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  • Huttula, Samuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Lainsäädäntötoimenpiteet sosiaalisten perusoikeuksien kuten lakko-oikeuden ja järjestäytymisoikeuden osalta eivät lähtökohtaisesti kuulu EU:n toimivaltaan. Siitä huolimatta Euroopan unionin tuomioistuimen viimeaikaiset ratkaisut asioissa Viking, Laval ja Rüffert ovat luoneet oman haasteensa sosiaalisten perusoikeuksien ja markkinavapauksien tasapainottamiselle. Näissä tapauksissa EUT tulkitsi sosiaalisten perusoikeuksien rajoittavan perusvapauksia, jota ei voitu pitää EU-oikeuden kannalta hyväksyttävänä vaikka esimerkiksi lakko-oikeudesta säätäminen kuuluu jäsenvaltioiden yksinomaiseen toimivaltaan. Tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan siihen, kuinka lakko-oikeus osana järjestäytymisoikeutta tulisi ymmärtää ja määritellä oikeudellisena käsitteenä Eurooppalaisessa kontekstissa. Tarkoituksena on käsitteellistää lakko-oikeuteen liittyvää problematiikkaa sekä kansallisesta että EU-tason näkökulmasta ja peilata sitä EUT:n tulkintakäytäntöön ja jäsenvaltioiden kansainvälisiin velvoitteisiin. Arvion kohteena on myös se, kuinka EU-oikeuden lainvalintasäännöt vaikuttavat lakko-oikeuden harjoittamiseen unionin alueella. Tässä suhteessa perehdytään erityisesti Rooma II asetuksen 9 artiklaan. Tutkimuksen metodi on lainopillinen eli tutkimus tulkitsee ja systematisoi tietyn oikeudellisen käsitteen muodostamista. Tätä tavoitetta täydennetään hyödyntäen oikeusvertailevaa pohdintaa erityisesti jäsenvaltioiden työmarkkinajärjestelmien osalta. Lisäksi tutkimuksen viitekehyksessä pyritään tunnistamaan EU:lle ominaiseen hajautuneeseen kansainvälisyksityisoikeudelleen sääntelyyn liittyviä ongelmia metodologisesta näkökulmasta ja esittämään perustuslaillisen ulottuvuuden omaaville normikonflikteille ns. lävistävä (diagonal) käsitteellistämistapa. Keskeisimpänä tuloksena tutkielmassa esitetään jäsenvaltioiden suhtautumisen järjestäytymisvapauteen ja lakko-oikeuteen olevan hyvin monimuotoista. Lainvalintanormeilla voi olla rajoittavaa vaikutusta lakko-oikeuden harjoittamiseen rajat ylittävissä työtaistelutoimenpiteissä. EUT:n tulkintakäytännöllä on hyvin erilaisia vaikutuksia eri jäsenvaltioissa riippuen siitä, miten työmarkkinat on järjestetty. Kokoavasti voidaan kuitenkin todeta, että tietyissä maissa vaikutukset ovat hyvin perustavanlaatuisia ja usein ristiriidassa jäsenvaltioiden kansainvälisten velvoitteiden kanssa. Tähän liittyen huomioidaan myös se, että EUT ei ole luonteeltaan ylikansallinen perustuslakituomioistuin, minkä vuoksi viimeaikainen kehitys ja sen tarkoituksenmukaisuus voidaan kyseenalaistaa.
  • Rantanen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Concordia-lehti alkaessaan ilmestyä 1994 herätti ristiriitaisia reaktioita esimerkiksi SLEY:n henkilöstön keskuudessa. Alusta alkaen avainhenkilöitä ovat olleet Hannu Lehtonen, Hannu Halonen, Simo Kiviranta ja Sakari Korpinen. Ekumeniaan Concordia on suhtautunut kriittisesti arvioidessaan Porvoon sopimusta ja Yhteistä julistusta vanhurskauttamisesta. Keskeisiä teemoja tässä lehdessä ovat olleet tutkittavana aikana yleinen ja uskon kautta tapahtuva vanhurskauttaminen, Raamatun arvovallan korostaminen, sakramenttien merkityksen esillä pitäminen ja tietyt moraaliset ja eettiset periaatteet ja näkökulmat. Concordiassa on esiintynyt runsaasti sitaatteja Martti Lutherin teoksista, melko paljon myös luterilaisen ortodoksian edustajilta, kuten Martin Chemnitziltä ja Johann Gerhardilta. Ylivoimaisesti eniten artikkeleja kymmenen vuoden aikana on tehnyt päätoimittaja, pastori Hannu Lehtonen. Kirjoittajien joukossa maallikkojen osuus on ollut huomattava. Karismaattisia ilmiöitä arvioitaessa nähtiin osan armolahjoista kuuluneen ennen kaikkea alkukirkon aikaan, vaikka samalla todettiin ihmeitä voivan tapahtua nykyaikanakin. Concordian kirjoittajat eivät hyväksyneet läheskään kaikkia Suomen evankelis-luterilaisessa kirkossa tapahtuneita päätöksiä, asioita ja ilmiöitä. Voimakkaasti todettiin, että kirkossa ei tulisi samanaikaisesti sallia sekä totuutta että erilaisia harhaoppeja. Myös evankelisen liikkeen tai muiden herätysliikkeiden toimintaa ei aina pidetty tarpeeksi rohkeana, vaan katsottiin niiden mukautuneen liikaa yhteiskuntaan ja yleiseen ja valtaa pitävään kirkollisuuteen. Esimerkiksi Helsingin yliopistossa käytettyä historiallis-kriittistä metodia parempana metodina pidettiin historiallis-dogmaattista. Opetusta maailman syntymisestä pitkän evoluutio-prosessin seurauksena ei Concordiassa hyväksytty, vaan opetettiin Jumalan luoneen maailman kuudessa päivässä. Concordiassa kirjoittajina on esiintynyt myös useita tunnustuksellisen luterilaisuuden edustajia lähinnä Yhdysvalloista ja Pohjoismaista. Tutkitun lehden merkitys kirkollisessa kentässä ei ole tilaajamäärän pienuuden vuoksi kovin merkittävä, mutta eräänlaisena taustalla vaikuttajana ja keskustelun herättäjänä vaikutus on ollut suurempi. Concordian näkemyksen mukaan suuri enemmistö ei läheskään aina ole ollut oikeassa hengellisissä kysymyksissä. Evankeliseen liikkeeseen Concordian kirjoittajilla on ollut tietynlainen viha-rakkaussuhde, vaikka se on ollut monen kirjoittajan hengellinen koti. Lehdessä esiintynyttä pietismin arviointia tutkimus ei ole kovin paljon käsitellyt, koska se ei olisi kovin hyvin sopinut eri lukujen otsi- koiden alle. Helluntailaisuuden eri opinkäsityksiä Concordia on myös pyrkinyt kumoamaan. Lehti on halunnut koko ajan perustella opetuksensa selkeillä raamatunkohdilla ja edistää näin luterilaisen uskon ja opin tuntemusta. Tässä tutkimuksessa on ollut tietoinen valinta käyttää samoja raamatunkohtia lähteenä, joita Concordian kirjoittajat ovat itse käyttäneet. Kirkkohistoriaan kuuluvassa opinnäytteessä ei ole yleensä tyypillistä käyttää näin paljon viittauksia Raamattuun, mutta tällainen dogmatiikan mukaan ottaminen on perusteltua, koska se on niin olennainen osa Concordia-lehden teologiaa ja tapaa tuoda esille asioita. Tiivistetysti todeten ihmisten ainoa vapahtaja ja pelastaja on ollut tutkitun lehden mukaan ja on edelleen Jeesus Kristus.
  • Haavisto, Camilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study deals with how ethnic minorities and immigrants are portrayed in the Finnish print media. The study also asks how media users of various ethnocultural backgrounds make sense of these mediated stories. A more general objective is to elucidate negotiations of belonging and positioning practices in an increasingly complex society. The empirical part of the study is based on content analysis and qualitative close reading of 1,782 articles in five newspapers (Hufvudstadsbladet, Vasabladet, Helsingin Sanomat, Iltalehti and Ilta-Sanomat) during various research periods between 1999 and 2007. Four case studies on print media content are followed up by a focus group study involving 33 newspaper readers of Bosnian, Somalian, Russian, and 'native' Finnish backgrounds. The study draws from different academic and intellectual traditions; mainly media and communication studies, sociology and social psychology. The main theoretical framework employed is positioning theory, as developed by Rom Harré and others. Building on this perspective, situational self-positioning, positioning by others, and media positioning are seen as central practices in the negotiation of belonging. In support of contemporary developments in social sciences, some of these negotiations are seen as occurring in a network type of communicative space. In this space, the media form one of the most powerful institutions in constructing, distributing and legitimising values and ideas of who belongs to 'us', and who does not. The notion of positioning always involves an exclusionary potential. This thesis joins scholars who assert that in order to understand inclusionary and exclusionary mechanisms, the theoretical starting point must be a recognition of a decent and non-humiliating society. When key insights are distilled from the five empirical cases and related to the main theories, one of the major arguments put forward is that the media were first and foremost concerned with a minority actor's rightful or unlawful belonging to the Finnish welfare system. However, in some cases persistent stereotypes concerning some immigrant groups' motivation to work, pay taxes and therefore contribute are so strong that a general idea of individualism is forgotten in favour of racialised and stagnated views. Discussants of immigrant background also claim that the positions provided for minority actors in the media are not easy to identify with; categories are too narrow, journalists are biased, the reporting is simplifying and carries labelling potential. Hence, although the will for the communicative space to be more diverse and inclusive exists — and has also in many cases been articulated in charters, acts and codes — the positioning of ethnic minorities and immigrants differs significantly from the ideal.
  • Siukosaari, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study is part of the longitudinal population based Helsinki Aging Study (HAS). The study population consisted of a random sample of subjects born in 1904, 1909 and 1914 and living in Helsinki, Finland in 1990. Clinical oral and radiographical status along with an interview on background factors, oral health behavior and self-perceived need of treatment were obtained from 364 elderly aged 76, 81 and 86 years at the baseline in 1990-91. Of these 196 were dentate and the 171 dentate who had information on their education formed the baseline study group. Prior to oral examination the participants underwent comprehensive medical examination. Five years later 113 dentate elderly participated in the follow-up examinations. Background information for the non-participation analysis was obtained from the medical HAS records. To assess any possible non-response bias we evaluated the background factors of the participants and non-participants. The multicausal analysis revealed that the strongest factors explaining non-participation were old age (OR=3.6), being edentulous (OR=2.5), having clinically diagnosed signs of dementia (OR=4.1) and a deteriorated ability to move easily (OR=5.3). Caries was common among the participants. At baseline 71% of men and 48% of women had decayed teeth. Subjects DMFT (Decayed Missing Filled Teeth) index increased during the follow-up mostly as a result of tooth extractions. Although the number of teeth and root surfaces (p PIENEMPI 0.05) at risk were higher in the high education groups, no significant differences were found in number of DRS (Decayed Root Surfaces) (0.6 ± 1.3) and RCI (Root Caries Index) (0.13 ± 0.18) in the different education groups. The only factor, which could explain the increment in root caries, was high salivary microbial counts. However, none of the salivary factors examined were directly associated with the level of education. Many of these participants were also in need of periodontal treatment. The results of the study indicated that there are oral health disparities among this elderly population. The fact that the elderly with higher level of education had more remaining teeth than the elderly with lower level of education explained the finding that better educated elderly also had a greater need for periodontal treatment. During the five year follow-up only slight deteriorating in periodontal health was found, while the differences between education groups remained, indicating that good periodontal health is possible to maintain even with advancing age. The major chronic oral diseases, caries and periodontal disease, share many common risk factors. While there is much evidence on the prevention of these diseases, the implementation of this knowledge into successful programs for specific groups and populations has been modest. This was also seen in the present study population with high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases. There is an urgent need for preventive programs against caries and periodontal disease both in the community and individual level because a growing proportion of older adults retain their teeth into old age and the proportion of the older adults in the population is estimated to continue to grow.
  • Konttinen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Anu Konttinen: Conducting Gestures Institutional and Educational Construction of Conductorship in Finland, 1973-1993. This doctoral thesis concentrates on those Finnish conductors who have participated in Professor Jorma Panula s conducting class at the Sibelius Academy during the years 1973 1993. The starting point was conducting as a myth, and the goal has been to find its practical opposite the practical core of the profession. What has been studied is whether one can theorise and analyse this core, and how. The theoretical goal has been to find out what kind of social construction conductorship is as a historical, sociological and practical phenomenon. In practical terms, this means taking the historical and social concept of a great conductor apart to look for the practical core gestural communication. The most important theoretical tool is the concept of gesture. The idea has been to sketch a theoretical model based on gestural communication between a conductor and an orchestra, and to give one example of the many possible ways of studying the gestures of a conductor.
  • Suomalainen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In dentistry, basic imaging techniques such as intraoral and panoramic radiography are in most cases the only imaging techniques required for the detection of pathology. Conventional intraoral radiographs provide images with sufficient information for most dental radiographic needs. Panoramic radiography produces a single image of both jaws, giving an excellent overview of oral hard tissues. Regardless of the technique, plain radiography has only a limited capability in the evaluation of three-dimensional (3D) relationships. Technological advances in radiological imaging have moved from two-dimensional (2D) projection radiography towards digital, 3D and interactive imaging applications. This has been achieved first by the use of conventional computed tomography (CT) and more recently by cone beam CT (CBCT). CBCT is a radiographic imaging method that allows accurate 3D imaging of hard tissues. CBCT has been used for dental and maxillofacial imaging for more than ten years and its availability and use are increasing continuously. However, at present, only best practice guidelines are available for its use, and the need for evidence-based guidelines on the use of CBCT in dentistry is widely recognized. We evaluated (i) retrospectively the use of CBCT in a dental practice, (ii) the accuracy and reproducibility of pre-implant linear measurements in CBCT and multislice CT (MSCT) in a cadaver study, (iii) prospectively the clinical reliability of CBCT as a preoperative imaging method for complicated impacted lower third molars, and (iv) the tissue and effective radiation doses and image quality of dental CBCT scanners in comparison with MSCT scanners in a phantom study. Using CBCT, subjective identification of anatomy and pathology relevant in dental practice can be readily achieved, but dental restorations may cause disturbing artefacts. CBCT examination offered additional radiographic information when compared with intraoral and panoramic radiographs. In terms of the accuracy and reliability of linear measurements in the posterior mandible, CBCT is comparable to MSCT. CBCT is a reliable means of determining the location of the inferior alveolar canal and its relationship to the roots of the lower third molar. CBCT scanners provided adequate image quality for dental and maxillofacial imaging while delivering considerably smaller effective doses to the patient than MSCT. The observed variations in patient dose and image quality emphasize the importance of optimizing the imaging parameters in both CBCT and MSCT.
  • Kinnunen, Hanna (1930)
  • Talvitie-Lamberg, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this dissertation, I study confessional me-centered communications of vlogs in the context of DIY (Do It Yourself) cultures, in YouTube and in webcam communities. Confession refers to a communicative strategy that aims to reveal intimate matters of an individual and, at the same time, serves as a way to socialize with others. The key research question is: How and why does confession operate in communication and interaction in social media environments? Mediatization theory offers one solution to understand these extremes. The participatory act of confession in DIY environments is understood as a process of constructing the individual as a social being so-called social self. This is the new type of individual as suggested by mediatization theory individual as a social being dependent on the recognition she gets in and through the media. The concept of recognition may explain why the micro level of confessional acts can be understood as a central means to constructing the confession maker as a social being. The act of self-revelation, characteristic to the new type of individualism, is understood in connection with the confessional that operates in our society on a larger scale. Therefore, the knowledge of the confessional operating in our society can be expanded by obtaining a detailed understanding of confessional communications, taking place in microenvironments. Because the recognition the individual receives plays a crucial role in these environments, the micro level of confessional act becomes closely connected to the question of representation, the particular aesthetical and performative modes it takes, and to the question of what is revealed. To understand this activity more profoundly, this study focuses on how a confessional I- narrative is constructed in and through the representation. This study generates a new understanding on the particular representational means by which the confessional I-message generates cultural participation in vlogging environments and suggests further the spesific type of agency the vlog environments enhance. The findings demonstrate that confessions need to be performed context-wise, strictly following the sociocultural, aesthetical, and technical constraints of a particular environment. However, even though confession was understood as a regulatory mechanism, it also proved to be a way to reveal authentic self-disclosure by performing as one s real self. This occurred not despite but because of the regulative constraints of the researched DIY environments. This finding modifies the figure of a mediatized and confessional individual as disciplined and an actor with free will who is able to construct her real self through DIY-mediated I- messaging in social and constructive relationships with others. This suggests that the understanding of a confessional operating in neoliberal society, increasingly through virtual environments, needs adjustment. Thus the agency of the individual within social media environments of vlogging should be understood not only as a controllable object, disciplined by the communicational environments and by the peers; or as confessor-performer, individual governed by herself in the form of producing the right type of confession, in order to make oneself visible; but foremost as a free willing agency of the confessor performing one s own reality, to build social contacts, not in spite but because of the performance that takes place in and through screens in DIY environments.
  • Jin, Jiawei (2014)
    In user studies of human-computer interaction, experiments on new devices and techniques are often made on experiment software, which is developed separately for each device and technique. A systematic experimental platform, capable of running experiments on a number of technologies, would facilitate the design and implementation of such experiments. To do this, a configurable framework was created to allow relative pointing and absolute pointing input to be enhanced with adaptive pointing and smoothed pointing techniques. This thesis discusses both the internals of the framework as well as how a platform is developed based on the framework. Additionally, two calibration modules were designed to transform the relative pointing input to absolute pointing and obtain the necessary parameters which will be applied in smoothed pointing. As a part of the deployment, the experiment module was made to provide a platform which allowed the enhanced pointing experience to be evaluated and generated proper output according to the results of the experiment task. One key achievement presented in this thesis is that the relative pointing devices are integrable with adaptive pointing and smoothed pointing which support for absolute pointing devices in general. Another key result presented in this thesis is that the configurable framework based experimental platform provides proper functions which meet the demands of professional pointing evaluation. ACM Computing Classification System (CCS): I.4.1 [Digitization and Image Capture]: Camera calibration, I.4.3 [Enhancement]: Smoothing, I.4.8 [Scene Analysis]: Tracking
  • Jok, Kuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the contemporary conflict of national identity in Sudan between the adherents of Islamic nationalism and customary secularism . The former urge the adoption of a national constitution that derives its civil and criminal laws from Sharia (Islamic law) and Arabic be the language of instruction in national institutions of Sudan. The group argues that the intertwined model of the Islamic-Arab cultural identity accelerates assimilation of the heterogeneous African ethnic and religious diversities in Sudan into a homogeneous national identity defining Sudan as an Islamic-Arab state. The latter demand the adoption of secular laws, which must be derived from the diverse set of customary laws and equal opportunities for all African languages beside Arabic and English. The group claims that the adoption of the Islamic laws and Arabic legalises the treatment of the citizens in the country in terms of religion and race and that implies racism and discrimination. In this way, the adherents of the Islamic nationalism imposed the Islamic-Arab model. In reaction, the Muslims and the non-Muslim secularists resort to violence as an alternative model of resistance. In pursuance of war, the Islamists declared Jihad against the secularists in Nuba Mountains, South Blue Nile (Ingessana) and adopt the racial war in Darfur. In this region, the janjaweed (armed Arab militias) in Darfur fight inclusively the insurgents and the indigenous African Muslims in Darfur in equal terms. This form of war has caused a humanitarian disaster in this region. The method of the research is qualitative and its main primary source material was based on a survey conducted among students of five universities in Sudan. Prepared and organised questionnaires in English and Arabic were given to five hundred students. Participant observation, interviews and relevant secondary sources were also used. The findings of the study indicate that every religion and culture in Sudan provides a set of regulations which promote political ethics of cultural and religious diversities as well as equal distribution of power and national wealth. The new emerging phenomenon that attempts to project religion as the source of human insecurity and injustice embodies some psychological and ideological orientations emanating from human nature and not the historical religions of God. It recommends the durable resolutions taking into consideration the diverse theoretical models for the formation of a nation-state, where the diversity is not discouraged; instead states apply laws which promote religious and ethnic diversities within one territorial state. The insistence of the Islamists on the application of the Islamic law and marginalisation of the non-Arab groups in Darfur, Eastern Sudan of Beja, Ingessana of South Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains threaten the territorial integrity of the state. The secession of South Sudan from the current Sudan in the internationally surpvised referendum in January 2011 was a paradigm resulting from economic and political imbalance in the former Sudan.
  • Kytölä, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This thesis consists of an introduction, four research articles and an appendix. The thesis studies relations between two different approaches to continuum limit of models of two dimensional statistical mechanics at criticality. The approach of conformal field theory (CFT) could be thought of as the algebraic classification of some basic objects in these models. It has been succesfully used by physicists since 1980's. The other approach, Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLEs), is a recently introduced set of mathematical methods to study random curves or interfaces occurring in the continuum limit of the models. The first and second included articles argue on basis of statistical mechanics what would be a plausible relation between SLEs and conformal field theory. The first article studies multiple SLEs, several random curves simultaneously in a domain. The proposed definition is compatible with a natural commutation requirement suggested by Dubédat. The curves of multiple SLE may form different topological configurations, ``pure geometries''. We conjecture a relation between the topological configurations and CFT concepts of conformal blocks and operator product expansions. Example applications of multiple SLEs include crossing probabilities for percolation and Ising model. The second article studies SLE variants that represent models with boundary conditions implemented by primary fields. The most well known of these, SLE(kappa, rho), is shown to be simple in terms of the Coulomb gas formalism of CFT. In the third article the space of local martingales for variants of SLE is shown to carry a representation of Virasoro algebra. Finding this structure is guided by the relation of SLEs and CFTs in general, but the result is established in a straightforward fashion. This article, too, emphasizes multiple SLEs and proposes a possible way of treating pure geometries in terms of Coulomb gas. The fourth article states results of applications of the Virasoro structure to the open questions of SLE reversibility and duality. Proofs of the stated results are provided in the appendix. The objective is an indirect computation of certain polynomial expected values. Provided that these expected values exist, in generic cases they are shown to possess the desired properties, thus giving support for both reversibility and duality.
  • Kytölä, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This thesis consists of an introduction, four research articles and an appendix. The thesis studies relations between two different approaches to continuum limit of models of two dimensional statistical mechanics at criticality. The approach of conformal field theory (CFT) could be thought of as the algebraic classification of some basic objects in these models. It has been succesfully used by physicists since 1980's. The other approach, Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLEs), is a recently introduced set of mathematical methods to study random curves or interfaces occurring in the continuum limit of the models. The first and second included articles argue on basis of statistical mechanics what would be a plausible relation between SLEs and conformal field theory. The first article studies multiple SLEs, several random curves simultaneously in a domain. The proposed definition is compatible with a natural commutation requirement suggested by Dubédat. The curves of multiple SLE may form different topological configurations, ``pure geometries''. We conjecture a relation between the topological configurations and CFT concepts of conformal blocks and operator product expansions. Example applications of multiple SLEs include crossing probabilities for percolation and Ising model. The second article studies SLE variants that represent models with boundary conditions implemented by primary fields. The most well known of these, SLE(kappa, rho), is shown to be simple in terms of the Coulomb gas formalism of CFT. In the third article the space of local martingales for variants of SLE is shown to carry a representation of Virasoro algebra. Finding this structure is guided by the relation of SLEs and CFTs in general, but the result is established in a straightforward fashion. This article, too, emphasizes multiple SLEs and proposes a possible way of treating pure geometries in terms of Coulomb gas. The fourth article states results of applications of the Virasoro structure to the open questions of SLE reversibility and duality. Proofs of the stated results are provided in the appendix. The objective is an indirect computation of certain polynomial expected values. Provided that these expected values exist, in generic cases they are shown to possess the desired properties, thus giving support for both reversibility and duality.
  • Klingenberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the interplay between individual and collective dimensions in personal understandings of religious affiliation. Thirty-one interviews with Swedish-speaking nineteen year olds from three localities in Finland provide the raw material for the study. The data is analyzed through an abductive qualitative content analysis. The theoretical lenses employed are socialization theory and role-identity theory. Membership patterns are also analyzed as reflections of societal majority or minority positions. Most of the young people interviewed were members of the Lutheran Church along with their families, and found it challenging to discuss their religious affiliation: they referred to it as something you do. Church membership implies complex patterns of collective belonging and individual interpretation. The religious majority related its membership to family tradition and cultural convention, and described religious practice as being social in character. The way in which church membership was anchored in significant relationships made it personally meaningful. In addition, church membership was explained as connected to personal beliefs and values. However, regardless of personal religiousness, most young people expressed reluctance towards being categorized socially as a Christian or a believer . There were also a few members of Christian minority communities and non-affiliated young people in the data. In contrast, these minority members shared a more distinct understanding of their religious affiliation status and its meaning and described it as part of their personal identity. While majority membership entailed social conformity, the accounts of minority members testified to a different experience. It is argued that these findings reflect Finnish religious affiliation patterns at large rather than the specific Finland-Swede setting of this study. Regardless of religious affiliation status, patterns of religious socialization were subtle, yet evident. Religious transmission in Finnish homes had seldom taken explicit and verbal forms; yet it was influential for the informants negotiations between personal and social identity markers. Here, minority members differed because of their more precise descriptions of their parents religious attitudes. Furthermore, peers exerted significant influence by constituting the social context in which institutional contexts for religious matters were encountered. Theoretically, this study addresses and challenges the diverse understandings of religious affiliation presented in previous research and theory. The findings point to the influence of majority and minority positions and common understandings of socially desired and undesired social categories in how personal religious identities are negotiated. Furthermore, the study suggests that these notions are not found only in the youth population, but amongst adults as well. Furthermore, this study directs attention to the poor fit between academic understandings of religious socialization as a verbal, active process, and cultural settings where religious matters are understood as private and are seldom verbalized, and also direct attention to the influence of peers on how religious matters are discussed and negotiated.
  • Huang, Paulos (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The aim of the present study is to analyze Confucian understandings of the Christian doctrine of salvation in order to find the basic problems in the Confucian-Christian dialogue. I will approach the task via a systematic theological analysis of four issues in order to limit the thesis to an appropriate size. They are analyzed in three chapters as follows: 1. The Confucian concept concerning the existence of God. Here I discuss mainly the issue of assimilation of the Christian concept of God to the concepts of Sovereign on High (Shangdi) and Heaven (Tian) in Confucianism. 2. The Confucian understanding of the object of salvation and its status in Christianity. 3. The Confucian understanding of the means of salvation in Christianity. Before beginning this analysis it is necessary to clarify the vast variety of controversies, arguments, ideas, opinions and comments expressed in the name of Confucianism; thus, clear distinctions among different schools of Confucianism are given in chapter 2. In the last chapter I will discuss the results of my research in this study by pointing out the basic problems that will appear in the analysis. The results of the present study provide conclusions in three related areas: the tacit differences in the ways of thinking between Confucians and Christians, the basic problems of the Confucian-Christian dialogue, and the affirmative elements in the dialogue. In addition to a summary, a bibliography and an index, there are also eight appendices, where I have introduced important background information for readers to understand the present study.
  • Kallio, Jyrki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The topic of this study is the most renowned anthology of essays written in Literary Chinese, Guwen guanzhi, compiled and edited by Wu Chengquan (Chucai) and Wu Dazhi (Diaohou), and first published during the Qing dynasty, in 1695. Because of the low social standing of the compilers, their anthology remained outside the recommended study materials produced by members of the established literati and used for preparing students in the imperial civil-service examinations. However, since the end of the imperial era, Guwen guanzhi has risen to a position as the classical anthology par excellence. Today it is widely used as required or supplementary reading material of Literary Chinese in middle-schools both in Mainland China and on Taiwan. The goal of this study is to explain the persistent longevity of the anthology. So far, Guwen guanzhi has not been a topic of any published academic study, and the opinions expressed on it in various sources are widely discrepant. Through a comparative study with a dozen classical Chinese anthologies in use during the early Qing dynasty, this study reveals the extent to which the compilers of Guwen guanzhi modelled their work after other selections. Altogether 86 % of the texts in Guwen guanzhi originate from another Qing era anthology, Guwen xiyi, often copied character by character. However, the notes and commentaries are all different. Concentrating on the special characteristics unique to Guwen guanzhi—the commentaries and certain peculiarities in the selection of texts—this study then discusses the possible reasons for the popularity of Guwen guanzhi over the competing readers during the Qing era. Most remarkably, Guwen guanzhi put in practise the equalitarian, educational ideals of the Ming philosopher Wang Shouren (Yangming). Thus Guwen guanzhi suited the self-enlightenment needs of the ”subordinate classes”, in particular the rising middle-class comprised mainly of merchants. The lack of moral teleology, together with the compact size, relative comprehensiveness of the selection and good notes and comments, have made Guwen guanzhi well suited for the new society since the abolition of the imperial examination system. Through a content analysis, based on a sample of the texts, this study measures the relative emphasis on centralism and localism (both in concrete and spiritual terms) expressed in the texts of Guwen guanzhi. The analysis shows that the texts manifest some bias towards emphasising innate virtue on the expense of state-defined moral. This may reflect hidden critique towards intellectual oppression by the centralised imperial rule. During the early decades of the Qing era, such critique was often linked to Ming-loyalism. Finally, this study concludes that the kind of ”spiritual localism” that Guwen guanzhi manifests gives it the potential to undermine monolithic orthodoxy even in today’s Chinese societies. This study has progressed hand in hand with the translation of a selection of texts from Guwen guanzhi into Finnish, published by Gaudeamus Helsinki University Press: Jadekasvot – Valittuja tarinoita Kiinan muinaisajoilta (2005), Jadelähde – Valittuja kirjoituksia Kiinan keskiajalta (2007) and Jadepeili – Valittuja kirjoituksia keisarillisen Kiinan kulta-ajoilta (2008). All translations are critical editions, complete with extensive notation. The trilogy is the first comprehensive translation based on Guwen guanzhi in a European language.
  • Kyllönen, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Congenital chylothorax is a rare disorder which may end up in stillbirth or neonatal death. Due to its rarity, no clear standards for optimal treatment have been established. Reports of long-term outcomes are scarce. This is a retrospective study of all cases of congenital chylothorax treated in Helsinki University Central Hospital 1999-9/2013. Information on the pregnancies and antenatal management, neonatal management an long term outcomes has been retreived from the patient records of Helsinki University Central Hospital. There were altogether 17 cases, no in-utero deaths and seven deaths in the neonatal period. 71 per cent of the patients underwent intrauterine thoracocentesis and there was one attempt of placing a thoraco-amnionic shunt. Factors such as fetal hydrops, early onset of congenital chylothorax, chromosomal and structural anomalies and prematurity seemed connected to higher mortality, as they have in earlier studies. In follow-up, three of seven patients have been diagnosed with asthma.
  • Sipponen, Arno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Natural coniferous resins and other terpenic wood extracts have been raw materials for various products in industry, and have been used as traditional medicines in Finland for hundreds of years, particularly as a home-made salve for skin wounds and infections. Due to the author´s own positive empirical experiences of natural coniferous resin salve in wound care, the present resin-project was set up in order to investigate (1) the antimicrobial properties of the resin and resin salve by microbiological laboratory techniques, and to study (2) the efficacy, feasibility and safety of the resin salve for wound care in objective clinical trials. The thesis comprises four microbiological investigations and two clinical trials. Microbiological studies with an agar diffusion test and with the European Pharmacopoeia challenge test gave somewhat controversial results indicating that the water solubility of resin and resin salve may affect the assay results. The studies showed that coniferous resin and resin salve were strongly antimicrobial against a wide spectrum of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). The resin was, in addition, antifungal against the most common dermatophytes, and against the Candida albicans yeast. The antibacterial action of resin was observed to result from destruction of the bacterial cell wall and cell membrane structures. Microbes, both bacteria and fungi, exposed to resin or resin salve, showed thickening of the cell walls. The cells formed aggregations, showed arrested mitoses, and were finally destroyed according to the observations in scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In electrophysiological experiments with Staphylococcus aureus, the exposure of the micro-organisms to resin and resin acid (abietic acid) caused dissipation of the cell membrane potential and changed the branching of fatty acids in the cell walls. The observed changes were concluded to indicate that the coniferous resin influences the bacterial cell survival via damage to cell membrane functions. In tests on safety aspects, the coniferous spruce resin or resin salve were not mutagenic in Ames tests. In skin irritation tests in rabbits (ISO 10993-10:2010 standard), the resin salve containing purified coniferous resin 10% (w/w) was "negligibly" irritating. In in vitro cytotoxicity tests (EN ISO 10993-5:2009 and USP<87>) with mouse fibroblasts in HAM F12 culture medium the salve was markedly cytotoxic but slightly cytotoxic if diluted (1+3) with fresh culture medium. In analyses with gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry, the acetone extracts of both pure spruce resin and resin salve contained coumaric acid, a group of diverse resin acids and lignans. All these compounds are potentially biologically active and were calculated to occur in total in purified spruce callus resin at a concentration of 300 mg/g of resin (w/w) and 30 mg/g (w/w) of the 10% resin salve, on average. One of the clinical trials is a randomized, prospective investigation where the efficacy of resin salve treatment for 6 months was compared to the efficacy of hydrofiber dressings (with or without silver) in 37 patients with severe, grade II-IV, pressure ulcers. In this trial the resin salve treatment was, in both per protocol and ITT (intention-to-treat) analysis, significantly more effective (P=0.003) in improving ulcer healing (regarding both the rate of healing per patient (N=23) or per ulcers (N=29)) than the control treatment. All pressure ulcers in all compliant patients (per protocol analysis) in the resin group healed except for one ulcer in one patient (94% (95%CI 84-100%)) whereas less than half (36% (8-65%)) of the ulcers healed in the control group. Resin salve improved the ulcer healing independent of whether the ulcer was infected or not. The other clinical trial was an observational and prospective study on efficacy and feasibility of the resin salve treatment in chronic (complicated) surgical wounds in a cohort of 23 patients. In all 23 patients, the wound healed in 43±24 days on average without any draw-backs. In multivariate analysis, the length of the wound was an independent and significant predictor of the healing time. In resin salve therapy, the wounds progressively healed (re-epithelialized) at 2 mm per day on average. In the clinical trials, including a total of 45 compliant patients, one patient (2%; 95%CI:0-5%) had an allergic reaction (allergic contact dermatitis). No other complications or side effects were observed. In calculations of direct costs, the expenses of the pharmaceutical materials were 1.2 ±0.5 per day on average among the patients treated with resin salve. Descriptions of terms commonly used in the present paper are presented in Appendix I. Keywords: Resin, rosin, Norway spruce, microbiology, pressure ulcer, wound healing, hydrofiber dressing, chronic surgical wound, surgical site infection, wound infection, cost analyses.
  • Zhen, Zeng (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that possess the ability to fix nitrogen for their host legumes, an attribute ascribed to the presence of symbiosis-related genes usually clustered on plasmids called symbiotic plasmids (pSyms). Many pSyms have been proven self-transmissible, capable of transferring themselves to other bacteria through conjugation, thereby propagating their symbiotic features. Rhizobium galegae symbiovar (sv.) officinalis has a pSym, on which typical conjugation genes have been revealed. A Type IV secretion system (T4SS) functioning as a conjugation system has also been computationally predicted on a chromid, another replicon in R. galegae sv. officinalis. In addition, the transfer of the pSym of R. galegae sv. officinalis to a non-nodulating mutant strain of R. galegae sv. orientalis has been previously observed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, this thesis was aimed at investigating the self-transmissibility of the pSym of R. galegae sv. officinalis and the necessity of the T4SS’ presence for the pSym transfer. Two derivatives of the R. galegae sv. officinalis were generated with one strain cured of its pSym by using Tn5-mob-sacB transposon and the other strain excised the T4SS from the chromid by Cre-lox site specific recombination system. Conjugation were then performed between these two derivatives as well as between the wild-type strain and the plasmid-cured derivative, followed by the host plant nodulation tests. The tests showed no formation of a single nodule in either pair, which was unexpectedly inconsistent with the previous experimental observation. No solid explanations could be proposed at this stage. It might be due to the low transfer frequency resulted from complex associations with subtle environmental signal molecules or recipient cell recognition that presumably disabled the transmissibility of the pSym.
  • Tuomaala, Seppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Eighty-five new cases of conjunctival melanoma (CM) were diagnosed in Finland between 1967 and 2000. The annual crude incidence of CM was 0.51 per million inhabitants. The average age-adjusted incidence of 0.54 doubled during the study period, analogous to the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during this period, suggesting a possible role for ultraviolet radiation in its pathogenesis. Nonlimbal tumors were more likely than limbal ones to recur and they were associated with decreased survival. Increasing tumor thickness and recurrence of the primary tumor were other clinical factors related to death from CM. The histopathologic specimens of 85 patients with CM melanoma were studied for cell type, mitotic count, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, mean vascular density, extravascular matrix loops and networks, and mean diameter of the ten largest nucleoli (MLN). The absence of epithelioid cells, increasing mitotic count and small MLN were associated with shorter time to recurrence according to the Cox univariate regression. None of the histopathologic variables was associated with mortality from CM. Four (5%) patients had a CM limited to the cornea without evidence of a tumor other than primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva. Because there are no melanocytes in the cornea, the origin of these melanomas most likely is the limbal conjunctiva. All four corneally displaced CM were limited to the epithelium, and none of the patients developed metastases. An anatomic sub-classification based on my patients and world literature was developed for corneally displaced CM. In 20 patients the metastatic pattern could be determined. Ten patients had initial systemic metastases detected, nine had initial regional metastases, and in one case the two types were detected simultaneously. The patients most likely to develop either type of initial metastases were those with nonlimbal conjunctival melanoma, those with a primary tumor more than 2 mm thick, and those with a recurrent conjunctival melanoma. Approximately two thirds of the patients had limbal CM, a location associated with good prognosis. One third, however, had a primary CM originating outside the limbus. In these patients the chance of developing local recurrences as well as systemic metastases was significantly higher than in patients with limbal CM. Each recurrence accompanies an increased risk of developing metastases, and recurrences contribute to death along with increasing tumor thickness and nonlimbal tumor location. In my data, an equal number of patients with initial locoregional and systemic metastasis existed. Patients with limbal primary tumors less than 2 mm in thickness rarely experienced metastases, unless the tumor recurred. Consequently, the patients most likely to benefit from sentinel lymph node biopsy are those who have nonlimbal tumors, CM that are over 2 mm thick, or recurrent CM. The histopathology of CM differs from that of uveal melanoma. Microvascular factors did not prove to be of prognostic importance, possibly due to the fact that CM at least as often disseminates first to the regional lymph nodes, unlike uveal melanoma that almost always disseminates hematogenously.