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  • Vuorio, Manu Juhani (1999)
    In this work those human duties which human rights possibly implicate are studied. As the background of this discussion is, first, the state of our natural environment, ie. the whole biosphere of the Earth and, secondly, the globally gross inequality of the distribution of human rights. The ultimate question in this thematics is: can we still add the number of rights and liberties, when even in the welfare societies the polarization between well- and ill-living people is sharpening? As, empirical data have mainly been the contents and interpretations of international human rights conventions (esp. The Law of the European Convention on Human Rights), reports of the state of the environment and "vox populi" ie. usual citizens-opinions concerning the problematics of these questions. All other contents of this study are grounded on the conclusilons given by the author's own conscience and reasoning. - Naturally the ethical and moral codes of classic philosophers are also used. A throughgoing theme has also been the critique by some visioners (Orwell, Huxley, Bradbury, Lorenz, Postman, and Seiskari, Linkola and von Wright in Finland), aimed at man's both physical and mental degeneration, due to excessive amount of welfare. Main question in this context is: which is more important - that I have welfare, or that we (ie., the whole mankind) have welfare? -This question is approached from the point of view that the uncontrollable increase of the world population simply compels us to take some stand on it. As the result is insisted that today there exists no other solution to this problematics than training. schooling and education: people should be made to understand that the ideology of continual growth is no more sustainable. If this opinion of growth is still held, we have to bargain, perhaps even totally give up, some human rights. Most important sources of this work have been The European Convention on Human Rights and its interpretations, Basic Rights (Henry Shue), The Ethics of Human Rights (Carlos Santiago Nino), and Property Rights (Lawrence Becker).
  • Briggs, Martin (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The current study is a longitudinal investigation into changes in the division of household labour across transitions to marriage and parenthood in the UK. Previous research has noted a more traditional division of household labour, with women performing the majority of housework, amongst spouses and couples with children. However, the bulk of this work has been cross-sectional in nature. The few longitudinal studies that have been carried out have been rather ambiguous about the effect of marriage and parenthood on the division of housework. Theoretically, this study draws on gender construction theory. The key premise of this theory is that gender is something that is performed and created in interaction, and, as a result, something fluid and flexible rather than fixed and stable. The idea that couples ‘do gender’ through housework has been a major theoretical breakthrough. Gender-neutral explanations of the division of household labour, positing rational acting individuals, have failed to explicate why women continue to perform an unequal share of housework, regardless of socio-economic status. Contrastingly, gender construction theory situates gender as the key process in dividing household labour. By performing and avoiding certain housework chores, couples fulfill social norms of what it means to be a man and a woman although, given the emphasis on human agency in producing and contesting gender, couples are able to negotiate alternative gender roles which, in turn, feed back into the structure of social norms in an ever-changing societal landscape. This study adds extra depth to the doing gender approach by testing whether or not couples negotiate specific conjugal and parent roles in terms of the division of household labour. Both transitions hypothesise a more traditional division of household labour. Data comes from the British Household Panel Survey, a large, nationally representative quantitative survey that has been carried out annually since 1991. Here, data tracks the same 776 couples at two separate time points – 1996 and 2005. OLS regression is used to test whether or not transitions to marriage and parenthood have a significant impact on the division of household labour whilst controlling for host of relevant socio-economic factors. Results indicate that marriage has no significant effect on how couples partition housework. Those couples making the transition from cohabitation to marriage do not show significant changes in housework arrangements from those couples who remain cohabiting in both waves. On the other hand, becoming parents does lead to a more traditional division of household labour whilst controlling for socio-economic factors which accompany the move to parenthood. There is then some evidence that couples use the site of household labour to ‘do parenthood’ and generate identities which both use and inform socially prescribed notions of what it means to be a mother and a father. Support for socio-economic explanations of the division of household labour was mixed although it remains clear that they, alone, cannot explain how households divide housework.
  • Briggs, Martin (2011)
    The current study is a longitudinal investigation into changes in the division of household labour across transitions to marriage and parenthood in the UK. Previous research has noted a more traditional division of household labour, with women performing the majority of housework, amongst spouses and couples with children. However, the bulk of this work has been cross-sectional in nature. The few longitudinal studies that have been carried out have been rather ambiguous about the effect of marriage and parenthood on the division of housework. Theoretically, this study draws on gender construction theory. The key premise of this theory is that gender is something that is performed and created in interaction, and, as a result, something fluid and flexible rather than fixed and stable. The idea that couples 'do gender' through housework has been a major theoretical breakthrough. Gender-neutral explanations of the division of household labour, positing rational acting individuals, have failed to explicate why women continue to perform an unequal share of housework, regardless of socioeconomic status. Contrastingly, gender construction theory situates gender as the key process in dividing household labour. By performing and avoiding certain housework chores, couples fulfill social norms of what it means to be a man and a woman although, given the emphasis on human agency in producing and contesting gender, couples are able to negotiate alternative gender roles which, in turn, feed back into the structure of social norms in an ever-changing societal landscape. This study adds extra depth to the doing gender approach by testing whether or not couples negotiate specific conjugal and parent roles in terms of the division of household labour. Both transitions hypothesise a more traditional division of household labour. Data comes from the British Household Panel Survey, a large, nationally representative quantitative survey that has been carried out annually since 1991. Here, data tracks the same 776 couples at two separate time points - 1996 and 2005. OLS regression is used to test whether or not transitions to marriage and parenthood have a significant impact on the division of household labour whilst controlling for host of relevant socio-economic factors. Results indicate that marriage has no significant effect on how couples partition housework. Those couples making the transition from cohabitation to marriage do not show significant changes in housework arrangements from those couples who remain cohabiting in both waves. On the other hand, becoming parents does lead to a more traditional division of household labour whilst controlling for socio-economic factors which accompany the move to parenthood. There is then some evidence that couples use the site of household labour to 'do parenthood' and generate identities which both use and inform socially prescribed notions of what it means to be a mother and a father. Support for socio-economic explanations of the division of household labour was mixed although it remains clear that they, alone, cannot explain how households divide housework.
  • Ala-Härkönen, Mirja (1994)
    Työn kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käsitellään tetrasykliinien yleisiä ja farmakokineettisia ominaisuuksia, doksisykliinin erityispiirteitä ja näiden mikrobilääkkeiden käyttöä koiralla ja kissalla. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin doksisykliinin farmakokinetikkaa koiralla kerta-annon jälkeen, ja erityisesti doksisykliinin per os biologista hyötyosuutta. Tutkimusaineistona oli kuusi Eläinlääketieteellisen korkeakoulun beagle-rotuista koiraa. Koirille annettiin 100 mg doksisykliiniä (6,8-8,6 mg/kg) suun kautta ja noin kuukautta myöhemmin sama annos suonensisäisesti. Koirista kerättiin verinäytteitä, joiden lääkeainepitoisuudet laskettiin agardiffuusiomenetelmällä. Tuloksista laskettiin farmakokineettisiä parametrejä, joita käsiteltiin myös tilastollisesti. Eliminaatiopuoliintumisaika oli molemmilla antotavoilla sama: 10,5 tuntia. Peroraalisella antotavalla lääkeaineen huippupitoisuus seerumissa jäi matalaksi ollen keskimäärin 1,40 mikrog/ml.Doksisykliinin biologinen hyväksikäytettävyys p.o.-antotavan jälkeen oli huono, sillä lääkeaineesta imeytyi systeemiseen verenkiertoon vain noin 20 %. Lääkeainepitoisuuden jäädessä verenkierrossa matalaksi on epävarmaa, saavutetaanko kudoksissa terapeuttinen pitoisuus.Doksisykliinin MIC-arvoja koiran patogeeneille on tutkittu vain vähän, mutta kirjallisuudenmukaan tavallisimmat patogeenit näyttäisivät olevan doksisykliinille kohtalaisen resistenttejä.Riketsia-, klamydia-, ja mykoplasmainfektioissa doksisykliini on ensisijaislääke, sillä näidenpatogeenien MIC-arvot ovat kirjallisuuden mukaan erittäin matalia.
  • Schoultz, Viveca (2006)
    Undersökningen strävar efter att kartlägga det sociala arbetet vid ett psykiatriskt sjukhus. Forskningspopulationen är 31 döva patienter som för första gången vårdas pa en öppen, akutpsykiatrisk avdelning och som har teckenspråk som sitt första språk. Undersökningens huvudsakliga material är SOS-bladen i patientjournalen, på vilka socialarbetaren dokumenterar sitt arbete. Mötet mellan de döva patienterna och socialarbetaren analyseras med hjälp av sjukvårdsdistriktets statistikprogram för socialarbetare. Metoden som används för att analysera texterna pa SOS-bladen är tematisk kodning. Med hjälp av denna metod skapades en kodapparat som möjliggjorde analys av socialarbetarens texter. I praktiken undersökte forskaren sina egna texter. Eftersom döva patienter inom psykiatrin aldrig tidigare har kartlagts i Finland hade undersökningen också en deskriptiv sida. Undersökningen var aktuell också för att hälsovården idag star på tröskeln till att ta i bruk den elektroniska patientjournalen, vilken möjliggör att hälsovårdspersonal på ett annat sätt kan läsa olika texter som skrivits om patienten. Materialet som används i undersökningen hade skapats som en arbetsprodukt vid aktivt patientarbete vid ett psykiatriskt sjukhus under åren 1996 - 2000 då Dövas Servicestiftelse genom ett projekt strävade efter att utveckla psykiatrisk avdelningsvård för döva vid Lappvikens sjukhus. Socialkonstruktivismen har därför använts som teoretisk bakgrund. Både de döva patienterna och dokumentationen utgjorde fokus för denna undersökning. Frågeställningar var: Vad består det sociala arbetet som gjorts med döva patienter på ett psykiatriskt sjukhus av samt hur socialarbetaren har dokumenterat detta arbete i de döva patienternas journaler? Undersökningen strävade efter att ge svar på den mer specifika frågan: Vilken sorts kunskap skapades om det sociala arbete och om patienterna? Resultaten av undersökningen gav ny information om döva psykiatriska patienterna som inte tidigare existerat i Finland. Socialarbetarens dokumentation på SOS-bladet visade sig vara kort formulerade men var i de fiesta fall mycket djupgående och behandlade komplexa sociala situationer. Overraskande var att socialarbetaren ofta tagit ställning till olika saker och gjort en bedömning. Brister i dokumentationen framkom också, bl.a. var patientens egen syn på olika ärenden inte alltid dokumenterad. Socialarbetaren hade heller inte alltid dokumenterat sitt arbete på SOS-bladet.
  • Hoyer, Karin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Language Documentation and Description as Language Planning Working with Three Signed Minority Languages Sign languages are minority languages that typically have a low status in society. Language planning has traditionally been controlled from outside the sign-language community. Even though signed languages lack a written form, dictionaries have played an important role in language description and as tools in foreign language learning. The background to the present study on sign language documentation and description as language planning is empirical research in three dictionary projects in Finland-Swedish Sign Language, Albanian Sign Language, and Kosovar Sign Language. The study consists of an introductory article and five detailed studies which address language planning from different perspectives. The theoretical basis of the study is sociocultural linguistics. The research methods used were participant observation, interviews, focus group discussions, and document analysis. The primary research questions are the following: (1) What is the role of dictionary and lexicographic work in language planning, in research on undocumented signed language, and in relation to the language community as such? (2) What factors are particular challenges in the documentation of a sign language and should therefore be given special attention during lexicographic work? (3) Is a conventional dictionary a valid tool for describing an undocumented sign language? The results indicate that lexicographic work has a central part to play in language documentation, both as part of basic research on undocumented sign languages and for status planning. Existing dictionary work has contributed new knowledge about the languages and the language communities. The lexicographic work adds to the linguistic advocacy work done by the community itself with the aim of vitalizing the language, empowering the community, receiving governmental recognition for the language, and improving the linguistic (human) rights of the language users. The history of signed languages as low status languages has consequences for language planning and lexicography. One challenge that the study discusses is the relationship between the sign-language community and the hearing sign linguist. In order to make it possible for the community itself to take the lead in a language planning process, raising linguistic awareness within the community is crucial. The results give rise to questions of whether lexicographic work is of more importance for status planning than for corpus planning. A conventional dictionary as a tool for describing an undocumented sign language is criticised. The study discusses differences between signed and spoken/written languages that are challenging for lexicographic presentations. Alternative electronic lexicographic approaches including both lexicon and grammar are also discussed. Keywords: sign language, Finland-Swedish Sign Language, Albanian Sign Language, Kosovar Sign Language, language documentation and description, language planning, lexicography
  • Kaukoranta, Ilkka (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis studies empirically whether measurement errors in aggregate production statistics affect sentiment and future output. Initial announcements of aggregate production are subject to measurement error, because many of the data required to compile the statistics are produced with a lag. This measurement error can be gauged as the difference between the latest revised statistic and its initial announcement. Assuming aggregate production statistics help forecast future aggregate production, these measurement errors are expected to affect macroeconomic forecasts. Assuming agents’ macroeconomic forecasts affect their production choices, these measurement errors should affect future output through sentiment. This thesis is primarily empirical, so the theoretical basis, strategic complementarity, is discussed quite briefly. However, it is a model in which higher aggregate production increases each agent’s incentive to produce. In this circumstance a statistical announcement which suggests aggregate production is high would increase each agent’s incentive to produce, thus resulting in higher aggregate production. In this way the existence of strategic complementarity provides the theoretical basis for output fluctuations caused by measurement mistakes in aggregate production statistics. Previous empirical studies suggest that measurement errors in gross national product affect future aggregate production in the United States. Additionally it has been demonstrated that measurement errors in the Index of Leading Indicators affect forecasts by professional economists as well as future industrial production in the United States. This thesis aims to verify the applicability of these findings to other countries, as well as study the link between measurement errors in gross domestic product and sentiment. This thesis explores the relationship between measurement errors in gross domestic production and sentiment and future output. Professional forecasts and consumer sentiment in the United States and Finland, as well as producer sentiment in Finland, are used as the measures of sentiment. Using statistical techniques it is found that measurement errors in gross domestic product affect forecasts and producer sentiment. The effect on consumer sentiment is ambiguous. The relationship between measurement errors and future output is explored using data from Finland, United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Sweden. It is found that measurement errors have affected aggregate production or investment in Finland, United States, United Kingdom and Sweden. Specifically, it was found that overly optimistic statistics announcements are associated with higher output and vice versa.
  • Kaukoranta, Ilkka (2009)
    Tässä työssä tutkin empiirisesti kokonaistuotantotilastojen ensimmäisiin julkistuksiin sisältyvän mittausvirheen vaikutusta odotuksiin ja tulevaan tuotantoon. Ensimmäiset kokonaistuotantoa kuvaavat tilastot ovat luonteeltaan ennakollisia, koska tilastojen laatimiseen tarvittavat lähdeaineistot valmistuvat viiveellä. Niinpä ensimmäisiin julkistuksiin sisältyy mittausvirhettä, jota voidaan kuvata viimeisimmän ja ensimmäisen tilastojulkistuksen erotuksena. Olettaen, että kokonaistuotantotilastot auttavat tulevan kokonaistuotannon ennustamisessa, näiden mittausvirheiden pitäisi vaikuttaa makroennusteisiin ja toimijoiden odotuksiin. Jos toimijoiden makroennusteet vaikuttavat tulevaan tuotantoon, niin mittausvirheet vaikuttavat odotusten kautta myös tulevaan tuotantoon. Empiirisen tutkimukseni taustalla oleva teoreettinen oletus on strateginen komplementaarisuus. Kyseessä on oletus, jonka mukaan jokaisen toimijan insentiivi tuottaa on positiivisesti riippuvainen kokonaistuotannon määrästä. Näin ollen tilastojulkistus, jonka mukaan kokonaistuotanto on suurta, luo insentiivin jokaiselle yksittäiselle toimijalle tuottaa enemmän. Strategisen komplementaarisuuden vallitessa mittausvirheet kokonaistuotantotilastoissa voivat aiheuttaa suhdannevaihteluita. Aiemmin tehdyt empiiriset tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että mittausvirheet bruttokansantulossa vaikuttavat tulevaan bruttokansantuloon Yhdysvalloissa. Lisäksi on osoitettu, että mittausvirheet Leading Indicators komposiitti-indikaattorissa vaikuttavat talousennusteisiin ja tulevaan teolliseen tuotantoon Yhdysvalloissa. Työni tavoitteena on yleistää nämä tulokset muihin maihin ja lisäksi selvittää bruttokansantuotteeseen sisältyvän mittausvirheen vaikutusta odotuksiin. Työssäni käsitellään bruttokansantuotteen mittausvirheen vaikutuksia odotuksiin ja tulevaan tuotantoon. Odotusten osalta käytän aineistona ammattiennustajien tekemiä kokonaistuotantoennusteita ja kuluttajabarometria Suomesta ja Yhdysvalloista sekä yritysten suhdannebarometria Suomesta. Tilastollisin menetelmin havaitsin, että mittausvirheet bruttokansantuotteessa vaikuttavat kokonaistuotantoennusteisiin ja yritysten suhdannenäkymiin. Vaikutus kuluttajien luottamukseen on epäselvä. Tutkin bruttokansantuotteen mittausvirheiden vaikutuksia tulevaan tuotantoon Suomen, Yhdysvaltojen, Englannin, Uuden-Seelannin ja Ruotsin aineistoilla. Havaitsin, että bruttokansantuotteen mittausvirheet ovat vaikuttaneet tulevaan kokonaistuotantoon tai investointeihin Suomessa, Yhdysvalloissa, Englannissa ja Ruotsissa. Erityisesti havaitsin, että positiiviset mittausvirheet kasvattivat tuotantoa, kun taas negatiiviset mittausvirheet laskivat tuotantoa seuraavalla neljänneksellä. This thesis studies empirically whether measurement errors in aggregate production statistics affect sentiment and future output. Initial announcements of aggregate production are subject to measurement error, because many of the data required to compile the statistics are produced with a lag. This measurement error can be gauged as the difference between the latest revised statistic and its initial announcement. Assuming aggregate production statistics help forecast future aggregate production, these measurement errors are expected to affect macroeconomic forecasts. Assuming agents macroeconomic forecasts affect their production choices, these measurement errors should affect future output through sentiment. This thesis is primarily empirical, so the theoretical basis, strategic complementarity, is discussed quite briefly. However, it is a model in which higher aggregate production increases each agent s incentive to produce. In this circumstance a statistical announcement which suggests aggregate production is high would increase each agent s incentive to produce, thus resulting in higher aggregate production. In this way the existence of strategic complementarity provides the theoretical basis for output fluctuations caused by measurement mistakes in aggregate production statistics. Previous empirical studies suggest that measurement errors in gross national product affect future aggregate production in the United States. Additionally it has been demonstrated that measurement errors in the Index of Leading Indicators affect forecasts by professional economists as well as future industrial production in the United States. This thesis aims to verify the applicability of these findings to other countries, as well as study the link between measurement errors in gross domestic product and sentiment. This thesis explores the relationship between measurement errors in gross domestic production and sentiment and future output. Professional forecasts and consumer sentiment in the United States and Finland, as well as producer sentiment in Finland, are used as the measures of sentiment. Using statistical techniques it is found that measurement errors in gross domestic product affect forecasts and producer sentiment. The effect on consumer sentiment is ambiguous. The relationship between measurement errors and future output is explored using data from Finland, United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Sweden. It is found that measurement errors have affected aggregate production or investment in Finland, United States, United Kingdom and Sweden. Specifically, it was found that overly optimistic statistics announcements are associated with higher output and vice versa.
  • Kaukoranta, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This thesis studies empirically whether measurement errors in aggregate production statistics affect sentiment and future output. Initial announcements of aggregate production are subject to measurement error, because many of the data required to compile the statistics are produced with a lag. This measurement error can be gauged as the difference between the latest revised statistic and its initial announcement. Assuming aggregate production statistics help forecast future aggregate production, these measurement errors are expected to affect macroeconomic forecasts. Assuming agents’ macroeconomic forecasts affect their production choices, these measurement errors should affect future output through sentiment. This thesis is primarily empirical, so the theoretical basis, strategic complementarity, is discussed quite briefly. However, it is a model in which higher aggregate production increases each agent’s incentive to produce. In this circumstance a statistical announcement which suggests aggregate production is high would increase each agent’s incentive to produce, thus resulting in higher aggregate production. In this way the existence of strategic complementarity provides the theoretical basis for output fluctuations caused by measurement mistakes in aggregate production statistics. Previous empirical studies suggest that measurement errors in gross national product affect future aggregate production in the United States. Additionally it has been demonstrated that measurement errors in the Index of Leading Indicators affect forecasts by professional economists as well as future industrial production in the United States. This thesis aims to verify the applicability of these findings to other countries, as well as study the link between measurement errors in gross domestic product and sentiment. This thesis explores the relationship between measurement errors in gross domestic production and sentiment and future output. Professional forecasts and consumer sentiment in the United States and Finland, as well as producer sentiment in Finland, are used as the measures of sentiment. Using statistical techniques it is found that measurement errors in gross domestic product affect forecasts and producer sentiment. The effect on consumer sentiment is ambiguous. The relationship between measurement errors and future output is explored using data from Finland, United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Sweden. It is found that measurement errors have affected aggregate production or investment in Finland, United States, United Kingdom and Sweden. Specifically, it was found that overly optimistic statistics announcements are associated with higher output and vice versa.
  • Seppä, Laila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present study concentrates on the prospects of domestic apple production and consumption by developing sensory profiles for selected apple cultivars and relating these to consumer responses. The results of the consumer studies indicate that hedonic ratings, individual apple preferences, use frequency and cumulating information affect sensory ratings. Hence, there are markets for sweet and sour as well as for firm and less firm apples, because different products will be needed for different consumer segments to satisfy individual preferences. In this study a method was developed to describe the sensory properties of mature and stored domestic apples for the first time. A lexicon consisting of 20 attributes and procedure for the analysis of apples with generic descriptive analysis were developed by a trained panel. Profiles were constructed for 15 domestic cultivars. To facilitate communication of the cultivar characteristics to a wider audience, the lexicon was further developed to build simplified profiles with nine attributes. Storage induced sensory changes during prolonged storage of 8 to 17 weeks were defined and quantified with the same method for 12 cultivars. Major changes were observed during the follow-up period, but the differences in cultivar performance were large. The storage influenced mostly texture, especially juiciness and mealiness, but some cultivars retained their eating quality well and showed promise for extended storability. The typical characteristics of several cultivars changed considerably in the course of storage, while some cultivars showed a promising capacity to withstand sensory changes for quite a long period of storage. Thus, not only the cultivar but also the storage time defines the sensory properties of an apple. Repeated liking and choices of apples by Finnish apple consumers (n=108) were examined and consumers segmented according to their appreciation of apple characteristics. The results showed that an apple is chosen based not only on the liking of that cultivar, but also disliking the other options. Individual choice criteria and orientations towards certain kinds of apples play also a role in the choice. Initial liking did not entirely explain liking during repeated choices. Apple eaters were clustered into three consumer segments based on whether they preferred sweet & soft or sour & firm apples or apples with medium sourness and medium sweetness. The respondents to an open-ended question regarding their ideal apple (n=122) used over 500 expressions to describe their favourite apple. Of the descriptions, 145 were related to texture, 118 to flavour and 34 to a specific colour. Freshness, cleanness, healthiness, beauty and the origin of apples were mentioned over 100 times, suggesting the importance of the mental image and conception of the product. Hedonic ratings and information available during evaluation were used to explain consumers willingness to pay (WTP) for apples. The effect of individual and cumulating information on hedonic ratings, and further on WTP was studied with experimental auction procedure (n=118). The frequent eaters of domestic apples were more willing to pay a higher price for them than the less frequent eaters. The mean price premium for domestic apples was 2.36 euro/kg, while the frequent eaters were willing to pay over 0.50 euro/kg higher prices. When the ratings of pleasantness and WTP were based on the appearance of the apples only, the differences in the ratings were rather small between the cultivars, while especially tasting revealed clear differences. Pleasantness explained about half of the variation in WTP, but the differences between the cultivars were substantial. The present work lays a cornerstone for the sensory characterisation of domestic apple and invites a fresh and at the same time scientifically based discussion on the topic. Future studies should focus on the most promising cultivars and their storage life as well as on the preferences of different consumer segments. Although additional studies may be needed to examine the storage performance and pleasantness of further cultivars, the study contributes to the understanding of the basis of the preferences and attitudes of domestic apple consumers. While the thesis concentrates on apples, the results will hopefully benefit research on other fruits and berries as well as provide insights to the process of consumer food choices and repeated methods in general.
  • Färkkilä, Matti Evert (2010)
    The British gas industry has experienced a massive structural reorganisation since the 1980’s with the privatisation of the national monopoly company British Gas in 1986 and the ensuing market liberalisation. These developments were largely driven by logic of economic efficiency, and traditional energy policy concerns, such as managing the balance of energy sources and ensuring security of adequate supplies, were not a major concern (Helm, 2005; Stern, 2004). The new approach thus represented a paradigmatic shift from the state monopoly model of the post-war period in which control over energy resources and self-sufficiency took priority. Helm (2005, p.3) argues that since the turn of the millennium another structural break has taken place amounting to a ‘paradigm shift’ as supply security considerations entered the energy policy discourse. The reason is mainly the realisation of the dawning depletion of the UK's domestic resources. The aim of this paper is two-fold: Firstly, to attempt to explain the move to the liberal market paradigm and how it resulted in a structural tendency for a continued opening towards the international markets. A historical institutional perspective will be adopted to account for the liberalisation developments in the 1980’s. Particular attention will be given to the role of ideas in the process. The objective is to demonstrate how the existing institutional arrangements in interplay with ideational currents facilitated the structural change that took place in the gas industry. Furthermore, they necessitated an opening up to the outside, namely towards the European Union (EU). Thereafter, the ideational paradigm shift has had a long-lasting effect on later developments. Secondly, the paper will aim to assess the implications of the new 'security paradigm’ and to what extent it can be considered a change from the 'liberalisation paradigm'. It will be argued that it cannot – at least as yet – be considered a paradigmatic shift in the same sense as liberalisation in the 1980s. The entering of security in the discourse amounts to little more than a defence of the liberalised market structure. The securitisation theory developed by Buzan (1991) and Waever (1995) will be introduced here to be applied on a study on the British government's position on security of supply issues since 2000, as expressed in various government reports on energy policy. It will be shown that market logic and non-interference is justified on security grounds. Lack of European and global liberalisation is presented as the real security problem, thus externalising responsibility.
  • Mattila, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study explores labour relations between domestic workers and employers in India. It is based on interviews with both employers and workers, and ethnographically oriented field work in Jaipur, carried out in 2004-2007. Combining development studies with gender studies, labour studies, and childhood studies, it asks how labour relations between domestic workers and employers are formed in Jaipur, and how female domestic workers trajectories are created. Focusing on female part-time maids and live-in work arrangements, the study analyses children s work in the context of overall work force, not in isolation from it. Drawing on feminist Marxism, domestic labour relations are seen as an arena of struggle. The study takes an empirical approach, showing class through empiria and shows how paid domestic work is structured and stratified through intersecting hierarchies of class, caste, gender, age, ethnicity and religion. The importance of class in domestic labour relations is reiterated, but that of caste, so often downplayed by employers, is also emphasized. Domestic workers are crucial to the functioning of middle and upper middle class households, but their function is not just utilitarian. Through them working women and housewives are able to maintain purity and reproduce class disctinctions, both between poor and middle classes and lower and upper middle classes. Despite commodification of work relations, traditional elements of service relationships have been retained, particularly through maternalist practices such as gift giving, creating a peculiar blend of traditional and market practices. Whilst employers of part-time workers purchase services in a segmented market from a range of workers for specific, traditional live-in workers are also hired to serve employers round the clock. Employers and workers grudgingly acknowledged their dependence on one another, employers seeking various strategies to manage fear of servant crime, such as the hiring of children or not employing live-in workers in dual-earning households. Paid domestic work carries a heavy stigma and provide no entry to other jobs. It is transmitted from mothers to daughters and working girls were often the main income providers in their families. The diversity of working conditions is analysed through a continuum of vulnerability, generic live-in workers, particularly children and unmarried young women with no close family in Jaipur, being the most vulnerable and experienced part-time workers the least vulnerable. Whilst terms of employment are negotiated informally and individually, some informal standards regarding salary and days off existed for maids. However, employers maintain that workings conditions are a matter of individual, moral choice. Their reluctance to view their role as that of employers and the workers as their employees is one of the main stumbling blocks in the way of improved working conditions. Key words: paid domestic work, India, children s work, class, caste, gender, life course
  • Aspola, Lauri (2005)
    Dominoivien yritysten vertikaalisen kontrollin käyttö markkina-asemansa vahvistamiseksi tai sen säilyttämiseksi on viime vuosina herättänyt uutta kiinnostusta toimialan taloustieteessä. Yritykset voivat käyttää vertikaalista kontrollia saavuttaakseen kilpailullisen etulyöntiaseman kilpailijoihinsa nähden. Tässä tutkielmassa tavoitteena on analysoida, kuinka alalla olevat yritykset voivat käyttää panosmarkkinoita (esim. raaka-ainemarkkinoita) luodakseen toimialalle huomattavia esteitä, jotka estävät uusien yritysten tulon toimialalle. Nämä alalle tulon esteet mahdollistavat ylisuurten voittojen saamisen, joita voidaan suojella strategisin toimin. Alalla olevat yritykset voivat toimillaan heikentää niitä ehtoja, jotka ovat odotettavissa alalle tulijalle. Mikäli alalle tulon jälkeinen kilpailu näyttäytyy potentiaaliselle alalle tulijalle liian kovaksi, ei alalle tuloa esiinny. Tutkielmassa perehdytään laajasti tyypillisiin alalle tulon esteisiin homogeenisten tuotteiden markkinoilla. Lisäksi muodostetaan uskottavan alalle tulon eston perusehdot. Lisäksi osoitetaan, kuinka strateginen käyttäytyminen panosmarkkinoilla voi toimia alalle tulon esteenä, sekä analysoidaan, kuinka vertikaaliset suhteet vaikuttavat alalle tulon esteisiin. Kappaleessa kaksi käsitellään alalle tulon ehtoja, sekä esteitä alalle tuloon. Polasky ja Bin (2001) ovat esittäneet mallin alalle tulon estosta uusiutumattomien luonnonvarojen tapauksessa, ja se käsitellään tarkemmin. Kolmas kappale tutkii vertikaalisten suhteiden vaikutusta mahdollisiin alalle tulon eston strategioihin. Keskeisimmät artikkelit ovat Salop ja Scheffman (1987) sekä Aghion ja Bolton (1987), joissa keskeisimpiä tutkimuskysymyksiä on analysoitu tarkemmin. Tutkin, kuinka vertikaalista integraatiota voidaan käyttää hyväksi kilpailijan kustannusten nostamiseksi, sekä miten sopimukset voivat toimia alalle tulon esteinä. On osoitettavissa, että vertikaalinen integraatio sekä sopimukset voivat toimia strategisina välineinä alalle tulon estoon.
  • Aspola, Lauri (2005)
    In recent years there has been renewed interest in, and concern about, firms" use of vertical control as a way to exert market power. Such behavior could be used to gain a competitive advantage over rivals in input and/or output markets. In the following paper, the main purpose is to analyse how incumbent firms' behavior at input markets may create substantial barriers to potential entry. The importance of studying input markets arises in the context of possible entry deterrence strategies, because actions at input markets might be the only credible way to affect negatively to the potential entrants costs. This conversely, affects substantially to the entrants" expected post-entry profits, which in turn, is the key element while entrants are making their entry decisions. Based on a vast literature review, I present the common entry barriers in the homogeneous goods industries and analyse the basic conditions for credible entry deterrence. It is also shown how strategic behavior in input markets can be used to deter possible entry, and how vertical relations affect to entry barriers. Chapter two covers the literature concerning entry, and barriers to entry. Based on an article by Polasky and Bin (2001) a more thorough examination of entry deterrence in a non-renewable resources model is covered. Chapter three analyzes the potential effects of entry deterring strategies by focusing on the issues concerning vertical relations. Mainly based on articles by Salop and Scheffman (1987) and Aghion and Bolton (1987) two central issues are analyzed: (i) how vertical integration might be used to raise rivals' costs, and (ii) how contracts can create entry barriers. It is shown that vertical integration and contracts may act as possible entry deterring tools for the incumbent firms.
  • Jauhiainen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is a study of the forms and functions of feasts and feasting in the ancient Egyptian village of Deir el-Medina in Thebes (modern Luxor). This particular village, during the New Kingdom (c. 1550 1069 BC), was inhabited by the men (and their families) who constructed the Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. The royal artisans were probably more literate than the average Egyptians and the numerous Ramesside Period (c. 1295 1069 BC) non-literary texts found in the excavations of the village and its surroundings form the source material for this study. In this study, the methods used are mainly Egyptological and the references to feasts and feasting are considered in view of what is known of New Kingdom Egypt, Thebes, and Deir el-Medina. Nevertheless, it is the use of the methodological concept local vernacular religion that has resulted in the division of the research findings into two sections, i.e., references to feasts celebrated both in and outside the community and other references to feasts and feasting in the village. When considering the function of the feasts celebrated at Deir el-Medina, a functional approach to feasts introduced by anthropologists and archaeologists is utilized. The Deir el-Medina feasts which were associated with the official religion form a festival calendar of feasts celebrated annually on the same civil calendar day. The reconstructed festival calendar of Deir el-Medina reflects the feasts celebrated around Thebes or, at least, in Western Thebes. The function of the nationally and regionally observed feasts (which, at least at Deir el-Medina, resulted in a work-free day) may have been to keep people content so that they would continue to work which was to the advantage of the king and the elite surrounding him. Local feasts appear to have been observed more irregularly at Deir el-Medina or perhaps according to the lunar calendar. Feasts celebrated by the community as a whole served to maintain the unity of the group. In addition to feasts celebrated by the entire community, the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina could mark their own personal feasts and organize small gatherings during public feasts. Through such feasts, an individual man might form alliances and advance his chances of a favourable marriage or of acquiring a position on the work crew.
  • Saukkonen, Anni (2015)
    Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi (ALS) on etenevä lopulta kuolemaan johtava tahdonalaisia liikehermoja rappeuttava sairaus, johon ei tällä hetkellä ole parantavaa hoitoa. Lihastoiminnan vaikeutuminen ja lopulta hengityslihaksiston toiminnan lakkaaminen johtavat kuolemaan keskimäärin 1-3 vuotta diagnoosin saamisesta. Periytyvä tyyppi eli familiaarinen ALS (fALS) kattaa noin 5-10 % tapauksista ja loput 90-95 %:a tapauksista ovat syntysyiltään tuntemattomia eli sporadisia (sALS), mutta oireiltaan fALS:ia vastaavia. Tyypillisesti ALS:iin sairastutaan keskimäärin 40-60 –vuotiaana ja maailmanlaajuinen ilmaantuvuus on vuositasolla 1-2/100000. Äskettäin löydetty dopamiinisolujen hermokasvutekijä, CDNF, (engl. cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor), on osoittautunut tehokkaaksi dopaminergisiä hermosoluja suojaavaksi Parkinsonin tautimallissa. Lisäksi tiedetään, että CDNF:ää esiintyy hiirten lihaksissa luonnostaan ja sen tehtäviin kuuluu muun muassa solujen suojaaminen ER–stressiltä, joka on yksi ALS:in patofysiologiaan liittyvä tekijä. Tämän tiedon valossa onkin perusteltua tutkia CDNF:n vaikutuksia ALS:in eläinmallissa, jotta tällä hetkellä ainoalle myyntiluvan saaneelle lääkkeelle, anti-glutaminergiselle rilutsolille, saataisiin vaihtoehtoisia hoitomuotoja. Tässä tutkimuksessa oli tarkoituksena selvittää, voiko CDNF ehkäistä liikehermosolujen tuhoa sekä parantaa motorista suorituskykyä käyttäytymiskokeissa ALS:in geneettisessä SOD1– hiirimallissa. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli tutkia immunohistokemiallisin menetelmin sekä radioaktiivisuusmittauksin, miten CDNF leviää aivokammioannon jälkeen. Hypoteesina oli, että CDNF leviää selkäydinnesteen mukana selkäytimeen ja sitä kautta liikehermosolujen ympäristöön sekä osoittaa hermosoluja suojaavia ominaisuuksia kyseisessä SOD1-hiirimallissa.
  • Kainlauri, Tarja (2012)
    Pro gradu tutkielmani aiheena oli tutkia koirien (Canis familiaris) saalistushalukkuutta ja persoonallisuutta sekä näiden mahdollista yhteyttä dopamiinireseptori D4 –geeniin (myöh. DRD4-geeni). DRD4-geeni ilmenee lähinnä hermosoluissa ja se vaikuttaa erityisesti aivojen limbisen järjestelmän toimintaan. Limbinen järjestelmä säätelee tunnetiloja ja tunteisiin liittyviä autonomisia toimintoja sekä motivaatiota eli samoja asioita, joihin dopamiinin tiedetään vaikuttavan. Dopamiini vaikuttaa elimistöön sitoutumalla esimerkiksi aivojen limbisen alueen dopamiinireseptoreihin. Dopamiinin on havaittu liittyvän assosiatiiviseen oppimiseen ja DRD4-geenin puolestaan mm. aktiivisuuteen ja impulsiivisuuteen sekä uteliaisuuteen mistä syystä se valittiinkin kandidaattigeeniksemme tutkimukseen. Koira puolestaan sopii erityisen hyvin mallilajiksi kandidaattigeenitutkimukseen, koska koirarodut ovat geneettisiä isolaatteja ja eroavat toisistaan niin rakenteensa kuin käyttäytymisensäkin puolesta. Kytkentäepätasapaino eli alleeliassosiaatio on koirissa huomattavasti voimakkaampaa kuin ihmisissä ja siten koiralta on merkittävästi helpompaa löytää mm. tautigeenejä. Koirilla kytkentäepätasapaino yltää noin 2 Mb laajuudelle, kun vastaava luku ihmisellä on vain noin 0,28 Mb. Tutkimuksen 405 suursnautserin ja saksanpaimenkoiran saalistushalukkuus testattiin koiran luonteenkuvauksesta eli MH-testistä tutulla viehetestillä. Viehetestissä koiran edestä yllättäen ”pakenee” saalista muistuttava mutkittelevasti kulkeva kankainen viehe. Koirien suoritukset viehetestissä videoitiin ja suoritukset luokiteltiin neljään luokkaan äärimmäisen saalistushalukkaasta saalistushaluttomaan. Muita persoonallisuuspiirteitä tutkittiin koirien omistajien täyttämien luonnelomakkeiden avulla. Kaikista viehetestillä testatuista koirista otettiin verinäytteet, joista eristettiin DNA. Saalistustestissä äärimmäisen saalistushalukkaat ja täysin saalistushaluttomat saksanpaimenkoirat (N=44) valittiin DRD4-geenin alleeliassosiaatiotutkimukseen. Tutkittavaa geenialuetta monistettiin käyttämällä alleelispesifejä alukkeita PCR-reaktiossa. Tutkimuksen koirista löydettiin DRD4-geenin alleeleja 2 ja 3a. Luonnelomakeaineiston taustalta paljastui faktorianalyysin avulla neljä faktoria: sosiaalisuus ihmisiä kohtaan, leikkisyys ja aktiivisuus, aggressiivisuus koiria kohtaan sekä rohkeus. Näistä ensimmäinen assosioitui merkittävästi alleelin 3a kanssa. Koirat jotka kantoivat tätä alleelia olivat vähemmän aggressiivisia ihmisiä kohtaan kuin koirat, joilla 3a-alleelia ei ollut. Saalistushalukkuuteen kumpikaan alleeleista eikä mikään genotyypeistä assosioitunut. Saalistushalukkuutta kokonaisaineistossa selitti parhaiten leikkisyys ja aktiivisuus. Rodut erosivat toisistaan ihmisiin ja koiriin suuntautuvalta aggressiivisuudeltaan siten, että saksanpaimenkoirat olivat suursnautsereita aggressiivisempia.
  • Kajos, Miina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    1-Bentsyylipiperatsiini (BZP) on viime vuosina laittomille markkinoille ilmaantunut ns. design-huume, jonka on todettu muistuttavan vaikutuksiltaan amfetamiinia. Sen myynti tapahtuu tyypillisesti tanssiklubeilla ja Internetin välityksellä. Esimerkiksi Yhdysvalloissa BZP on luokiteltu laittomaksi, mutta suurimmassa osassa maailmaa aine on huumausainelainsäädännön ulkopuolella. Suomesta ainetta takavarikoitiin neljästi vuosina 2002-04. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään ehdollistetun paikkahakuisuuskokeen avulla, onko BZP:lla palkitsevia ominaisuuksia. Kokeessa koe-eläimet opetetaan yhdistämään tutkittavan aineen vaikutukset tiettyyn ympäristöön, ja mikäli eläin alkaa tämän jälkeen suosia ympäristöä, eli aine aiheuttaa paikkahakuisuutta, tulkitaan aineella olevan palkitsevia ominaisuuksia. Palkitsevien ominaisuuksien katsotaan heijastavan aineen riippuvuuspotentiaalia, sillä useimpien ihmisten väärinkäyttämien aineiden on todettu aiheuttavan ehdollistettua paikkahakuisuutta. BZP:n todettiin aiheuttavan rotille ehdollistettua paikkahakuisuutta annosriippuvaisesti, minkä jälkeen selvitettiin reseptorisalpaajien avulla dopamiinireseptorien merkitystä paikkahakuisuuden synnylle. Dopamiini-1-, eli D1-reseptorisalpaus esti paikkahakuisuuden, kun taas D2-salpauksella ei ollut siihen vaikutusta. Kokeiden perusteella BZP:lla on palkitsevia vaikutuksia, jotka välittyvät D1-, mutteivät D2-reseptorien kautta. Tulokset viittaavat BZP:lla olevan väärinkäyttö- ja riippuvuuspotentiaalia, minkä vuoksi olisi perusteltua, että se kuuluisi lainsäädännöllisesti samaan kategoriaan mm. amfetamiinin kanssa.
  • Rosendahl, Vesa (2005)
    Työssä tarkastellaan urheilun dopingilmiötä ja siihen liittyviä taloustieteellisiä sovelluksia. Teorian tueksi esitellään ensin dopingilmiötä, dopingin historiaa sekä valvontakäytäntöä. Lisäksi pohditaan mitkä ovat urheilijan päätöksentekoon vaikuttavat seikat dopingin osalta. Työn tarkoituksena on esitellä keinoja, joilla dopingvalvontaa voitaisiin tehostaa ja kustannuksia laskettua sekä tutkia onko suomalaisessa dopingvalvonnassa otettu askelia taloustieteellisten mallien suosittelemaan suuntaan. Työssä käytettävän peliteoreettisen mallin pohjana on Alexander Berentsenin artikkelissaan Economics of doping esittelemä malli, jota on joiltakin osin muokattu vastaamaan paremmin tämän työn tarpeita. Mallista huomataan dopingvalvonnan tarpeellisuus ja saadaan useita mahdollisuuksia, joilla valvontaa voidaan kehittää. Tehokkaimmaksi tavaksi dopingin käytön hillitsemiseksi havaitaan taloudelliset sanktiot, jotka olisivat riippuvaisia urheilijoiden tuloista. Parhaiten tämä onnistuisi, jos urheilijoiden palkkioiden saamisen ehtona olisi negatiiviset dopingnäytteet pitkältä aikaväliltä ennen ja jälkeen palkkioon oikeuttavaa kilpailusuoritusta. Teorian lisäksi esitellään suomalaisten lajiliittojen suhtautumista vapaaehtoisiin dopingrangaistusmenettelyihin. Liitoille lähetettiin keväällä 2004 asiaa kokeva kysely, johon saatiin vastaus lähes kaikilta merkittäviltä yksilöurheiluliitoilta. Vastauksista havaitaan, että menettelyt eri liitoissa ovat varsin kirjavia, mutta osa liitoista suhtautuu asiaan, kuten tässä työssä esiteltävä teoria suosittelee.