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  • Alvarez Garcia, Patricia (2013)
    Connections between organizational engagement and internal communication have gained much interest in recent years, due to existing evidence suggesting that employees who engage with their organization affect organization’s effectiveness and that, in turn, internal communication can influence organizational engagement. However, there is little evidence about such connection seen from an employee perspective and therefore, this study sought to explore linkages between employee organizational engagement and internal communication, on the basis of experiences of employees. This thesis draws on theoretical concepts such as knowledge workers, internal communication and organizational engagement as well as on an empirical research inspired by principles of grounded theory. The research analyzed twelve semi-structured interviews to employees working for a global knowledge-based organization; aiming at exploring the factors that had the potential to influence their engagement with the organization; their key expectations towards internal communication and the implications that their overall experiences suggest for the practice of internal communication. Key findings indicated that organizational engagement can be influenced by organization-level internal communication and suggested that, while there cannot be a universal internal communication strategy to engage employees with their organization, the responsibility to engage and to achieve effective internal communication which supports engagement needs to be shared by all members of the organization, whereby employees’ accountability and empowerment is central. The findings also suggested a revision of the role of leaders and managers of the organization and the role of the function of internal communication. Overall, this study suggested that, in the relationship between organizational engagement and internal communication, seen from an employee perspective, both the organization and the employees could have significant gains.
  • Rasilo, Terhi (Finnish Society of Forest Science, 2013)
    The carbon cycle and hydrological cycle are closely connected combining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study focuses on important processes of the carbon cycle at plant, ecosystem and landscape levels. Carbon allocation was investigated at the seedling scale with microcosm experiments, and carbon fluxes, especially the lateral carbon fluxes from soil to adjacent water bodies, at field sites. The carbon allocation pattern differed between typical boreal tree species, but an increase in temperature did not change the net growth of seedlings, because photosynthesis and respiration increase compensated for each other. A higher temperature did not change the species composition of ectomychorrhizal fungi, but spesific species can alter carbon allocation. This study demonstrates that CO2 efflux from the soil is largely controlled by biological processes (i.e. the rate of photosynthesis and decomposition), whereas aquatic CO2 emissions are mostly affected by physical forces (i.e. convection controlling stratification). Lateral carbon flux from soil to the lake and brook was regulated by hydrology and closely connected to the riparian zone. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the brook were controlled by precipitation and DOC concentrations in the soil, and rain events increased CO2 concentrations both in the riparian zone and in the brook. The large water volume of the lake buffered it against changes. It is of crucial importance to consider terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems together, since lakes and rivers act as significant pathways for terrestrially bound carbon back to the atmosphere. In the natural old-growth forest of this study, lateral carbon transport accounted for 50% and brook discharge for 19% of the terrestrial net ecosystem exchange. Thus, exclusion of the lateral carbon flux would lead to overestimation of the role of the forest as a carbon sink. However, the role of lateral transport can be less important in younger or managed forests, which are faster growing.
  • Inkinen, Kaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Varkemaa, Jussi (Jussi Varkemaa, 2009)
    This study focuses on the theory of individual rights that the German theologian Conrad Summenhart (1455-1502) explicated in his massive work Opus septipartitum de contractibus pro foro conscientiae et theologico. The central question to be studied is: How does Summenhart understand the concept of an individual right and its immediate implications? The basic premiss of this study is that in Opus septipartitum Summenhart composed a comprehensive theory of individual rights as a contribution to the on-going medieval discourse on rights. With this rationale, the first part of the study concentrates on earlier discussions on rights as the background for Summenhart s theory. Special attention is paid to language in which right was defined in terms of power . In the fourteenth century writers like Hervaeus Natalis and William Ockham maintained that right signifies power by which the right-holder can to use material things licitly. It will also be shown how the attempts to describe what is meant by the term right became more specified and cultivated. Gerson followed the implications that the term power had in natural philosophy and attributed rights to animals and other creatures. To secure right as a normative concept, Gerson utilized the ancient ius suum cuique-principle of justice and introduced a definition in which right was seen as derived from justice. The latter part of this study makes effort to reconstructing Summenhart s theory of individual rights in three sections. The first section clarifies Summenhart s discussion of the right of the individual or the concept of an individual right. Summenhart specified Gerson s description of right as power, taking further use of the language of natural philosophy. In this respect, Summenhart s theory managed to bring an end to a particular continuity of thought that was centered upon a view in which right was understood to signify power to licit action. Perhaps the most significant feature of Summenhart s discussion was the way he explicated the implication of liberty that was present in Gerson s language of rights. Summenhart assimilated libertas with the self-mastery or dominion that in the economic context of discussion took the form of (a moderate) self-ownership. Summenhart discussion also introduced two apparent extensions to Gerson s terminology. First, Summenhart classified right as relation, and second, he equated right with dominion. It is distinctive of Summenhart s view that he took action as the primary determinant of right: Everyone has as much rights or dominion in regard to a thing, as much actions it is licit for him to exercise in regard to the thing. The second section elaborates Summenhart s discussion of the species dominion, which delivered an answer to the question of what kind of rights exist, and clarified thereby the implications of the concept of an individual right. The central feature in Summenhart s discussion was his conscious effort to systematize Gerson s language by combining classifications of dominion into a coherent whole. In this respect, his treatement of the natural dominion is emblematic. Summenhart constructed the concept of natural dominion by making use of the concepts of foundation (founded on a natural gift) and law (according to the natural law). In defining natural dominion as dominion founded on a natural gift, Summenhart attributed natural dominion to animals and even to heavenly bodies. In discussing man s natural dominion, Summenhart pointed out that the natural dominion is not sufficiently identified by its foundation, but requires further specification, which Summenhart finds in the idea that natural dominion is appropriate to the subject according to the natural law. This characterization lead him to treat God s dominion as natural dominion. Partly, this was due to Summenhart s specific understanding of the natural law, which made reasonableness as the primary criterion for the natural dominion at the expense of any metaphysical considerations. The third section clarifies Summenhart s discussion of the property rights defined by the positive human law. By delivering an account on juridical property rights Summenhart connected his philosophical and theological theory on rights to the juridical language of his times, and demonstrated that his own language of rights was compatible with current juridical terminology. Summenhart prepared his discussion of property rights with an account of the justification for private property, which gave private property a direct and strong natural law-based justification. Summenhart s discussion of the four property rights usus, usufructus, proprietas, and possession aimed at delivering a detailed report of the usage of these concepts in juridical discourse. His discussion was characterized by extensive use of the juridical source texts, which was more direct and verbal the more his discussion became entangled with the details of juridical doctrine. At the same time he promoted his own language on rights, especially by applying the idea of right as relation. He also showed recognizable effort towards systematizing juridical language related to property rights.
  • Tupasela, Aaro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The use of human tissue sample collections has become an important tool in biomedical research. The collection, use and distribution of human tissue samples, which include blood and diagnostic tissue samples, from which DNA can be extracted and analyzed has also become a major bio-political preoccupation, not only in national contexts, but also at the transnational level. The foundation of medical research rests on the relationship between the doctor and the research subject. This relationship is a social one, in that it is based on informed consent, privacy and autonomy, where research subjects are made aware of what they are getting involved in and are then able to make an informed decision as to whether or not to participate. Within the post-genomic era, however, our understanding of what constitutes informed consent, privacy and autonomy is changing in relation to the needs of researchers, but also as a reflection of policy aspirations. This reflects a change in the power relations between the rights of the individual in relation to the interests of science and society. Using the notions of tissue economies and biovalue (Waldby, 2002) this research explores the changing relationship between sources and users of samples in biomedical research by examining the contexts under which human tissue samples and the information that is extracted from them are acquired, circulated and exchanged in Finland. The research examines how individual rights, particularly informed consent, are being configured in relation to the production of scientific knowledge in tissue economies in Finland from the 1990s to the present. The research examines the production of biovalue through the organization of scientific knowledge production by examining the policy context of knowledge production as well as three case studies (Tampere Research Tissue Bank, Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer and the Finnish Genome Information Center) in which tissues are acquired, circulated and exchanged in Finland. The research shows how interpretations of informed consent have become divergent and the elements and processes that have contributed to these differences. This inquiry shows how the relationship between the interests of individuals is re-configured in relation to the interests of science and society. It indicates how the boundary between interpretations of informed consent, on the one hand, and social and scientific interests, on the other, are being re-drawn and that this process is underscored, in part, by the economic, commercial and preventive potential that research using tissue samples are believed to produce. This can be said to fundamentally challenge the western notion that the rights of the individual are absolute and inalienable within biomedical legislation.
  • Mether, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Currently, we live in an era characterized by the completion and first runs of the LHC accelerator at CERN, which is hoped to provide the first experimental hints of what lies beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In addition, the last decade has witnessed a new dawn of cosmology, where it has truly emerged as a precision science. Largely due to the WMAP measurements of the cosmic microwave background, we now believe to have quantitative control of much of the history of our universe. These two experimental windows offer us not only an unprecedented view of the smallest and largest structures of the universe, but also a glimpse at the very first moments in its history. At the same time, they require the theorists to focus on the fundamental challenges awaiting at the boundary of high energy particle physics and cosmology. What were the contents and properties of matter in the early universe? How is one to describe its interactions? What kind of implications do the various models of physics beyond the Standard Model have on the subsequent evolution of the universe? In this thesis, we explore the connection between in particular supersymmetric theories and the evolution of the early universe. First, we provide the reader with a general introduction to modern day particle cosmology from two angles: on one hand by reviewing our current knowledge of the history of the early universe, and on the other hand by introducing the basics of supersymmetry and its derivatives. Subsequently, with the help of the developed tools, we direct the attention to the specific questions addressed in the three original articles that form the main scientific contents of the thesis. Each of these papers concerns a distinct cosmological problem, ranging from the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry to inflation, and finally to the origin or very early stage of the universe. They nevertheless share a common factor in their use of the machinery of supersymmetric theories to address open questions in the corresponding cosmological models.
  • Puisto, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Vertebral fractures occur due to forces applied to spinal structures. When the bone tissue is weakened, vertebral fractures can result from a minor trauma. Adult vertebral fractures are commonly considered to be an indication for osteoporosis. In children osteoporosis is a rare condition, and pediatric vertebral fractures are usually clearly trauma-related. The aims of this dissertation are to produce knowledge of the epidemiology of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and to analyse their association with total and cause-specific mortality, to find indicators with which to identify individuals who are at great risk of subsequent fractures, to study the incidence of pediatric vertebral fractures and need for their operative treatment and hospital care. The Mobile-Clinic and Mini-Finland Health surveys of the adult population were used as materials in this research. Record linkages to the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the Official Cause of Death register were used to study mortality and hospitalization in the same population group. These registers were also used to evaluate epidemiology, mortality, hospitalization and the need for operative management of pediatric vertebral fracture patients. The main findings and conclusions of the present dissertation are: 1. The presence of a thoracic vertebral fracture in adults is a significant predictor of cancer and respiratory mortality. In women, but not in men, vertebral fractures strongly predict mortality due to injuries. Most of these deaths in the study group were hip fracture related. 2. Severe thoracic vertebral fracture in adults was a strong predictor of a subsequent hip fracture, whereas mild or moderate fractures and the number of compressed vertebrae were much weaker predictors, 3. Pediatric spinal fractures were rare: The incidence was 66 per one million children per year. In younger children cervical spine was most often affected, whereas in older children fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine were more common. Maturation of spinal structures seems to play a major role in the typical injury patterns in children. Thirty per cent of pediatric spinal fractures required surgical treatment. The current study focuses on consequences of vertebral fractures in general, without evaluating further the causation of the studied phenomena. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of association between vertebral fractures and specific causes of mortality. A severe vertebral fracture appears to indicate a substantial risk of a subsequent hip fracture. If such a fracture is identified from a chest radiograph, urgent clinical evaluation, treatment of osteoporosis and protective measures against falls are recommended.
  • Nair, Abhilash (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot is one of the World s 34 recognized biodiversity hotspots. The current knowledge about amphibian fauna of the Western Ghats is limited, but this region is known to exhibit a high degree of diversity and endemism. Although many species of amphibians are yet to be described from India, about 40% of known amphibian species from this region are threatened by extinction. The Indirana frogs belong to an endemic family, Ranixalidae, and are comprised of ten known species. Studies of this Western Ghats amphibian group are rare, hence the evolutionary relationships, taxonomy and species-level diversity of Indirana frogs have remained unresolved. Furthermore, nothing is known about the extent of genetic variability and differentiation among local populations of a given species. Hence, there is a high degree of uncertainty about the taxonomic status (cf. cryptic species) and potential genetic problems that the Indirana populations are likely to be facing. This study focused on phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of Indirana frogs. Phylogenetic analyses clarified the evolutionary relationships among extant taxa and identified five new cryptic candidate species within the genus. For one of the taxa, Indirana beddomii, detailed population genetic analyses based on novel microsatellite markers represent the first phylogeographic analysis of amphibian differentiation in the Western Ghats. Apart from developing a large number of novel microsatellite loci for I. beddomii, cross-species amplification tests performed with eight other taxa should provide useful genetic tools for studies of other species in this genus. Finally, the first infectious disease (cf. Chytrid and Ranavirus infections) screening of Indian amphibians was performed using samples collected from the Western Ghats. In general, the results of the studies included in this thesis should provide useful information, guidelines and resources for amphibian conservation and biodiversity research in the Western Ghats.
  • Romakkaniemi, Atso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Wild salmon stocks in the northern Baltic rivers became endangered in the second half of the 20th century, mainly due to recruitment overfishing. As a result, supplementary stocking was widely practised, and supplementation of the Tornionjoki salmon stock took place over a 25 year period until 2002. The stock has been closely monitored by electrofishing, smolt trapping, mark-recapture studies, catch samples and catch surveys. Background information on hatchery-reared stocked juveniles was also collected for this study. Bayesian statistics was applied to the data as this method offers the possibility of bringing prior information into the analysis and an advanced ability for incorporating uncertainty, and also provides probabilities for a multitude of hypotheses. Substantial divergences between reared and wild Tornionjoki salmon were identified in both demographic and phenological characteristics. The divergences tended to be larger the longer the duration spent in hatchery and the more favourable the hatchery conditions were for fast growth. Differences in environment likely induced most of the divergences, but selection of brood fish might have resulted in genotypic divergence in maturation age of reared salmon. Survival of stocked 1-year old juveniles to smolt varied from about 10% to about 25%. Stocking on the lower reach of the river seemed to decrease survival, and the negative effect of stocking volume on survival raises the concern of possible similar effects on the extant wild population. Post-smolt survival of wild Tornionjoki smolts was on average two times higher than that of smolts stocked as parr and 2.5 times higher than that of stocked smolts. Smolts of different groups showed synchronous variation and similar long-term survival trends. Both groups of reared salmon were more vulnerable to offshore driftnet and coastal trapnet fishing than wild salmon. Average survival from smolt to spawners of wild salmon was 2.8 times higher than that of salmon stocked as parr and 3.3 times higher than that of salmon stocked as smolts. Wild salmon and salmon stocked as parr were found to have similar lifetime survival rates, while stocked smolts have a lifetime survival rate over 4 times higher than the two other groups. If eggs are collected from the wild brood fish, stocking parr would therefore not be a sensible option. Stocking smolts instead would create a net benefit in terms of the number of spawners, but this strategy has serious drawbacks and risks associated with the larger phenotypic and demographic divergences from wild salmon. Supplementation was shown not to be the key factor behind the recovery of the Tornionjoki and other northern Baltic salmon stocks. Instead, a combination of restrictions in the sea fishery and simultaneous occurrence of favourable natural conditions for survival were the main reasons for the revival in the 1990 s. This study questions the effectiveness of supplementation as a conservation management tool. The benefits of supplementation seem at best limited. Relatively high occurrences of reared fish in catches may generate false optimism concerning the effects of supplementation. Supplementation may lead to genetic risks due to problems in brood fish collection and artificial rearing with relaxed natural selection and domestication. Appropriate management of fisheries is the main alternative to supplementation, without which all other efforts for long-term maintenance of a healthy fish resource fail.
  • Pursiainen, Heikki (2005)
    Taloudellisia aggregaatteja, kuten esimerkiksi hintaindeksejä, laskettaessa on usein välttämätöntä suorittaa laskelmat koko tarkastelun kohteena olevan perusjoukon lisäksi myös joillekin osajoukoille. Esimerkiksi kuluttajahintaindeksiin sisältyy kokonaisindeksin lisäksi myös useita eri hyödykeryhmien osaindeksejä. Aggregointimenetelmää kutsutaan aggregointikonsistentiksi, mikäli se tuottaa aina täsmälleen saman tuloksen, suoritettiinpa aggregointi kerralla tai kahdessa (tai useammassa) vaiheessa. Kaksivaiheisessa menettelyssä aggregointi suoritetaan ensin jonkin perusjoukon osituksen osajoukoille ja näin saadut aliaggregaatit aggregoidaan toisessa vaiheessa kokonaisaggregaatiksi samaa menetelmää käyttäen. Tälle intuitiivisesti miellyttävälle ja käytännössä tärkeälle ominaisuudelle ei kuitenkaan ole aiemmin esitetty yleistä määritelmää. Väitöskirjassa esitetään tällainen määritelmä, ja osoitetaan, että konsistenssiominaisuudella varustetut menetelmät voidaan aina esittää jonkin Abelin puoliryhmäoperaation toistettuna soveltamisena ja päinvastoin. Tulos soveltuu hyvin monenlaisiin aggregointiongelmiin, mikä johtuu Abelin puoliryhmän (vaihdannaisen ja liitännäisen magman) yleisyydestä käsitteenä. Puoliryhmäesitys mahdollistaa monien klassisten aggregointiongelmien tutkimisen algebrallisiin käsitteisiin perustuen. Tämän lähestymistavan käyttökelpoisuus osoitetaan väitöskirjassa soveltamalla algebrallisia menetelmiä laajalti aksiomaattiseen indeksiteoriaan. Yksi päätuloksista on se, että konsistentisti aggregoituvilla hintaindekseille on väljien ehtojen vallitessa aina ns. kvasilineaarinen esitys, so. indeksikaavan määrittelevä puoliryhmä on isomorfinen jonkin vektorien yhteenlaskupuoliryhmän kanssa. Tämä mahdollistaa funktionaaliyhtälöiden teorian soveltamisen sen tutkimiseen, millaiset funktiomuodot ovat toteuttavat erilaisia klassisia indeksitestejä, kuten käännettävyys- ja proportionaalisuustestejä. Lopuksi tarkastellaan tulosten yhteyttä maksimointikäyttäytymiseen perustuvaan standarditalousteoriaan. Tässä yhteydessä esitetyn kriittisen ns. taloudellista indeksiteoriaa koskevan katsauksen yhteydessä esitetään laaja ns. superlatiivisten indeksien perhe, johon sisältyy varsin erikoisia funktioita. Lisäksi osoitetaan, että monet kvasilineaariset indeksit ja ennen kaikkea niiden osaindeksit approksimoivat standardioletusten vallitessa eräitä mielekkäitä taloudellisia suureita.
  • Pursiainen, Heikki (2005)
    In calculation of economic aggregates it is often necessary to compute the value of such aggregates for some relevant subgroups of statistical units as well as for the entire population of interest. A method of aggregation is said to be consistent in aggregation if it gives the same result regardless of whether the method is applied directly to the whole data or in two (or more) steps. The latter route consists of first partitioning the data into subgroups and applying the aggregation method in these, and then in the second step aggregating these subaggregates into a total aggregate using the same method. This intuitively appealing and practically important property has lacked a general definition until now. In this thesis such a definition is given and it is shown that any aggregation method with this property corresponds to repeated application of an Abelian semigroup operation and vice versa. The range of aggregation problems the result covers is quite broad, as semigroup operations may be defined for example on sets of real numbers, vectors of real numbers, sets, functions such as stochastic processes etc. The semigroup interpretation makes it possible to formulate many classical aggregation problems using algebraic concepts such as isomorphisms between semigroups, subsemigroups and homomorphisms. The strength of the algebraic approach is demonstrated by applying algebraic techniques to index number theory. One of the main results is that under general conditions an index number formula that is consistent in aggregation has a simple quasilinear representation, that is, the semigroup that defines the index number formula is isomorphic to an addition semigroup. This representation allows the use of functional equations techniques to prove many results concerning the possible functional form of formulas that satisfy interesting axiomatic criteria, such as reversibility and proportionality tests. Finally, the relation of these results, which are in the axiomatic or test-theoretic tradition of index number theory, to utility-maximizing behaviour, is explored. First a critical review of the economic approach is presented, and a large class of new, asymmetric superlative index number formulas emerges as a by-product. It is then shown, that the quasilinear indices and their subindices quadratically approximate meaningful economic indices and sub-indices under standard regularity assumptions.
  • Pursiainen, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Karlsson, Susanna Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, )
    This study analyzes the United Nation Security Council (SC) counter-terrorism measures, giving focus to the 1267 sanctions regime against individuals associated with terrorism. The procedures of the 1267 sanctions regime are critically reviewed, with the aim of indicating the human rights concerns, particularly relating to the fundamental procedural rights. The tension between human rights and the security interest behind the counter-terrorism measures is analyzed. Special importance is given to the nature of the sanctions measures, arguing them to be punitive and not only preventative measures. Thus, this study aims to argue that procedural rights should be guaranteed in the 1267 sanctions regime in accordance with human rights law. Secondly, this study aims to present constitutionalization of international community based on legal responsibility, which is reviewed through the progressive work of the International Law Commission. Firstly, the question of responsibility of the United Nations (UN) for the breaches of human rights obligations is analyzed, including the initial question of whether or not the human rights norms are binding towards the UN. Secondly, the focus is turned to the responsibility of the bodies implementing the SC 1267 sanctions measures. The question of responsibility for the implementation will be analyzed from two perspectives: first, from an international constitutionalist approach advocating for the hierarchy of norms in the international community. While the traditional hierarchy of norms invests supremacy to the UN Charter, the constitutionalist approach will lead to the question of responsibility for the implementation in accordance with the UN Charter obligations. When implementation measures, taken by another international or regional organization, are not in accordance with the 1267 sanctions regime obligations, the rules on responsibility will become applicable towards the organization. The second perspective for the responsibility of the implementation measures is the international pluralist approach relying on different legal orders acting parallel to each other. In connection with this perspective the question of State responsibility for circumventing its international obligations is analyzed. Third part of this study presents today’s international community after the improvements the UN has taken under the pressure of the decentralized challenges it has encountered concerning the 1267 sanctions regime. This study argues that even though the UN procedures regarding the 1267 sanctions regime have improved, they are still inadequate to accommodate the human rights concerns, particularly fundamental procedural rights, and that the constitutionalization of the international community requires rules on legal responsibility such as the ones the International Law Commission has drafted.
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.
  • Freeman, Stephanie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The open development model of software production has been characterized as the future model of knowledge production and distributed work. Open development model refers to publicly available source code ensured by an open source license, and the extensive and varied distributed participation of volunteers enabled by the Internet. Contemporary spokesmen of open source communities and academics view open source development as a new form of volunteer work activity characterized by hacker ethic and bazaar governance . The development of the Linux operating system is perhaps the best know example of such an open source project. It started as an effort by a user-developer and grew quickly into a large project with hundreds of user-developer as contributors. However, in hybrids , in which firms participate in open source projects oriented towards end-users, it seems that most users do not write code. The project, initiated by Sun Microsystems, in this study represents such a project. In addition, the Finnish public sector ICT decision-making concerning open source use is studied. The purpose is to explore the assumptions, theories and myths related to the open development model by analysing the discursive construction of the community: its developers, users and management. The qualitative study aims at shedding light on the dynamics and challenges of community construction and maintenance, and related power relations in hybrid open source, by asking two main research questions: How is the structure and membership constellation of the community, specifically the relation between developers and users linguistically constructed in hybrid open development? What characterizes Internet-mediated virtual communities and how can they be defined? How do they differ from hierarchical forms of knowledge production on one hand and from traditional volunteer communities on the other? The study utilizes sociological, psychological and anthropological concepts of community for understanding the connection between the real and the imaginary in so-called virtual open source communities. Intermediary methodological and analytical concepts are borrowed from discourse and rhetorical theories. A discursive-rhetorical approach is offered as a methodological toolkit for studying texts and writing in Internet communities. The empirical chapters approach the problem of community and its membership from four complementary points of views. The data comprises mailing list discussion, personal interviews, web page writings, email exchanges, field notes and other historical documents. The four viewpoints are: 1) the community as conceived by volunteers 2) the individual contributor s attachment to the project 3) public sector organizations as users of open source 4) the community as articulated by the community manager. I arrive at four conclusions concerning my empirical studies (1-4) and two general conclusions (5-6). 1) Sun Microsystems and Groupware volunteers failed in developing necessary and sufficient open code and open dialogue to ensure collaboration thus splitting the Groupware community into volunteers we and the firm them . 2) Instead of separating intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, I find that volunteers unique patterns of motivations are tied to changing objects and personal histories prior and during participation in the Lingucomponent project. Rather than seeing volunteers as a unified community, they can be better understood as independent entrepreneurs in search of a collaborative community . The boundaries between work and hobby are blurred and shifting, thus questioning the usefulness of the concept of volunteer . 3) The public sector ICT discourse portrays a dilemma and tension between the freedom to choose, use and develop one s desktop in the spirit of open source on one hand and the striving for better desktop control and maintenance by IT staff and user advocates, on the other. The link between the global community and the local end-user practices are weak and mediated by the problematic IT staff-(end)user relationship. 4) Authoring community can be seen as a new hybrid open source community-type of managerial practice. The ambiguous concept of community is a powerful strategic tool for orienting towards multiple real and imaginary audiences as evidenced in the global membership rhetoric. 5) The changing and contradictory discourses of this study show a change in the conceptual system and developer-user relationship of the open development model. This change is characterized as a movement from hacker ethic and bazaar governance to more professionally and strategically regulated community. 6) Community is simultaneously real and imagined, and can be characterized as a runaway community . Discursive-action can be seen as a specific type of online open source engagement. Hierarchies and structures are created through discursive acts. Key words: Open Source Software, open development model, community, motivation, discourse, rhetoric, developer, user, end-user
  • Pyysiäinen, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Entrepreneurship, understood as the autonomous, effective pursuit of opportunities regardless of resources, is currently subject to a multitude of interests, expectations, and facilitation efforts. On the one hand, such entrepreneurial agency has broad appeal to individuals in Western market democracies and resonates with their longing for an autonomous, personally tailored, meaningful, and materially rewarding way of life. On the other hand, entrepreneurship represents a tempting and increasingly popular means of governance and policy making, and thus a model for the re-organization of a variety of societal sectors. This study focuses on the diffusion and reception of entrepreneurship discourse in the context of farming and agriculture, where pressures to adopt entrepreneurial orientations have been increasingly pronounced while, on the other hand, the context of farming has historically enjoyed state protection and adhered to principles that seem at odds with aspects of individualistic entrepreneurship discourse . The study presents an interpretation of the psychologically and politically appealing uses of the notion of entrepreneurial agency , reviews the historical and political background of the current situation of farming and agriculture with regard to entrepreneurship, and examines their relationships in four empirical studies. The study follows and develops a social psychological, situated relational approach that guides the qualitative analyses and interpretations of the empirical studies. Interviews with agents from the farm sector aim to stimulate evaluative responses and comments on the idea of entrepreneurship on farms. Analysis of the interview talk, in turn, detects the variety of evaluative responses and argumentative contexts with which the interviewees relate themselves to the entrepreneurship discourse and adopt, use, resist, or reject it. The study shows that despite the pressures towards entrepreneurialism, the diffusion of entrepreneurship discourse and the construction of entrepreneurial agency in farm context encounter many obstacles. These obstacles can be variably related to aspects dealing with the individual agent, the action situation, the characteristics of the action itself, or to the broader social, institutional and cultural context. Many aspects of entrepreneurial agency, such as autonomy, personal initiative and achievement orientation, are nevertheless familiar to farmers and are eagerly related to one s own farming activities. The idea of entrepreneurship is thus rarely rejected outright. The findings highlight the relational and situational preconditions for the construction of entrepreneurial agency in the farm context: When agents demonstrate entrepreneurial agency, they do so by drawing on available and accessed relational resources characteristic of their action context. Likewise, when agents fail or are reluctant to demonstrate entrepreneurial agency, they nevertheless actively account for their situation and demonstrate personal agency by drawing on the relational resources available to them.
  • Louhivuori, Anna Eveliina (2010)
    According to Ulrich Beck's theory of reflexive modernisation people today suffer from insecurity and constant risks in all aspects of their life. A major factor dictating their individual biographies is their work. Work in today's world has become an essential ingredient in defining personal identities and relationships. For Beck as a consequence of the modern work environment new insecurities and inequalities in comparison to the industrial epoch have emerged; a development of risk biographies. This thesis examines how international professionals in the Greater Helsinki Region construct and negotiate the meaning of their work and the organisation of their work. Specifically, through the critical discourse analytic method of Norman Fairclough the focus of the research is on the impact of power and ideology of new capitalism on individual discourses. This is studied by exploring whether a shift emerges in the participants' discourses of their work during interviews pertaining to the new financial crises of the late 2000s as well as the impact of the effects of the information age. The data is supported by the method of reflexive social processes of participant observation. The analysis of the interviews shows that the individuals, in contrast to the theory of reflexive modernity, did not present themselves as insecure nor facing constant risk in their individual discourse of work; even during discussions of the new financial crisis. Instead, it was discovered that the participants constructed themselves as in control of their biographies, both disciplined and self-managed, in contrast to the volatility of the market forces. The observed feelings of self-management are in accordance with Fairclough's original thesis and demonstrate that the participants have internalised new capitalism's ideology of neo-liberalism, further propelling the cause of the capitalist market forces in their work places. By internalising this ideology the participants were found to be experiencing alienation, predicted by Karl Marx, struggling with the loss of meaning towards their work, as described by Max Weber and at risk of anomie discussed by Emile Durkheim.
  • Kuokkanen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate contemporary philosophical models for global ethics in light of the Catholic theologian Hans Küng s Global Ethic Project (Projekt Weltethos). Küng s project starts with the motto, No survival without world ethos. No global peace without peace between religions. I will use the philosophically multidimensional potential of Projekt Weltethos in terms of its possible philosophical interpretations to evaluate the general discussion of global ethics within political philosophy today. This is important in its own right, but also because through it, opportunities will emerge to articulate Küng s relatively general argument in a way that leaves less room for mutually contradictory concretizations of what global ethics ultimately should be like. The most important question in this study is the problem of religious and ideological exclusivism and its relation to the ethically consistent articulation of global ethics. I will first explore the question of the role of religion as the basis for ethics in general and what Küng may mean by his claim that only the unconditional can oblige unconditionally. I will reconstruct two different overall philosophical interpretations of the relationship between religious faith and human rationality, each having two different sub-divisions: a liberal interpretation amounts to either a Kantian-Scheiermacherian or a Jaspersian view, whereas what I call postliberal interpretation amounts to either an Aristotelian-Thomistic or an Augustinian view. Thereafter, I will further clarify how Küng views the nature of ethics beyond the question of its principal foundation in religious faith: Küng searches for a middle way between consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethics, a way in which the latter dimension has the final stake. I will then set out to concretize further this more or less general notion of the theoretical potential of Projekt Weltethos in terms of certain precise philosophico-political models. I categorize these models according to their liberal or postliberal orientation. The liberal concretization leads me to consider a wide spectrum of post-Kantian and post-Hegelian models from Rawls to Derrida, while the alternative concretization opens up my ultimate argument in favor of a postliberal type of modus vivendi. I will suggest that the only theoretically and practically plausible way to promote global ethics, in itself a major imperative today, is the recognition of a fundamental and necessary contest between mutually exclusive ideologies in the public sphere. On this basis I will proceed to my postliberal proposal, namely, that a constructive and peaceful encountering of exclusive difference as an ethical vantage point for an intercultural and inter-religious peace dialogue is the most acute challenge for global ethics today.