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  • Holm, Ruurik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Constructive (intuitionist, anti-realist) semantics has thus far been lacking an adequate concept of truth in infinity concerning factual (i.e., empirical, non-mathematical) sentences. One consequence of this problem is the difficulty of incorporating inductive reasoning in constructive semantics. It is not possible to formulate a notion for probable truth in infinity if there is no adequate notion of what truth in infinity is. One needs a notion of a constructive possible world based on sensory experience. Moreover, a constructive probability measure must be defined over these constructively possible empirical worlds. This study defines a particular kind of approach to the concept of truth in infinity for Rudolf Carnap's inductive logic. The new approach is based on truth in the consecutive finite domains of individuals. This concept will be given a constructive interpretation. What can be verifiably said about an empirical statement with respect to this concept of truth, will be explained, for which purpose a constructive notion of epistemic probability will be introduced. The aim of this study is also to improve Carnap's inductive logic. The study addresses the problem of justifying the use of an "inductivist" method in Carnap's lambda-continuum. A correction rule for adjusting the inductive method itself in the course of obtaining evidence will be introduced. Together with the constructive interpretation of probability, the correction rule yields positive prior probabilities for universal generalizations in infinite domains.
  • Hellman, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The four scientific articles comprising this doctoral dissertation offer new information on the presentation and construction of addiction in the mass media during the period 1968 - 2008. Diachronic surveys as well as quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken to discern trends during the period in question and to investigate underlying conceptions of the problems in contemporary media presentations. The research material for the first three articles consists of a sample of 200 texts from Finland s biggest daily newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, from the period 1968 - 2006. The fourth study examines English-language tabloid material published on the Internet in 2005 - 2008. A number of principal trends are identified. In addition to a significant increase in addiction reporting over time, the study shows that an internalisation of addiction problems took place in the media presentations under study. The phenomenon is portrayed and tackled from within the problems themselves, often from the viewpoint of the individuals concerned. The tone becomes more personal, and technical and detailed accounts are more and more frequent. Secondly, the concept of addiction is broadened. This can be dated to the 1990s. The concept undergoes a conventionalisation: it is used more frequently in a manner that is not thought to require explanation. The word riippuvuus (the closest equivalent to addiction in Finnish) was adopted more commonly in the reporting at the same time, in the 1990s. Thirdly, the results highlight individual self-governance as a superordinate principle in contemporary descriptions of addiction. If the principal demarcation in earlier texts was between us and them , it is now focused primarily on the individual s competence and ability to govern the self, to restrain and master one's behaviour. Finally, in the fourth study investigating textual constructions of female celebrities (Amy Winehouse, Britney Spears and Kate Moss) in Internet tabloids, various relations and functions of addiction problems, intoxication, body and gender were observed to function as cultural symbols. Addiction becomes a sign, or a style, that represents different significations in relation to the main characters in the tabloid stories. Tabloids, as a genre, play an important role by introducing other images of the problems than those featured in mainstream media. The study is positioned within the framework of modernity theory and its views on the need for self-reflexivity and biographies as tools for the creation and definition of the self. Traditional institutions such as the church, occupation, family etc. no longer play an important role in self-definition. This circumstance creates a need for a culture conveying stories of success and failure in relation to which the individual can position their own behaviour and life content. I propose that addiction , as a theme in media reporting, resolves the conflict that emanates from the ambivalence between the accessibility and the individualisation of consumer society, on the one hand, and the problematic behavioural patterns (addictions) that they may induce, on the other.
  • Pienimäki, Hanna-Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Language is a medium of communication but it is also used to construe and negotiate meaning in our social environment. Language can signal group membership and construe identity as a member of a particular group. If people have more than one language in their repertoires, competence becomes a key factor in defining to what degree people choose to identify themselves as part of a specific community of language speakers. My research studies how identity and competence are construed by non-native English speakers. Most English speakers have learned the language in addition to their mother tongue(s), and use it to communicate with other non-native speakers of English. In these situations English is used as a lingua franca (ELF) a contact language between speakers who do not share a first language (L1). In these contexts it is typical that people have learned English as a foreign language (EFL) in school. Typically L2 speakers are taught to communicate with native speakers of the language, and thus foreign language teaching often defines competence in the L2 by comparing learners proficiency level to a native speaker model. This view perceives L2 speakers as learners of the language, and defines their competence in the L2 by the degree learners are able to acquire the target language norms. In lingua franca contexts competence is defined quite differently. Competence in ELF means the ability to use the language successfully with people from various cultural backgrounds, and the ability to negotiate norms to ensure mutual understanding, which, at times, might even mean deviating from the target language norms. The concept of identity is also defined differently in EFL and ELF contexts. In foreign language teaching, speakers are learners who constantly develop their skills with hopes to eventully achieve a native-like competence. In ELF contexts, on the other hand, speakers are seen as users of the language who do not necessarily benefit from a native-like competence level per se. Because ELF users should be able to communicate with people from various backgrounds, achieving a native-like competence might not be enough to ensure successful communication with other L2 English speakers. The purpose of this research was to study how L2 English speakers construe identity as learners and users of English and their competence in the language. The data was collected by interviewing Finnish university students majoring in English philology. The data consists of four interviews in which participants describe themselves as learners and users of English. I approached the data from a discourse analytical point of view, and analyzed the construed interpretative repertoires of identity and competence. My findings show that the construed learner and user identities are context-dependent. The identity that becomes salient in the interpretative repertoires in a given context depends on how the interviewees want to depict themselves in that given environment. The ideals of good language also guide the construction of the interpretative repertoires of identity. The repertoires that idealize native-like language use construe learner identity while the repertoires that emphasize communication skills construe the user identity. My research also indicates that the interpretative repertoires of competence are multifaceted. Competence is construed as intuitive, native-speaker-like knowledge about English language structures, as well as different cognitive and performative skills and abilities. These are, for example, the ability to think in English and to communicate successfully with people from various different backgrounds.
  • Korhonen, Juho Topias (2012)
    The thesis construes the cultural field of transitology from the point of view of its historical development and characteristics. Transitology specifically and transition studies generally mushroomed in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union. Transitology is a specific term for a field of transition studies to which particular attributes are controversially connected. These attributes include nomotheticity, ahistoricity, positivism and determinism. Of interest is the fact, that transitology represents a field of academia concerned with guiding policy recommendations in a process that aimed to democratize and market liberalize post-socialist countries in Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union. This instigated a close connection between the social scientific debates and actual policy. The thesis advances in a twofold manner to investigate the effects of the connections and historical factors behind the nature and applicability of transitology. First, it constructs a historical narrative of the developments of social sciences, transition studies, socialist social sciences and post-socialist space. Through different conjunctures each of these levels brought about its own meaning to the manner in which transitology consolidated its existence. Secondly, the thesis observes the form and nature of the relation of transitological research to its own premises and to its subject matter. A historical and radical perspective of social scientific thought is applied to detect the form of the relations. These perspectives are mainly world-systems analysis and the political economy of Stephen Gill. The relations under observation are then set into a wider context of social sciences and cultural competition with the help of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological thought. Academic labour is perceived analogously to a Marxist perspective of labour as a social process. The thesis concludes transitology to have attained specific character for a variety of reasons. In general these reasons are seen to stem from an interaction of the state of social scientific thought in the late 80s and early 90 and the historical state of the post-socialist space. Observing the effects and developments occurring from this interplay, the thesis claims transitological thought to have consolidated itself as a constituting cleavage of the post-socialist cultural and political space rather than dissolved into a myriad of approaches. In such a situation, in which a dislodgment between the temporal and spatial dimensions of the cultural field of research and academia and the object if its study has occurred, it becomes vehemently important to focus on the relation and type of research conducted and its direct and indirect implications to its subject matter.
  • Kähkönen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Chen, Jiao (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    China’s high-speed economic growth has accelerated consumers’ disposable income evidently. With the improvement of living standards, people have increasingly been concerned about their life quality, especially when buying consumables like food, toys and clothing as well as durable commodities like furniture for their children. In the past ten years, the Chinese children's furniture market has developed rapidly, making up 9% of total furniture market. However, no studies concerning the analysis of consumer behavior in this market segment exist so far. The objective of this study is to fill this gap by examining Chinese consumers’ perceptions of children’s furniture based on their socio-demographics, their attitudes towards product, supplier and environmental attributes. The empirical part of the study focused on analyzing quantitative data, which were collected by using a structured questionnaire in Shanghai and Shenzhen of China.The data were analyzed by a wide array of statistical analysis methods using SPSS software package. The final sample size was made up of 299 respondents. The data reveal that females accounted for 67% of the total respondents, with 63% of all respondents being in the range of 31-40 years old and 23% in the range of 20-30 years old. The results indicate that safety and environmental friendliness were the primary consideration for parents to purchase children’s furniture. And supplier quality was detected as the central dimension when respondents perceived different attributes of children’s furniture. In addition, 83% of the respondents chose solid wood as the primary raw material for children’s furniture, and 35% of them stated that they were willing to pay 6-10% more for environmentally friendly children's furniture. The choice of environmentally friendly products was closely connected with consumers’ lifestyle and majority of respondents expressed positive attitudes towards healthy and sustainable lifestyle. However, Chinese consumers showed low brand awareness in the children’s furniture market and their price expectations on solid wood furniture were below current market levels. Nevertheless, the Chinese children’s furniture presents a tremendous market potential not only for wooden furniture producers but also for both domestic and international wood raw material suppliers.
  • Niva, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Taking the appropriation of objects as a theoretical starting point, this study makes a distinction between a conceptual and practical level of adopting new objects and products in everyday life. The study applies the concept of appropriation in social food research and examines consumers appropriation of functional foods, i.e., foods developed to improve health and well-being or reduce the risk of disease beyond the usual nutritional effects of foods. The study uses the concept of appropriation to understand the adoption and the process of making functional foods our own . First, the study focuses on the conceptual appropriation by analysing consumers interpretations and opinions on functional foods. Second, it analyses the use of functional foods and examines the role of sociodemographic and food- and health-related background factors in the use of functional foods. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the study. Altogether 1210 Finns representative of the population took part in a survey carried out in 2002 as computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). The survey examined the acceptability and use of functional foods in Finland. In 2004, eight focus group discussions were organised for 45 users and non-users of cholesterol-lowering spreads. The qualitative study focused on consumers interpretative perspectives on healthy eating and functional foods. The findings are reported in four original articles and a summary article. The results show that the appropriation of functional foods is a multifaceted phenomenon. The conceptual appropriation is related to consumers interpretations of functional foods in the context of healthy foods and healthy eating; their trust in the products, their manufacturers, research and control; and the relationship of functional foods and the ideal of natural foods. The analysis of the practical appropriation of four different types of foods marketed as functional showed that there are sociodemographic differences between users and non-users of the products, but more importantly, the differences are related to consumers food- and health-related views and practices. Consumers ways of appropriating functional foods in the conceptual and practical sense take shape in a complex web of ideas and everyday practices concerning food, health and eating as a whole. The results also indicate that the conceptual and practical appropriation are not necessarily uniform or coherent processes. Consumers interpret healthy eating and functional foods from a variety of perspectives and there is a multiplicity of rationales of using functional foods. Appropriation embraces many opposing dimensions simultaneously: good experiences and doubts, approval and criticism, expectations and things taken for granted.
  • Ollila, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    High food prices can be a barrier to healthy eating because some of the food products may be perceived as expensive. Understanding the role of price in food purchase situations is important, but only a few studies document attitudes towards expensiveness or cheapness in foods. In this thesis, the role of food price in food choice and consumers attitudes towards food prices were investigated and the aim was to measure the food price attitudes. Food price attitudes were hypothesized to have an impact on consumers willingness to pay judgements and their willingness to buy premium-priced food products. First, using qualitative data consisting of 40 thematic interviews the experiences of the expensiveness and cheapness in foods were explored by using functional food products as a target product category. Second, a Food Price Attitude Scale was developed using four quantitative surveys representing Finnish consumers (2001 N=1158; 2002 N=1156; 2004a N=1113; 2004b N=1027). Food price attitudes were confirmed to compose a multidimensional construct and consumers may perceive positive and negative attitudes towards both high and low food prices. Finnish consumers were clustered into four groups based on their food price attitudes. In the first group, 29% of respondents were negative towards high food prices and they were willing to seek low food prices, whereas respondents in another group (22%) were positive towards high food prices. Additionally, in the third group consumers (17%) were willing to pay for high quality but still looked for low food prices. In the fourth group, consumers (32%) were willing to look for low food prices, unwilling to pay for high quality, but high-priced food was appreciated if offered to others. It was found in qualitative data that consumers willingness to accept high prices in foods was connected to price fairness and to justifications. Feelings of fairness or unfairness might be a core element of food price attitudes. Using quantitative methods, it was confirmed that positive attitudes towards high food prices in terms of high quality enhanced consumers willingness to buy food products with certain benefits (e.g., a health claim). Additionally, the favourable attitude towards low food prices lowered the willingness to pay estimates. This type of tendency, however, can create a possible bias in small convenient samples. In the food price-related research, it is advisable to take into account food price attitudes as possible background variables. The Food Price Attitude Scale needs further development to increase construct validity even though, in the present study, it was shown to be a reliable measure with good predictive and discriminant validity. The theoretical and managerial implications of the results for a better understanding of the role of price in consumers food purchases are discussed.
  • Tuomi, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Kehittynyt teknologia mahdollistaa kuluttajien osallistumisen hyödykkeiden suunnitteluun ja valmistamiseen aikaisempaa enemmän. Kuluttajan rooli tuotteiden ja palveluiden arvoketjussa on nähty viime vuosikymmeninä merkittävänä kuluttaja- ja markkinointitieteissä. Keskusteluissa on tuotu esiin, että kuluttajien osallistuminen yhdessä yrityksen kanssa tuotteiden suunnitteluun, valmistamiseen sekä kokemiseen loisi arvoa kuluttajille. Tutkielma tarkastelee kuluttajien kokemuksia osallistumisesta tuotteiden ja brändien kehitykseen joukkoistamistyökalun avulla. Yritykset voivat joukkoistamisen avulla ulkoistaa suunnitteluprosessin isommalle joukolle toimijoita kuin perinteisesti on tehty ja samalla osallistaa kuluttajia tuotteiden ja brändien kehitykseen. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on tarkastella sitä, osallistuvatko kuluttajat joukkoistamismenetelmällä tehtyyn kampanjaan ja miten he kokevat kampanjan ja siihen osallistumisen. Tutkimusta varten tehtiin ensin pilotointi, jossa hyödynnettin joukkoistamista. 17 000 kuluttajaa osallistui kampanjaan. Kampanjaan osallistuneiden joukosta valittiin 11 kuluttajaa puolistrukturoituun haastatteluun. Heiltä kysyttiin kokemuksia osallistumisesta. Kuluttajien kokemuksia analysointiin teoria-ohjaavan analyysin avulla, jossa aineistoa käsiteltiin kuluttajan arvonluomista koskevan kirjallisuuden avulla sekä aikaisemman joukkoistamista käsittelevän tutkimuksen avulla. Kuluttajat kokevat osallistumisen pääosin ajan vietteeksi. Samalla he kuitenkin osoittivat kiinnostusta osallistua laajemminkin hyödykkeiden kehittämiseen yhdessä yrityksen kanssa. Kuluttajien osallistuminen kampanjaan riippui tilannetekijöistä ja osallistuminen loi sekä hedonistisia että utilitaristisia arvon kokemuksia kuluttajalle samaan tapaan kuin kuluttaja kokee saavansa arvoa muissakin kulutustapahtumissa. Hedonistiset kokemukset ilmenivät kampanjaan osallistumisen toimimisena ajanvietteenä ja miellyttävänä kokemuksena osallistumisesta kampanjaan kuluttajalle. Utilitariset arvot ilmenivät arvostuksena tiedosta uusista tuotteista, palkinnon saamisen arvostamisen ja ennen kaikkea vaikuttamisesta yrityksen tuotteisiin. Tulokset osoittavat teorian oletusten mukaisesti kuluttaja on aktiivinen ja halukas olemaan kanssa käymisissä yrityksen kanssa muun muassa uuden teknologian avulla kuten myös perinteisimmillä keinoilla.
  • Koskenniemi, Aino (2014)
    This study offers three theoretical perspectives on meaning construction in adbusting, a form culture jamming meant to interfere in processes of advertising that uphold the dominant ideology of consumerism. The study proposes a new holistic frame of interpretation for understanding the construction of meaning with and within adbusting. The practice is seen as a form of ideology critique that can and should be studied from three points of view: as semiotic warfare, material intervention, and social activity. First, as semiotic warfare, adbusting aims at subverting meanings by the use of ridicule and distancing, as well as by disarming stereotypes. The study also proposes that spoof ads could be analysed as types of deconstructions, that is, as activities of exposing how meanings are generated and upheld by the usually implicit use of binary oppositions of which the other end is situated hierarchically superior to the other. In addition, the semiotic warfare in which adbusting takes part materialises in acts of hijacking platforms used by advertisers. Second, adbusting is seen as a material practice. The study suggests that images constructed in adbusting should be understood as material things that can retain some type of agency and possibly be or become performative. The study also shows how the choice of both the material form and platform of adbusting can have effects on the meanings constructed of the practice and its imagery. Third, the construction of meaning of and in adbusting is studied from a social perspective. It is concluded that both personal and collective identities as well as emotions have an effect on what meanings are constructed of and in the practice and how. The role of images in upholding collectives and constructing communities of resistance is also determined to be significant in the case of adbusting. Finally, an analysis of the presented holistic frame of interpretation links the construction of meaning with questions over the use of public space, with different conceptions of “an active public”, and with ideas of emancipation. The study goes on to propose that the deconstruction and reconstruction of meaning in adbusting should be understood as a much broader phenomenon than presented in previous research.
  • Hossain, Md Motaher (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Despite rapid urbanization, more than 75% of the people still live in rural areas. The density of the rural population is also one of the highest in the world. Being a poor and low-income country, its main challenge is to eradicate poverty through increasing equitable income. Since its independence in 1971, Bangladesh has experienced many ups and downs, but over the past three decades, its gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an impressive rate. Consequently, the country s economy is developing and the country has outperformed many low-income countries in terms of several social indicators. Bangladesh has achieved the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary school enrollment. A sharp decline in child and infant mortality rates, increased per capita income, and improved food security have placed Bangladesh on the track to achieving in the near future the status of a middle-income country. All these developments have influenced the consumption pattern of the country. This study explores the consumption scenario of rural Bangladesh, its changing consumption patterns, the relationship between technology and consumption in rural Bangladesh, cultural consumption in rural Bangladesh, and the myriad reasons why consumers nevertheless feel compelled to consume chemically treated foods. Data were collected in two phases in the summers of 2006 and 2008. In 2006, the empirical data were collected from the following three sources: interviews with consumers, producers/sellers, and doctors and pharmacists; observations of sellers/producers; and reviews of articles published in the national English and Bengali (the national language of Bangladesh) daily newspapers. A total of 110 consumers, 25 sellers/producers, 7 doctors, and 7 pharmacists were interviewed and observed. In 2008, data were collected through semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews, ethnography, and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs; the total number of persons interviewed was 22. -- Data were also collected on the consumption of food, clothing, housing, education, medical facilities, marriage and dowry, the division of labor, household decision making, different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims), the Bengali New Year, and Durga puja (for Hindus), and leisure. Qualitative methods were applied to the data analysis and were supported by secondary quantitative data. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption patterns of rural Bangladeshis are changing over time along with economic and social development, and that technology has rendered aspects of daily life more convenient. This study identified the perceptions and experiences of rural people regarding technologies in use and explored how culture is associated with consumption. This study identified the reasons behind the use of hazardous chemicals (e.g. calcium carbide, sodium cyclamate, cyanide and formalin, etc.) in foods as well as the extent to which food producers/sellers used such chemicals. In addition, this study assessed consumer perceptions of and attitudes toward these contaminated food items and explored how adulterated foods and food stuffs affect consumer health. This study also showed that consumers were aware that various foods and food stuffs contained hazardous chemicals, and that these adulterated foods and food stuffs were harmful to their health.
  • Kavin, Galan (2012)
    The master's thesis examines the impact of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta. The theoretical premise is that corporations have decisively established structural power over the nationstate system, using developmentalism as a blueprint. As a result, power is becoming less accountable to egalitarian or even representative political institutions, and increasingly reacts only to stimuli that threaten revenues. It is UI the corporate nature to place profits before people unless the former are threatened. What means are available to the people of the Niger Delta to do so? How can the industry's reaction be interpreted? The thesis presents ethnographically derived theoretical views of the state and corporate capitalism, to provide a basis for anaiyzing the emerging corporate social responsibility discourse. The study addresses the question, is "corporate social responsibility" a contradiction in terms? The thesis is primarily based on interviews conducted in the Niger Delta over three months during 2008, and references a range of relevant publications. The research presented is an acknowledgement of the contributions of anticolonialist struggles towards anthropological knowledge, and considers their contemporary relevance. The methods and theoretical focus correspond to a recent branch of anthropology known as "liberation ecology." However, the text challenges the "paradox of plenty" narrative common to research about the Niger Delta, by acknowledging that historically, the parallel processes of elite enrichment and mass impoverishment are the standard operating procedure for the corporate institution; not an aberration. The social role of oil has allowed corporations to concentrate unprecedented wealth in very few hands, while causing unprecedented damage to the ecosystems that sustain all life. In Nigeria's oil producing Niger River Delta, this disparity has provoked a regional uprising against the state-oil company alliance that demonstrates an escaiating trend of direct action. The Nigerian federal government's dependence on oil revenue is articulated by expioring the nature of its relationship to the Niger Delta region. The term "shell state" is introduced to define states whose jovernance structures remain intact yet ineffective, and serve the individuals occupying government posts rather than the citizens of the state. It is argued that externally, shell states resemble the Weberian state model, but like shell companies, their primary function is to obscure the actual exercise of power and distribution of resources. Nigeria, as a shell state under a comparatively direct form of corporate ruie, provides a model for a mo realistic understanding of how global corporations govern in practice. Analysis of the Nigerian shell state's record leads to insights regarding how the domestic elite has been co-opted into the corporatocracy value system, the ethnicized structure of this arrangement, and the implications for the people suffering its consequences in the Niger Delta, especially regarding structural power and resource control.
  • Viitasaari, Anna (2012)
    Genetic engineering is a new technological field, incurring new risks. This work examines the regulation of this process and its products, genetically modified organisms (GMO). The mode of analysis is a comparison of the American and European regulatory approaches concerning this field. The concept of risk plays an important role in determining the way the new technology is perceived 1 and subsequently regulated. Scientific testing, in particular Risk Assessment techniques, has come to be the primary form of legitimating the use of GMOs. This work will explore the current GMO policy 1 regulations and the way that scientific knowledge has influenced policy making. The central aim of the work is to determine whether these methods are able to ensure the protection of human, animal, and environmental health. The application of the Precautionary Principle will be suggested as an alternative to the current regulatory approach.
  • Hellström, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the severe foodborne infection listeriosis. The number of listeriosis cases in recent years has increased in many European countries, including Finland. Contamination of the pathogen needs to be minimized and growth to high numbers in foods prevented in order to reduce the incidence of human cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the food chain and to investigate methods for control of the pathogen in food processing. L. monocytogenes was commonly found in wild birds, the pig production chain and in pork production plants. It was found most frequently in birds feeding at landfill site, organic farms, tonsil samples, and sites associated with brining. L. monococytogenes in birds, farms, food processing plant or foods did not form distinct genetic groups, but populations overlapped. The majority of genotypes recovered from birds were also detected in foods, food processing environments and other animal species and birds may disseminate L. monocytogenes into food chain. Similar genotypes were found in different pigs on the same farm, as well as in pigs on farms and later in the slaughterhouse. L. monocytogenes contamination spreads at farm level and may be a contamination source into slaughterhouses and further into meat. Incoming raw pork in the processing plant was frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes and genotypes in raw meat were also found in processing environment and in RTE products. Thus, raw material seems to be a considerable source of contamination into processing facilities. In the pork processing plant, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes increased in the brining area, showing that the brining was an important contamination site. Recovery of the inoculated L. monocytogenes strains showed that there were strain-specific differences in the ability to survive in lettuce and dry sausage. The ability of some L. monocytogenes strains to survive well in food production raises a challenge for industry, because these strains can be especially difficult to remove from the products and raises a need to use an appropriate hurdle concept to control most resistant strains. Control of L. monocytogenes can be implemented throughout the food chain. Farm-specific factors affected the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and good farm-level practices can therefore be utilized to reduce the prevalence of this pathogen on the farm and possibly further in the food chain. Well separated areas in a pork production plant had low prevalences of L. monocytogenes, thus showing that compartmentalization controls the pathogen in the processing line. The food processing plant, especially the brining area, should be subjected to disassembling, extensive cleaning and disinfection to eliminate persistent contamination by L. monocytogenes, and replacing brining with dry-salting should be considered. All of the evaluated washing solutions decreased the populations of L. monocytogenes on precut lettuce, but did not eliminate the pathogen. Thus, the safety of fresh-cut produce cannot rely on washing with disinfectants, and high-quality raw material and good manufacturing practices remain important. L. monocytogenes was detected in higher levels in sausages without the protective culture than in sausages with this protective strain, although numbers of L. monocytogenes by the end of the ripening decreased to the level of < 100 MPN/g in all sausages. Protective starter cultures provide an appealing hurdle in dry sausage processing and assist in the control of L. monocytogenes.
  • Lyytikäinen, Kati (2004)
    Tiivistelmä Talouden hidastumisen myötä monet länsimaiset yritykset ovat alkaneet ulkoistamaan toimintojaan kustannustehokkaampiin maihin kuten Intiaan. Länsimaissa ilmiö nähdään uhkana, kun taas kehitysmaissa ilmiötä pidetään mahdollisuutena. Yleisimmin siirrettäviä toimintoja ovat ns. ITES – toiminnot kuten puhelinkeskus-, telemarkkinointi- ja tiedonsiirtotoiminnot. Näitä palveluja ei pidetä yrityksen kannalta tuottavina toimintoina vaan omat voimavarat halutaan käyttää avaintoimintoihin, ydinosaamisen kehittämiseen sekä kilpailukyvyn ja toimintavarmuuden parantamiseen. Huomattavasti alhaisempien työvoimakustannusten ja alhaisempien puhelinkustannusten lisäksi Intian etuna on laaja englanninkielinen väestö. Tämä tutkimus pohtii globalisaation vaikutuksia Bangaloreen. Keskeisimpiä kysymyksiä ovat miten globalisaatio, sosiaalinen muutos ja kulttuuri yhdistyvät, onko globalisaatio prosessissa voittajia ja häviäjiä, ja muuttuvatko ihmiset prosessin seurauksena homogeenisiksi vai säilyykö heterogeenisuus. Käytän Scholten käsitettä ”suprarerritoriality” kuvaamaan globalisaatioprosessia. Kommunikaationvälineet joita yhteyskeskukset hyödyntävät toimivat nimenomaisesti satelliittien välityksellä, yli kansallisten rajojen. Tutkimuksen empiirinen aineisto on kerätty Bangaloresta elo- ja syyskuussa 2003 seitsemästä eri yhteyskeskuksesta. Osallistavien menetelmien lisäksi tutkimusmetodeina olivat kyselylomakkeet ja haastattelut. Työpaikkojen ulkoistaminen on vähentänyt sekä työn arvoa että muuttanut työn käsitettä. Taloudellinen riippumattomuus perheestä on lisännyt naisten itsetuntoa, vapauden tuntoa sekä kunnioitusta, niin kotona kuin yhteiskunnassakin. Globalisaation vaikutukset eivät ole kuitenkaan vielä yltäneet valtaosaan väestöön ja uuden teknologian kautta syntyneet työpaikat tarjoavat mahdollisuuksia hyvin koulutetuille nuorille. Yhteyskeskusten työntekijöiden keskuudessa on havaittavissa selvä kulttuurinen muutos. Samaistuminen uuteen rooliin ei ole helppoa sillä se vaatii henkilökohtaisten uhrauksien tekemistä kuten muutosta ystäväpiirissä, vapaa-ajan vähenemistä ja muutoksia perherakenteissa. Työntekijät käyvät läpi perusteellisen amerikkalaistamisprosessin ja kulttuurisen sopeuttamisprosessin. Näillä yritykset peittävät sitä tosiasiaa, että ne ovat siirtäneet toimintojaan kehitysmaihin.
  • Waltari, Otto Kustaa (2013)
    Advanced low-cost wireless technologies have enabled a huge variety of real life applications in the past years. Wireless sensor technologies have emerged in almost every application field imaginable. Smartphones equipped with Internet connectivity and home electronics with networking capability have made their way to everyday life. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm that has risen to frame the idea of a large scale sensing ecosystem, in which all possible devices could contribute. The definition of a thing in this context is very vague. It can be anything from passive RFID tags on retail packaging to intelligent transducers observing the surrounding world. The amount of connected devices in such a worldwide sensing network would be enormous. This is ultimately challenging for the current Internet architecture which is several decades old and is based on host-to-host connectivity. The current Internet addresses content by location. It is based on point-to-point connections, which eventually means that every connected device has to be uniquely addressable through a hostname or an IP address. This paradigm was originally designed for sharing resources rather than data. Today the majority of Internet usage consists of sharing data, which is not what it was originally designed for. Various patchy improvements have come and gone, but a thorough architectural redesign is required sooner or later. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a new networking paradigm that addresses content by name instead of location. Its goal is to replace the current where with what, since the location of most content on the Internet is irrelevant to the end user. Several ICN architecture proposals have emerged from the research community, out of which Content-Centric Networking (CCN) is the most significant one in the context of this thesis. We have come up with the idea of combining CCN with the concept of IoT. In this thesis we look at different ways on how to make use of the hierarchical CCN content naming, in-network caching and other information-centric networking characteristics in a sensor environment. As a proof of concept we implemented a presentation bridge for a home automation system that provides services to the network through CCN.
  • Tilli, Tuomo (2012)
    BitTorrent is one of the most used file sharing protocols on the Internet today. Its efficiency is based on the fact that when users download a part of a file, they simultaneously upload other parts of the file to other users. This allows users to efficiently distribute large files to each other, without the need of a centralized server. The most popular torrent site is the Pirate Bay with more than 5,700,000 registered users. The motivation for this research is to find information about the use of BitTorrent, especially on the Pirate Bay website. This will be helpful for system administrators and researchers. We collected data on all of the torrents uploaded to the Pirate Bay from 25th of December, 2010 to 28th of October, 2011. Using this data we found out that a small percentage of users are responsible for a large portion of the uploaded torrents. There are over 81,000 distinct users, but the top nine publishers have published more than 16% of the torrents. We examined the publishing behaviour of the top publishers. The top usernames were publishing so much content that it became obvious that there are groups of people behind the usernames. Most of the content published is video files with a 52% share. We found out that torrents are uploaded to the Pirate Bay website at a fast rate. About 92% of the consecutive uploads have happened within 100 seconds or less from each other. However, the publishing activity varies a lot. These deviations in the publishing activity may be caused by down time of the Pirate Bay website, fluctuations in the publishing activity of the top publishers, national holidays or weekdays. One would think that the publishing activity with so many independent users would be quite level, but surprisingly this is not the case. About 85% of the files of the torrents are less than 1.5 GB in size. We also discovered that torrents of popular feature films were uploaded to the Pirate Bay very fast after their release and the top publishers appear to be competing on who releases the torrents first. It seems like the impact of the top publishers is quite significant in the publishing of torrents.
  • Martínez Meyer, Marcela Raquel (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Protein-energy malnutrition and mineral deficiencies are two of the three forms of nutritional deficiencies that affect most developing countries due to inadequate access to food and diets based on a sole crop. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the staple crop of Nicaragua and it has the potential to improve the nutritional status of the poorest group of the nation. Its high content of both protein and nonhaem iron provides many nutrients, but inhibitors also may prevent absorption of iron and zinc by the human consumer. A proper production chain must be followed to ensure the best grain quality for the consumer. To achieve food security, both production and high nutritional content must be maintained. Four nationally important accessions of common bean, with different harvesting dates, were selected to be submitted to two treatments: to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on the end quality of the grain. The duration of the study was six months with sampling every six weeks, and the two treatments were controlled one stored at 40°C and 75 RH %, and the other was stored in in-situ conditions. Proximate and mineral composition was evaluated as well as tannin, phytate and bioavailability. Significant differences among different accessions were found, being the most significant in protein, Fe and Zn content, tannins and phytate. Protein values ranged from 21-23%. Iron content was 61-81 mg/kg but only 3-4% was bioavailable. Zinc content was 21-25 mg/kg and 10-12% was bioavailable. The concentration of phytate ranged from 8.6-9.6 mg/g while tannin values ranged within 37.7-43.8 mg/g. Storage at high temperatures was demonstrated to have an impact on certain nutritional compounds and proved detrimental to final grain quality. Soluble sugar content and tannin content decreased after six months in both storage conditions, IDF decreased in the in-situ and SDF in the stress. The iron content and bioavailability in INTA Biofortificado were not as outstanding as expected, so experiments should be conducted to compare its iron uptake and delivery with other cultivars.
  • Wang, Liang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In-network caching aims at improving content delivery and alleviating pressures on network bandwidth by leveraging universally networked caches. This thesis studies the design of cooperative in-network caching strategy from three perspectives: content, topology and cooperation, specifically focuses on the mechanisms of content delivery and cooperation policy and their impacts on the performance of cache networks. The main contributions of this thesis are twofold. From measurement perspective, we show that the conventional metric hit rate is not sufficient in evaluating a caching strategy on non-trivial topologies, therefore we introduce footprint reduction and coupling factor, which contain richer information. We show cooperation policy is the key in balancing various tradeoffs in caching strategy design, and further investigate the performance impact from content per se via different chunking schemes. From design perspective, we first show different caching heuristics and smart routing schemes can significantly improve the caching performance and facilitate content delivery. We then incorporate well-defined fairness metric into design and derive the unique optimal caching solution on the Pareto boundary with bargaining game framework. In addition, our study on the functional relationship between cooperation overhead and neighborhood size indicates collaboration should be constrained in a small neighborhood due to its cost growing exponentially on general network topologies.