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  • Ala-Poikela, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Potyviruses (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) are plant RNA viruses infecting a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Potyviruses have compact genomes encoding a small number of proteins and are therefore dependent on host factors. Even though several host factors are indispensable for plant virus infection, most so far identified natural recessive resistance genes to different potyviruses are homologs of the same genes, translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its plant-specific isoform eIF(iso)4E. The eIF4E is best known for recruiting ribosomes to capped mRNAs during cap-dependent translation. The viral-genome linked protein (VPg) encoded by potyviruses have been reported to interact with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E. The hypothesis is that VPg substitutes for the cap-structure by binding to the eIF4E and hereby hijacks and assembles the host cell translation machinery for viral translation that subsequently inhibits host translation. However, the exact roles of eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E in recessive resistance against potyviruses are still cryptic. In this study we present novel data that will give new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind eIF4E-mediated resistance against potyviruses. In this study, we demonstrated that helper component proteinase (HCpro) from Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus Y (PVY), and Tobacco etch virus (TEV) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). An eIF4E-binding motif was found in the C-terminal region of HCpro and point mutations within the motif debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and impeded PVA virulence in plants. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and eIF(iso)4E were confined to round-shaped structures that associated with the 6 kilodalton protein 2 (6K2)-induced viral replication vesicles. Furthermore an eIF4E-binding motif was recognized in the VPg of PVA and two other potyviruses. Mutations in the eIF4E-binding motif interfered with interactions of VPg with eIF4E, impaired suppression of RNAi by VPg, and abolished virulence of PVA. These results show that the interaction of VPg with eIF4E controlled by the eIF4E-binding motif in VPg is essential for PVA virulence, regardless of that VPg still binds to the cap-binding domain of eIF4E. The capability to bind to two distinct binding sites of eIF4E might reflect two distinct functions of VPg. HCpro and VPg were found to interact with each other in the nucleus and nucleolus in PVA-infected cells. In cytoplasm, the VPg-HCpro interaction was observed in round-shaped bodies in the proximity of the nucleus and chloroplasts, but not in association with the 6K2-induced replication vesicles. The interactions of VPg with eIF4E via the eIF4E-binding domain may also regulate interactions of HCpro with eIF4E. Taken together, the results suggest novel mechanisms by which potyviruses interact with the host translation system and other putative functions involving eIF4E/eIFiso4E.
  • Airola, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This dissertation discusses the relation between lexis, grammar and textual organisation. The major premise adopted here is that grammatical structures are motivated both by semantic potential of words and by text-pragmatic demands. In other words, it is argued that grammatical structures form the interface between lexis and textual organisation, and that linguistic analysis should not concentrate on analysing grammatical structures in isolation, independent of context. From this point of view, grammatical structures are said to be 'well-formed' only in relation to the context they occur in. This study is based on a corpus of three million words of recent Finnish fiction from which all the occurrences of the coordinated verb pairs ([V ja V] -pairs]) containing one of the intransitive motion verbs 'lähteä' (to go), 'mennä' (to go), 'päästä' (to get into), 'nousta' (to get up), and 'laskea' (to go down), were extracted. This set of verbs was established using methods described in earlier work by Lagus & Airola (2001, and 2005). The quantitative analysis of the [V ja V] -pairs was used to carry out a qualitative analysis of individual texts. In analysing the texts, an analogy was made between musical and textual structure. The results show among others that individual verbs specialise in different functions when occurring in coordinated verb pairs. One aspect was that those verb pairs including the verb 'nousta' tend to function as markers of textual boundaries and thus reflect the organisation of narrative substance. The verb 'mennä' has weakened literal meanings, but strengthened modal meanings when occurring in [V ja V] -pairs, and, in many cases, the verb 'lähteä' in [V ja V] -pairs function as an aspectual marker rather than a pure verb of motion. That there is a gradient from the concrete sense of motion into more differentiated senses of a verb in [V ja V] -pairs alongside the structure-creating potential of the [V ja V] -pairs themselves suggest an ongoing grammaticalisation process of the patterns discussed.
  • Koivunen, Anna-Liisa; Rantala, Anu-Riikka (1994)
    Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käsitellään hevosen hengitysteiden anatomiaa ja fysiologiaa, sekä COPD:n patogeneesiä, histopatologiaa ja kliinistä kuvaa. Lisäksi esitellään erilaisia COPD-potilaan tutkimuksessa käytettaviä; menetelmiä. Tutkimusosassa oli tarkoituksena selvittää, kuinka suuria vuodenaikaisvaihteluita yksittäisen hevosen hengitysteissä tapahtuu, sekä selvittää, mitkä tutkimusmenetelmät soveltuvat parhaiten COPD:n asteen arviointiin. Erityisesti kiinnitettiin huomiota trakealimanäytteiden entsyymiarvoihin. Tutkimusosuus suoritettiin Ypäjän Hevostaloudentutkimusasemalla. Kokeessa oli mukana 19 hevosta, joita seurattiin vuoden ajan n. kuuden viikon välein. Jokaisella tutkimuskerralla hevosille suoritettiin kliininen yleistutkimus, intrapleuraalisen paineen mittaus sekä endoskopointi. Endoskopoinnin yhteydessä hevosilta otettiin trakealimanäytteet, joista tutkittiin solukuva sekä tietyt entsyymipitoisuudet (NAGaasi, beeta-glukuronidaasi, trypsiini-inhibiittori, plasmiini ja plasminogeeni ). Verinäytteistätutkittiin mm. yleisimmät tulehdusparametrit (fibrinogeeni, leukosyytit ) sekä happiosapainearvot. COPD-oireiden vuodenaikaisvaihtelu oli selvästi havaittavissa. Sekä kliiniset oireet, että erilaiset COPD:n määrityksessä käytettävät parametrit olivat korkeimmillaan kevättalvella. Entsyymeistä beeta-glukuronidaasi osoittautui lupaavaksi parametriksi hevosten hengitystiesairauksien asteen määrityksessä. Beeta-glukuronidaasiarvot olivat merkitsevästi kohonneet silloin, kun hevonen oli intrapleuraalipaineen, veri-alveolieron ja trakealiman neutrofiilimäärän perusteella määritelty sairaaksi.
  • Rein, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Mato Rodriguez, Lourdes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Traditional Swiss Emmental utilizes copper vats, whereas Finnish Emmental is manufactured using stainless steel cheese vats, and a copper sulfate solution is added into the cheese-milk to reach copper levels in the final cheese of a maximum 15 ppm. Other manufacturers use stainless steel vats but no copper is added. Despite the economical importance of Emmental cheese for the Finnish dairy industry, no studies have been published on the effect of copper in these cheeses. To elucidate the effects of copper on the starters and adjunct cultures utilized for commercial Finnish Emmental manufacture, thirteen strains belonging to Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii species were exposed to various copper concentrations supplemented in a laboratory culture medium. The cell growth and viability, and activity were monitored. There was considerable species- and strain-dependent variation in the copper resistance. To investigate the effect of copper on the quality of Finnish Emmental, experiments were performed at pilot plant scale, simulating commercial cheese manufacture conditions. Various sets of cheeses were produced with and without copper supplement in the cheese-milk and with and without the incorporation of the protective strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705. The cheeses were examined at 1, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days from microbiological, chemical and sensory viewpoints. The presence of supplemented copper affected the level of organic acids, the level of primary and secondary proteolysis and sensory properties of the cheeses. To investigate the effects of copper on Clostridium tyrobutyricum, main organism causing spoilage in Emmental cheese, two different experimental set-ups (studies) were performed. One study was designed for determining the effects of copper supplemented in the growing medium on germination and growth and, the second study for determining the effects of copper on growth and sporulation. Plating systems after heat treatment of spore suspensions and OD measurements together with platings after heat treatment of spore suspensions were used. Inhibition of germination, growth and sporulation was observed in all three strains in a strain-depended manner. This dissertation also include the studies on cross-reactions from three polyclonal antisera raised against exponential growth cells of L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 which were used as antigens to screen for possible cross-reactions with whole bacteria cells protein extracts of L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808, L. helveticus 1175, E. coli HAMBI 99 and C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Cross-reactions of C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 extract proteins with the anti-L. rhamnosus LC705 antiserum revealed several common epitopes between these two bacterial strains.
  • Ahmad, Jahir Uddin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds is a key reaction in the synthesis of organic chemicals. Consequently, a vast number of diverse methods based on copper that accomplish this functional group transformation are reviewed in this work. A successful development from pressurized oxygen to open air and from organic to environmentally friendly water solvent in oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds catalyzed by copper is presented. The first direct organocatalytic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes with O2 in alkaline water was developed. One of the effects metal ions on the reaction was that the Cu ion is the most beneficial recipient of quantitative oxidation. Thus aerobic oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds catalyzed by TEMPO/Cu 2 N arylpyrrolecarbaldimine in alkaline water was discovered. The solid and solution structures of sterically hindered salicylaldimine and cis trans isomers of the corresponding Cu(II) complexes are discussed. High yield synthetic routes for mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes derived from salicylaldehyde and the corresponding salicylaldimine were developed. New crystal structures of the above compounds were determined by X ray crystallography. The catalytic property of homo and heteroligated bis(phenoxidoyimino)Cu(II)complexes toward oxidation reactions were investigated. Accordingly, facile base free aerobic oxidations of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones in toluene using low loading of both TEMPO and catalysts under mild conditions were introduced. In addition to the aerobic catalytic methods, oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with H2O2 as an end oxidant in pure water using simple CuSO4 as a catalyst is presented. The effect of various additives, such as acids or bases, radical scavengers and N containing ligands, on the efficiency/selectivity of the catalyst system was studied as well. Finally, highly efficient open air oxidation of alcohols in water catalyzed by in situ made Cu(II) phenoxyimine complexes without additional auxiliarities such as base or co solvent are described.
  • Elers, Kai-Erik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Transfer from aluminum to copper metallization and decreasing feature size of integrated circuit devices generated a need for new diffusion barrier process. Copper metallization comprised entirely new process flow with new materials such as low-k insulators and etch stoppers, which made the diffusion barrier integration demanding. Atomic Layer Deposition technique was seen as one of the most promising techniques to deposit copper diffusion barrier for future devices. Atomic Layer Deposition technique was utilized to deposit titanium nitride, tungsten nitride, and tungsten nitride carbide diffusion barriers. Titanium nitride was deposited with a conventional process, and also with new in situ reduction process where titanium metal was used as a reducing agent. Tungsten nitride was deposited with a well-known process from tungsten hexafluoride and ammonia, but tungsten nitride carbide as a new material required a new process chemistry. In addition to material properties, the process integration for the copper metallization was studied making compatibility experiments on different surface materials. Based on these studies, titanium nitride and tungsten nitride processes were found to be incompatible with copper metal. However, tungsten nitride carbide film was compatible with copper and exhibited the most promising properties to be integrated for the copper metallization scheme. The process scale-up on 300 mm wafer comprised extensive film uniformity studies, which improved understanding of non-uniformity sources of the ALD growth and the process-specific requirements for the ALD reactor design. Based on these studies, it was discovered that the TiN process from titanium tetrachloride and ammonia required the reactor design of perpendicular flow for successful scale-up. The copper metallization scheme also includes process steps of the copper oxide reduction prior to the barrier deposition and the copper seed deposition prior to the copper metal deposition. Easy and simple copper oxide reduction process was developed, where the substrate was exposed gaseous reducing agent under vacuum and at elevated temperature. Because the reduction was observed efficient enough to reduce thick copper oxide film, the process was considered also as an alternative method to make the copper seed film via copper oxide reduction.
  • Sulonen, Anna-Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Current SNP genotyping arrays for genome wide association studies (GWA) are used to study both SNPs and CNVs. We conducted a GWA study for multiple sclerosis (MS) using 68 distantly related MS cases from Finnish subisolate with high risk for MS in Southern Ostrobotnia and the Illumina HumanHap300 chip. We identified 106 CNV regions in the MS cases with QuantiSNP v1.0 software, and confirmed the data by visual inspection of the BeadStudio intensity data. Common pathways were searched for genes mapping to or near the identified CNV regions. We found one pathway involving five genes, ERBB4, NRG3, DLG2, UTRN and LARGE, regulating oligodendrocyte development and survival. An in house-built genotyping method was used to genotype three of the deletions in the pathway in a large nation-wide sample set of both cases and controls. Evidence for association was not found.
  • Huuskonen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The study concentrates on the introduction and background motive of technology related change of copyright law as reflected mainly in the Berne Convention due to the technological and economic necessities experienced in the early 20th century. The purpose of this study is to understand a development which has led to the adaptation of licensing regimes that are not based on traditional exclusivity approach. Voice recording, broadcasting, rebroadcasting, and photocopying serve as main examples of the development. Also the impact of internet and mobile technologies are discussed. The method is based on institutional theory of law, and makes broad use of both economic analysis and historical documentation. The problem of the legislator's choice on how to structure copyright law between the two alternatives, exclusive property or liability approach, has risen constantly throughout the 20th century. The main conflict of interest seems to be between the exclusive right of the copyright holder, and the interests of users, that is, both the commercial and end users. The secondary use of copyright material is a rapidly growing form of copyright use. This creates controversies arising in that particular field of commercial use. Exclusivity is often regarded as the essence of copyright. However, the development of communication technology has allowed new forms of use that are not as well directly controllable by the relevant parties as was the publishing and sale of books. The new technology-enabled phenomenon is mass use in its different forms. Mass use means use of copyright protected works in large quantities in a manner that is either impossible or prohibitively costly to trace, identify and bill. This development which is common to practically all technological innovations of the 20th century questions the accuracy of the exclusivity approach to copyright. This study explores technology related change of the copyright institution, and how copyright is developing from a system based on exclusivity towards a system of compensation increasingly adopting elements of compulsory - that is, involuntary - licensing and its variants. Secondly, on a more general level, the study attempts to formulate a conclusion concerning the impact of technological change on copyright. Exclusivity remains the theoretical and logical starting point of copyright legislation and nearly any analysis of copyright, scientific or within legal practice. Anyhow, the 20th century development has introduced a new set of regulations attempting to limit overly powerful legal positions and thus to protect interests relating to development of new technologies and businesses. This has largely taken place by some form of compulsory licensing. The broad use of platform fees is an illustration of this development in its extreme. The origin of this development is in the belief to scientific progress and innovation in the early 20th century (the development motive). The study suggests that a more coherent approach towards copyright may be reached by studying copyright as a system of compensation, rather than a system of full control of the use of copyright protected matter. This also corresponds to the evolving set of beliefs of the copyright ideology. Exclusivity has not disappeared from the overall picture, but shall be reserved to those forms of use where it is applicable. That is, where copyright is directly controllable by the author or other copyright holder without prohibitive overall consequences as to other right holders, users, businesses, or the society.
  • Teittinen, U. K. (1927)
  • Aroviita, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Tuisku, Ilpo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study aimed to investigate the morphology and function of corneal sensory nerves in 1) patients after corneal refractive surgery and 2) patients with dry eye due to Sjögren's syndrome. A third aim was to explore the possible correlation between cytokines detected in tears and development of post-PRK subepithelial haze. The main methods used were tear fluid ELISA analysis, corneal in vivo confocal microscopy, and noncontact esthesiometry. The results revealed that after PRK a positive correlation exists between the regeneration of subbasal nerves and the thickness of regenerated epithelium. Pre- or postoperative levels of the tear fluid cytokines TGF-β1, TNF-α, or PDGF-BB did not correlate with the development of corneal haze objectively estimated by in vivo confocal microscopy 3 months after PRK. After high myopic LASIK, a discrepancy between subjective dry eye symptoms and objective signs of dry eye was observed. The majority of patients reported ongoing dry eye symptoms even 5 years after LASIK, although no objective clinical signs of dry eye were apparent. In addition, no difference in corneal sensitivity was observed between these patients and controls. Primary Sjögren's syndrome patients presented with corneal hypersensitivity, although their corneal subbasal nerve density was normal. However, alterations in corneal nerve morphology (nerve sprouting and thickened stromal nerves) and an increased number of antigen-presenting cells among subbasal nerves were observed, implicating the presence of an ongoing inflammation. Based on these results, the relationship between nerve regeneration and epithelial thickness 3 months after PRK appears to reflect the trophic effect of corneal nerves on epithelium. In addition, measurement of tear fluid cytokines may not be suitable for screening patients for risk of scar (haze) formation after PRK. Presumably, at least part of the symptoms of "LASIK-associated dry eye" are derived from aberrantly regenerated and abnormally functioning corneal nerves. Thus, they may represent a form of corneal neuropathy or "phantom pain" rather than conventional dry eye. Corneal nerve alterations and inflammatory findings in Sjögren's syndrome offer an explanation for the corneal hypersensitivity or even chronic pain or hyperalgesia often observed in these patients. In severe cases of disabling chronic pain in patients with dry eye or after LASIK, when conventional therapeutic possibilities fail to offer relief, consultation of a physician specialized in pain treatment is recommended.
  • Moilanen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Refractive errors, especially myopia, seem to increase worldwide. Concurrently, the number of surgical refractive corrections has increased rapidly, with several million procedures performed annually. However, excimer laser surgery was introduced after a limited number of studies done with animals and to date there still are only few long-term follow-up studies of the results. The present thesis aims to evaluate the safety and functional outcome of, as well as to quantify the cellular changes and remodelling in the human cornea after, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). These procedures are the two most common laser surgical refractive methods. In Study I, myopic ophthalmic residents at Helsinki University Eye Hospital underwent a refractive correction by PRK. Five patients were followed up for 6 months to assess their subjective experience in hospital work and their performance in car driving simulator and in other visuomotor functions. Corneal morphological changes were assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy (ivCM). Study II comprised 14 patients who had undergone a PRK operation in 1993-1994. Visual acuity was examined and ivCM examinations performed 5 years postoperatively. In Study III 15 patients received LASIK refractive correction for moderate to high myopia (-6 - -12 D). Their corneal recovery was followed by ivCM for 2 years. Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a common but variable complication of LASIK. Yet, its aetiology remains unknown. In Study IV we examined six patients who had developed DLK as a consequence of formation of an intraoperative or post-LASIK epithelial defect, to assess the corneal and conjunctival inflammatory reaction. In the whole series, the mean refractive correction was -6.46 diopters. The best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) improved in 30 % of patients, whereas in four patients BSCVA decreased slightly. The mean achieved refraction was 0.35 D undercorrected. After PRK, the stromal scar formation was highest at 2 to 3 months postoperatively and subsequently decreased. At 5 years increased reflectivity in the subepithelial stroma was observed in all patients. Interestingly, no Bowman s layer was detected in any patient. Subbasal nerve fiber bundle(snfb) regeneration could be observed already at 2 months in 2 patients after PRK. After 5 years, all corneas presented with snfb, the density of which, however, was still lower than in control corneas. LASIK induced a hypocellular area on both sides of the flap interface. A decrease of the most anterior keratocyte density was also observed. In the corneas that developed DLK, inflammatory cell-type objects were present in the flap interface in half of the patients. The other patients presented only with keratocyte activation and highly reflective extracellular matrix. These changes resolved completely with medication and time. Snfb regeneration was first detected at one month post-LASIK, but still after two years the density of snfb, however, was only 64 % of the preoperative values. The performance of ophthalmological examinations and microsurgery without spectacles was easier postoperatively, which was appreciated by the residents. Both PRK and LASIK showed moderate to good accuracy and high safety. In terms of visual perception and subjective evaluation, few patients stated any complaints in the whole series of studies. Instead, the majority of patients experienced a marked improvement in everyday life and work performance. PRK and LASIK have shown similar results, with good long term morphological healing. It seems evident that, even without the benefit of over-20-year follow-up results, these procedures are sufficiently safe and accurate for refractive corrections and corneal reshaping.
  • Toikka, Antero (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia auktoriteetteja esiintyy Carl Olof Roseniuksen (1816–1868) kirjassa Betraktelser för hwar dag i året (suomennettu nimellä Elämän leipää). Tutkielmassa esitellään, mitä Raamatun kirjoja ja keitä kirkkohistorian vaikuttajia kirjassa siteerataan. Valikoin analyysin kohteeksi sellaiset sitaatit, jotka näyttävät siltä, että niiden on nimenomaan haluttu nousevan esiin auktoriteetteina. Näistä kirjan auktoriteeteista analysoidaan sitä, kuinka paljon kutakin auktoriteettia on lainattu ja millaisissa yhteyksissä. Lisäksi selvitetään sitä, millaisina näitä auktoriteetteja pidettiin Ruotsissa kirjan ilmestymisvuonna 1873. Tätä selvitystä varten käytän päälähteen lisäksi muita tuon ajan tekstejä ja tutkimuskirjallisuutta. Tutkimusmenetelmääni kuuluu näin ollen yhtäältä sisällönanalyysia, toisaalta yleistä historiatieteen metodia. Betraktelserin auktoriteetit jaan tutkielmassa päivän raamatunkohtiin, tekstien sisäisiin raamattukytkentöihin ja kirkkohistorian auktoriteetteihin. Tämän jaottelun pohjalta on muodostettu kolme kuvaajaa siitä, mitä auktoriteetteja kirjassa siteerataan. Näitä kuvaajia vertailen toisiinsa, minkä lisäksi raamattuargumentaatiota vertailen kahden muun hartauskirjan vastaavaan Raamatun käyttöön. Kirjan päivän raamatunkohtien ja hartaustekstien sisäisten raamattukytkentöjen listat muistuttavat paljon toisiaan. Kummassakin yhteydessä Roomalaiskirje ja Johanneksen evankeliumi näyttäytyvät sellaisina kirjoina, joita käytetään erittäin paljon. Päivän raamatunkohdissa selvästi eniten on käytetty Roomalaiskirjettä. Kyseinen kirje voitaneen nähdä kirjan tärkeimpänä lähteenä, jota muut kirjat ja historialliset auktoriteetit kommentoivat. Kirkkohistorian auktoriteetteja kirjassa siteerataan paljon. Nämä sitaatit keskittyvät kuitenkin paljon raamattusitaatteja selkeämmin yhden henkilön nimiin. Siitä huolimatta, että Betraktelserissa on monilta aikakausilta monia auktoriteetteja, on Martti Luther merkittävyydessään ylivoimainen. Lutheriin on kirjassa kytkentöjä 101. Sitä enemmän kirjassa on tekstin sisäisiä raamattukytkentöjä ainoastaan Johanneksen evankeliumiin, Roomalaiskirjeeseen ja Matteuksen evankeliumiin. Puhtaasti numeroilla mitaten Luther on siis kirjan neljänneksi merkittävin auktoriteetti edellä mainittujen raamatunkirjojen jälkeen. Yleisesti voidaan sanoa, että hartausteksteissä siteerattiin paljon enemmän Raamattua kuin muita auktoriteetteja. Kirjassa siis Raamattua selitetään erityisesti Raamatulla ja Lutherilla.
  • Ojantakanen, Annika (Helsingfors universitet, )
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on systematisoida Corporate benefit -käsitteen määritelmää osakeyhtiölain ja takaisinsaantilain näkökulmasta arvioitaessa konserniyhtiöiden välisiä liiketoimia. Corporate benefit -doktriinin mukaan yhtiön johto ei saa sitoutua liiketoimiin, jotka eivät edistä yhtiön etua. Vaikka yhdysvaltalaiseen oikeuteen juurensa juontava käsite on ollut yleisesti käytössä liikejuridiikan saralla Suomessa jo pitkään, on käsitteen tosiasiallinen sisältö ja merkitys edelleen vakiintumaton. Tämä johtuu osaksi siitä, että käsite kytkeytyy sekä useaan osakeyhtiöoikeudellisen periaatteeseen että takaisinsaantilakiin mutta myös siitä, että arvio yhtiön edun toteutumisesta on vahvasti kontekstisidonnaista. Tutkielmassa keskitytään arvioimaan sitä, miten konserniyhtiölle annettua velkaa, toisen konserniyhtiön velasta annettua vakuutta sekä konserniavustusta tulee arvioida osakeyhtiölain ja takaisinsaantilain näkökulmasta. Lähipiirin välillä tapahtuvien liiketoimien ei voida automaattisesti olettaa tapahtuvan markkinaehtoisesti. Yhtiön edun käsitteen tarkastelu on näin ollen konserniyhtiöiden välillä erityisen merkityksellistä. Mielenkiinnon kohteena on tutkimuksessa erityisesti sen selvittämissä, milloin yhtiön edun voidaan katsoa täyttyvän ja milloin liiketoimi vaihtoehtoisesti ei mahdu yhtiön edun raameihin. Arvioon sisältyy useita erityiskysymyksiä riippuen siitä, onko kyseessä konserniavustus, vierasvelkavakuus vai lähipiirivelka. Liiketaloudellisen perusteen arvioimiseen syvennytään tutkimuksessa useiden käytännön esimerkkien avulla. Muilta osin tutkimus painottuu lainsäädännön tarkasteluun lain esitöiden sekä oikeuskirjallisuudessa esiintyvien kannanottojen pohjalta. Yhtiön johdon sitoutuessa konserniyhtiöiden välisiin liiketoimiin, tulee yhtiöoikeudellisen sallittavuuden lisäksi arvioitavaksi mahdolliset takaisinsaantilain mukaiset seuraukset. Liiketoimien kontekstisidonnaisuudesta johtuen voi vastikkeellisuuden täyttyminen edellyttää takaisinsaantilain kannalta vahvempia perusteluja kuin tarkasteltaessa kysymystä osakeyhtiölain näkökulmasta. Takaisinsaantilain perusteella oikeustoimi saattaa tietyissä tilanteissa olla lahjanomainen, vaikka siitä saatu vastike tai etu katsottaisiin osakeyhtiölain näkökulmasta riittäväksi. Tutkimuksen keskiössä onkin näin ollen myös se, milloin konserniavustus, vierasvelkavakuus tai konserniyhtiölle annettu velka arvioidaan takaisinsaantilain näkökulmasta vastikkeettomaksi suoritukseksi. Tutkimuksessa keskustellaan myös mahdollisuudesta soveltaa vakuuden peräyttämistä koskevaa takaisinsaantilain sääntelyä analogisesti vierasvelkavakuuksiin tilanteessa, jossa vakuus on annettu toisen konserniyhtiön velasta. Lisäksi konsernipankkia koskevissa peräytyksissä käsitellään mahdollisuutta turvautua takaisinsaantilain säännöksiin sellaisen omaisuuden peräyttämisestä, joka on luovutettu edelleen. Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan myös mahdollisuutta peräyttää oikeustoimia yleisen takaisinsaantiperusteen sekä maksun peräytyssääntelyn nojalla velkojien viimesijaisena suojakeinona. Tutkimuksen viimeisessä luvussa luodaan yleisluonteinen katsaus siihen, mitkä ovat mahdolliset osakeyhtiölainmukaiset seuraukset silloin, kun liiketoimen katsotaan loukkaavan yhtiön etua. Erityisesti aktualisoituu kysymys johdon mahdollisesta vahingonkorvausvelvollisuudesta. Tämän ohella ovat oikeustoimen pätemättömyys ja varojen palautusvelvollisuus mahdollisia seuraamuksia yhtiön edun puuttuessa. Vähemmistöosakkeenomistajilla on myös mahdollisuus moittia yhtiökokouksen päätöstä, mikäli oikeustoimen katsotaan loukkaavan yhdenvertaisuusperiaatetta.
  • Karikoski, Aki Tapani (2007)
    Corporate governance in Japan has been the subject matter of a great volume of literature. The majority of discussion in the literature focuses on the reasons for the existence of the Japanese system and whether it is an efficient alternative compared with corporate governance in Anglo-Saxon countries. The purpose of this thesis paper is, firstly, to specify the unique characteristics of the Japanese corporate governance system, and secondly, provide a theoretical explanation for cross-shareholding, a widely adopted mechanism in Japan. The study can be divided into two parts: the first part reviews the literature on corporate governance in Japan focusing especially on the keiretsu corporate groups. I describe the evolution of corporate groups in Japan and define the main characteristics of the groups. I also analyze the present situation and evaluate the effects the globalization of the world business environment might have on the keiretsu institution. The objective of this part is to give better understanding about the background of the Japanese corporate governance system reasons for its unique characteristics. The paper also suggests a possible direction for future changes, indicating that, due to economic reason, Japan is moving eventually towards a more universal corporate governance system. In the second part, I present two models where the impact of cross-shareholding is studied. The results of the models give one possible explanation for the declining trend of cross-shareholding in Japan - the divergence of interest between the shareholder and management under slow economic growth.
  • Martikainen, Juha Erkki (2000)
    Corporate governance voisi vapaasti suomennettuna tarkoittaa yrityksen hallintaa, mutta käsite on huomattavasti monitahoisempi, kuin tästä käännöksestä olisi ymmärrettävissä. Tämän vuoksi olen säilyttänyt tutkielmassani alkuperäiskielisen termin. Yrityksen corporate governance -ongelman ydin muodostuu omistuksen ja hallinnoinnin eriytyneisyydestä. Tämä seikka on havaittavissa lähestulkoon kaikissa julkisesti noteeratuissa suurissa pörssiyhtiöissä. Yritysjohdon tehtävänä on maksimoida osakkeenomistajien sijoituksen arvo, mutta ongelma ei kuitenkaan ole näin yksiselitteinen, sillä yrityksen muilla sidosryhmäläisillä on myös vaatimuksia yritystä kohtaan. Tällaisia ryhmiä ovat muun muassa työntekijät, alihankkijat ja velkojat. Keskeistä kuitenkin on, että yritys tuottaa lisäarvoa markkinoilta, jonka jaosta osapuolet käyvät neuvotteluja. Perinteinen corporate governance -kirjallisuudessa käsiteltävä yritys pystyy muodostamaan tiukkoja siteitä työntekijöihin, ja niiden rakenne on usein vertikaalisen hierarkian mukainen. Rahoittajien asema on varallisuusoikeudellisesti varsin turvattu. Johdon tehtävänä on koordinoida ja motivoida yrityksen eri sektoreita siten, että yritys toimii tehokkaasti kasvattaen yrityksen osakkeen arvoa. Motivointi voisi tapahtua sopimusten avulla, mutta koska todellisuudessa kaikista tapahtumista on mahdotonta sopia etukäteen, on johdolle annettu päätäntävalta ratkaista ennalta arvaamattomat tapahtumat. Tämä muodollinen päätäntävalta mahdollistaa yrityksen hallinnoinnin. Muodollinen valta on delegoitu yrityksen omistajilta, joiden agentteina johtajat toimivat. Yrityksen tärkeät työntekijät saavuttavat kuitenkin epämuodollista valtaa yritykseen nähden. Perinteisesti yritys omistaa kaikki tarvitsemansa arvokkaat tuotannontekijät, jottei niin sanottua hold-up-ongelmaa pääsisi esiintymään. Koska yritys ei voi sopimuksin sitoa työntekijän inhimillistä pääomaa, tulee yrityksen muodostaa komplementteja siteitä hallitsemansa varallisuuden ja työntekijän inhimillisen pääoman välille, siten että työntekijälle poistuminen yrityksen palveluksesta ei olisi kannattavaa, koska muualta saatava reservaatiohyöty jäisi yrityksen sisällä saatavaa hyötyä pienemmäksi. Työntekijöiden inhimillinen pääoma on kehittyvään teknologiaan perustuvan yrityksen tärkeä resurssi. Laajentuakseen yritys tarvitsee ulkopuolelta rahoitusta. Saadakseen oman pääoman ehtoista ulkopuolista rahoitusta tulee yrityksen sisäisen hierarkian muodostua sellaiseksi, että rahoittajat saavat todellista valtaa yrityksessä. Perinteisen yrityksen mukainen corporate governance voi siten muodostua riskiksi uuden tyyppisissä yrityksissä, jossa avaintyöntekijät voivat irtisanoutua erimielisyystilanteessa.