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  • Berg, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Approximately one-third of stroke patients experience depression. Stroke also has a profound effect on the lives of caregivers of stroke survivors. However, depression in this latter population has received little attention. In this study the objectives were to determine which factors are associated with and can be used to predict depression at different points in time after stroke; to compare different depression assessment methods among stroke patients; and to determine the prevalence, course and associated factors of depression among the caregivers of stroke patients. A total of 100 consecutive hospital-admitted patients no older than 70 years of age were followed for 18 months after having their first ischaemic stroke. Depression was assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Rating Scale (HRSD), Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and caregiver ratings. Neurological assessments and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery were performed. Depression in caregivers was assessed by BDI. Depressive symptoms had early onsets in most cases. Mild depressive symptoms were often persistent with little change during the 18-month follow-up, although there was an increase in major depression over the same time interval. Stroke severity was associated with depression especially from 6 to 12 months post-stroke. At the acute phase, older patients were at higher risk of depression, and a higher proportion of men were depressed at 18 months post-stroke. Of the various depression assessment methods, none stood clearly apart from the others. The feasibility of each did not differ greatly, but prevalence rates differed widely according to the different criteria. When compared against DSM-III-R criteria, sensitivity and specificity were acceptable for the CGI, BDI, and HRSD. The CGI and BDI had better sensitivity than the more specific HRSD. The VAMS seemed not to be a reliable method for assessing depression among stroke patients. The caregivers often rated patients depression as more severe than did the patients themselves. Moreover, their ratings seemed to be influenced by their own depression. Of the caregivers, 30-33% were depressed. At the acute phase, caregiver depression was associated with the severity of the stroke and the older age of the patient. The best predictor of caregiver depression at later follow-up was caregiver depression at the acute phase. The results suggest that depression should be assessed during the early post-stroke period and that the follow-up of those at risk of poor emotional outcome should be extended beyond the first year post-stroke. Further, the assessment of well-being of the caregivers of stroke patients should be included as a part of a rehabilitation plan for stroke patients.
  • Jylhä, Pekka (Kansanterveyslaitos, 2008)
    This study is part of the Mood Disorders Project conducted by the Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, and consists of a general population survey sample and a major depressive disorder (MDD) patient cohort from Vantaa Depression Study (VDS). The general population survey study was conducted in 2003 in the cities of Espoo and Vantaa. The VDS is a collaborative depression research project between the Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute and the Department of Psychiatry of the Peijas Medical Care District (PMCD) beginning in 1997. It is a prospective, naturalistic cohort study of 269 secondary-level care psychiatric out- and inpatients with a new episode of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) MDD. In the general population survey study, a total of 900 participants (300 from Espoo, 600 from Vantaa) aged 20 70 years were randomly drawn from the Population Register Centre in Finland. A self-report booklet, including the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), the Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R), the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory was mailed to all subjects. Altogether 441 participants responded (94 returned only the shortened version without TCI-R) and gave their informed consent. VDS involved screening all patients aged 20-60 years (n=806) in the PMCD for a possible new episode of DSM-IV MDD. 542 consenting patients were interviewed with a semi-structured interview (the WHO Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, version 2.0). 269 patients with a current DSM-IV MDD were included in the study and further interviewed with semi-structured interviews to assess all other axis I and II psychiatric diagnoses. Exclusion criteria were DSM-IV bipolar I and II, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia or another psychosis, organic and substance-induced mood disorders. In the present study are included those 193 (139 females, 54 males) individuals who could be followed up at both 6 and 18 months, and their depression had remained unipolar. Personality was investigated with the EPI. Personality dimensions associated not only to the symptoms of depression, but also to the symptoms of anxiety among general population and in depressive patients, as well as to comorbid disorders in MDD patients, supporting the dimensional view of depression and anxiety. Among the general population High Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness associated moderately, whereas low extraversion and high neuroticism strongly with the depressive and anxiety symptoms. The personality dimensions, especially high Harm Avoidance, low Self-Directedness and high neuroticism were also somewhat predictive of self-reported use of health care services for psychiatric reasons, and lifetime mental disorder. Moreover, high Harm Avoidance associated with a family history of mental disorder. In depressive patients, neuroticism scores were found to decline markedly and extraversion scores to increase somewhat with recovery. The predictive value of the changes in symptoms of depression and anxiety in explaining follow-up neuroticism was about 1/3 of that of baseline neuroticism. In contrast to neuroticism, the scores of extraversion showed no dependence on the symptoms of anxiety, and the change in the symptoms of depression explained only 1/20 of the follow-up extraversion compared with baseline extraversion. No evidence was found of the scar effect during a one-year follow-up period. Finally, even after controlling for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, depressive patients had a somewhat higher level of neuroticism (odds ratio 1.11, p=0.001) and a slightly lower level of extraversion (odds ratio 0.92, p=0.003) than subjects in the general population. Among MDD patients, a positive dose-exposure relationship appeared to exist between neuroticism and prevalence and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders. A negative relationship existed between level of extraversion and prevalence of comorbid social phobia and cluster C personality disorders. Personality dimensions are associated with the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Futhermore these findings support the hypothesis that high neuroticism and somewhat low extraversion might be vulnerability factors for MDD, and that high neuroticism and low extraversion predispose to comorbid axis I and II disorders among patients with MDD.
  • Ussher, Sara (2007)
    Mot bakgrunden av att depressionen blivit alltmer aktuell och mediasynlig i det finländska samhället sedan 1990-talet fokuserar denna studie på en jämförelse av lekmanna- och professionella uppfattningar om depressionens orsaker. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är den medicinska antropologins syn på hälsa/sjukdom som ett kontextuellt fenomen påverkat inte bara av biologiska, utan också väsentligen av sociokulturella faktorer. Ett centralt syfte är att se på depressionens orsaksproblematik inom ramen för biomedicinen som ett kulturellt system med egna värderingar och att på så sätt anknyta till diskussioner om medikalisering samt till förhållandet mellan lekmän och professionella. Viktiga källor för en förståelse av depressionens kulturella förankring är de medicinska antropologerna Arthur Kleinman, Byron Good och Catherine Lutz’ produktion. Min studie har också influerats av medikaliseringskritiska verk och av den sociologiska traditionens granskning av fenomen som psykologisering och senmodern individualism. Forskningsmaterialet består av 266 texter i två finländska damtidningar (Kauneus ja Terveys, Eeva) och två finländska läkartidskrifter (Duodecim, Suomen Lääkärilehti) åren 1985, 1990, 1995 och 2000. I materialanalysen tillämpas ett diskursanalytiskt angreppssätt. Den ledande socialkonstruktionistiska tanken är här att depressionen konstrueras på olika sätt i texterna. Denna metodologiska approach kombineras med ett etnografiskt förhållningssätt till texterna som utgår från att depression är ett fenomen som ingår olika kontext. Det viktigaste forskningsresultatet är att depressionen är mångfasetterad i ett komplext samspel mellan lekmän och professionella. Depressionen har sitt ursprung i biopsykosociala krafter. Denna mångfaktoriella helhet splittras emellertid beroende på vilken del av helheten, vilken orsaksdiskurs, respektive grupp betonar och på vilket sätt. Jag tematiserade materialet i en medikalisering, i psykosociala förhållanden och i en samhällsberoende utbrändhet. Utgående från dessa kategorier framträdde sex orsaksdiskurser: biologiska, psykologiska, interpersonella, yttre förhållande, livsskede och depression som livsstil. Den biologiska diskursen framställer depressionen som ett inre organisk fel, ett slags oberoende skeende färdigt för medicinering. Också i den psykologiska diskursen blir depressionen en inre angelägenhet men på ett annat sätt; som en del av en viljestyrd personlighet som aktivt kan bearbetas. Den interpersonella diskursen utvidgar individinriktningen mot uppfattningen om en depression såsom förankrad i det sociala behovet av andra människor. I diskursen yttre förhållanden gör en vidare samhällelig anknytning depressionen till ett utpräglat externt skeende. Diskurserna som gestaltar ursprunget till depression i ett visst livsskede eller i en livsstil nedtonar i sin tur depressionens sjukdomsaspekt inom ramen för ett normalt sätt att leva. Dessa sex olika sätt att närma sig depressionens orsaker individualiserar, socialiserar och normaliserar depressionen och avspeglar djupgående synsätt på människan, världen och verkligheten.
  • Laitinen, Irmeli (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Traditionally feminist scholars envisaged that feminist research should be ‘on, by and for women’. The Women and Depression Project’s focus is ‘on’ depressed women but includes implicitly the part men and the patriarchal welfare state play in their depression; ‘written’ ‘by’ depressed women who are the subjects and active participants and whose depressed voices need to be heard and ‘for’ depressed women who have the potential to use their work in groups to deal effectively with their personal feelings and social situations. The study was designed to engage depressed women in feminist therapeutic action research and to develop professionally guided self-help groups in a 10 session programme in the statutory and non-statutory sectors in Finland. I had a dual role as a psychotherapist and feminist researcher. This dual role provided two foci: to present (as a feminist researcher) the authentic voices of depressed women in these groups and to demonstrate (as a psychotherapist) how the group process had an effect on these women’s lives. Two questions guided the research process: Is it possible for depressed women who have been dealt with as objects of treatment to become active subjects in their own healing? How do Finnish women experience depression? Embedded in the WDP were multiple ways of gathering research from members of the group as well as therapeutic tools with elements of self-help, consciousness raising and group psychotherapy. While the project had a dual focus, the findings reveal that women became empowered to understand themselves and believe in their potential as social individuals through their participation in the WDP groups. In the long term, they altered their feelings and relationships to themselves and their environment as well as key embodied activities. Additionally, the findings also suggest that depression may be a consequence of invisible gendered tensions in a women friendly welfare state and reveal a type of ‘welfare depression’. According to Allardt's welfare typology, these women were somewhat secure in their "welfare having" (i.e. physical health), but lacked in their "being" (i.e. need for emotional well-being) and "loving" (i.e. wanting better personal relationships). If a new understanding of women and depression is to develop, it must explicitly include ideas on how depression is shaped at the public and private interface as well as how distress and well-being may have cultural as well as gendered variations. For depressed women, voicing long-silenced experiences can play a crucial part in their empowerment and healing. The type of women friendly care practices generated by professionally led self-help groups enabled this process to begin at least for depressed women in Finland.
  • Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related diseases is expected to rise to epidemic levels by the year 2030. Estimates indicate that 366 million individuals worldwide and more than 500 000 in Finland - roughly 10-16% of adult men and 7-11% of women - have T2D. Furthermore, an undefined, yet vast, number of individuals are at increased risk for T2D and pre-diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) and deficiency in insulin secretion are the two main features of T2D. This thesis focuses on these two components. In addition, this thesis focuses on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) which refers to a cluster of aberrations of metabolic origin that increases one s risk for T2D. Along with the estimated world-wide increase in the prevalence of T2D, there exists a strong need to identify factors that may render an individual susceptible to the disease. T2D is multifactorial in origin and is thought to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This thesis focuses on depression, poor sleep quality and stressful life events as plausible environmental factors that may increase one s risk for T2D. The thesis aims to contribute to the surprisingly scanty and elusive literature on the role of these environmental psychosocial risk factors by testing (a) their associations with IR, insulin secretion and/or the MetS; and (b) whether antidepressant medication contributes to associations of depressive symptoms with IR and the MetS; and c) whether these associations depict individuals without manifest or latent T2D. These study questions were addressed in the Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes, the PPP-Botnia Study, comprising 5208 participants (2443 men and 2765 women). These study participants underwent a detailed clinical examination, including an oral glucose tolerance test in conjunction with which, they self-reported their depressive symptoms, sleep quality and exposure to stressful life events. The results showed that depressive symptoms (Study I); poor sleep quality, as reflected in subjective sleep complaints of sleep apnea, insomnia and daytime sleepiness (Study II); and stressful life events particularly events related to finance and work and the accumulation of stressful life events in any domain of stress (Study IV) were associated with a higher likelihood of IR. In addition, depressive symptoms and stressful life events were associated with the MetS (Studies III JA IV). No evidence was found to support the association of psychosocial factors with deficient insulin secretion (Studies I, II JA IV) or that the use of antidepressant medication drove associations of depressive symptoms with IR and the MetS (Studies I III). These associations depicted men and women without manifest or latent T2D (Studies I-IV) as well as men and women whose glucose tolerance was within a normoglycemic range (Study II). The findings of this thesis thus suggest that depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality and stressful life events are associated with a higher likelihood of IR and having the MetS, but are not associated with indices of deficient insulin secretion. In addition, these associations characterise individuals without manifest or latent T2D. Overall, the findings, though cross-sectional, seem to suggest that psychosocial factors increase one s risk for T2D by way of increasing one s risk for IR. The findings of this thesis implicate that strategies aiming to reduce depression, improve poor sleep quality and alleviate stress in individuals without T2D may offer an additional tool in diabetes prevention.
  • Aalto-Setälä, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Vuorilehto, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in primary care and in secondary level psychiatric care in terms of clinical characteristics. Consecutive patients (N=1111) in three primary care health centres were screened for depression with the PRIME-MD, and positive cases interviewed by telephone. Cases with current depressive symptoms were diagnosed face-to-face with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). A cohort of 137 patients with unipolar depressive disorders, comprising all patients with at least two depressive symptoms and clinically significant distress or disability, was recruited. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), medical records, rating scales, interview and a retrospective life-chart were used to obtain comprehensive cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal information. For investigation of suicidal behaviour the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), patient records and the interview were used. The methodology was designed to be comparable to The Vantaa Depression Study (VDS) conducted in secondary level psychiatric care. Comparison of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients aged 20-59 from primary care in PC-VDS (N=79) was conducted with new psychiatric outpatients (N =223) and inpatients (N =46) in VDS. The PC-VDS cohort was prospectively followed up at 3, 6 and 18 months. Altogether 123 patients (90%) completed the follow-up. Duration of the index episode and the timing of relapses or recurrences were examined using a life-chart. The retrospective investigation revealed current MDD in most (66%), and lifetime MDD in nearly all (90%) cases of clinically significant depressive syndromes. Two thirds of the “subsyndromal” cases had a history of major depressive episode (MDE), although they were currently either in partial remission or a potential prodromal phase. Recurrences and chronicity were common. The picture of depression was complicated by Axis I co-morbidity in 59%, Axis II in 52% and chronic Axis III disorders in 47%; only 12% had no co-morbidity. Within their lifetimes, one third (37%) had seriously considered suicide, and one sixth (17%) had attempted it. Suicidal behaviour clustered in patients with moderate to severe MDD, co-morbidity with personality disorders, and a history of treatment in psychiatric care. The majority had received treatment for depression, but suicidal ideation had mostly remained unrecognised. The comparison of patients with MDD in primary care to those in psychiatric care revealed that the majority of suicidal or psychotic patients were receiving psychiatric treatment, and the patients with the most severe symptoms and functional limitations were hospitalized. In other clinical aspects, patients with MDD in primary care were surprisingly similar to psychiatric outpatients. Mental health contacts earlier in the current MDE were common among primary care patients. The 18-month prospective investigation with a life-chart methodology verified the chronic and recurrent nature of depression in primary care. Only one-quarter of patients with MDD achieved and maintained full remission during the follow-up, while another quarter failed to remit at all. The remaining patients suffered either from residual symptoms or recurrences. While severity of depression was the strongest predictor of recovery, presence of co-morbid substance use disorders, chronic medical illness and cluster C personality disorders all contributed to an adverse outcome. In clinical decision making, beside severity of depression and co-morbidity, history of previous MDD should not be ignored by primary care doctors while depression there is usually severe enough to indicate at least follow-up, and concerning those with residual symptoms, evaluation of their current treatment. Moreover, recognition of suicidal behaviour among depressed patients should also be improved. In order to improve outcome of depression in primary care, the often chronic and recurrent nature of depression should be taken into account in organizing the care. According to literature management programs of a chronic disease, with enhancement of the role of case managers and greater integration of primary and specialist care, have been successful. Optimum ways of allocating resources between treatment providers as well as within health centres should be found.
  • Haukkala, Ari (2002)
    The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and cynical hostility are related to socioeconomic status (SES), smoking cessation, obesity. In spring 1992, randomly selected subjects (N=3404) aged 25 to 64, from four areas in Finland participated in a survey. Smokers from the annual Finnish health behavior surveys between 1989 and 1994 were used as another data source (N=4483). Hostility and depression have been proposed as mediators between SES and poor health. It was found that cynical hostility was less prevalent among respondents in higher SES groups but that expression of anger was reported more often among higher SES groups. Divergent results with regard to socioeconomic status require more accurate hostility concepts. SES differences in smoking prevalence is a major cause for SES differences in health. No significant differences in motivation to quit smoking between smokers in different SES groups was found in this study. However, smokers in higher SES groups were more likely to believe that they were able to quit smoking. Negative emotions such as depression and anger play an important role in addiction to smoking. Here, a cognitive aspect of depression was also related to smoking cessation. Smokers of both genders with elevated depressive symptoms had lowered self-efficacy in smoking cessation but depressed female smokers were more willing to quit smoking than other female smokers. Cynical distrust was related to lower self-efficacy in cessation. In relation to weight, depressive symptoms had moderate association with obesity and central obesity. Higher cynical distrust scores were related to higher BMI except among well-educated females. However, cynical distrust scores were not related to weight gain or loss, but depressive symptoms predicted both weight gain and loss. Increasing SES differences in smoking and obesity are important issues in public health. Psychosocial factors, such as depression and hostility, are not easy targets for the diminishment of SES differences in obesity and smoking. However, knowledge about these psychosocial factors contributes to our understanding about how to change health related behaviors. Furthermore, by examining SES differences in psychosocial factors we can increase our understanding of how psychosocial environments can influence health.
  • Haukkala, Ari (2002)
    Tässä väitöskirjassa tarkasteltiin miten masentuneisuus ja kyyninen vihamielisyys ovat yhteydessä sosioekonominen asemaan, tupakoinnin lopettamiseen, sekä lihavuuteen. Tutkimusaineistoina käytettiin keväällä 1992 neljältä eri alueelta satunnaisotoksella valittuja 25-64 vuotiaita henkilöitä (N=3404). Tämän lisäksi tutkimusaineistona oli tupakoitsijoita vuosien 1989-1994 aikuisväestön terveyskäyttäytymistutkimuksesta (N=4483). Vihamielisyyttä ja masentuneisuutta on esitetty välittäviksi psykososiaalisiksi tekijöiksi sosiaalisen aseman ja terveyden väliselle yhteydelle. Kyyninen vihamielisyys oli vähäisempää ylempien sosioekonomisten ryhmien jäsenille, kun taas suuttumuksen ilmaiseminen suuttuessa oli näissä ryhmissä yleisempää. Erilaiset tulokset lisäävät vaatimuksia käyttää tarkempia vihamielisyys käsitteitä. Sosioekonomisten ryhmien väliset erot tupakoinnissa ovat osoittautuneet tärkeäksi tekijäksi näiden ryhmien välisille terveyseroille. Tutkittaessa tupakoinnin lopettamiseen liittyvia asenteita havaittiin, ettei halussa lopettaa tupakointi esiintynyt merkittäviä eroja sosioekonomisten ryhmien välillä. Sitä vastoin usko tupakoinnin lopettamisen onnistumiseen oli yleisempää enemmän koulutetuilla tupakoitsijoilla. Tupakoinnin yhtenä riippuvuutta ylläpitävänä tekijänä on pidetty tupakoinnin vaikutusta kielteisten tunteiden kuten masentuneisuuden ja suuttumuksen hallintaan. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin myös masennusoireisiin liittyvien kognitiivisten tekijöiden heijastuvan tupakoitsijoilla heikompaan uskoon tupakoinnin lopettamisen onnistumisesta. Naistupakoitsijat, joilla oli masennusoireita olivat sitä vastoin halukkaampia lopettamaan tupakoinnin. Kyyninen vihamielisyys oli yhteydessä huonompaan uskoon lopettamisen onnistumisesta. Masennusoireet olivat yhteydessä sekä korkeampaan keskivartalolihavuuteen että painoindeksiin perustuvaan lihavuuteen. Kyyninen vihamielisyys oli yhteydessä korkeampaan painoindeksiin muissa ryhmissä paitsi eniten koulutetuilla naisilla. Seurantatutkimuksessa se ei kuitenkaan ennustanut painonmuutoksia, sitä vastoin masennusoireet ennustivat sekä painon nousua että laskua kolmen vuoden seurannassa. Sosiaaliryhmien väliset erot tupakoinnissa ja ylipainossa ovat lisääntymässä ja tämä pitäisi ottaa huomioon terveyden edistämisessä. Psykososiaaliset tekijät, kuten masentuneisuus ja vihamielisyys, ovat vaikeita terveysinterventioiden kohteita näiden erojen vähentämiseksi. Ne tuovat kuitenkin tarkeää lisätietoa terveyskäyttaytymisen muutoksiin tai terveyttä ylläpitäviin tekijöihin. Samoin sosioekonomisten erojen tarkastelu psykososiaalisten tekijöiden ja terveyden välisessä tutkimuksessa tuo merkittävää lisätietoa miten sosiaalinen ympäristö vaikuttaa terveyteen.
  • Aho, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The purpose of this study is to describe the development of application of mass spectrometry for the structural analyses of non-coding ribonucleic acids during past decade. Mass spectrometric methods are compared of traditional gel electrophoretic methods, the characteristics of performance of mass spectrometric, analyses are studied and the future trends of mass spectrometry of ribonucleic acids are discussed. Non-coding ribonucleic acids are short polymeric biomolecules which are not translated to proteins, but which may affect the gene expression in all organisms. Regulatory ribonucleic acids act through transient interactions with key molecules in signal transduction pathways. Interactions are mediated through specific secondary and tertiary structures. Posttranscriptional modifications in the structures of molecules may introduce new properties to the organism, such as adaptation to environmental changes or development of resistance to antibiotics. In the scope of this study, the structural studies include i) determination of the sequence of nucleobases in the polymer chain, ii) characterisation and localisation of posttranscriptional modifications in nucleobases and in the backbone structure, iii) identification of ribonucleic acid-binding molecules and iv) probing of higher order structures in the ribonucleic acid molecule. Bacteria, archaea, viruses and HeLa cancer cells have been used as target organisms. Synthesised ribonucleic acids consisting of structural regions of interest have been frequently used. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) have been used for ionisation of ribonucleic analytes. Ammonium acetate and 2-propanol are common solvents for ESI. Trihydroxyacetophenone is the optimal MALDI matrix for ionisation of ribonucleic acids and peptides. Ammonium salts are used in ESI buffers and MALDI matrices as additives to remove cation adducts. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography has been used for desalting and fractionation of analytes either off-line of on-line, coupled with ESI source. Triethylamine and triethylammonium bicarbonate are used as ion pair reagents almost exclusively. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance analyser using ESI coupled with liquid chromatography is the platform of choice for all forms of structural analyses. Time-of-flight (TOF) analyser using MALDI may offer sensitive, easy-to-use and economical solution for simple sequencing of longer oligonucleotides and analyses of analyte mixtures without prior fractionation. Special analysis software is used for computer-aided interpretation of mass spectra. With mass spectrometry, sequences of 20-30 nucleotides of length may be determined unambiguously. Sequencing may be applied to quality control of short synthetic oligomers for analytical purposes. Sequencing in conjunction with other structural studies enables accurate localisation and characterisation of posttranscriptional modifications and identification of nucleobases and amino acids at the sites of interaction. High throughput screening methods for RNA-binding ligands have been developed. Probing of the higher order structures has provided supportive data for computer-generated three dimensional models of viral pseudoknots. In conclusion. mass spectrometric methods are well suited for structural analyses of small species of ribonucleic acids, such as short non-coding ribonucleic acids in the molecular size region of 20-30 nucleotides. Structural information not attainable with other methods of analyses, such as nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography, may be obtained with the use of mass spectrometry. Sequencing may be applied to quality control of short synthetic oligomers for analytical purposes. Ligand screening may be used in the search of possible new therapeutic agents. Demanding assay design and challenging interpretation of data requires multidisclipinary knowledge. The implement of mass spectrometry to structural studies of ribonucleic acids is probably most efficiently conducted in specialist groups consisting of researchers from various fields of science.
  • Juntunen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the reception of Matthew 5 in Martin Luther s sermons; in other words to investigate how Luther interprets and applies Jesus teaching of the better righteousness and the law in Mt 5. The study applies the reception-historical approach and contributes to the history of effects and the history of interpretation in New Testament exegesis. The study shows that Luther understands the better righteousness of Mt 5 as good works and fulfillment of the law. Luther s interpretation coheres with the intention of the Evangelist, even if Luther s overall concept of righteousness is foreign to Matthew. In Luther s view righteousness is twofold: The greater righteousness of Mt 5 is the second and the actual righteousness (iustitia activa), which follows the first and the foreign righteousness (iustitia passiva). The first righteousness (faith) is for Luther the work of God, while the second righteousness (good works) is co-operation between a Christian and God. In this co-operation the law, as it is taught by Jesus, is not the opposite of the gospel, but the gospel itself in the sense of Christ as an example . The task of the law is to show the dependence of a Christian on God and to help one to love and to serve one s neighbour (brothers as well as enemies) properly. The study underlines a feature in Luther s thinking that has received little attention in Lutheran theology: Luther insists on preaching the law to Christians. In his view Mt 5 is directed to all Christians and particularly to pastors, for whom Jesus here gives an example of how to preach the law. Luther believes similarly to Matthew that Jesus reveals the real meaning of Mosaic Law and confirms its validity for Christians in Mt 5. Like Matthew, Luther insists on the practicability of the commandments of Mt 5 in his view Christians fulfil the law also with joy yet his interpretation of Mt 5 attenuates the radical nature of its commandments. Luther s reception of the individual pericopes of Mt 5 is considerably generative and occasionally contradictory, which is explained by the following factors, among others: Luther receives many ideas from tradition and reads them and his own theological concepts into Matthew s Gospel. He interprets Mt 5 through his understanding of some Old Testament passages as well as Paul. Most of all, Luther s reception of Mt 5 is shaped by his own experience as a preacher, by his relation to his religious enemies, rulers and to the congregation of Wittenberg. Here Luther shares with Matthew the experience of being opposed and concern about the upright living of the believers, which in both cases also explains the polemical tone of the paraenesis.
  • Linderborg, Hilkka Sisko (2007)
    Jag vill med min pro gradu –avhandling lyfta upp de ryskspråkiga anhörigvårdarnas upplevelser i vårdandet av sina dementa anhöriga. Jag ville veta vad som är specifikt för de rysktalande anhöriga i sitt vårdande. Dessutom vill jag ha svar på hurdana copingstrategier de har skapat för att klara av rollen som anhörigvårdare. Slutligen har jag prövat om triple jeopardy –hypotesen stämmer med intervjupersonernas levnadsförhållanden. Undersökningen utfördes med kvalitativa temaintervjuer med 12 ryskspråkiga anhörigvårdare i tre kommuner inom södra Finland. Länderna som de hade flyttat ifrån var Estland, Litauen, Moldavien, Ryssland, Tjetjenien och Ukraina. Graden av vårdtagarens minnesproblem eller demenssjukdomens art var inte avgörande utan villkoret var att vårdgivarna ansåg att den anhöriges minnesförmåga var nedsatt i sådan omfattning att hon behövde hjälp av utomstående i de vardagliga sysslorna. Anhörigvårdarnas upplevelser av vårdandet kodades enligt kvalitativ innehållsanalys först in i fyra huvudteman och dessa i sin tur i två underteman enligt följande: information (om demens / om service), vårdandets kultur (i f.d. hemlandet / i Finland), vardag (flera att ta hand om / ekonomi) och språket (i hemmet / utanför hemmet). Forskningsresultaten visar att för majoriteten av informanterna var själva benämningen demens främmande. Oberoende av vilken del av det forna Sovjetunionen informanterna kommer ifrån så saknar de kunskaper om minnessjukdomar. Även om det hör till den ryska kulturen att ta hand om sina äldre, är majoriteten ändå positivt inställd till institutionell vård, då de inte själva orkar med vårdandet. Deras bristande språkkunskaper ihop med skamkänslor gör att de har svårt att söka och få information om äldrevårdens serviceformer varken på finska eller på ryska. Myndigheterna tenderar att vara sparsamma med mängden och kvaliteten av information och saknar inlevelseförmåga i de rysktalande anhörigas situation. Informanternas vardag kännetecknades av att – utöver den demensdrabbade vårdtagaren – hade de flera att ta hand om och om att ekonomiskt levde de i knappa förhållanden. Trots allt, med de jämförelser som de gör mellan hur deras liv skulle vara i det gamla hemlandet och hur de nu har det i Finland, anser de att de inte har anledning att vara missnöjda. Undersökningen visar att de mest kännetecknande copingstrategierna med tanke på deras ryska bakgrund är livsinställning, religion och sociala nätverk.
  • Rantala, Leif (1975)