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  • Flink, Anu (2011)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää desorptio/fotoionisaatio ilmanpaineessa tekniikan (engl. desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization, DAPPI) soveltuvuutta rikosteknisen laboratorion näytteiden analysointiin. DAPPI on nopea massaspektrometrinen ionisaatiotekniikka, jolla voidaan tutkia yhdisteitä suoraan erilaisilta pinnoilta. DAPPI:ssa käytetään lämmitettyä mikrosirua, joka suihkuttaa höyrystynyttä liuotin- ja kaasuvirtausta kohti näytettä. Näytteen pinnan komponentit desorboituvat lämmön vaikutuksesta, jonka jälkeen ionisoituminen tapahtuu VUV-lampun emittoimien fotonien avulla.DAPPI:lla tutkittiin takavarikoituja huumausaineita, anabolisia steroideja ja räjähdysaineita sekä niiden jäämiä erilaisilta pinnoilta. Lisäksi kartoitettiin DAPPI:n mahdollisuuksia ja rajoituksia erilaisille näytematriiseille ilman näytteiden esikäsittelyä. Takavarikoitujen huumausaineiden tutkimuksessa analysoitiin erilaisia tabletteja, jauheita, kasvirouheita, huumekasveja (khat, oopium, kannabis) ja sieniä. Anabolisia steroideja tunnistettiin tableteista sekä ampulleista, jotka sisälsivät öljymäistä nestettä. Jauheet ripoteltiin kaksipuoliselle teipille ja analysoitiin siltä. Muut näytteet analysoitiin sellaisenaan ilman minkäänlaista esikäsittelyä, paitsi nestemäisten näytteiden kohdalla näyte pipetoitiin talouspaperille, joka analysoitiin DAPPI:lla. DAPPI osoittautui nopeaksi ja yksinkertaiseksi menetelmäksi takavarikoitujen huumausaineiden ja steroidien analysoimisessa. Se soveltui hyvin rikoslaboratorion erityyppisten näytteiden rutiiniseulontaan ja helpotti erityisesti huumekasvien ja öljymäisten steroidiliuosten tutkimusta. Massaspektrometrin likaantuminen pystyttiin ehkäisemään säätämällä näytteen etäisyyttä sen suuaukosta. Likaantumista ei havaittu huolimatta näytteiden korkeista konsentraatioista ja useita kuukausia jatkuneista mittauksista. Räjähdysaineiden tutkimuksessa keskityttiin seitsemän eri räjähdysaineen DAPPI-MS-menetelmän kehitykseen; trinitrotolueeni (TNT), nitroglykoli (NK), nitroglyseriini (NG), pentriitti (PETN), heksogeeni (RDX), oktogeeni (HMX) ja pikriinihappoä Nämä orgaaniset räjähteet ovat nitraattiyhdisteitä, jotka voidaan jakaa rakenteen puolesta nitroamiineihin (RDX ja HMX), nitroaromaatteihin (TNT ja pikriinihappo) sekä nitraattiestereihin (PETN, NG ja NK). Menetelmäkehityksessä räjähdysainelaimennokset pipetoitiin polymetyylimetakrylaatin (PMMA) päälle ja analysoitiin siitä. DAPPI:lla tutkittiin myäs autenttisia räjähdysainejäämiä erilaisista matriiseista. DAPPI:lla optimoitiin jokaiselle räjähdysaineelle sopiva menetelmä ja yhdisteet saatiin näkymään puhdasaineina. Räjähdysainejäämien analysoiminen erilaisista rikospaikkamateriaaleista osoittautui haastavammaksi tehtäväksi, koska matriisit aiheuttivat itsessään korkean taustan spektriin, josta räjähdysaineiden piikit eivät useimmiten erottuneet tarpeeksi. Muut desorptioionisaatiotekniikat saattavat soveltua paremmin haastavien räjähdysainejäämien havaitsemiseksi.
  • Aalto, Henni (2011)
    Lipidit ovat rasvaliukoisia kudoksesta peräisin olevia yhdisteitä, joilla on monia eri fysiologisia tehtäviä. Lipidien analyysimenetelmien kehittämien on tärkeää, sillä niiden esiintymistä elimistössä voidaan käyttää biomarkkerina sairauksien diagnostiikassa ja apuna sairauksien kehittymismekanismien tutkimisessa. Lipideihin kuuluu polaarisuudeltaan ja rakenteeltaan hyvin erilaisia yhdisteitä. Niiden massaspektrometria-analytiikassa on aikaisemmin käytetty useita erilaisia ionisaatiomenetelmiä, jotka vaativat näytteen esikäsittelyn ennen analyysia. Desorptiosähkösumutusionisaatio-massaspektrometria (DESI-MS) ja desorptio-ilmanpainefotoionisaatio-massaspektrometria (DAPPI-MS) ovat uusia ionisaatio-menetelmiä, jotka mahdollistavat yhdisteiden analysoinnin suoraan eri matriiseista, kuten kudosnäytteistä, usein ilman esikäsittelyä. DESI-MS soveltuu parhaiten suhteellisen polaaristen yhdisteiden analytiikkaan, kun taas DAPPI:lla voidaan ionisoida myös poolittomia yhdisteitä. DESI-MS:lla on jo aikaisemmin analysoitu erilaisia lipidejä, kun taas DAPPI-MS:lla on aikaisemmin analysoitu vain steroideja. DAPPI- ja DESI-MS:lla tutkittiin erilaisten lipidien (fosfolipidit, triglyseridit, rasvahapot, rasvaliukoiset vitamiinit ja steroidit) ionisoitumista. Molemmilla menetelmillä optimoitiin standardiyhdisteille mittausolosuhteet. Lipidejä analysoitiin myös suoraan farmaseuttisista valmisteista. DAPPI:n ja DESI:n soveltuvuudessa erilaisten lipidien ionisoimiseen oli jonkin verran eroja. DAPPI toimi hyvin varsinkin poolittomampien lipidien, eli triglyseridien, steroidien, vitamiinien ja rasvahappojen ionisaatiossa, mutta huonosti hieman polaarisempien ja herkästi hajoavien fosfolipidien ionisaatiossa. Fosfolipidit fragmentoituivat DAPPI-ionisaatiossa, eikä moolimassatiedon sisältävää ionia saatu näkyviin. DESI puolestaan toimii hyvin fosfolipidien ionisoimisessa ja melko hyvin myös muiden tutkittavien lipidien ionisoimisessa, lukuunottamatta kaikkein poolittomimpia lipidejä. Uutta tietoa tutkimuksessa saatiin varsinkin DAPPI:n soveltuvuudesta erilaisten lipidien analytiikkaan. Tulosten perusteella voidaan sanoa, että DAPPI toimii yhtä hyvin tai jopa DESI:a paremmin useiden eri lipidien analytiikkassa. Menetelmää tulisi kuitenkin kehittää edelleen, jotta fosfolipidien, jotka ovat elimistön tärkeä lipidiryhmä, analysointi onnistuisi DAPPI:lla. Työssä ei analysoitu lipidejä suoraan kudosnäytteestä, joten DAPPI:n soveltuvuudesta lipidien analysointiin suoraan kudosnäytteistä ei voida tehdä johtopäätöksiä tämän työn perusteella.
  • Lindfors, Pia (2010)
    Bioanalyysin tärkein vaihe on näytteen käsittely. Näytteenkäsittelyvaihe on useimmiten työläin, eniten aikaa vievä sekä virheille altis prosessi. Toimivalta bioanalyysiltä edellytetään nopeutta, automaatiomahdollisuutta, herkkyyttä ja selektiivisyyttä, soveltuvuutta suurten näytemäärien tutkimiseen sekä vakautta. DAPPI eli ilmanpaineessa tapahtuva desorptiofotoionisaatio on uusi ionisaatiomenetelmä, joka mahdollistaa kiinteiden aineiden analysoinnin pinnoilta sellaisenaan ja nestemäisten näytteiden analysoinnin sopivalta näytealustalta usein ilman edeltävää näytteen esikäsittelyä. DAPPI-MS:n soveltuvuutta biologisille näytteille testattiin määrittämällä havaintoalarajat ja seulomalla opioideja ja bentsodiatsepiineja virtsasta. Yhdisteille määritettiin havaintoalarajat standardiliuoksista sekä spiikatusta virtsasta. Optimoidulla DAPPI-MS-menetelmällä analysoitiin opioideja sekä bentsodiatsepiineja post mortem–virtsanäytteistä. Post mortem-virtsanäytteet tutkittiin sellaisinaan täysin käsittelemättöminä sekä esikäsiteltyinä. DAPPI-MS:n todettiin toimivan ilman esikäsittelyä virtsanäytteitä tutkittaessa, joskin menetelmän herkkyyttä on mahdollista parantaa huomattavasti esikäsittelemällä näytteet ennen mittausta. Ilman esikäsittelyä tutkituista analyyteistä havaittiin vain n. 50 % ja esikäsittelyn jälkeen lähes 100 %. DAPPI-MS:n luotettavuutta seulontamenetelmänä on kuitenkin hankalaa arvioida, koska nyt tutkituista virtsanäytteistä ei kaikkien yhdisteiden pitoisuuksia ollut määritetty. Ei siis voida olla varmoja, johtuvatko ilman esikäsittelyä saadut tulokset pelkästään virtsamatriisin aiheuttamasta suppressiosta, vai jäätiinkö joidenkin yhdisteiden osalta vain alle niiden havaintoalarajan. Menetelmän luotettavuutta voidaan todennäköisesti parantaa entisestään tutkimalla yhdisteiden metaboliitteja ja niiden vaikutusta analyysiin sekä kehittämällä laitteistoa automatisoitavaan suuntaan. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella DAPPI-MS:aa tulisi käyttää virtsanäytteiden seulonnassa suoraan ilman esikäsittelyä vain harkiten ja vain riittävän suuria analyyttipitoisuuksia analysoitaessa. Esikäsiteltäessä virtsanäytteet DAPPIMS vaikuttaa lupaavalta seulontamenetelmältä tutkituille yhdisteille.
  • Suni, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Mass spectrometry provides rapid, sensitive, and selective analysis. However, the analysis times are extended for complex samples if sample preparation and separation are required beforehand. Various desorption ionization mass spectrometry (DI-MS) methods have recently been presented to provide rapid sampling even of complex samples, with minimal or no sample preparation. At best, the analysis is performed in a few seconds. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate DI-MS methods for efficient bio- and pharmaceutical analysis exploiting desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI). For DIOS-MS analysis, a method based on micro-scale atmospheric pressure electric discharge was developed for the fabrication of novel sampling surfaces. The electric discharge method was used in two applications: 1) tuning of the wettability (hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties) of black silicon DIOS sample surfaces to improve DIOS-MS sensitivity and repeatability and 2) simplified fabrication of nanocluster silicon (NCSi) surfaces to be used as new DIOS sample surfaces, through surface roughnening of planar silicon. The electric discharge method is simple, rapid, flexible, and cost-effective, requiring only a high-voltage supply and a discharge needle. Potential applications for the created structures are numerous, including microreactors, diagnostic devices, sensors, optoelectronics, and micro- and nanofluidics. In this work, the surfaces were used in DIOS-MS analysis of drugs and small peptides. The capabilities of DESI and DAPPI in the analysis of various lipids and drugs of abuse were investigated with standard, spiked, and authentic biological and pharmaceutical samples. The lipids typically formed multiple, often unpredictable, ions differing according to the spray solvent. Therefore, DESI and DAPPI are more feasibly applied for targeted analysis than for the identification of unknown lipids. Targeted analysis of lipids was demonstrated with pharmaceutical and food products without sample pretreatment. The ionization of the drugs of abuse (benzodiazepines and opioids), on the other hand, was more straightforward. These drugs could be identified in urine without sample pretreatment by DESI and DAPPI, however, in routine analyses of authentic urine samples, the performance of the methods was not acceptable. In conclusion, although many DI-MS methods without sample preparation are powerful and fast tools for direct analysis, their suitability for a particular analysis always needs careful consideration. The true potential of DESI and DAPPI probably lies in imaging and in in situ analysis where sample pretreatment is not possible for example, because it disturbs the chemical integrity of the sample. Also, the unique features of the methods, such as chemical reactions induced by the spray solvent, offer interesting possibilities. DIOS, on the other hand, provides intriguing prospects for on-plate sample manipulation utilizing surface modifications; the high surface area provided by nanostructures offers large sample loading capacity, and the surface is easily modified to contain specific chemical functionalities.
  • Lindroos-Hovinheimo, Susanna (2011)
    This study discusses legal interpretation. The question is how legal texts, for instance laws, statutes and regulations, can and do have meaning. Language makes interpretation difficult as it holds no definite meanings. When the theoretical connection between semantics and legal meaning is loosened and we realise that language cannot be a means of justifying legal decisions, the responsibility inherent in legal interpretation can be seen in full. We are thus compelled to search for ways to analyse this responsibility. The main argument of the book is that the responsibility of legal interpretation contains a responsibility towards the text that is interpreted (and through the mediation of the text also towards the legal system), but not only this. It is not simply a responsibility to read and read well, but it transcends on a broader scale. It includes responsibility for the effects of the interpretation in a particular situation and with regard to the people whose case is decided. Ultimately, it is a responsibility to do justice. These two aspects of responsibility are conceptualised here as the two dimensions of the ethics of legal interpretation: the textual and the situational. The basic conception of language presented here is provided by Ludwig Wittgenstein s later philosophy, but the argument is not committed to only one philosophical tradition. Wittgenstein can be counterpointed in interesting ways by Jacques Derrida s ideas on language and meaning. Derrida s work also functions as a contrast to hermeneutic theories. It is argued that the seed to an answer to the question of meaning lies in the inter-personal and situated activity of interpretation and communication, an idea that can be discerned in different ways in the works of Wittgenstein, Derrida and Hans-Georg Gadamer. This way the question of meaning naturally leads us to think about ethics, which is approached here through the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. His thinking, focusing on topics such as otherness, friendship and hospitality, provides possibilities for answering some of the questions posed in this book. However, at the same time we move inside a normativity where ethics and politics come together in many ways. The responsibility of legal interpretation is connected to the political and this has to be acknowledged lest we forget that law always implies force. But it is argued here that the political can be explored in positive terms as it does not have to mean only power or violence.
  • Lagerspetz, Eemil (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Current smartphones have a storage capacity of several gigabytes. More and more information is stored on mobile devices. To meet the challenge of information organization, we turn to desktop search. Users often possess multiple devices, and synchronize (subsets of) information between them. This makes file synchronization more important. This thesis presents Dessy, a desktop search and synchronization framework for mobile devices. Dessy uses desktop search techniques, such as indexing, query and index term stemming, and search relevance ranking. Dessy finds files by their content, metadata, and context information. For example, PDF files may be found by their author, subject, title, or text. EXIF data of JPEG files may be used in finding them. User–defined tags can be added to files to organize and retrieve them later. Retrieved files are ranked according to their relevance to the search query. The Dessy prototype uses the BM25 ranking function, used widely in information retrieval. Dessy provides an interface for locating files for both users and applications. Dessy is closely integrated with the Syxaw file synchronizer, which provides efficient file and metadata synchronization, optimizing network usage. Dessy supports synchronization of search results, individual files, and directory trees. It allows finding and synchronizing files that reside on remote computers, or the Internet. Dessy is designed to solve the problem of efficient mobile desktop search and synchronization, also supporting remote and Internet search. Remote searches may be carried out offline using a downloaded index, or while connected to the remote machine on a weak network. To secure user data, transmissions between the Dessy client and server are encrypted using symmetric encryption. Symmetric encryption keys are exchanged with RSA key exchange. Dessy emphasizes extensibility. Also the cryptography can be extended. Users may tag their files with context tags and control custom file metadata. Adding new indexed file types, metadata fields, ranking methods, and index types is easy. Finding files is done with virtual directories, which are views into the user’s files, browseable by regular file managers. On mobile devices, the Dessy GUI provides easy access to the search and synchronization system. This thesis includes results of Dessy synchronization and search experiments, including power usage measurements. Finally, Dessy has been designed with mobility and device constraints in mind. It requires only MIDP 2.0 Mobile Java with FileConnection support, and Java 1.5 on desktop machines.
  • Silfver, Olga (2008)
    This study examines the immigration reasons, the process of choosing the country and acculturation strategies of highly educated post-Soviet employees working in Finland. The main research questions of this study are: 1. Why do post-Soviet professionals leave their home countries? 2. Do post-Soviet highly educated professionals perceive they have a choice as far as their migration is concerned? 3. Why do the post-Soviet professionals choose Finland as the country of residence? 4. What is the main acculturation strategy for post-Soviet professionals in Finland, and why`? The thesis is a qualitative study that uses ten half-structured interviews as its material. It combines different theoretical perspectives: acculturation theory, thesis of global professionals, Bourdieu's concepts on transformation of resources and theories of cultural and ethnic identity. This study interprets the decision to immigrate and integration of the respondents as resource optimisation, ,where skills, networks, positions and cultural competences are used to achieve the best attainable position for the family. The main reason for the respondents to leave a home country was economic refuge. Social instability and search for better opportunities were also important factors. The majority of my respondents did not perceive to have a choice of country of immigration. Those who had selected Finland consciously did so due to networks or geographical proximity of the country. Mostly though, Finland was not well-known among highly educated post-Soviets, so the selection of Finland could be attributed ,more to a coincidence than to conscious Finnish state policy. The study emphasizes the sphere of work, since my respondents spend considerable portion of their daily time there and since workplace is an important integrating institution for work-related immigrants. The research concludes that the workplaces of the respondents are currently unable to fully support the needs of immigrant labour force. Commonly used short-term contracts cause a lack of stability, which lowers the motivation to integrate. I have discerned two processes operating in workplaces, selective racist labelling and double-level acceptance process, which both influence the process of integration of immigrants. Post-Soviet immigrants adopt a separatory acculturation strategy due to strong post-Soviet identity and rather slowly developing Finnish skills. They prefer to socialise with the Russian-speaking people, which has a negative effect on the speed of their integration into Finnish society. Global professionals have an additional slowing factor, i.e. poor motivation for language studies as long as the change of country is probable. Discriminatory attitudes of not only locals and post-Soviets, but also of post-Soviets towards other minorities ,strengthen the separatory acculturation strategy. All in all, I perceive my study group as a highly potential resource for the Finnish dwindling labour markets. They are attracted to Finnish orderliness, respect to law, and closeness of nature. However, the limitations of ,their legal status and the resulting instability, lack of knowledge and insufficient communication with local population pose challenges for their integration. In order to produce long-term advantages from immigrating workforce and avoid the problems of segregated society, these shortcomings have to be mitigated.
  • Luukkonen, Helka (1969)
  • Ylä-Outinen, Urho (1953)
  • Kashif, Muhammad (2012)
    Sweetpotato is a subsistence crop for many thousands of families across the globe. The present studies in the thesis provide basic knowledge about Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) that were detected and characterized from sweetpotatoes in Guatemala and Honduras. Sweetpotato plants from Central American countries were showing typical virus-like symptoms. Different strategies were adopted for virus detection. SPCSV and SPFMV were found to be infecting sweetpotato plants. SPFMV was detected only in sweetpotato plants from Honduras. SPFMV infection was detected serologically and results were confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A recently developed detection method, based on restrictotypes of PCR products by two different endonucleases, revealed co-infection of SPFMV strains C and RC in a sweetpotato plant from Honduras which was corroborated by sequencing 3'-proximal end (1.8 kb) of the genome and the coat protein (CP) ~940 nt based phylogenetic analysis. SPCSV was detected by double-stranded RNA extraction, confirmed by RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing of the partial HSP70h gene of genomic RNA2 gene of SPCSV. Phylogenetic analysis was done by constructing neighbour-joining tree of aligned nucleotide sequences, including SPCSV-EA isolates and SPCSV-WA isolates from database that clearly differentiated SPCSV isolates of Central American countries. These isolates from Guatemala and Honduras were grouped together with SPCSV-WA isolates from Argentina, United States, Spain, Israel, Nigeria and Egypt. Additionally, the RNase3 gene with UTR at 3´ end of genomic RNA1 gene of SPCSV was sequenced (1264 nt) and aligned against other WA isolates. It was found that the gene for the silencing suppressor protein p22 (676nt) was missing, reflecting intraspecific variation in the genomic structure of SPCSV. These findings revealed the two most important sweetpotato viruses in Guatemala, Honduras, and Central America for the first time and urge further studies of sweetpotato viruses in the region.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Pdf-file, link above
  • Ortiz, Fernanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Background. Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered to be the best treatment of terminal uremia. Despite improvements in short-term graft survival, a considerable number of kidney allografts are lost due to the premature death of patients with a functional kidney and to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Aim. To investigate the risk factors involved in the progression of CAN and to analyze diagnostic methods for this entity. Materials and methods. Altogether, 153 implant and 364 protocol biopsies obtained between June 1996 and April 2008 were analyzed. The biopsies were classified according to Banff ’97 and chronic allograft damage index (CADI). Immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1 was performed in 49 biopsies. Kidney function was evaluated by creatinine and/or cystatin C measurement and by various estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Demographic data of the donors and recipients were recorded after 2 years’ follow-up. Results. Most of the 3-month biopsies (73%) were nearly normal. The mean CADI score in the 6-month biopsies decreased significantly after 2001. Diastolic hypertension correlated with ΔCADI. Serum creatinine concentration at hospital discharge and glomerulosclerosis were risk factors for ΔCADI. High total and LDL cholesterol, low HDL and hypertension correlated with chronic histological changes. The mean age of the donors increased from 41 -52 years. Older donors were more often women who had died from an underlying disease. The prevalence of delayed graft function increased over the years, while acute rejections (AR) decreased significantly over the years. Sub-clinical AR was observed in 4% and it did not affect long-term allograft function or CADI. Recipients´ drug treatment was modified along the Studies, being mycophenolate mophetil, tacrolimus, statins and blockers of the renine-angiotensin-system more frequently prescribed after 2001. Patients with a higher ΔCADI had lower GFR during follow-up. CADI over 2 was best predicted by creatinine, although with modest sensitivity and specificity. Neither cystatin C nor other estimates of GFR were superior to creatinine for CADI prediction. Cyclosporine A toxicity was seldom seen. Low cyclosporin A concentration after 2 h correlated with TGF- β1 expression in interstitial inflammatory cells, and this predicted worse graft function. Conclusions. The progression of CAN has been affected by two major factors: the donors’ characteristics and the recipients’ hypertension. The increased prevalence of DGF might be a consequence of the acceptance of older donors who had died from an underlying disease. Implant biopsies proved to be of prognostic value, and they are essential for comparison with subsequent biopsies. The progression of histological damage was associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The augmented expression of TGF-β1 in inflammatory cells is unclear, but it may be related to low immunosuppression. Serum creatinine is the most suitable tool for monitoring kidney allograft function on every-day basis. However, protocol biopsies at 6 and 12 months predicted late kidney allograft dysfunction and affected the clinical management of the patients. Protocol biopsies are thus a suitable surrogate to be used in clinical trials and for monitoring kidney allografts.
  • Kinnunen, Paula M (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Several orthopoxviruses (OPV) and Borna disease virus (BDV) are enveloped, zoonotic viruses with a wide geographical distribution. OPV antibodies cross-react, and former smallpox vaccination has therefore protected human populations from another OPV infection, rodent-borne cowpox virus (CPXV). Cowpox in humans and cats usually manifests as a mild, self-limiting dermatitis and constitutional symptoms, but it can be severe and even life-threatening in the immunocompromised. Classical Borna disease is a progressive meningoencephalomyelitis in horses and sheep known in central Europe for centuries. Nowadays the virus or its close relative infects humans and also several other species in central Europe and elsewhere, but the existence of human Borna disease with its suspected neuropsychiatric symptoms is controversial. The epidemiology of BDV is largely unknown, and the present situation is even more intriguing following the recent detection of several-million-year-old, endogenized BDV genes in primate and various other vertebrate genomes. The aims of this study were to elucidate the importance of CPXV and BDV in Finland and in possible host species, and particularly to 1) establish relevant methods for the detection of CPXV and other OPVs as well as BDV in Finland, 2) determine whether CPXV and BDV exist in Finland, 3) discover how common OPV immunity is in different age groups in Finland, 4) characterize possible disease cases and clarify their epidemiological context, 5) establish the hosts and possible reservoir species of these viruses and their geographical distribution in wild rodents, and 6) elucidate the infection kinetics of BDV in the bank vole. An indirect immunofluorescence assay and avidity measurement were established for the detection, timing and verification of OPV or BDV antibodies in thousands of blood samples from humans, horses, ruminants, lynxes, gallinaceous birds, dogs, cats and rodents. The mostly vaccine-derived OPV seroprevalence was found to decrease gradually according to the year of birth of the sampled human subjects from 100% to 10% in those born after 1977. On the other hand, OPV antibodies indicating natural contact with CPXV or other OPVs were commonly found in domestic and wild animals: the horse, cow, lynx, dog, cat and, with a prevalence occasionally even as high as 92%, in wild rodents, including some previously undetected species and new regions. Antibodies to BDV were detected in humans, horses, a dog, cats, and for the first time in wild rodents, such as bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Because of the controversy within the human Borna disease field, extra verification methods were established for BDV antibody findings: recombinant nucleocapsid and phosphoproteins were produced in Escherichia coli and in a baculovirus system, and peptide arrays were additionally applied. With these verification assays, Finnish human, equine, feline and rodent BDV infections were confirmed. Taken together, wide host spectra were evident for both OPV and BDV infections based on the antibody findings, and OPV infections were found to be geographically broadly distributed. PCR amplification methods were utilised for hundreds of blood and tissue samples. The methods included conventional, nested and real-time PCRs with or without the reverse transcription step and detecting four or two genes of OPVs and BDV, respectively. OPV DNA could be amplified from two human patients and three bank voles, whereas no BDV RNA was detected in naturally infected individuals. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, the Finnish OPV sequences were closely related although not identical to a Russian CPXV isolate, and clearly different from other CPXV strains. Moreover, the Finnish sequences only equalled each other, but the short amplicons obtained from German rodents were identical to monkeypox virus, in addition to German CPXV variants. This reflects the close relationship of all OPVs. In summary, RNA of the Finnish BDV variant could not be detected with the available PCR methods, but OPV DNA infrequently could. The OPV species infecting the patients of this study was proven to be CPXV, which is most probably also responsible for the rodent infections. Multiple cell lines and some newborn rodents were utilised in the isolation of CPXV and BDV from patient and wildlife samples. CPXV could be isolated from a child with severe, generalised cowpox. BDV isolation attempts from rodents were unsuccessful in this study. However, in parallel studies, a transient BDV infection of cells inoculated with equine brain material was detected, and BDV antigens discovered in archival animal brains using established immunohistology. Thus, based on several independent methods, both CPXV and BDV (or a closely related agent) were shown to be present in Finland. Bank voles could be productively infected with BDV. This experimental infection did not result in notable pathological findings or symptoms, despite the intense spread of the virus in the central and peripheral nervous system. Infected voles commonly excreted the virus in urine and faeces, which emphasises their possible role as a BDV reservoir. Moreover, BDV RNA was regularly reverse transcribed into DNA in bank voles, which was detected by amplifying DNA by PCR without reverse transcription, and verified with nuclease treatments. This finding indicates that BDV genes could be endogenized during an acute infection. Although further transmission studies are needed, this experimental infection demonstrated that the bank vole can function as a potential BDV reservoir. In summary, multiple methods were established and applied in large panels to detect two zoonoses novel to Finland: cowpox virus and Borna disease virus. Moreover, new information was obtained on their geographical distribution, host spectrum, epidemiology and infection kinetics.