. Yhteistä näille teorioille on se, että organisaation oppimisen lähtökohtana on aina yksilön oppiminen, joka välittyy ryhmän kautta organisaation oppimiseksi. Lähestyn kysymystä ”Miten organisaation oppiminen ja tiedonluontiprosessi ovat yhteydessä organisaation menestykseen?” sekä talouden että organisaation kehittymisen näkökulmista. Käyn läpi Ståhlen ja Grönroosin näkemyksen tiedosta aineettomana pääomana. Tiedon ja oppisen merkitys organisaation kehittymiselle ja toiminnan jatkuvuudelle tulee esiin Mayon ja Lankin sekä Otalan näkemysten kautta Käyn kaikki teoriat vaiheittain lävitse ja selvitän, mitä osatekijöitä ne sisältävät, ja miten tiedon jalostusmis- ja oppimisprosesseihin on mahdollista vaikuttaa joko edistävästi tai ehkäisevästi. Teoriat tukevat ja täydentävät monin osin toisiaan. Uutta tietoa luova sekä tietämystään hallitseva organisaatio sisältää paljon oppivan organisaation elementtejä ja päinvastoin. Yhdessä nämä kolme asiakokonaisuutta muodostavat merkittävän kilpailutekijän organisaatiolle. Käsittelen sekä tiedonluontia ja hallintaa että oppimista kolmella tasolla: yksilö-, ryhmä- ja organisaatiotasolla. Menestyksen kannalta on olennaista, että tiedonluonti, hallinta ja oppiminen onnistuvat jokaisella tasolla. Tutkielmassani tieto jaetaan pääosin kahteen luokkaan: hiljaiseen ja näkyvään tietoon. Yhteistä läpikäymilleni teorioille on hiljaisen tiedon, tai piilossa olevien ajattelumallien näkyväksi muuttamisen mahdollisuudet ja merkitys. Organisaatio voi edistää tätä prosessia vision, arvojen, toimintakulttuurin, viestinnän ja vuorovaikutuksen avulla. Tutkielmani lopuksi esitän oman organisaation tiedonluonnin ideaalimallin.
  • Ståhl, Tore (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
    The aim of the study was to explore why the MuPSiNet project - a computer and network supported learning environment for the field of health care and social work - did not develop as expected. To grasp the problem some hypotheses were formulated. The hypotheses regarded the teachers' skills in and attitudes towards computing and their attitudes towards constructivist study methods. An online survey containing 48 items was performed. The survey targeted all the teachers within the field of health care and social work in the country, and it produced 461 responses that were analysed against the hypotheses. The reliability of the variables was tested using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and t-tests. Poor basic computing skills among the teachers combined with a vulnerable technical solution, and inadequate project management combined with lack of administrative models for transforming economic resources into manpower were the factors that turned out to play a decisive role in the project. Other important findings were that the teachers had rather poor skills and knowledge in computing, computer safety and computer supported instruction, and that these skills were significantly poorer among female teachers who were in majority in the sample. The fraction of teachers who were familiar with software for electronic patient records (EPR) was low. The attitudes towards constructivist teaching methods were positive, and further education seemed to utterly increase the teachers' readiness to use alternative teaching methods. The most important conclusions were the following: In order to integrate EPR software as a natural tool in teaching planning and documenting health care, it is crucial that the teachers have sufficient basic skills in computing and that more teachers have personal experience of using EPR software. In order for computer supported teaching to become accepted it is necessary to arrange with extensive further education for the teachers presently working, and for that further education to succeed it should be backed up locally among other things by sufficient support in matters concerning computer supported teaching. The attitudes towards computing showed significant gender differences. Based on the findings it is suggested that basic skills in computing should also include an awareness of data safety in relation to work in different kinds of computer networks, and that projects of this kind should be built up around a proper project organisation with sufficient resources. Suggestions concerning curricular development and further education are also presented. Conclusions concerning the research method were that reminders have a better effect, and that respondents tend to answer open-ended questions more verbosely in electronically distributed online surveys compared to traditional surveys. A method of utilising randomized passwords to guarantee respondent anonymity while maintaining sample control is presented. Keywords: computer-assisted learning, computer-assisted instruction, health care, social work, vocational education, computerized patient record, online survey
  • Elomaa, Laura (2015)
    Tässä tutkielmassa perehdyn skottiempiristi David Humen käsitykseen passioista, tahdosta sekä tahdonvapaudesta ja moraalisesta vastuusta. Lähteeni on teoksen A Treatise of Human Nature toinen kirja Of the Passions mutta tutkielmassa viitataan myös teoksen muihin kirjoihin sekä Humen muihin teoksiin. Metodini on systemaattinen analyysi. Tutkielmani aiheesta ei ole julkaistu aikaisemmin suomenkielistä tutkimusta. Tutkimuksen ensimmäinen pääluku on katsaus Humen filosofiaan. Varsinaisia tutkimuskysymyksiä käsittelen luvuissa 2-4. Toisessa luvussa vastaan kysymyksiin siitä, mitä passiot ovat ja mikä on niiden tehtävä. Passiot ovat Humen mukaan sekundaarisia vaikutelmia ja hän jakaa ne epäsuoriin ja suoriin passioihin. Suorat passiot, kuten ilo, suru, halu ja pelko, syntyvät suoraan kivun tai nautinnon kokemuksesta. Epäsuorat passiot, kuten ylpeys, nöyryys, viha ja rakkaus, vaativat syntyäkseen sekä kohteen että aiheuttajan sekä assosiaatiota näiden välillä. Hume luokittelee passioita myös niiden tyyneyden ja rajuuden perusteella. Luokittelu perustuu passioiden häiriönasteeseen sielussa. Kumpikin voi yhtälailla toimia toiminnan motivaattorina. Kolmannessa luvussa kysyn ja vastaan, mitä Hume tarkoittaa tahdolla ja minkälainen kyky se on sekä mikä on passioiden suhde tahtoon. Hume määrittelee tahdon sisäiseksi vaikutelmaksi, jonka tunnemme ja josta olemme tietoisia, kun tieten tahtoen saamme aikaan minkä tahansa uuden liikkeen ruumiissamme tai uuden havainnon mielessämme. Tahto on passioiden kaltainen, mutta niistä erotettava sielun kyky. Tahto on Humen mukaan itsessään toimintaa ja passiot taas toimivat toimintaa aikaansaavina voimina. Humen määritelmä ei anna selkeää kuvaa siitä, mitä hän tarkoittaa tahdolla ja miten se toimii. Neljännessä luvussa kysyn, mistä tahto on vapaa, miten tahto ja passiot liittyvät moraaliseen vastuuseen ja miten Hume määrittelee moraalisen vastuun. Humen mukaan tahto on vapaa silloin, kun sille ei ole ulkoista estettä tai pakotetta. Hume uskoo siihen, että kaikella maailmassa on syynsä ja seurauksensa, jolloin myös kaikki toiminta ja ajattelu on aiheutunut jostain aikaisemmasta. Hume on kompatibilisti eli hän katsoo, että vapaa tahto on yhteen sovitettavissa determinismin kanssa. Klassisessa tulkintatavassa Humen kompatibilismia tarkastellaan Humen vapaudelle antaman määritelmän ja maailmassa ilmenevän välttämättömyyden kautta. Klassisessa tulkintatavassa Humen mukaan ihmistä voi pitää vastuullisena vain sellaisista teoista, jotka ovat johdettavissa häneen ja jotka ovat aiheutettuja. Tulkinnassa keskitytään perustelemaan miten aiheutettu toiminta voi olla vapaata. ja sen mukaan moraalinen vastuu edellyttää determinismiä. Naturalistisessa tulkintatavassa otetaan huomioon Humen passioteoria. Humen mukaan moraalinen vastuu koetaan sisäisinä moraalitunteina, jotka ovat passioita. Toisen toimintaa eli tahdon toteuttamista seuratessa siitä koetaan joko hyväksyntää tai paheksuntaa ja toista pidetään sen perusteella vastuullisena toiminnastaan. Mikäli hyväksynnän tai paheksunnan tuntemuksia ei synny, toisen ei katsota olevan vastuussa teostaan. Merkitystä ei ole sillä, voidaanko toiminta johdonmukaisesti määritellä vapaaksi, vaan sillä, saako se aikaan moraalitunteita.
  • Mattila, Kristiina (2010)
    The aims of this study were to describe Finnish day surgery practice at present and to evaluate quality of care by assessing postdischarge minor morbidity and quality indicators. Potential treatment options were approached by investigating the role of oral dexamethasone as a part of multimodal analgesia and the feasibility of day surgery in patients aged 65 years and older. Over a 2-month period, all patient cases at 14 Finnish day surgery or short-stay units were analyzed (Study I). Quality indicators included rates and reasons for overnight admission, readmission, reoperation, cancellations, and patient satisfaction. Recovery during the first postoperative week was assessed at two units (Study II). Altogether 2732 patients graded daily the intensity of predefined symptoms. To define risk factors of postdischarge symptoms, multinomial regression analysis was used. Sixty patients scheduled to undergo day surgery for hallux valgus were randomized to receive twice perioperatively dexamethasone 9 mg or placebo (Study III). Paracetamol 1 g was administered 3 times daily. Rescue medication (oxycodone) consumption during 0-3 postoperative days (POD), maximal pain scores and adverse effects were documented. Medically stable patients aged 65 years or older, scheduled for open inguinal hernia repair, were randomized to receive treatment either as day cases or inpatients (Study IV). Complications, unplanned admissions, healthcare visits, and patients’ acceptance of the type of care provided were assessed during 2 weeks postoperatively. In Study I, unplanned overnight admissions were reported in 5.9%, return hospital visits during PODs 1-28 in 3.7%, and readmissions in 0.7% of patients. Patient satisfaction was high. In Study II, pain was the most common symptom in adult patients (57%). Postdischarge symptoms were more frequent in adults aged < 40 years, children aged ≥ 7 years, females, and following a longer duration of surgery. In Study III, the total median (range) oxycodone consumption during the study period was 45 (0–165) mg in the dexamethasone group, compared with 78 (15–175) mg in the placebo group (P < 0.049). On PODs 0-1, patients in the dexamethasone group reported significantly lower pain scores. Following inguinal hernia repair, no significant differences in outcome measures were seen between the study groups. Patient satisfaction was equally high in day cases and inpatients (Study IV). Finnish day surgery units provide good-quality services. Minor postdischarge symptoms are common, and they are influenced by several patient-, surgery-, and anesthesia-related factors. Oral dexamethasone combined with paracetamol improves pain relief and reduces the need for oxycodone rescue medication following correction of hallux valgus. Day surgery for open inguinal hernia repair is safe and well accepted by patients aged 65 years or older and can be recommended as the primary choice of care for medically stable patients.
  • Zhang, Yiling (2014)
    Oat protein is a valuable cereal protein with high protein content and a good balance of amino acids profile. However, the inflexible molecular structure and poor watersolubility of oat protein limit its application in food industry. To exploit the food use of oat, the functionalities of oat proteins should be improved. α-chymotrypsin, a proteolytic enzyme, has been proven as being able to deamidate some food proteins without severe hydrolysis under alkaline pH conditions, hence to improve the protein functionalities. The aim of this research was to test whether oat protein could be deamidated by α- chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions. The extent of α-chymotrypsin-induced proteolysis on oat protein was also studied. Oat protein was treated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline conditions from pH 8 to 11 at room temperature for 2 hours. The deamidation degrees of the proteins were measured by ammonia quantification. The hydrolysis degrees of proteins were analyzed by trichloroacetic acid precipitation and protein quantification method. The changes of molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC. The action of α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions induced slight deamidation of oat protein to low deamidation degrees (9-12%). On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin mainly caused hydrolysis of oat protein to hydrolysis degrees between 49% and 62%. SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC analysis also revealed that significant hydrolysis of oat protein occurred during the reaction. The hydrolysis mainly caused the shift of oat protein fractions from molecular weight above 20 kDa to molecular weight below 15 kDa. Change in pH did not cause significant differences on deamidation degrees and hydrolysis degrees of oat protein In conclusion, oat protein could not be effectively deamidated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions, while the proteolysis was severe.
  • Zhang, Yiling (2014)
    Oat protein is a valuable cereal protein with high protein content and a good balance of amino acids profile. However, the inflexible molecular structure and poor watersolubility of oat protein limit its application in food industry. To exploit the food use of oat, the functionalities of oat proteins should be improved. α-chymotrypsin, a proteolytic enzyme, has been proven as being able to deamidate some food proteins without severe hydrolysis under alkaline pH conditions, hence to improve the protein functionalities. The aim of this research was to test whether oat protein could be deamidated by α- chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions. The extent of α-chymotrypsin-induced proteolysis on oat protein was also studied. Oat protein was treated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline conditions from pH 8 to 11 at room temperature for 2 hours. The deamidation degrees of the proteins were measured by ammonia quantification. The hydrolysis degrees of proteins were analyzed by trichloroacetic acid precipitation and protein quantification method. The changes of molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC. The action of α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions induced slight deamidation of oat protein to low deamidation degrees (9-12%). On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin mainly caused hydrolysis of oat protein to hydrolysis degrees between 49% and 62%. SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC analysis also revealed that significant hydrolysis of oat protein occurred during the reaction. The hydrolysis mainly caused the shift of oat protein fractions from molecular weight above 20 kDa to molecular weight below 15 kDa. Change in pH did not cause significant differences on deamidation degrees and hydrolysis degrees of oat protein In conclusion, oat protein could not be effectively deamidated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions, while the proteolysis was severe.
  • Holmlund, Ulrika (2003)
    Syftet med min pro gradu-avhandling är att undersöka på vilket sätt tidningspressen beskriver "de Andra". Jag har valt att operationalisera "de Andra" som utlänningar, både flyktingar, asylsökande och övriga invandrare, samt minoriteter. Materialet består av tidningstexter ur Vasabladet och Hufvudstadsbladet. Jag analyserade mina texter utgående från diskursanalysen. Jag tittade på vem som förde ordet i texten, samt vem och vad som lyftes fram i texten. Med hjälp av olika ord, begrepp och omskrivningar hittade jag exempel på hur konstruktionen av "de Andra" kan komma fram i tidningstexter. Jag utgick från att jag inte skulle hitta direkta uttryck för rasism i texterna. Därför valde jag en konkret fråga, det vill säga bilden av "de Andra" i tidningspressen, som jag undersökte empiriskt. I stället för att hitta direkta uttryck för rasism hittade jag generella uttryck som genom en överexponering kan klassas som en nyare form av rasism som inte är baserad på biologi, utan på individers kultur. Genom att beskriva och framhäva "de Andra" som annorlunda och exotiska tar man fram det som skiljer "Oss" från "Dem". Detta kan ske genom att poängtera "de Andras" kultur, exempelvis religion, språk, traditioner, kläder eller musik. Det annorlunda ses ofta som något främmande och "de Andra" kan därför ses som ett hot mot "Oss". Samtidigt som man exotiserar "de Andra" drar man gränser för vad som anses normalt och onormalt. I västvärlden anses ofta vitt vara det normala i motsats till svart. Genom att poängtera nationalitet skiljer man också "de Andra" från "Oss". Analysresultaten visar att massmedia tenderar att både exotisera och normalisera när det handlar om "de Andra". Centrala källor är: "Att tänka sociologiskt" av Z. Bauman; "Sverige och de Andra" av M. McEachrane och L. Faye; "Etnicitetsbilden i finlandssvenska medier" av T. Sandlund; "Etnisyys ja rasismi journalismissa" av P. Raittila och "Theories of race and racism: a reader" av L. Back och J. Solomos.
  • Muhonen, Riikkamari (2013)
    Tutkielma käsittelee neuvostonuorison tuottamia arkielämän julkisia representaatioita käyttäen lähteenään nuortenlehti Yunostiin lähetettyjä lukijakirjeitä. Tutkielma kuvaa arkielämän eri aspekteja, kuten ihmissuhteita, opiskelua ja työelämää, kiinnittäen erityistä huomiota yhteiskunnan arvojen, ideologian ja ihanteiden näkymiseen nuorten tuottamissa arkensa kuvauksissa. Tutkielman toinen keskeinen tutkimuskohde ovat itseilmaisun rajat neuvostoliittolaisessa journalismissa vuosina 1964-1982. Tutkielman tavoitteena on analysoida, millaisia kirjeitä julkaistiin, miten ne suhteutuivat yhteiskunnan viralliseen ideologiaan, millaisia yhteiskunnallisia epäkohtia oli mahdollista kritisoida ja millaisia elementtejä nuoriso pyrki korostamaan arkielämäänsä kuvatessaan. Käytetty lähdeaineisto koostuu Yunostissa vuosina 1964-1982 julkaistuista lukijakirjeistä, joita on yhteensä noin 250 kappaletta. Aineisto on jaoteltu temaattisesti kolmeen laajempaan alalukuun, joiden teemat ovat yhteiskunnan keskeisimmät arvot ja niitä ylläpitävät rakenteet, ihmissuhteet ja sukupolvien väliset erot, sekä ammatinvalinta ja työelämä. Analyysin teoreettisena pohjana toimivat Hans-Georg Gadamerin hermeneuttisen ymmärtämisen teoria sekä Quentin Skinnerin kontekstualisoiva tekstianalyysi. Tutkielman tavoite on suhteuttaa kirjeiden sisältö tutkimusajankohdan poliittisiin, sosiaalisiin ja kulttuurisiin konteksteihin hyödyntäen laajaa tutkimuskirjallisuutta historian, politiikan tutkimuksen ja sosiologian aloilta. Lisäksi neuvostoyhteiskuntaan olennaisella tavalla kuuluvat käsitteelliset vastaparit, kuten kollektiivisuus ja yksilöllisyys sekä julkisuus ja yksityisyys nousevat vahvasti esiin aineiston analyysissa. Tutkielma osoittaa, että neuvostolehdistön pyrkimys ohjata yleistä mielipidettä vallanpitäjien toivomaan suuntaan sekä valistaa lukijakuntaansa vaikutti vahvasti lukijakirjeitä koskevaan julkaisupolitiikkaan. Yhteiskunnallisesti aroista asioista kirjoitettaessa näiden representaatioiden tuli tukea lehden kasvatuksellisia päämääriä. Kriittisiä mielipiteitä oli mahdollista esittää julkisesti, jos kritiikki suunnattiin itse järjestelmän sijaan johonkin sen yksittäiseen osaan. Tällöin kritiikki saattoi olla itsekritiikkiä tai kannustusta yhteisiin ponnistuksiin yleisen hyvän lisäämiseksi. Suurin osa julkaistuista kirjeistä oli sävyltään ideologisia ja yhteiskunnan yleisiä ihanteita ja tavoitteita myötäileviä. Tämä näkyi esimerkiksi teollisuus- ja maatalousammattien voimakkaana korostamisena. Yhteiskunnalliset arvot ja ideologia näkyivät voimakkaasti kirjeissä, joiden tyylillisistä eroistaan huolimatta voi katsoa pyrkineen tukemaan ihanneyhteiskunnan rakentamisen prosessia.
  • Crentsil, Perpetual (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This is a study of crises caused by HIV/AIDS among the Akan of Ghana. It creates more awareness about the epidemic and has indicated other possible paths for campaign strategies. The pandemic has many devastating consequences; yet new infections are recorded daily despite campaigns against the disease. The search for therapy often sees the use of multiple outlets, which expresses Ghana's pluralistic medical system based on Kleinman's sector analytical model involving Western medicine, self-therapy, and folk healing. But it also leaves individuals and kin members in financial quandary. The fieldwork for this study is mainly through participant observation lasting 13 months (February 2003 to March 2004) among the Akan; in addition, some archival materials have been used. The Akan people live in the coastal south and forest zone of Ghana. Every Akan village or town is made up of corporate lineages, and social organisation is based on matrilineal descent. The society is holistic because the matrilineages seek the welfare of all their members. Meyer Fortes, R. S. Rattray and others on the Akan noticed this encompassing nature in the lineage organisation; but they did not make it salient (or failed to notice it) during illness, efforts for healing, and the care of the sick member. HIV/AIDS is an illness which shows the encompassing nature of the Akan matrilineage. It also reveals many contradictions in the group, viz. stigmatisation, abandonment, and attitudes that do not express altruism in a group expected to be closely-knit based on members' belief that they are of the 'same blood'. The crises have been analyzed in the total social system because the disease creates breaches at various levels of social interaction. An analysis of crises in a group is not far-fetched; Victor Turner has shown the way among the Ndembu and has revealed the contraditions in the seemingly uneventful life in the group. This study has identified that in dealing with HIV/AIDS patients and crises about the disease we are dealing with 'holistic' patients. Their cases produce many changes in the matrilineal structure--many orphans are being created and the care of patients is increasingly falling on the elderly. HIV/AIDS also challenges Akan cosmology because, for example, an AIDS death in local notions is a 'bad' demise which fails to produce ancestors who reproduce the society through reincarnation. Campaigns could emphasize this notion. The study begins with a description of the holistic nature of Akan matriliny, and the patients have been described as 'holistic' because their crises affect other people in the holistic society. Chapter 2 discusses the importance of ancestors as the starting points for social order who are constantly revered (in rites invoving the chief, Chapter 4). Chapter 3 focuses on funerals as an important social performance for the welfare of the dead and the living. Chapter 5 concentrates on HIV/AIDS as an illness threat marked by dominant discourses such as poverty, sexuality, migration, and condom use. Chapter 6 analyzes the attempts for therapy, and traditional healers' claims to have a cure. The efforts for therapy continues with spiritual church healing in Chapter 7, and chapter 8 is devoted to care of the patients and its inherent crises. Chapter 9 analyzes the effects of HIV/AIDS afflictions and AIDS deaths on the matrilineal group and in society. The study ends with a short part, devoted to Recommendations based on the findings in this investigation.
  • Wessman, Anna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys ry, 2010)
    The thesis is connected with death, memory and ancestor commemoration during the Merovingian Period, the Viking Age and the beginning of the Crusade Period (AD 550-1150) in Finland. During this time, cremation was the dominant burial rite. It was not until the end of the Viking Age that inhumation became more common but both cremations and inhumations are performed even at the same sites throughout the time. Three different burial types 1) cremation cemeteries below level ground, 2) inhumation burials and 3) water burials are discussed in five articles. I consider these burial forms from three different viewpoints; collectivity-individuality, visibility-invisibility and cremation-inhumation. The thesis also discusses the topics of memory, memorialisation and monument re-use, which have been neglected subjects in Finnish archaeology until now. Both cremation cemeteries below level ground and inhumation burials have been re-used during their time of usage, and on most occasions are situated in a landscape that is overlaid by other monuments as well. The main questions of the thesis are: What kinds of ritual behaviour can we detect in the burials during the period (AD 550-1150)? How did people perceive the moraine hills that functioned as burial places? What kind of re-use can be detected in the Iron Age cemeteries? Why have ancient sites and artefacts been re-used? This thesis shows that it is possible to claim that both artefact and site re-use is a much more widespread phenomenon than has previously been thought in Finnish archaeology. It is also a conscious and deliberate behaviour that can be related to an ancestor cult and commemoration of the dead. The funerary rituals during this time period show great variation and complex, both regionally and nationally. Not only have the dead been buried using elaborate rituals, they have also been mourned and commemorated in intricate ways that proves that death was not an end product, but the start of something new.
  • Korpisaari, Antti (Archaeopress, 2006)
    My Ph.D. dissertation presents a multi-disciplinary analysis of the mortuary practices of the Tiwanaku culture of the Bolivian high plateau, situated at an altitude of c. 3800 m above sea level. The Tiwanaku State (c. AD 500-1150) was one of the most important pre-Inca civilisations of the South Central Andes. The book begins with a brief introductory chapter. In chapter 2 I discuss methodological and theoretical developments in archaeological mortuary studies from the late 1960s until the turn of the millennium. I am especially interested in the issue how archaeological burial data can be used to draw inferences on the social structure of prehistoric societies. Chapter 3 deals with the early historic sources written in the 16th and 17th centuries, following the Spanish Conquest of the Incas. In particular, I review information on how the Incas manifested status differences between and within social classes and what kinds of burial treatments they applied. In chapter 4 I compare the Inca case with 20th century ethnographic data on the Aymara Indians of the Bolivian high plateau. Even if Christianity has affected virtually every level of Aymara religion, surprisingly many traditional features can still be observed in present day Aymara mortuary ceremonies. The archaeological part of my book begins with chapter 5, which is an introduction into Tiwanaku archaeology. In the next chapter, I present an overview of previously reported Tiwanaku cemeteries and burials. Chapter 7 deals with my own excavations at the Late Tiwanaku/early post-Tiwanaku cemetery site of Tiraska, located on the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca. During the 1998, 2002, and 2003 field seasons, a total of 32 burials were investigated at Tiraska. The great majority of these were subterranean stone-lined tombs, each containing the skeletal remains of 1 individual and 1-2 ceramic vessels. Nine burials have been radiocarbon dated, the dates in question indicating that the cemetery was in use from the 10th until the 13th century AD. In chapter 8 I point out that considerable regional and/or ethnic differences can be noted between studied Tiwanaku cemetery sites. Because of the mentioned differences, and a general lack of securely dated burial contexts, I feel that at present we can do no better than to classify most studied Tiwanaku burials into three broad categories: (1) elite and/or priests, (2) "commoners", and (3) sacrificial victims and/or slaves and/or prisoners of war. On the basis of such indicators as monumental architecture and occupational specialisation we would expect to find considerable status-related differences in tomb size, grave goods, etc. among the Tiwanaku. Interestingly, however, such variation is rather modest, and the Tiwanaku seem to have been a lot less interested in expending considerable labour and resources in burial facilities than their pre-Columbian contemporaries of many parts of the Central Andes.