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  • Kortman, Annette (2014)
    I min avhandling är tanken att undersöka socialarbetarnas upplevelse av pappor i barnskyddet. I bakrunden ligger forskning som påvisar att papporna upplever sig diskriminerade, speciellt av sociala myndigheter. Syftet med forskningen är att redogöra för barnskyddssocialarbetarnas uppfattningar om pappor inom barnskyddet. Forskningsfrågan fokuserar på att beskriva hur socialarbetare inom barnskyddet upplever pappan och hur de beskriver honom som en del av barnskyddsklientskapet. Den teoretiska referensramen i avhandlingen är socialkonstuktionism. Avhandlingen är en fallstudie med en etnografisk karaktär. Socialarbetarna som deltagit i forskningen har haft en betydande roll, vilket gör avhandlingen praktikrelevant. Materialet består av socialarbetarnas dokumentation av tre barnskyddsfall under en viss tid (t.ex. anteckningar under möten med klienterna, fallets aktualiseringar, fallens klientplan och uppdateringar av dem) samt fältanteckningar av deltagande observationer på en barnskyddsbyrå under två månaders tid (etnografi). Materialet är analyserat genom en kvalitativ etnografisk innehållsanalys med fokus på det latenta innehållet. Genom analysen av avhandlingen kom jag fram till fyra olika kategorier av pappor som baserar sig på socialarbetarnas upplevelser och beskrivningar. Kategorierna är ”den ambivalenta pappan”, ”den opålitliga pappan”, ”den kritiska pappan”, och ”den maktlösa pappan”. Kategorierna beskriver barnskyddssocialarbetarnas upplevelser av hur pappan ter sig för dem i barnskyddsarbetet. En kategori motsvarar inte en pappa, utan en pappa kan i olika situationer representera olika kategorier. I materialet framkom flera olika kombinatiner av kategorier i en pappa, och det bör uppmärksammas att en viss ambivalens och osäkerhet framställdes i så gott som alla pappor enligt socialarbetarnas uppfattning. Kategorin kring ”den ambivalenta pappan” var något som oftast gick att hitta i alla olika kombinationer av kategorier. Resultaten av avhandlingen kan anses valida i och med tangerande resultat i tidigare forskning.
  • Narayanasamy, Shaman (2012)
    Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic microorganisms found in both fresh and saline water bodies all over the world. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria that are common in freshwater lakes and often implicated in the formation of blooms. They are known to play a vital role in the nitrogen cycle and to produce harmful toxins. The reason for this toxic producing nature is still unknown. The Anabaena sp. strain 37, isolated from lake Sääskjärvi, western Finland was found to produce the neurotoxin, anatoxin-a which affects the nervous systems of humans and animals, capable of causing paralysis. During the past decade, genome sequencing has aided in the understanding of genetic information in many organisms including cyanobacteria. A whole genome sequencing project was carried out to understand the mechanism of anatoxin-a production in the Anabaena sp. strain 37. The 454 pyrosequencing produced 258,430 reads with a coverage of approximately 22X. The data was subjected to a de novo assembly which produced a draft genome, made up of 828 contigs above 500 bp, an N50 contig of 10,548 bp and a longest contig of 47,660 bp. The draft assembly underwent a finishing procedure which included scaffolding, gap closure and error correction. Two types of mate pair libraries; 3 Kb and 8 Kb were constructed and sequenced for scaffolding. The scaffolding using 196,221 of 3 Kb mate pair reads yielded 31 major scaffolds with an N50 scaffold of 344,872 bp. A second scaffolding using 34,498, 8 Kb mate pair reads resulted in 16 scaffolds, and an N50 scaffold of 1,085,340 bp. Three automated gap closure rounds were carried out using consed autofinish. The primers amplified the genomic DNA with PCR and the products were sequenced using Sanger sequencing. A total of 1,406 Sanger reads were used to closed more than 800 gaps in the draft assembly. In addition, the 454-based draft assembly contained many sequencing errors among single nucleotide homopolymeric regions of three-mers and above. Moreover, these errors were found in coding regions, namely the anatoxin-a synthetase gene cluster and was further confirmed with additional PCR and Sanger sequencing. There were 370,648 single nucleotide homopolymer sites of three mers and above that accounted for 38.18% of the genome length and a density of 668.1 per 10 Kb. A correction procedure was carried out by incorporating 100X coverage Illumina/Solexa data into the assembly. The high depth data corrected an estimated 1,888 single nucleotide homopolymer error sites of three-mers and above which translates to a 454 single nucleotide homopolymer error rate of 0.51% or 3.37 per 10 Kb. The correction also increased the overall quality of the assembly with an additional 17,505 bases of phred score Q20. The current assembly is made up of 14 scaffolds out of which six are major scaffolds. The assembly has an N50 scaffold of 1,085,340 bp where 99.7% of the consensus bases are of phred score Q20, with longest stretch 255,200 Q20 bases and an overall error rate of 8.21 per 10 Kb. Finally, the genome has a GC-content of 38.3% with four ribosomal RNA operons and the anatoxin-a synthetase gene cluster confirmed.
  • Narayanasamy, Shaman (2012)
    Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic microorganisms found in both fresh and saline water bodies all over the world. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria that are common in freshwater lakes and often implicated in the formation of blooms. They are known to play a vital role in the nitrogen cycle and to produce harmful toxins. The reason for this toxic producing nature is still unknown. The Anabaena sp. strain 37, isolated from lake Sääksjärvi, western Finland was found to produce the neurotoxin, anatoxin-a which affects the nervous systems of humans and animals, capable of causing paralysis. During the past decade, genome sequencing has aided in the understanding of genetic information in many organisms including cyanobacteria. A whole genome sequencing project was carried out to understand the mechanism of anatoxin-a production in the Anabaena sp. strain 37. The 454 pyrosequencing produced 258,430 reads with a coverage of approximately 22X. The data was subjected to a de novo assembly which produced a draft genome, made up of 828 contigs above 500 bp, an N50 contig of 10,548 bp and a longest contig of 47,660 bp. The draft assembly underwent a finishing procedure which included scaffolding, gap closure and error correction. Two types of mate pair libraries; 3 Kb and 8 Kb were constructed and sequenced for scaffolding. The scaffolding using 196,221 of 3 Kb mate pair reads yielded 31 major scaffolds with an N50 scaffold of 344,872 bp. A second scaffolding using 34,498, 8 Kb mate pair reads resulted in 16 scaffolds, and an N50 scaffold of 1,085,340 bp. Three automated gap closure rounds were carried out using consed autofinish. The primers amplified the genomic DNA with PCR and the products were sequenced using Sanger sequencing. A total of 1,406 Sanger reads were used to closed more than 800 gaps in the draft assembly. In addition, the 454-based draft assembly contained many sequencing errors among single nucleotide homopolymeric regions of three-mers and above. Moreover, these errors were found in coding regions, namely the anatoxin-a synthetase gene cluster and was further confirmed with additional PCR and Sanger sequencing. There were 370,648 single nucleotide homopolymer sites of three mers and above that accounted for 38.18% of the genome length and a density of 668.1 per 10 Kb. A correction procedure was carried out by incorporating 100X coverage Illumina/Solexa data into the assembly. The high depth data corrected an estimated 1,888 single nucleotide homopolymer error sites of three-mers and above which translates to a 454 single nucleotide homopolymer error rate of 0.51% or 3.37 per 10 Kb. The correction also increased the overall quality of the Q20. The current assembly is made up of 14 scaffolds out of which six are major scaffolds. The assembly has an N50 scaffold of 1,085,340 bp where 99.7% of the consensus bases are of phred Q20 bases and an overall error rate of 8.21 per 10 Kb. Finally, the genome has a GC-content of 38.3% with four ribosomal RNA operons and the anatoxin-a synthetase gene cluster confirmed.
  • Holmström, Susanne (2006)
    Utgångspunkten för prograduavhandlingen är finländska socialarbetares erfarenheter av Council of International Programs (CIP) utbytesprogram för socialarbetare i USA. Efter en egen erfarenhet av utbytesprogrammet i början av 1990-talet väcktes mitt intresse för socialarbetets professionella utveckling i ett internationellt perspektiv. Utbytesprogrammet präglades av efterkrigstidens återuppbyggnadsanda och de socialarbetare som deltagit i början av organisationens verksamhet var fortfarande engagerade i verksamheten för att utveckla socialarbete på hemmafront. Det empiriska materialet sträcker sig på en tidsperiod från 1957 t.o.m 1993. Perspektivet i avhandlingen är tredimensionellt. Den finländska socialarbetaren som deltagit i utbytesprogrammet är aktören. Vilken var hennes erfarenhet av det professionella och internationella utbytesprogrammet och vilken betydelse gav hon erfarenheten? Den enskilda socialarbetarens erfarenheter pejlas mot den professionaliseringsprocess som skett i Finland.(Karvinen 1993, 1996, Satka 1993, 1994, 1995)Det amerikanska socialarbetets utveckling granskas också med utgångspunkt i caseworkmetoden som präglat socialarbets professionaliseringsprocess. Synen på socialarbete har genomgått många förändringar under de senaste årtiondena. Socialarbetets utveckling till en profession har präglats av motsättningar som återverkade på en tudelning i juridiskt-administrativt och individinriktat socialarbete. Jag frågade om detta framträder i mitt material och inom vilka områden man var mer mottaglig för amerikanska intryck. Vid analysen av det empiriska materialet utgår jag från tidsperioden då socialarbetaren deltagit samt den professionella kontexten. Informanternas svar grupperades i tre grupper: "pionjärerna", "professionell profilering" och "socialarbetets nya ansikte". Pionjärerna representerade främst socialarbetare inom privata organisationer. Tidperioden professionell profilering omfattade socialarbetare inom mentalvård, missbrukarvård, hälsovård och inom arbete med barn och unga. Mest professionellt inriktade då det gällde socialarbetametoder var gruppen inom missbrukarvård. Även inom de andra grupperna var man mottaglig för intryck. Under perioden "socialarbetets nya ansikte" framträdde nya aktörer som tidigare representerat den mer aminstrativa inriktningen. Växelverkan, själva utbyte är det centrala som återkommer under alla tidsperioder. Växelverkan, ömsesidigt utbyte öppnade nya perspektiv på den personliga och professionella identiteten och den egna kontexten. För att kunna dra nytta av utbytesprogrammet behövdes förmåga att kunna reflektera över det man upplevt och konfronterats med (Giddens 1991). Den reflekterande förmågan är ett väsentligt redskap i den professionella kompetensen (Karvinen 1993). Den är också ett centralt element när det gäller den personliga identiteten.
  • Taubert, Stefan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Yazdani, Reza (2009)
    The aim of the present study was to assess dental health and its determinants among 15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran and to evaluate the impact of a school-based educational intervention on their oral cleanliness and gingival health. The total sample comprised 506 students. Data collection was performed through a clinical dental examination and a self-administered structured questionnaire. This questionnaire covered the student s background information, socio-economic status, self-perceived dental health, tooth-brushing, and smoking. The clinical dental examination covered caries experience, gingival status, dental plaque status, and orthodontic treatment needs. Participation was voluntary, and all students responded to the questionnaire. Only three students refused the clinical dental examination. The intervention was based on exposing students to dental health education through a leaflet and a videotape designed for the present study. The outcome examinations took place 12 weeks after the baseline among the three groups of the intervention trial (leaflet, videotape, and control). High participation rates at the baseline and scanty drop-outs (7%) in the intervention speak for reliability of the results. Mean value of the DMFT (D=decayed, M=missing, and F=filled teeth) index of the 15-year-olds was 2.1, which comprised DT=0.9, MT=0.2, and FT=1.0 with no gender differences. Dental plaque existed on at least one index tooth of all students, and healthy periodontium (Community Periodontal Index=0) was found in less than 10% of students. Need for caries treatment existed in 40% of students, for scaling in 24%, for oral hygiene instructions in all, and for orthodontic treatment in 26%. Students with the highest level of parents education had fewer dental caries (36% vs. 48%) and less dental plaque (77% vs. 88%). Of all students, 78% assessed their dental health as good or better. Even more of those with their DMFT=0 (73% vs. 27%) and DT=0 (68% vs. 32%) assessed their dental health as good or better. Smokers comprised 5% of the boys and 2% of the girls. Smoking was common among students of less-educated parents (6% vs. 3%). Of all students, 26% reported twice-daily tooth-brushing; girls (38% vs. 15%) and those of higher socio-economic background (33% vs. 17%) did so more frequently. The best predictors for a good level of oral cleanliness were female gender or twice-daily tooth-brushing. The present study demonstrated that a school-based educational intervention can be effective in the short term in improving the oral cleanliness and gingival health of adolescents. At least 50% reduction in numbers of teeth with dental plaque compared to baseline was achieved by 58% of the students in the leaflet group, by 37% in the videotape group, and by 10% of the controls. Corresponding figures for gingival bleeding were 72%, 64%, and 30%. For improving the oral cleanliness and gingival health of adolescents in countries such as Iran with a developing oral health system, school-based educational intervention should be established with focus on oral self-care and oral health education messages. Emphasizing the immediate gains from good oral hygiene, such as fresh breath, clean teeth, and attractive appearance should be key aspects for motivating these adolescents to learn and maintain good dental health, whilst in planning school-based dental health intervention, special attention should be given to boys and those with lower socio-economic status. Author s address: Reza Yazdani, Department of Oral Public Health, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 41, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: reza.yazdani@helsinki.fi
  • Varkkola, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Tsunami waves of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004 claimed approximately 230 000 lives and started the biggest identification operation in Interpol's history. The aim of this study was to resolve methods of the identification and results received. The viewpoint is mainly that of forensic odontology, but also includes other means of identification and results of the medico-legal examination performed in Finland. Of the 5395 victims in Thailand, approximately 2 400 were foreigners from 36 nations including 177 Finnish nationals. Additionally, a Finnish woman perished in Sri Lanka and a severely injured man after the evacuation in a hospital. The final numbers of missing persons and dead bodies registered in the Information Management Centre in Phuket,Thailand, were 3 574 ante-mortem (AM) and 3 681 post-mortem (PM) files. The number of identifications by December 2006 was 3 271 or 89% of the victims registered. Of Finnish victims, 172 have been identified in Thailand and 163 repatriated to Finland. One adult and four children are still missing. For AM data, a list of Finnish missing persons including 178 names was published on 30 December 2004. By February 2005 all useful dental AM data were available. Five persons on the list living in Finland lacked records. Based on the AM database, for the children under age 18 years (n=60) dental identification could be established for 12 (20%). The estimated number for adults (n=112) was 96 (86%). The final identification rate, based on PM examinations in Finland, was 14 (25%) for children (n= 56) and 98 (90%) for adults (n= 109). The number of Finnish victims identified by dental methods, 112 (68%), was high compared to all examined in Thailand (43%). DNA was applied for 26 Finnish children and for 6 adults, fingerprints for 24 and 7, respectively. In 12 cases two methods were applied. Every victim (n=165) underwent in Finland a medico-legal investigation including an autopsy with sampling specimens for DNA, the toxicological and histological investigation. Digital radiographs and computed tomography were taken of the whole body to verify autopsy findings and bring out changes caused by trauma, autolysis, and sampling for DNA in Thailand. Data for identification purposes were also noted. Submersion was the cause of death for 101 of 109 adults (92.7%), and trauma for 8 (7.3%). Injuries were 33 times contributing factors for submersion and 3 times for trauma-based death. Submersion was the cause of death for 51 (92.7%) children and trauma for 4 (7.3%). Injuries were in 3 cases contributing factors in submersion and once in trauma-based death. The success of the dental identification of Finnish victims is mainly based on careful registration of dental records, and on an education program from 1999 in forensic odontology.
  • Nguyen, Lien (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This thesis is grounded on four articles. Article I generally examines the factors affecting dental service utilization. Article II studies the factors associated with sector-specific utilization among young adults entitled to age-based subsidized dental care. Article III explores the determinants of dental ill-health as measured by the occurrence of caries and the relationship between dental ill-health and dental care use. Article IV measures and explains income-related inequality in utilization. Data employed were from the 1996 Finnish Health Care Survey (I, II, IV) and the 1997 follow-up study included in the longitudinal study of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (III). Utilization is considered as a multi-stage decision-making process and measured as the number of visits to the dentist. Modified count data models and concentration and horizontal equity indices were applied. Dentist s recall appeared very efficient at stimulating individuals to seek care. Dental pain, recall, and the low number of missing teeth positively affected utilization. Public subvention for dental care did not seem to statistically increase utilization. Among young adults, a perception of insufficient public service availability and recall were positively associated with the choice of a private dentist, whereas income and dentist density were positively associated with the number of visits to private dentists. Among cohort females, factors increasing caries were body mass index and intake of alcohol, sugar, and soft drinks and those reducing caries were birth weight and adolescent school achievement. Among cohort males, caries was positively related to the metropolitan residence and negatively related to healthy diet and education. Smoking increased caries, whereas regular teeth brushing, regular dental attendance and dental care use decreased caries. We found equity in young adults utilization but pro-rich inequity in the total number of visits to all dentists and in the probability of visiting a dentist for the whole sample. We observed inequity in the total number of visits to the dentist and in the probability of visiting a dentist, being pro-poor for public care but pro-rich for private care. The findings suggest that to enhance equal access to and use of dental care across population and income groups, attention should focus on supply factors and incentives to encourage people to contact dentists more often. Lowering co-payments and service fees and improving public availability would likely increase service use in both sectors. To attain favorable oral health, appropriate policies aimed at improving dental health education and reducing the detrimental effects of common risk factors on dental health should be strengthened. Providing equal access with respect to need for all people ought to take account of the segmentation of the service system, with its two parallel delivery systems and different supplier incentives to patients and dentists.
  • Byskata, Stig-Göran (1980)
  • Lindholm, Erika (2014)
    Erikas abstrakt-2-2.pdf
  • Tervanotko, Hanna (Bookwell, 2013)
    The task of this study is twofold. First, it aims to analyze the treatment and the development of the figure of Miriam as a literary character in ancient Jewish texts by taking into account all the references to this figure preserved in the ancient Jewish literature from the exilic period to the early second century C.E.: Exodus 15:20-21, Numbers 12:1-15; 20:1; 26:59, Deuteronomy 24:8-9, 1 Chronicles 5:29, Micah 6:4, the Septuagint, the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q365 6 II, 1-7; 4Q377 2 I, 9; 4Q543 1 I, 6 = 4Q545 1 I, 5; 4Q546 12, 4; 4Q547 4 I, 10; 4Q549 2, 8), Jubilees 47:4, Ezekiel the Tragedian 18, Demetrius Chronographer frag. 3, texts by Philo of Alexandria: De vita contemplativa 87; Legum allegoriae 1.76; 2.66-67; 3.103; De agricultura 80-81; Liber antiquitatum biblicarum 9:10; 20:8, and finally texts by Josephus: Antiquitates judaicae 2.221; 3.54; 3.105; 4.78. The passages referring to Miriam demonstrate that the picture of Miriam preserved in the ancient Jewish texts is richer than the Hebrew Bible suggests. Her function extends beyond the household-responsibility role that is often assigned to women in antiquity. The peak of Miriam traditions falls to the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.E. when this figure was used to promote the family of Levi. After this period, the figure of Miriam lost, at least partly, her prominence, and she became the target of different interpretations. She did not fit into the ideal of a woman in the Roman era, and she became more marginalized in a number of texts. Second, in light of poststructuralist literary studies that treat texts as reflections of specific social situations, I argue that the treatment of Miriam in ancient Jewish literature mostly reflects a reality in which women had little space as active agents. In particular, the interpretation of Miriam in the Greco-Roman era shows that when the political goals in the texts are emphasized, the room for women gets narrower. Despite this general tendency, prominent women may have enjoyed occasional freedom. Miriam continues to be given the title prophetess during the Greco-Roman era. That demonstrates that female prophecy was a known phenomenon even in a context that generally downplayed women.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation describes people s orientations to "deontic rights" -that is, their rights to determine actions. Through analyses of video-recorded church workplace meetings between pastors and cantors as data, and conversation analysis as a theoretical and methodological framework, the study examines how participants in interaction may establish their own and each other s deontic rights in the turn-by-turn sequential unfolding of interaction. The dissertation consists of six original articles and an introduction, which introduces the central concepts of the study, provides an overview of its results, and discusses the ways in which the study contributes to the existing knowledge of social interaction. The study considers deontic rights from two different angles. First, it describes how participants in interaction may claim or mitigate their claims of deontic rights by virtue of their overt interactional conduct: Article 1 discusses the participants ways of dealing with those claims of deontic rights that arise from their participation in an encounter, and Articles 2 4 consider how participants in joint decision making may establish and maintain the symmetrical distribution of deontic rights at different sequential loci. Second, the study describes the ways in which participants may deploy their deontic rights as interactional resources, as they design their communicative actions so as to be recognizable as such. The central argument presented in Articles 5 and 6 is that, instead of always needing to claim their deontic rights (deontic stance), participants may also trust in their co-participants being aware of, and taking into account, these rights (deontic status). It is thus the complementarity and relative weight of deontic stances and deontic statuses that constitutes a fundamental mechanism by which people may engage in tough power negotiations without yet causing any overt face threats to their mutual solidarity. The study highlights the significance of face-to-face interaction as a locus of social order and seeks to enhance our understanding of the linkages between the local and wider aspects of social organization that pertain to people s interactional conduct.
  • Kangasniemi, Heikki (1986)