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  • Laitala, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Cognitive health is of central importance for independent and balanced old age, while memory disorders represent the leading cause of intensive and long-term care among the Finnish elderly. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of height, body mass index, weight change, metabolic conditions and coffee drinking in midlife on cognitive performance in old age among a sample of 2606 Finnish twins aged 65 years or older who had participated in a telephone interview to assess their cognitive status. Since coffee drinking associates with several metabolic conditions and Finns are known to be the greatest consumers of coffee in the world, the heritability and stability of coffee drinking was analysed in the whole Older Finnish Twin Cohort (n=10716). In order to investigate the association between height and cognitive performance in a population with more supportive childhood living conditions, a total of 2161 Danish twins were included in this study. A greater height was found to clearly associate with better cognitive performance in Finnish subjects, but less so among the Danish sample, which may reflect the childhood environmental differences between these cohorts. In the Finnish subjects, there was greater variance in cognitive performance among shorter subjects, and environmental factors were found to play a greater role in their cognitive performance, whereas the cognitive performance of taller participants was mainly explained by genetic factors. Midlife metabolic variables that were found to be significantly associated with a poorer cognitive performance in old age included a higher body mass index and three metabolic conditions: cardiovascular disease, hypertension and, most significantly of all, diabetes. Moreover, both weight gain and loss, even to a lesser degree than suggested previously, were found to be associated with poorer cognition. Furthermore, evidence of a causal relationship between midlife cardiovascular disease and cognitive performance in old age was demonstrated among discordant twin pairs. Conversely, no effect of coffee drinking in midlife on cognitive performance in old age was observed, although coffee drinking was demonstrated to be stable in the study population. The heritability of coffee drinking was found to differ across sexes and age groups, being 51% in men and 52% in women in the whole study population. This study supports the contention that cognitive performance in old age reflects the effects of multiple genetic and environmental exposures, including their complex interactions during the life-span. The demonstrated associations and evidence of a causal pathway between potentially preventable exposures and poorer cognitive performance highlight the importance of preventive medicine.
  • Granér, Marit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most serious threat to life and health in industrialized countries. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying pathology associated with CVD, in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Risk factors play an important role in initiating and accelerating the complex process of atherosclerosis. Most studies of risk factors have focused on the presence or absence of clinically defined CVD. Less is known about the determinants of the severity and extent of atherosclerosis in symptomatic patients. Aims. To clarify the association between coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis, and to study the determinants associated with these abnormalities with special regard to novel cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects and methods. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and B-mode ultrasound were used to assess coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis in 108 patients with clinically suspected CAD referred for elective coronary angiography. To evaluate anatomic severity and extent of CAD, several QCA parameters were incorporated into indexes. These measurements reflected CAD severity, extent, and overall atheroma burden and were calculated for the entire coronary tree and separately for different coronary segments (i.e., left main, proximal, mid, and distal segments). Maximum and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) values of carotid arteries were measured and expressed as mean aggregate values. Furthermore, the study design included extensive fasting blood samples, oral glucose tolerance test, and an oral fat-load test to be performed in each participant. Results. Maximum and mean IMT values were significantly correlated with CAD severity, extent, and atheroma burden. There was heterogeneity in associations between IMT and CAD indexes according to anatomical location of CAD. Maximum and mean IMT values, respectively, were correlated with QCA indexes for mid and distal segments but not with the proximal segments of coronary vessels. The values of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and concentration, respectively, were lower in subjects with significant CAD and there was a significant relationship between PON1 activity and concentration and coronary atherosclerosis assessed by QCA. PON1 activity was a significant determinant of severity of CAD independently of HDL cholesterol. Neither PON1 activity nor concentration was associated with carotid IMT. The concentration of triglycerides (TGs), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and the cholesterol content of remnant lipoprotein particle (RLP-C) were significantly increased at 6 hours after intake of an oral fatty meal as compared with fasting values. The mean peak size of LDL remained unchanged 6 hours after the test meal. The correlations between total TGs, TRLs, and RLP-C in fasting and postprandial state were highly significant. RLP-C correlated with oxLDL both in fasting and in fed state and inversely with LDL size. In multivariate analysis oxLDL was a determinant of severity and extent of CAD. Neither total TGs, TRLs, oxLDL, nor LDL size were linked to carotid atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance (IR) was associated with an increased severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis and seemed to be a stronger predictor of coronary atherosclerosis in the distal parts of the coronary tree than in the proximal and mid parts. In the multivariate analysis IR was a significant predictor of the severity of CAD. IR did not correlate with carotid IMT. Maximum and mean carotid IMT were higher in patients with the apoE4 phenotype compared with subjects with the apoE3 phenotype. Likewise, patients with the apoE4 phenotype had a more severe and extensive CAD than individuals with the apoE3 phenotype. Conclusions. 1) There is an association between carotid IMT and the severity and extent of CAD. Carotid IMT seems to be a weaker predictor of coronary atherosclerosis in the proximal parts of the coronary tree than in the mid and distal parts. 2) PON1 activity has an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. More importantly, the study illustrates how the protective role of HDL could be modulated by its components such that equivalent serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol may not equate with an equivalent, potential protective capacity. 3) RLP-C in the fasting state is a good marker of postprandial TRLs. Circulating oxLDL increases in CAD patients postprandially. The highly significant positive correlation between postprandial TRLs and postprandial oxLDL suggests that the postprandial state creates oxidative stress. Our findings emphasize the fundamental role of LDL oxidation in the development of atherosclerosis even after inclusion of conventional CAD risk factors. 4) Disturbances in glucose metabolism are crucial in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. In fact, subjects with IR are comparable with diabetic subjects in terms of severity and extent of CAD. 5) ApoE polymorphism is involved in the susceptibility to both carotid and coronary atherosclerosis.
  • Joensuu, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The boundaries of the cell and the intracellular organelles are created by biological membranes consisting of lipids, proteins and sugars. These membranes are used for a number of purposes, of which, probably the most important is the compartmentalization of the cell s functions. Understanding the mechanisms to create/ maintain the characteristic shape of organelles, and identifying the players involved, allows us to connect the structure of an organelle to its functions or dynamics and, importantly, to the disorders associated with malfunctioning organelle. How these processes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are coupled, has remained unclear. In this thesis, the structure and dynamics of ER and the connection to some of the ER s functions were analysed. By using live cell imaging and 3D-electron microscopy, biochemical approaches, and novel quantitative image analysis, we demonstrated the great variation in interphase ER network organization and sheet structures among several cultured mammalian cell lines. We described interphase ER sheet dynamics and showed that sheets were static and persistent structures. Our work revealed that a specific subset of actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence and the ER network organization. Furthermore, we discovered a novel role for molecular motor myosin 1c in regulating the ER-associated actin filament arrays. Moreover, we learned that in mitosis ER undergoes a progressive spatial reorganization and a structural transformation towards more fenestrated sheets and tubular forms. We showed that ER remains continuous during mitosis and that the partition of nuclear envelope was subordinate to ER, which, in addition to structural transformations of ER into smaller subunits, favours the stochastic model of inheritance of ER. Importantly, we showed that the natural increase of ER fenestrations and tubulation in mitosis correlated with the reduced number of membrane-bound ribosomes, and that the structural transformation could be mimicked by dissociating the membrane-bound ribosomes from the interphase ER by a drug treatment, suggesting that ribosomes and the associated luminal translation machinery have a role stabilizing the sheet structures. Collectively, this work describes the significant plasticity of ER morphology and organization in several common cell culture cells in interphase and upon inheritance of ER. Importantly, this work also demonstrates the dynamic rearrangements of ER in mitosis and interphase cells and provides novel information about the role of ribosomes and actin on ER sheets and the role of myosin 1c on the ER-associated actin arrays, serving as an opening for further studies on variety of regulatory possibilities of the interplay between ER subdomains and the identified player involved.
  • Väre, Minna (Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus, 2007)
    In the past decade, the Finnish agricultural sector has undergone rapid structural changes. The number of farms has decreased and the average farm size has increased when the number of farms transferred to new entrants has decreased. Part of the structural change in agriculture is manifested in early retirement programmes. In studying farmers exit behaviour in different countries, institutional differences, incentive programmes and constraints are found to matter. In Finland, farmers early retirement programmes were first introduced in 1974 and, during the last ten years, they have been carried out within the European Union framework for these programmes. The early retirement benefits are farmer specific and de-pend on the level of pension insurance the farmer has paid over his active farming years. In order to predict the future development of the agricultural sector, farmers have been frequently asked about their future plans and their plans for succession. However, the plans the farmers made for succession have been found to be time inconsistent. This study estimates the value of farmers stated succession plans in predicting revealed succession decisions. A stated succession plan exists when a farmer answers in a survey questionnaire that the farm is going to be transferred to a new entrant within a five-year period. The succession is revealed when the farm is transferred to a suc-cessor. Stated and revealed behaviour was estimated as a recursive Binomial Probit Model, which accounts for the censoring of the decision variables and controls for a potential correlation between the two equations. The results suggest that the succession plans, as stated by elderly farmers in the questionnaires, do not provide information that is significant and valuable in predicting true, com-pleted successions. Therefore, farmer exit should be analysed based on observed behaviour rather than on stated plans and intentions. As farm retirement plays a crucial role in determining the characteristics of structural change in agriculture, it is important to establish the factors which determine an exit from farming among eld-erly farmers and how off-farm income and income losses affect their exit choices. In this study, the observed choice of pension scheme by elderly farmers was analysed by a bivariate probit model. Despite some variations in significance and the effects of each factor, the ages of the farmer and spouse, the age and number of potential successors, farm size, income loss when retiring and the location of the farm together with the production line were found to be the most important determi-nants of early retirement and the transfer or closure of farms. Recently, the labour status of the spouse has been found to contribute significantly to individual retirement decisions. In this study, the effect of spousal retirement and economic incentives related to the timing of a farming couple s early retirement decision were analysed with a duration model. The results suggest that an expected pension in particular advances farm transfers. It was found that on farms operated by a couple, both early retirement and farm succession took place more often than on farms operated by a single person. However, the existence of a spouse delayed the timing of early retirement. Farming couples were found to co-ordinate their early retirement decisions when they both exit through agricultural retirement programmes, but such a co-ordination did not exist when one of the spouses retired under other pension schemes. Besides changes in the agricultural structure, the share and amount of off-farm income of a farm family s total income has also increased. In the study, the effect of off-farm income on farmers retirement decisions, in addition to other financial factors, was analysed. The unknown parameters were first estimated by a switching-type multivariate probit model and then by the simulated maxi-mum likelihood (SML) method, controlling for farmer specific fixed effects and serial correlation of the errors. The results suggest that elderly farmers off-farm income is a significant determinant in a farmer s choice to exit and close down the farm. However, off-farm income only has a short term effect on structural changes in agriculture since it does not significantly contribute to the timing of farm successions.
  • Kinnunen, Aleksi (2015)
    In this thesis, I study the determinants of Finland-Sweden bond yield spread during 1995-2013 by using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) approach. I form different regression models, where Finland-Sweden 10-year bond yield spread is dependent variable and variables, based on the bond pricing theory, are explanatory variables. In addition to the regression analysis, I conduct a plot analysis, in which I aim to study whether there are any certain events that may have affected the bond yield spread. The idea behind the plot analysis is that the EMU membership of Finland may have increased the bond yield spread, mainly due to the lack of a lender of last resort. The results from the regression analysis suggest that risk aversion was possibly an important determinant of Finland-Sweden bond yield spread developments during the crisis period 07/2007-12/2013. The risk aversion was measured by the VIX-index. The study also finds some support that other things rather than country specific fiscal fundamentals where driving the bond yield spread during 01/1995-12/2013. The plot analysis results suggest that It is possible that the convergence of bond yields across euro countries and Sweden, were one reason for bond yield spread developments before the crisis period. The results also show that the announcement of the new European Central Bank`s Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) program in 2012, likely started the fall in the bond yield spread. In addition, during the crisis period, Finland`s bond yield may have benefited from the global risk aversion but not as much as Germany and Sweden.
  • zhang, yingna (2013)
    This paper places its focus on the largest 10 high-tech importers of Finland with the objective to investigate the determinants of Finnish high-tech exports during the period of 1996 and 2010. The Gravity Theory acts as the theoretical foundation of the study and panel data will be adopted to carry out OLS regression and fixed effects regression models. Six clusters of determinant have been introduced to the basic gravity empirical model respectively, seeking to identify categories which have the greatest effects on Finnish high-tech exports. The research finds that the variables related to information cost, labour market and high technological level are more impactful than other factors. An adjusted gravity empirical model with more than 70 per cent explanatory power is subsequently presented. The empirical results manifest that a 1 per cent increase in GDP of Finland’s major trading partners contributes to 0.35 per cent growth in Finnish high-tech exports while a 1 per cent rise in bilateral distance between Finland and its exporting destinations leads to a decline of 0.8 per cent in Finnish high-tech exports. Other independent variables included in this empirical equation are estimated to be statistically significant as well. A case study has been introduced to illustrate certain aspects of the paper as well. The adjusted gravity model together with the Reveal Comparative Advantage (RCA) index are employed to analyse the export potentials of high-tech commodities of China for Finland. The study shows that the high technology export potential is not great, and has the requisites for Finland to develop export potential of products that have comparative advantages over China’s and explore new high-tech commodities. Keywords: High Technology Exports, Determinants of Trade, Gravity Model, Export Potential
  • Einiö, Elina K (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    With growing pressure from an ageing population on social and health-care expenditure, it is of policy importance to analyze the reasons for admission to long-term institutional care at older ages. Although there is increasing evidence that cognitive and functional disabilities are not the only major risk factors, and that the social situation and the lack of family members play an important role in explaining admissions, further research is needed. There is a lack of evidence on the effects of a spouse’s death, and previous findings on how income is associated with institutional care are inconsistent, and results on poor housing are seldom available. Furthermore, there is little systematic evidence showing how chronic medical conditions other than dementia affect the risk of admission in the general older population. This study used population-based register data on Finnish older adults aged 65 and over (n=280,722) to analyse individual-level determinants of admission to long-term institutional care from January 1998 to September 2003. The main focus was on how chronic medical conditions, household income and other socio-economic factors, living with a spouse, and the death of a spouse were associated with admissions. The results of the study indicated that dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, depressive symptoms, other mental-health problems, hip fracture, and diabetes were strongly associated with an increased risk of admission when socio-demographic confounders and co-morbid conditions were controlled for. It was also shown that older men and women in the lowest household-income quintile group were more likely to be admitted to institutional care than those in the highest group, when age, first language, and area characteristics were accounted for. Controlling further for living arrangements and other socio-economic and chronic medical conditions markedly reduced these income differences in admission, but they still remained significant. Poorly equipped housing and being a renter were associated with an increased risk of admission, and the possession of a car and living in a detached house with a decreased risk in these same multivariate models. Having a lift in an apartment house was not associated with admission. The results further showed that the lower risk of admission among those living with a spouse compared to those living alone or with others was only partly attributable to and mediated through favorable socio-economic, housing and medical conditions. Moreover, this study was the first to establish that the death of a spouse strongly increases the risk of admission, the excess risk being highest during the first month following the death and decreasing over time in both genders. The findings in this study imply that the future need for institutional care will depend not only on the increasing numbers of older people but also on the development of the prevalence and severity of chronic medical conditions associated with admission, and on older people’s income, housing conditions and access to informal care from their spouse.
  • Saukkonen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Assessment of the outcome of critical illness is complex. Severity scoring systems and organ dysfunction scores are traditional tools in mortality and morbidity prediction in intensive care. Their ability to explain risk of death is impressive for large cohorts of patients, but insufficient for an individual patient. Although events before intensive care unit (ICU) admission are prognostically important, the prediction models utilize data collected at and just after ICU admission. In addition, several biomarkers have been evaluated to predict mortality, but none has proven entirely useful in clinical practice. Therefore, new prognostic markers of critical illness are vital when evaluating the intensive care outcome. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate new measures and biological markers of critical illness and to evaluate their predictive value and association with mortality and disease severity. The impact of delay in emergency department (ED) on intensive care outcome, measured as hospital mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 6 months, was assessed in 1537 consecutive patients admitted to medical ICU. Two new biological markers were investigated in two separate patient populations: in 231 ICU patients and 255 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Cell-free plasma DNA is a surrogate marker of apoptosis. Its association with disease severity and mortality rate was evaluated in ICU patients. Next, the predictive value of plasma DNA regarding mortality and its association with the degree of organ dysfunction and disease severity was evaluated in severe sepsis or septic shock. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potential regulator of apoptosis. Finally, HO-1 plasma concentrations and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and their association with outcome were evaluated in ICU patients. The length of ED stay was not associated with outcome of intensive care. The hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in patients admitted to the medical ICU from the ED than from the non-ED, and the HRQoL in the critically ill at 6 months was significantly lower than in the age- and sex-matched general population. In the ICU patient population, the maximum plasma DNA concentration measured during the first 96 hours in intensive care correlated significantly with disease severity and degree of organ failure and was independently associated with hospital mortality. In patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, the cell-free plasma DNA concentrations were significantly higher in ICU and hospital nonsurvivors than in survivors and showed a moderate discriminative power regarding ICU mortality. Plasma DNA was an independent predictor for ICU mortality, but not for hospital mortality. The degree of organ dysfunction correlated independently with plasma DNA concentration in severe sepsis and plasma HO-1 concentration in ICU patients. The HO-1 -413T/GT(L)/+99C haplotype was associated with HO-1 plasma levels and frequency of multiple organ dysfunction. Plasma DNA and HO-1 concentrations may support the assessment of outcome or organ failure development in critically ill patients, although their value is limited and requires further evaluation.
  • Jokinen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The concept of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) covers a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunctions related to cerebrovascular disease. Among the pathophysiological determinants of VCI are cerebral stroke, white matter lesions and brain atrophy, which are known to be important risk factors for dementia. However, the specific mechanisms behind the brain abnormalities and cognitive decline are still poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuropsychological correlates of particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, namely, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), general cortical atrophy and corpus callosum (CC) atrophy in subjects with cerebrovascular disease. Furthermore, the cognitive profile of subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD) was examined. This study was conducted as part of two large multidisciplinary study projects, the Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory (SAM) Study and the multinational Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study. The SAM cohort consisted of 486 patients, between 55 and 85 years old, with ischaemic stroke from the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. The LADIS Study included a mixed sample of subjects (n=639) with age-related WMH, between 65 and 84 years old, gathered from 11 centres around Europe. Both studies included comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments and detailed brain MRI. The relationships between the MRI findings and the neuropsychological test performance were analysed by controlling for relevant confounding factors such as age, education and other coexisting brain lesions. The results revealed that in elderly patients with ischaemic stroke, moderate to severe MTA was specifically related to impairment of memory and visuospatial functions, but mild MTA had no clinical relevance. Instead, WMH were primarily associated with executive deficits and mental slowing. These deficits mediated the relationship between WMH and other, secondary cognitive deficits. Cognitive decline was best predicted by the overall degree of WMH, whereas the independent contribution of regional WMH measures was low. Executive deficits were the most prominent cognitive characteristic in SIVD. Compared to other stroke patients, the patients with SIVD also presented more severe memory deficits, which were related to MTA. The cognitive decline in SIVD occurred independently of depressive symptoms and, relative to healthy control subjects, it was substantial in severity. In stroke patients, general cortical atrophy also turned out to be a strong predictor of cognitive decline in a wide range of cognitive domains. Moreover, in elderly subjects with WMH, overall CC atrophy was related to reduction in mental speed, while anterior CC atrophy was independently associated with frontal lobe-mediated executive functions and attention. The present study provides cross-sectional evidence for the involvement of WMH, MTA, general cortical atrophy and CC atrophy in VCI. The results suggest that there are multifaceted pathophysiological mechanisms behind VCI in the elderly, including both vascular ischaemic lesions and neurodegenerative changes. The different pathological changes are highly interrelated processes and together they may produce cumulative effects on cognitive decline.
  • Pesonen-Leinonen, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Joro, Sauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Koskinen, Milja (2011)
    Tämä lisensiaatin tutkielma koostuu kolmesta osasta; kirjallisuuskatsauksesta, kokeellisesta osasta ja liitteistä. Iohexol on ionisoitumaton, trijodattu ja vesiliukoinen röntgenvarjoaine. Iohexolia on hyödynnetty lääketieteessä useita vuosia. Iohexolia on käytetty muun muassa angio- ja myelografiassa, lisäksi iohexolia on hyödynnetty arvioitaessa munuaiskerästen suodattumisnopeutta sekä suoliston läpäisevyyden muutoksia. Hevosen tulehduksellisessa suolistosairaudessa (Inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) suoliston rakenne ja sen läpäisevyys muuttuu; tyypillistä on tulehdussolujen kertyminen suoliston seinämään ja myös sidekudosmuodostusta saattaa esiintyä. Suolisto muutoksia saatetaan havaita sekä ohut- että paksusuolessa. IBD aiheuttaa hevoselle laihtumista, johtuen ravintoaineiden puutteellisesta imeytymisestä ja proteiinien menetyksestä suoleen suoliston häiriötilan yhteydessä. Tällä hetkellä IBD:n diagnostiikka perustuu tyypillisiin oireisiin, kliiniseen tutkimukseen, verinäytteisiin, glukoosin imeytymistestiin ja peräsuolesta otettuun koepalaan. IBD:n diagnostiikka on kuitenkin erittäin haastavaa ja tutkimusmenetelmiin liittyy lukuisia ongelmia, jotka vähentävät niiden luotettavuutta IBD:n diagnostiikassa. Tutkimuksemme tarkoituksena on kehittää hevosen IBD:n diagnostiikkaa entistä helpompaan, luotettavampaan ja turvallisempaan suuntaan. Tämän alustavan tutkimuksen tavoitteet olivat: (1) tutkia voidaanko iohexol havaita hevosen seerumissa oraalisen annostelun jälkeen ja (2) muodostaa iohexolin pitoisuuskuvaaja ajan funktiona terveillä hevosilla. Materiaalimme koostui kymmenestä terveestä hevosesta, joilla ei ollut havaittu laihtumista tai ripulia. Ennen iohexolin annostelua hevosille suoritettiin kliininen tutkimus ja verinäytteet otettiin maha-suolikanavan sairauden poissulkemiseksi. Hevosille suoritettiin myös mahalaukun tähystys. 16 tunnin paaston jälkeen 1 ml/kg Iohexolia annosteltiin 10 % -liuoksena nenämahaletkulla suoraan mahaan ja verinäytteet otettiin 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 ja 360 minuuttia annostelun jälkeen. Iohexolin pitoisuus määritettiin käyttämällä korkean erotuskyvyn nestekromatografiaa. Iohexolin pitoisuuksista tietyillä ajanhetkillä muodostettiin kuvaaja. Hevosilla ei havaittu maha-suolikanavan sairauksia. Kaikki hevoset olivat hyvässä kuntoluokassa ja mahalaukun tähystyksessä ei havaittu merkittäviä muutoksia. Verinäytteiden tulokset olivat viiterajoissa. Kaikki hevoset sietivät iohexolia hyvin ja haittavaikutuksia ei havaittu. Iohexol oli havaittavissa seerumissa 60 minuutin kuluttua annostelusta. Kuvaajassa voitiin havaita kaksi huippua. Statistiset menetelmät tukivat löydöksiä. Iohexol testi oli yksinkertainen suorittaa ja siihen ei liittynyt haittavaikutuksia. Annos 1ml/kg oli havaittavissa seerumissa. Iohexolin pitoisuuskuvaaja muodosti kaksi huippua, ja tämänkaltainen ilmiö on kuvattu kirjallisuudessa aikaisemmin useiden lääkkeiden tapauksessa. Hevosella ilmiö liittyy todennäköisesti maha-suolikanavan rakenteellisiin ja fysiologisiin eroavaisuuksiin ja lisätutkimuksia ilmiön varmistamiseksi tarvitaan. Iohexol näyttää olevan potentiaalinen merkkiaine suoliston läpäisevyyden arviointiin ja lisätutkimuksia IBD:tä sairastavien hevosten seerumin iohexolin pitoisuuksista verrattuna terveiden hevosten seerumin iohexolin pitoisuuksiin on suunnitteilla.
  • Koivu-Tikkanen, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Kaila, Christa (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The subject of this study is choice of law in international arbitration. The study focuses especially on the choice of substantive law, and the topic discussed is written from the perspective of the International Arbitration Rules of the U.S. arbitration institute ICDR. The ICDR (International Centre for Dispute Resolution) is the part of AAA (American Arbitration Association) which administers the international caseload. The study examines how the choice of applicable substantive law should be made in international arbitration according to the ICDR rules. The rules give the arbitrators a wide discretion in this sense, since they do not require the use of conflict rules to determine the substantive law. The study also discusses what exactly is meant by law and what kind of rules can be applied to solve the dispute. Questions related to the enforcement of an arbitral award is also brought up in the study, since it explores whether issues either with the choice of law or with the application of the substantive law can prevent the enforcement of the award. In addition to this, the arbitral institute ICDR is being presented in the study, since it is globally seen a significant provider of arbitration services. One of the objectives of the study is to demonstrate the specific characteristics of arbitration organized in the United States. The study is written in English.