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  • Rantakeisu, Mira (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Tutkielmani aiheena ovat kolttasaamelaiset, jotka ovat Kuolan niemimaan alkuperäiskansaa. Kuolan niemimaan lisäksi heidän perinteinen asuinalueensa käsittää myös Suomen ja Norjan Lapin koillisosat. Vuoden 1920 Tarton rauhassa kolttien asuinalue jakautui kahtia, osan jäädessä silloisen Neuvostoliiton puolelle ja osan Suomen puolelle. Toisen maailmansodan jälkeen, Suomen menetettyä Petsamon alueen, koltat saivat valita kummalle puolelle rajaa he halusivat asettua. Valinta tehtiin pääasiassa vanhojen sukumaiden perusteella. Suomen valinneet koltat sijoitettiin lopulta Inarin kunnan alueelle, Sevettijärven, Nellimin ja Keväjärven kyliin. Koltat ovat perinteisesti kuuluneet ortodoksiseen kirkkoon, ja tämä tekee heistä uskonnollisen vähemmistön suhteessa enemmistösuomalaisiin, mutta myös suhteessa muihin saamelaisiin. Ortodoksisuus on myös nähty vahvana osana kolttasaamelaisten itäsaamelaista kulttuuriperinnettä, joka näkyy niin pukeutumisessa, käsitöissä, musiikissa, juhlissa kuin ruokakulttuurissakin. Tämä asetelma on toiminut lähtökohtana tutkimukselleni. Pro gradu -työssäni tarkastelen, millainen rooli ortodoksisuudella on kolttasaamelaisten identiteetin muotoutumisessa sekä miten rooli on muotoutunut ja millaisia eroja suhtautumisessa ortodoksikirkkoon on eri kolttasukupolvien välillä. Saamelaisten uskontoa ja uskonnollisuutta, etenkin uskonnon esikristillistä aikakautta, on tutkittu jo monien vuosikymmenten ajan. Kolttasaamelaisten nykyuskonnollisuuden osuus tästä tutkimuksesta on kuitenkin jäänyt vähemmälle huomiolle, mikä tarkoittaa, että tutkimus on tältä osin paikoin vanhentunutta. Tutkimukseni merkitys nousee juuri tästä vajeesta tutkimushistoriassa, ja tutkimukseni pyrkiikin tarkastelemaan myös viimeisten vuosikymmenten suurten sosiaalisten muutosten vaikutusta kolttasaamelaisten uskonnollisuuteen. Tämän vuoksi tutkielmani nojaa vahvasti uskontososiologisiin teorioihin ja tarjoaa myös tältä osin tuoreehkon näkökulman kolttasaamelaisen uskonnollisuuden tutkimukseen. Aineistoni koostuu kymmenestä teemahaastattelusta, jotka tein kahdella kenttätyömatkalla vuonna 2013 Inarin kunnan alueella. Suurin osa haastateltavistani oli ortodoksisia kolttasaamelaisia, mutta joukossa oli myös etnisiä suomalaisia. Olen soveltanut aineistooni laadullista sisällönanalyysia. Tarkastellessani aineistoa olen koonnut yhteen, mitä informantit ovat haastatteluteemoista sanoneet. Analyysin temaattinen fokus keskittyy kollektiivisen muistin käsitteen ympärille. Tapa, jolla informantit käsittelivät ortodoksisuutta, muistutti hyvin vahvasti ylisukupolvisen muistin käsitettä, ja täten voikin sanoa, että teoria nousi hyvin luonnollisesti aineiston pohjalta. Analyysiin liittyy vahvasti myös etnisyyden käsite. Kollektiivinen muisti osaltaan vahvistaa etnistä identiteettiä, ja tarkastelenkin tutkimuksessani myös kollektiivisen muistin ja etnisen identiteetin suhdetta ortodoksisuuden näkökulmasta. Analyysissani ortodoksisuuden rooli kolttasaamelaisten kollektiivisen muistin osana rakentuu seuraavien teemojen pohjalle: symbolit, rituaalit ja narratiivit, paikallisuuden ja kuuluvuuden tunne sekä kolttasaamelaisten monitasoinen vähemmistöasema suhteessa ympäröiviin ryhmittymiin. Läpileikkaavana teemana tutkielmassani on myös sukupolvien välinen kehitys. Tutkielmani osoittaa, kuinka esimerkiksi ortodoksisuuden kollektiivinen muisti linkittyy symboleiden kautta etnisyyteen kahdella tavalla: etniset elementit toisaalta linkittyvät (esimerkiksi kolttasaamelaisten puvun ja kielen käyttö liturgioissa) uskonnolliseen ympäristöön ja toisaalta alkujaan uskonnolliset elementit voivat myös saada vahvoja etnisiä vivahteita (esimerkiksi hautajaisrituaalit ja pyhimystarinat). Paikallisuus ja kuuluvuuden tunne alueeseen oli se sitten laajemmin koko saamelaisalue tai oma kotikylä - vahvistavat myös osaltaan ortodoksisuuden roolia kolttasaamelaisten kollektiivisessa muistissa. Uskonto koetaan vahvemmin omalla kotialueella, ja toisaalta kolttakylien väliset eroavaisuudet korostavat myös kollektiivisen muistin värikkyyttä. Materiaalini antaa myös viitteitä siitä, että ortodoksisuus voi toimia kolttasaamelaista identiteettiä vahvistavana tekijänä saamelaisalueen ulkopuolella asuville. Kolttasaamelaisten ainutlaatuinen asema monitasoisena vähemmistöryhmänä heijastuu myös kollektiiviseen muistiin. Koltat ovat vähemmistönä niin ortodoksikirkon sisällä, suhteessa luterilaisiin suomalaisiin, kuin myös suhteessa muihin saamelaisiin. Muiden ryhmien suhtautuminen kolttien ortodoksisuuteen ja toisaalta myös se, miten koltat ovat itse suhtautuneet muihin tahoihin, on vaikuttanut siihen, miten ortodoksisuuden rooli kollektiivisen muistin osana on rakentunut. Tutkielmani myös osoittaa, että suhtautumisessa ortodoksiseen kirkkoon on sukupolvien välisiä eroja. Tähän ovat osaltaan vaikuttaneet ympäröivän yhteiskunnan muutos, modernisaatio ja sekularisaatio, mutta myös kolttasaamelaisten vähemmistöroolin muotoutuminen suhteessa ympäröiviin yhteisöihin.
  • Aittoniemi, Toni (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The history of Goa trance spans trough decades, its first cultural factors having been born in 60's USA and then developed in Goa, India through the 70's and 80's. After some of the same factors matured into sub-cultural traits in the western countries, the new attitudes towards the role of youth in society led to increased travelling and some discarding of the traditional sedentary lifestyles. Goa trance would develop to be the music, the identifier and the culture of full-moon parties and other celebratory meetings of a new group of travelling, globally mobile youth interested in exploratory self-development, self-actualization, mysticism and alternative lifestyles and spirituality. Goa trance came to Finland through movement of these people, by an international group of travellers following a Finnish national Ior Bock from Goa to Finland. Goa trance parties in Sipoo at his summer residence started in 1987 and went on until 1998. From 1988 onwards, a similar process would also start in other countries around the world. By 1992 new groups also going to Goa or similar destinations elsewhere already present would also start organizing Goa trance parties in Finland. First finnish experiments in Goa trance music production were conducted the same year. A historical study incorporating music analysis as the bridge between the cultural and the ethnographical is conducted in this research. It's hypothesis is that a system can be found in Goa trance music and that it reflects and represents the cultural values found by ethnographic methods. It also suggests that this system can then be used to track how Finnish Goa trance music-production and culture reflected the different facets of original and international Goa trance culture and how this transfer and synthesis took place. The study is largely material-based, relying on extensive interviews of important people in the 1990's Goa trance scene of Finland, recording artifacts on DAT-tape and c-cassette, and published musical works from the same time-period. Secondary sources include other, mainly ethnographic writings and articles on the topic and several documentary films. The socio-cultural and anthropologic studies of electronic dance-music cultures by Fikentscher, Thornton, Taylor, St. John, Saldanha, and D'Andrea are the precursors and the academic framework within which this study operates in. In addition to new ethnomusicology, the several fields of scientific methodologies applied to the material favor the cognitive, incorporating the ethnomusicology of John Blacking as well as psychoacoustics and cognitive models of musical experience. General cultural semiotics are likewise applied to support the models of behavior developed. A major part of the study is formed by music analysis. The analysis aims to find a system of characteristics that are common or unique, elements of style and then to apply these in the context of the cultural analysis. All the claims are supported by examples in notation transcribed from the materials. The methods of score-analysis include common ethnomusicological and western methodologies supplemented with modern metric theory from Hasty as adapted to analysis of electronic dance-music by Butler and several methodologies connected to it. The study also develops these methods further to form a suitable set of derived methodologies to better deconstruct the particular musical material at hand. Through the music analysis backed by ethnography, it can be seen that the music of Goa trance is a unique development of western electronic dance-music steered strongly into an oriental and mystic direction, simultaneously preserving much of the early hypnotic qualities of early rave-, acid- and techno music. It is highly functional and tied to facilitating a psychedelic experience in the trance-dance party. The early development of Goa trance music parallels that of rave-music and is interconnected, but also separate to a degree. The most prominent difference is that the music was tied to a copying and trading culture instead of depending on record labels for distribution. Finnish Goa trance music production delivered finished works to the DAT-tape trading circuit by 1995, and released works on CD and vinyl in 1996. The first releases were: 10 Years Loop EP by O*Men, Flippin' Bixies - Sörkkä Sonic and Apollo 3D by GAD. The sound of Flippin' Bixies was a more localized version of Goa trance, much more experimental and also ended up being more influential to the global soundscape that evolved from Goa trance: Psychedelic trance. Music analysis shows that a unique Finnish sound was present already in many of the early works of all these artists, and that it bears a kindredness to the kind of music that was also developing in Australia and Japan. International connections between the local music scenes and high international mobility of their agents led to very rapid exchange of music between the scenes and further development from 1997 onwards was bi-directional with new Finnish Goa-/psychedelic trance bands Texas Faggott and Kolmiokulmiosilmiö on the leading edge of it.
  • Hynninen, Niina (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    Tutkielmassa selvitetään englanti lingua francana (ELF) -näkökulman ilmenemistä kulttuurin ja sen opettamisen periaatteissa. Tarkastelun kohteina ovat viimeaikaiset kielenopetuksen ohjenuoria käsittelevät ohjelmat Euroopassa ja Suomessa: Euroopan neuvoston julkaisema Eurooppalainen viitekehys ja Suomen perus- ja lukio-opetuksen uusimmat vieraiden kielten opetussuunnitelmat. Tutkielmassa sovelletaan kriittisen diskurssianalyysin kolmiportaista analyysikehystä, jonka kuvausosiossa Viitekehyksestä analysoidaan esiin kulttuurisia diskursseja, tulkintaosiossa aineistoa tarkastellaan Euroopan neuvoston kielipolitiikan osana, ja selitysosiossa sitä verrataan opetussuunnitelmista hahmotettuihin diskursseihin. Viitekehyksestä nousi esiin neljä keskeistä diskurssia: 1) kohdekulttuuri-, 2) kulttuurien monimuotoisuus-, 3) monikulttuurisuus- ja 4) oppilaskeskeisyysdiskurssit. Näistä kahdessa viimeisessä oli piirteitä, joiden voi katsoa tukevan ELF-näkökulmaa. Tällaisia olivat mm. usean kulttuurin välillä liikkuminen ja oppilaiden tarpeiden korostaminen. Sen sijaan opetussuunnitelmissa keskitytään ELF:n kannalta liian kapea-alaisesti vain äidinkielisten ja ei-äidinkielisten väliseen viestintään. ELF-lähestymistavan kannalta olisikin tärkeää ymmärtää, että kansainvälisessä viestinnässä englannin kieltä ei voi yhdistää tiettyyn kohdekulttuuriin ja että monikielitaitoisuuden ja lingua francan ei tarvitse olla ristiriidassa keskenään.
  • Aarelaid-Tart, Aili (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The purpose of this work is to use the concepts of human time and cultural trauma in a biographical study of the turning points in the recent history of Estonia. This research is primarily based on 148 in-depth biographical interviews conducted in Estonia and Sweden in 1995-2005, supplemented by excerpts from 5 collections and 10 individually published autobiographies. The main body of the thesis consists of six published and of two forthcoming separate refereed articles, summarised in the theoretical introduction, and Appendix of the full texts of three particular life stories. The topic of the first article is the generational composition and the collective action frames of anti-Soviet social mobilisation in Estonia in 1940-1990. The second article details the differentiation of the rites of passage and the calendar traditions as a strategy to adapt to the rapidly changed political realities, comparatively in Soviet Estonia and among the boat-refugees in Sweden. The third article investigates the life stories of the double-minded strategic generation of the Estonian-inclined Communists, who attempted to work within the Soviet system while professing to uphold the ideals of pre-war Estonia. The fourth article is concentrated on the problems of double mental standards as a coping strategy in a contradictory social reality. The fifth article implements the theory of cultural trauma for the social practice of singing nationalism in Estonia. The sixth article bridges the ideas of Russian theoreticians concerning cultural dialogue and the Western paradigm of cultural trauma, with examples from Estonian Russian life stories. The seventh article takes a biographical look at the logic of the unraveling of cultural trauma through four Soviet decades. The eighth article explores the re-shaping of citizen activities as a strategy of coping with the loss of the independent nation state, comparatively in Soviet Estonia and among Swedish Estonians. Cultural trauma is interpreted as the re-ordering of the society s value-normative constellation due to sharp, violent, usually political events. The first one under consideration was caused by the occupations of the Republic of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1940-45. After half a century of suppression the memories of these events resurfaced as different stories describing the long-term, often inter-generational strategies of coping with the value collapse. The second cultural trauma is revealed together with the collapse of the Soviet power and ideology in Estonia in 1991. According to empirical data, the following three trauma discourses have been reconstructed: - the forced adaptation to Soviet order of the homeland Estonians; - the difficulty of preserving Estonian identity in exile (Sweden); - the identity crisis of the Russian population of Estonia. Comparative analyses of these discourses have shown that opposing experiences and worldviews cause conflicting interpretations of the past. Different social and ethnic groups consider coping with cultural trauma as a matter of self-defence and create appropriate usable pasts to identify with. Keywords: human time, cultural trauma, frame analysis, discourse, life stories
  • Manninen, Mikael A (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation focuses on Late Mesolithic (ca. 8450 6850 cal BP) lithic technological changes in the northernmost parts of Finland, Norway, and Sweden and on the relationship between these changes and the 8.2 ka climate event that was caused by a disruption in the North Atlantic Thermohaline circulation. The study uses a framework derived from Darwinian evolutionary theory and acknowledges the effects of both environmental constraints and socially transmitted information, i.e., culture, in the way lithic technology was organised in the studied region. The study discusses whether climatic cooling and its effects on the biotic environment could explain the way lithic technology and settlement patterns were reorganised during the Late Mesolithic. The dissertation takes an organisational approach to the study of past cultural change and seeks to understand changes in prehistoric material culture by studying lithic technology and settlement configuration using lithic technological, statistical, and spatial analyses. The results suggest that Late Mesolithic coastal communities were affected by a marked decrease in marine productivity that resulted from the cooling caused by the 8.2 ka event and a subsequent cold episode at ca. 7700 cal BP. It is concluded that the technological changes that occurred during the marine cooling were a result of developments that led to increased use of terrestrial resources and an accompanying long-distance coast/inland residential mobility pattern. The study contributes to a wider field of research into past climate change as a factor in prehistoric ecological, cultural, and behavioural change and provides reference material for studies on the impacts of future climate change on human communities. The results suggest that in northernmost Fennoscandia, the marine ecosystem is particularly sensitive to disturbances in the North Atlantic oceanographic system. In addition, the study provides new knowledge concerning the relationships between raw material availability, lithic technology, and culture. This new knowledge is widely applicable in research on the way lithic technology was organised in relation to other behavioural and organisational dimensions in past human adaptations.
  • Shen, Jian-Guang (1999)
    The world economy has witnessed increasingly frequent currency crises in recent years. The Finnish currency crisis and the resultant depression provide a very valuable case study for understanding the reasons for a currency crisis, the monetary policy options and agent behavior before and during the crisis. The central bank's monetary policy has an important role to play before and in the midst of a currency crisis. This paper develops a theoretical model to analyze monetary policy and currency crisis. The switch of an exchange rate regime is considered as the result of an optimizing decision by the policymaker. The emphasis is on the optimal decision-making of the central bank and its impact on economic activity. A banking sector is modeled so that interest rates can be determined endogenously. The optimal behavior of the consumer and firm are also taken account of. Here the interaction between the bank and the firm is set in a Stackelberg game framework. The bank is the Stackelberg leader, which sets a lending rate first. Then the firm reacts with a desirable level of bank loan. The central bank's optimal decision on the exchange rate is based on the interaction of all other agents. The central bank faces conflicting interests in deciding the exchange rate, which will have different impacts on the open and closed sectors of the economy. Under a fixed exchange rate system, the dynamic-inconsistency problems the central bank faces result in multiple solutions. The model shows that two equilibria could exist. The first one features no deviation of the private sector's expectations from the fixed exchange rate system. Then it is always in the central bank's interest to maintain the fixed exchange rate. There will be no speculative attack, and the fixed exchange rate system can be sustained. The second one features a currency crisis as the change in expectations validates a change in economic fundamentals, which makes the change in the exchange rate ideal given the central bank's policy preferences. Thus the currency crisis is really self-fulfilling.
  • Katila, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, )
    Currency undervaluation is a well-known and commonly used method for stimulating economic growth. Although the exact effects of exchange rate arrangements on international trade are highly debated, the fact that strong interlinkages between the two exist is unquestionable. This thesis departs from the generally accepted truth that an undervalued currency functions in practice as a subsidy to exports and tariff on imports. By using the method of legal dogmatics, the thesis analyzes how currency undervaluation can be assessed under international law, focusing on the examination of whether invoking the provisions of the IMF Articles of Agreement or WTO agreements to challenge currency undervaluation could be successful. In order to understand the issues behind this question, the first part of this thesis provides a short overview of the history of international regulation of currencies and the rise and fall of the Bretton Woods system. Parting from the principle of monetary sovereignty and its implications, the thesis provides a cursory glance at the development of international obligations regarding currencies and exchange rates. The second part deals shortly with the relevant provisions of the IMF’s Articles of Agreement and the shortcomings related thereto. Article IV(1)(iii) of the IMF Articles of Agreement places an obligation on member states to avoid manipulating exchange rates in order to gain an unfair competitive advantage over other members. Despite in theory providing an answer to the problem of currency undervaluation, this provision is in practice essentially inoperative, due to the subjective element included in it. Even in the unlikely case that the IMF were to reach the decision that one of its members was in breach of this Article, it has no effective dispute settlement system it could avail itself of if the said member state did not comply with the IMF’s recommendations to remove the breach. With the IMF being unable to effectively deal with the issue, the attention of politicians and academics alike has turned to the WTO, which provides an extremely effective dispute settlement mechanism. Due to its tariff-cum-subsidy effects, currency undervaluation makes it possible for WTO members to circumvent their obligations under the WTO agreements by nullifying, or at least diminishing, the effects of tariff concessions and eluding the prohibition on granting export subsidies. This thesis aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the WTO provisions that are most probable to be invoked with the aim of curbing currency undervaluation: Article XV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the WTO provisions on subsidies. As an integral part of this examination, the thesis first discusses the relationship between the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization in currency-related matters and the division of jurisdiction between the two institutions. The main finding in this regard is that although the interpretation of these provisions could in theory be stretched in order to cover currency undervaluation, the WTO cannot at present provide a sustainable answer to the issue of currency undervaluation. This thesis argues that the problems in adjudicating currency manipulation essentially arise from historical developments and the failure to adapt the instruments of international law to a new economic reality. This, together with the fear of overlapping jurisdictions between international institutions, has led to a loophole in international economic law. Initially the division of authority between the WTO and the IMF was clear: exchange rate issues under the par value system were a matter to be dealt with exclusively within the IMF. After the breakdown of the par value system, misuse of monetary policies became easier and more frequent, but nothing was done to reinforce the authority of the IMF. This has led to a situation where the IMF has the jurisdiction to deal with exchange rate issues, but lacks an effective enforcement mechanism to ensure that its rulings are followed. The WTO on the other hand has at its disposal an extremely effective dispute resolution mechanism but lacks jurisdiction regarding currency issues.
  • Mäkinen, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Background: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defibrillation by nurses in an institutional setting. Aim: To study possible changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices, especially concerning early defibrillation, nurses and students attitudes of guideline implementation and nurses and students ability to implement the guideline recommendations in clinical practices after publication of the Current Care (CC) guidelines for CPR 2002. Material and methods: CPR practices in Finnish health centres; especially concerning rapid defibrillation programmes, as well as the implementation of CC guidelines for CPR was studied in a mail survey to chief physicians of every health centre in Finland (Study I). The CPR skills using an automated external defibrillator (AED) were compared in a study including Objective stuctured clinical examination (OSCE) of resuscitation skills of nurses and nursing students in Finnish and Swedish hospital and institution (Studies II, III). Attitudes towards CPR-D and CPR guidelines among medical and nursing students and secondary hospital nurses were studied in surveys (Studies IV, V). The nurses receiving different CPR training were compared in a randomized trial including OSCE of CPR skills of nurses in Finnish Hospital (Study VI). Results: Two years after the publication, 40.7% of Finnish health centres used national resuscitation guidelines. The proportion of health centres having at least one AED (66%) and principle of nurse-performed defibrillation without the presence of a physician (42%) had increased. The CPR-D training was estimated to be insufficient regarding basic life support and advanced life support in the majority of health centres (Study I). CPR-D skills of nurses and nursing students in two specific Swedish and Finnish hospitals and institutions (Study II and III) were generally inadequate. The nurses performed better than the students and the Swedish nurses surpassed the Finnish ones. Geriatric nurses receiving traditional CPR-D training performed better than those receiving an Internet-based course but both groups failed to defibrillate within 60 s. Thus, the performance was not satisfactory even two weeks after traditional training (Study VI). Unlike the medical students, the nursing students did not feel competent to perform procedures recommended in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines including the defibrillation. However, the majority of nursing students felt confident about their ability to perform basic life support. The perceived ability to defibrillate correlated significantly with a positive attitude towards nurse-performed defibrillation and negatively with fear of damaging the patient s heart by defibrillation (Study IV). After the educational intervention, the nurses found their level of CPR-D capability more sufficient than before and felt more confident about their ability to perform defibrillation themselves. A negative attitude toward defibrillation correlated with perceived negative organisational attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. After CPR-D education in the hospital, the majority (64%) of nurses hesitated to perform defibrillation because of anxiety and 27 % hesitated because of fear of injuring the patient. Also a negative personal attitude towards guidelines increased markedly after education (Study V). Conclusions: Although a significant change had occurred in resuscitation practices in primary health care after publication of national cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines the participants CPR-D skills were not adequate according to the CPR guidelines. The current way of teaching is unlikely to result in participants being able to perform adequate and rapid CPR-D. More information and more frequent training are needed to diminish anxiety concerning defibrillation. Negative beliefs and attitudes toward defibrillation affect the nursing students and nurses attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. CPR-D education increased the participants self-confidence concerning CPR-D skills but it did not reduce their anxiety. AEDs have replaced the manual defibrillators in most institutions, but in spite of the modern devices the anxiety still exists. Basic education does not provide nursing students with adequate CPR-D skills. Thus, frequent training in the workplace has vital importance. This multi-professional program supported by the administration might provide better CPR-D skills. Distance learning alone cannot substitute for traditional small-group learning, tutored hands-on training is needed to learn practical CPR-D skills. Standardized testing would probably help controlling the quality of learning. Training of group-working skills might improve CPR performance.
  • Muuttoranta, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Reindeer husbandry is highly valued in Finland. Nevertheless, the profitability of reindeer herding could be improved. Limited pasture resources restrict the opportunities for increasing the number of animals per area; hence, the focus should be on higher quality. Selection of breeding animals could be an effective tool for economic development, bringing with it permanent changes in productivity. Information on the practices of and potential for selection in reindeer husbandry is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the current state of selective breeding, genetic variation in the traits related to meat production and prospects for genetic improvement. The current state of selection was explored by interviewing the managers of reindeer-herding cooperatives. All the responding managers (45/56) considered selection very important among the herding operations. Meat production was regarded as the main source of income, and the main selection criteria for improving the efficiency of production were calf size and dam properties. They were highly prioritized throughout the reindeer-herding area. Hence, it is feasible to contemplate founding joint operations for genetic improvement, such as guidelines and recommendations for breeding schemes, regardless of the region or cultural background of a herder. The variation in meat production traits was studied, using Kutuharju (Kaamanen, Finland) experimental reindeer data. The calf traits included birth date, birth weight and growth. The variation was highly influenced by environmental and management factors. Some of the annual variation could be explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation indices summarizing major weather conditions. The calf traits had direct heritability values of 0.23-0.27, while birth weight and growth also showed maternal heritability values of 0.18-0.24. The direct-maternal genetic correlation in growth was strongly negative (-0.73); therefore dam quality must also be included in the selection criteria. In addition to the dam s maternal care, her age at maturity and lifetime production were analysed. The age at maturity showed little genetic variation. The lifetime production was expressed as cumulative calf production and individual fitness. The cumulative calf production showed heritability values of 0.22-0.30. The animals used for breeding purposes were selected among 6-month-old calves. Females own calf weight and early calf production are favourably correlated with lifetime production and therefore serve as indicator traits for productivity.   The use of selective breeding in reindeer husbandry shows promise. Selection intensity and generation turnover are high and genetic variation in meat production traits encouraging. Future success requires development in animal identification, accurate measurements, organized data collection and possible applications of new pedigree and selection tools resorting to genomics. Reindeer husbandry is facing challenges, such as degraded and fragmented pastures due to changes in environmental conditions (climate warming and predation pressure) and human activities (tourism, traffic and industry). Reindeer meat has a positive image as an ethically produced and tasty product. Reindeer husbandry is a traditional livelihood that has, over time, adapted to new situations and is likely to continue doing so by adopting new ideas and relying on sound future collaboration.
  • Rasooli Mavini, Zinat (2014)
    Massive improvements of the services in the public cloud provide many opportunities for online users. One of the most valuable services of this virtual place is the infrastructure to store data in distributed storages. The public cloud storages let different organizations and enterprises to use the high availability of data, in a cost efficient way, with lowered maintenance burden. However, utilizing the large scale capacity of (public) cloud storages is not mature trend yet among the individual customers, businesses, and organizations. The cloud storages are still unreliable places for the sensitive and confidential information or back-up copies from trust and privacy perspective. Hence, some public and private organizations, universities, as well as ordinary citizens avoid uploading their critical files to the cloud. The thesis suggests the idea of customer-oriented data storages as a solution to the shortcomings of public cloud storages. This idea would be a new way to customize the cloud storages which bears more involvement of the customer in managing aspects, as a solution to the current distrust issue on the cloudbased storages and would be a great courage to different type of customers. Furthermore, the thesis evaluates feasibility of the proposed customer-oriented cloud storage architecture based on scenarios inspired from the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM) evaluation approach. Results of the evaluating discussion on the proposed solution in boosting trust in cloud storages and providing more control for cloud storage customers are presented.
  • Timo, Ilmoniemi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tutkia asiakkaiden havaintoja palvelun laatuun ja yrityksen imagoon liittyen. Laatuun ja imagoon liittyvät näkökohdat liittyvät tutkimuksessa Metso konsernin OneMetso konseptiin. Tutkimuksen kohteena olevat asiakasyritykset edustavat sellu- ja paperiteollisuutta sekä voimantuotantoa. Käsitteistöltään tutkimus perustuu laatua ja yrityksen imagoa käsittelevään kirjallisuuteen. Kirjallisuuskatsaus esittelee laatuun ja erityisesti palveluiden laatuun liittyviä erityispiirteitä. Olemassa oleva palveluiden laatua koskeva kirjallisuus perustuu pitkälti yritysten ja yksityishenkilöiden väliseen suhteeseen ja teoreettiselta pohjaltaan SERVQUAL tai Nordic model malleihin. Edellä mainittujen mallien ulottuvuuksia on hyödynnetty myös tässä tutkimuksessa, mutta painotus on yritysten välisessä (B2B) asiayhteydessä. Tämän alan tutkimuksia on tehty viime vuosikymmenenä. Tutkimuksen tulokset perustuvat kyselytutkimukseen joka on tehty Metson sellu- ja paperi sekä voimantuotannon asiakkaille. Kyselyn on tehnyt puhelinhaastatteluihin erikoistunut yritys. Kyselytutkimuksen vastaukset on tässä tutkimuksessa tilastollisesti analysoitu käyttäen ei-parametrista testausmenetelmää. Perustuen vastausten jakaumaan käytetty testausmenetelmä kaikille kysymyksille oli riippumattomien näytteiden Mann-Whitneyn U testi. Tilastollisen testauksen tuloksien perusteella nollahypoteesi hylätään kahdessa asiakkaille esitetyssä kysymyksessä kaikkiaan neljästätoista. Automation ja Power segmenttien asiakkaiden havainnot ovat yhteneviä useimmissa laatuun liittyvistä kysymyksistä. Saadut tulokset tukevat Metson One Metso konseptia. Jatkotutkimuksen aiheena toimisi keskittyminen yrityksen nykyisiin muuttuneisiin segmentteihin syventäen samallamkyselyn laatunäkökohtia.
  • Timonen, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The prevalence of variegate porphyria (VP) (2.1:100 000, in 2006 n=108) was higher in Finland than elsewhere in European countries due to a founder effect (R152C). The incidence of VP was estimated at 0.2:1 000 000 based on the number of new symptomatic patients yearly. The prevalence of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) was 1.2:100 000 (in 2006 n=63), which is only one fourth of the numbers reported from other European countries. The estimated incidence of PCT was 0.5:1 000 000. Based on measurements of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in erythrocytes, the proportion of familial PCT was 49% of the cases. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was at 0.8:100 000 (in 2006 n=39) including asymptomatic carriers of a mutation in the ferrochelatase (FECH) gene. The incidence of EPP was estimated at 0.1:1 000 000. After 1980 the penetrance was 37% among patients with VP. Of the mutation carriers (n=57) 30% manifested with skin symptoms. Frequency of skin symptom as only clinical sign was stable before or after 1980 (22% vs. 21%), but acute attacks became infrequent (29% vs. 7%). Of the symptomatic patients 30% had both acute attacks and skin symptoms and 80% had skin symptoms. Fragility (95%) and blistering (46%) of the skin in the backs of the hands were the most common skin symptoms. Transient correction of porphyrin metabolism using eight haem arginate infusions within five weeks had no effect on the skin symptoms in three of four patients with VP. In one case skin symptoms disappeared transiently. One patient with homozygous VP had severe photosensitivity since birth. Sensory polyneuropathy, glaucoma and renal failure developed during the 25-year follow-up without the presence of acute attacks. The I12T mutation was detected in both of his alleles in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Lack of skin symptoms and infrequency of acute attacks (1/9) in the patients with I12T mutation at the heterozygous stage indicate a mild phenotype (the penetrance 11%). Four mutations (751delGAGAA, 1122delT, C286T, C343T) in the FECH gene were characterised in four of 15 families with EPP. Burning pain (96%) and swelling (92%) of the sun-exposed skin were the major skin symptoms. Hepatopathy appeared in one of 25 symptomatic patients (4%). Clinical manifestations and associated factors of PCT were similar in the sporadic and familial types of PCT. The majority of the patients with PCT had one to three precipitating factors: alcohol intake (78%), mutations in hemochromatosis associated gene (50%), use of oestrogen (25% of women) and hepatitis B or C infections (25 %). Fatty liver disease (67%) and siderosis (67%) were commonly found in their liver biopsies. The major histopathological change of the sun-exposed skin in the patients with VP (n=20), EPP (n=8) and PCT (n=5) was thickening of the vessel walls of the upper dermis suggesting that the vessel wall is the primary site of the phototoxic reaction in each type of porphyria. The fine structure of the vessel walls was similar in VP, EPP and PCT consisting of the multilayered basement membrane and excess of finely granular substance between the layers which were surrounded by the band of homogenous material. EPP was characterised by amorphous perivascular deposits extending also to the extravascular space. In direct immunofluorescence study homogenous IgG deposits in the vessel walls of the upper dermis of the sun-exposed skin were demonstrated in each type of porphyria. In EPP the excess material around vessel walls consisted of other proteins such as serum amyloid protein, and kappa and lambda light chains in addition to the basement membrane constituents such as collagen IV and laminin. These results suggest that the alterations of the vessel walls are a consequence of the repeated damage and the repairing process in the vessel wall. The microscopic alterations could be demonstrated even in the normal looking but sun-exposed skin of the patients with EPP during the symptom-free phase suggesting that vascular change can be chronic. The stability of vascular changes in the patients with PCT after treatment indicates that circulating porphyrins are not important for the maintenance of the changes.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Lichens are symbiotic associations between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic partner (photobiont) which may be a green alga or cyanobacterium (cyanobiont). In lichen symbiosis the mycobiont lives on sugars photosynthesized by the photobiont and, in cyanobacterial symbiosis, also nitrogen compounds are provided to the fungal host. Several cyanobacterial genera are known to associate with lichen forming fungi but by far the most common cyanobacterial genus in lichen symbioses is Nostoc. Lichen-symbiotic Nostoc is a diverse group including at least two distinct phylogenetic lineages which tend to associate with different groups of lichen mycobionts. Microcystins and nodularins are small, cyclic, hepatotoxic peptides responsible for poisonings of humans and animals. They are produced by aquatic, bloom forming cyanobacteria of several different genera and found in fresh and brackish waters around the world. The previously known microcystin producers of the genus Nostoc include the lichen associated cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. IO-102-I isolated from Finland, and some aquatic strains from Brazil, Finland, and India. While all producers of nodularin were previously thought to belong to the genus Nodularia, it has recently been shown that also some Nostoc strains isolated from cycad roots can produce nodularin. The aim of this study was to find out which cyanobacterial toxins are produced in lichen symbiosis and how widespread this production is, both from the geographical and lichen-symbiotic perspective. In addition I wanted to broaden the knowledge on lichen-symbiotic cyanobacteria and symbiont selectivity in lichen symbiosis. The study was based on the analysis of over 800 cyanolichen specimens collected from different parts of the world, mainly analysed with molecular biological methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that hepatotoxic microcystins are produced in situ in lichen symbioses by symbiotic cyanobacteria, and that these compounds are produced quite commonly in many different lichen genera all around the world. Also nodularin is produced in some lichens. The cyanobacterial toxins may act as grazing deterrents and provide some protection to the thallus. However the actual consequences to grazers and the faith of the toxins in the food chain remain unknown. The chemical and genetic diversity of microcystin production in lichens was remarkable. The evolution of this diversity may be related to genetic bottlenecks that commonly occur during the lifecycle of symbiotically dispersing cyanobacteria and the concurrent close association with the fungal hosts. The presently known distribution of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in lichens was found to concentrate into certain taxonomic groups within the Lobariaceae, Nephromataceae, and Peltigeraceae (Peltigerales, Ascomycota). The diversity of microcystin structures correlated with the genetic identity of Nostoc symbionts in different lichens, but also geographical patterns seemed to exist. Symbiont selection in the lichen genus Nephroma was found to be more specific locally than globally, and the identity of the cyanobiont to differ between bi- and tripartite members of the genus.
  • Shishido Joutsen, Tânia Keiko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, dating back to 3500 million years ago. They are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria that contribute to global nitrogen and carbon cycles. Cyanobacteria can be found in diverse environments, from aquatic to terrestrial systems, with specimens detected and isolated from geothermal, hypersaline, polar and desert regions. Cyanobacteria are infamous for the production of toxins such as microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin and anatoxin-a. However, many different types of cyanobacterial compounds with e.g. antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral and antiprotozoal activity have also been found. This study aimed at investigating the evolution, biosynthesis, chemical variety and antifungal activity of cyanobacterial compounds. The results indicate that distantly related cyanobacteria converged on the ability to produce a rare variant of microcystin. Microcystins are commonly produced by cyanobacteria during blooms, but have recently also been found in benthic and lichen-associated cyanobacteria. A benthic, a lichen-associated cyanobacterium and two planktonic strains were shown to produce [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that different evolutionary events, i.e. point mutations and gene conversion, were involved in this convergent evolution. Over 400 cyanobacterial strains were screened for the production of antifungal compounds. Genome mining allowed the discovery of the biosynthetic genes involved in the synthesis of the antifungal compounds hassallidin and anabaenolysin. Anabaena sp. SYKE748A produced more than 40 glycolipopeptide hassallidins in addition to the two main variants. Hassallidins were also identified from Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nostoc and Tolypothrix species. The lipopeptides anabaenolysins were detected only in Anabaena strains. New variants of anabaenolysins C and D were chemically characterized. The antifungal activity of hassallidin D and anabaenolysin B were investigated through disc diffusion and microdilution bioassays. Synergistic antifungal activity was surprisingly observed through the production of anabaenolysin and cyclodextrins by Anabaena strains. The macrolide scytophycin was identified from Anabaena strains in this study, the first report of scytophycin from this genus. In addition, Nostoc and Scytonema strains from benthic habitats in the Finnish coastal area in the Baltic Sea were found to produce scytophycins. Unidentified antifungal compounds from the strains Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3 were detected in the present study. Further chemical characterizations of these compounds are needed. Cyanobacteria are a prolific source for bioactive compounds, which could be toxic or potentially new drug leads. In this study, we show evidence of cyanobacterial biosynthetic genes and their evolution. We also detected new variants of the cyanobacterial compounds and their bioactivity. Furthermore, this study showed the potential of utilizing cyanobacteria for drug discovery.
  • Leikoski, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Ribosomal peptides are produced through the post-translational modification of precursor peptides. Cyanobactins are a family of ribosomal peptides produced by cyanobacteria. A great variety of cyclic peptides that can be assigned to the cyanobactin family have been described from cyanobacteria. In the biosynthesis, the precursor peptide is cleaved, N-to-C macrocyclized, and some amino acids are heterocyclized or prenylated. As a family, the cyanobactins possess cytotoxicity, multidrug-resistance reversing activity, anti-malarial, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution of cyanobactin pathways and determine the chemical diversity of the peptides they encode. Cyanobacterial strains were studied using a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and structural chemistry. In this study, a PCR-based approach demonstrated that a gene, essential for cyanobactin biosynthesis, is common and sporadically distributed. It was found in 48 of 132 cyanobacterial strains studied. The product of a cyanobactin pathway in Anabaena sp. 90 was identified as a cyclic peptide, consisting only of proteinogenic amino acids and it was named anacyclamide. Diverse anacyclamides were identified from 27 strains of the genus Anabaena, consisting of 7-20 amino acids which were prenylated or geranylated in some strains. New cyanobactins were also found in 6 strains of the genus Microcystis based on the genetic similarity to an inactive cyanobactin gene cluster in M. aeruginosa NIES 843. These peptides, which were named piricyclamides, are similar to anacyclamides. Piricyclamides have 7 to 17 amino acids and like anacyclamides the only conserved amino acid is a single proline. Bioinformatic analysis of the cyanobactin pathway in 126 cyanobacterial genomes identified 31 cyanobactin gene clusters, demonstrating that cyanobactin pathways were widely distributed among all cyanobacteria. Surprisingly, two of the pathways identified in this study were shown to produce novel linear cyanobactins. These linear peptides of just 3 5 amino acids contain a cysteine derived thiazole and an N-terminus protected with a prenyl group and methylated C-terminus. The linear cyanobactins were named aeruginosamides B, C, and viridisamide A. Phylogenetic analyses subsequently showed that the cyanobactin pathway has a complex evolutionary history which differs from the evolutionary history of cyanobacteria. The cyanobactin family was originally defined as being cyclic peptides containing modified amino acids. In this study, altogether three types of cyanobactins were described, cyclic anacyclamides, piricyclamides, and the linear cyanobactins aeruginosamides and viridisamide A. This work broadened the cyanobactin definition to include unmodified cyclic peptides, and expanded the length variation of cyanobactins setting new upper and lower limits, 3 20, for the length of the peptides in the cyanobactin family. The definition of cyanobactin was further refined to include linear peptides with termini protected by prenylation and methylation. Overall, this study has shown that the cyanobactin pathway is common in cyanobacteria and able to produce a range of chemically diverse peptides.
  • Valo, Janne (Helsingfors universitet, )
    The thesis reviews the issue of cyber attacks and international law in terms of jus ad bellum, the law concerning the recourse to force by states. The thesis takes the view that the existing rules on the use of force, namely Articles 2(4) and 51 of the United Nations Charter and the corresponding rules of customary international law apply to attacks regardless of the way they are carried out and thus, they apply to cyber attacks as well. Two central examples of different kinds of cyber attacks are presented to illustrate the issue: the attacks against Estonia in 2007 and Stuxnet, the malware that targeted Iranian nuclear facilities and was discovered in 2010. Before covering the main question of if and when cyber attacks may constitute uses of force or armed attacks, the thesis takes a brief historical look at how the just war doctrine and the regulation of war have evolved to their current state. The thesis argues that while cyber attacks are a new phenomenon with certain unique aspects, they are a part of the evolution and continuum of armed conflict. The thesis takes a look at the different approaches (instrument-based, target-based and effects-based) to assessing the question of whether or not a cyber attack crosses the threshold of a use of force or an armed attack. The effects-based view is found to be most appropriate one. It is argued that particularly cyber attacks that cause death, injury, damage or destruction qualify as uses of force. As cyber operations make it possible to cause severe economic consequences without the use of physical force, the question of economic force is discussed as well. The thesis argues that while the prevailing view is that Article 2(4) does not cover the use of economic force, the question may arise in the context of cyber attacks, and an attack with such consequences may result in a reappraisal of the issue in state practice. Turning to armed attacks, the thesis argues that cyber operations may also qualify as armed attacks. Accepting the prevailing view that distinguishes between uses of force and armed attacks, the thesis claims that for a cyber operation to rise to the level of an armed attack, the consequences must be sufficiently grave. It is argued that for example a denial-of-service attack does not fulfil the criteria of an armed attack, but an attack that causes fatalities or severe damage or destruction would cross the threshold and justify self-defence. The thesis also discusses the question of anticipatory self-defence in the context of cyber attacks.
  • Pineda, Jack (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    This research will be comprised of five main parts which are directly correlated to achieve some well-based conclusions. The first part will be regarding cybersecurity in general and cybersecurity in the European Union. Here we will give some data that will show the relevance of the topic in our daily life, while at the same time demonstrating why it is so important to have a good cybersecurity strategy to protect the Union’s citizens. In the second part, we will analyse the cybersecurity-related legislation in the European Union, which will give us a good head start as to how we stand in the European Union. The third part will consist of the analysis and description of the law enforcement agencies cooperation with companies in the European Union and how this cooperation can be successful enough for the benefit of the whole Union. In the fourth part we will discuss injunctions in the European Union, in general, and then we will specifically discuss injunctions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain. Last, but not least, we will analyse the United States’ legislation and law enforcement agency regarding cybersecurity. Also, during the course of our research, we will interview two Associate General Counsels of one of the biggest technology firms in the world, Microsoft. Microsoft is a leading company in the cybersecurity space with a broad range of experience of working to disrupt malware and botnets, through private law and through law enforcement partnership.
  • Al-Qaisi, Feda'a (2016)
    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2), an abundant renewable carbon reagent, into cyclic carbonate is of academic and industrial interest. Cyclic carbonate serve as green solvent and have some outstanding properties such as a high boiling point and low toxicity. Titanium and iron would be attractive metal candidates as benign and efficient alternative to other metal catalysis for CO2 conversion to cyclic carbonate, due combination of low toxicity and high Lewis acidity. In the present work the coupling reactions of carbon dioxide with epoxides to produce five-membered cyclic carbonates (propylene, 1-hexene, cyclohexene, styrene, and epichlorohydrin carbonates) were efficiently catalyzed either by sustainable metal-based catalysts of: (1) titanium alkoxide complexes/tetrabutylammonium salts; (2) Schiff base iron(III) complexes/onium salts; (3) bifunctional imidazole-Schiff base iron(III) complex; and (4) metal-free systems consisting of a simple, preferably primary or secondary, amines and halides with organic or inorganic cations (such as tetrabutylammonium or lithium chloride, bromide or iodide). Reactivity of the four above-mentioned catalytic systems was further studied and compared in the coupling reactions.
  • Ahlström, Mikael EB (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Heiskanen, Suvi (2010)
    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is studied to take part in the migration neurons and development of brain. It is proven to participate also in the mediation of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a crucial physiological mechanism in mediating wound healing and menstrual cycle among other functions. It is also important in some patophysiological processes like diabetic retinopathy and tumour outgrow. Tumour is shown to need its own vascularisation after reaching a size of 2-3 mm as a diameter in order to proceed growing. This makes Cdk5 a potential therapeutic target in regulating angiogenesis. In order to be activated, Cdk5 forms a complex together with its neuronal activator p35 or p39, or with their respective cleavage products p25 or p29. The mechanisms, how Cdk5 is activated in human ehdothelial cells has not been studied before. This master thesis is to evaluate the existence of Cdk5 activators p35 and p39 and their respective cleavage products in spreading human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to mimic the cell migration by freshly plating the cells. In our studies we performed western blot analysis and quantitative PCR analysis to investigate the expression of p35 and p25 in spreading HUVECs in different time points. We also performed an immunofluorescence assay to investigate the localisation of p35 and p25 in spreading HUVECs using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The expression of p35 and p25 was also studied after growth factor stimulation (VEGF, FGF). The expression of the activator p39 in spreading HUVECs was studied using quantitative PCR method. Finally we investigated the interaction of Cdk5 with its activator p35 and its cleavage product p25 in spreading HUVECs using immunoprecipitation (IP). We were able to show in our studies that the activators p35 and p25 are expressed in HUVECs and that their expression is changing in spreading HUVECs in different time points. Additionally we were able to show, that p35 and p25 are partly localized in periphery in spreading cells. We were able to show that also the activator p39 is expressed in spreading HUVECs, but its relative amount was shown to be only a small portion of p35 in HUVECs. We were able to prove the interaction of Cdk5 with its activator p35 and p25 using immunoprecipitation, although the result could not be completely verified. Stimulation with growth factors showed no appreciable changes in the expression of p35 or p25. Based on the results, we can state that both the activator p35 and p39, and at least p25, the cleavage product p35, are expressed also in HUVECs. As they are neuronal activators of Cdk5 and Cdk5 has shown to participate in the mediation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell migration, the results amplify our hypothesis that also these activators might have a role in mediating endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Nevertheless to assure it, to specify the possible different roles of each activators and their interaction with Cdk5, further studies are needed.