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  • Holli, Anne Maria (2003)
    The article dissertation analysed Finnish discourse and politics for gender equality from the late 1960s to the late 1990s. Three questions were investigated: How was the discourse on gender equality organised and how did it change over time? What were the strategies and impact of women's policy offices and women's movements? What are the possibilities for women to pursue change via gender equality, public policies and the state in more general terms? The study outlined a more post-structuralist inspired version of the feminist-discursive approach to gender equality, which analyses gender equality as part of social discourse and pays attention to its political consequences and implications. The data consisted of statements by women's policy offices and women's movements, policy documents, press materials and interviews. The study applied various text analysis methods to the data. The study described changes in the Finnish concept and discourse of gender equality from 1970s to 1990s. The masculine normativity of gender equality was in the 1980s replaced by a more radical conceptualisation, partly thanks to the activity of the Council for Gender Equality between Men and Women. The new version could be utilised by women for change without them giving up their sexual difference. Simultaneously, support of gender equality as a norm expanded in Finnish society. In the 1990s, the tide turned: the potential for change diminished as gender equality was conceptualised as an already 'present' characteristic in Finnish society, which also legitimised the idea that there was nothing left to do. The analysis also shows that, comparatively speaking, the policy success of Finnish women's movements in gendering public policies has been above average. In the context of moderately closed policy sub-systems and left-wing governmental power, women's movements tended to be successful, if they only managed to mobilise to a sufficient degree on an issue. However, in the Finnish context, the characteristics of the political environment also seem to affect the possibility of movement mobilisation. Women's policy agencies were very effective linkages between the women's movements and the state. The prominent role played by these agencies can be understood by their participation in the "strategic partnerships" typical to Finnish women's activity. However, the analysis of the actual policy change modified to some degree the results concerning women's policy success and the responsiveness of the state. Women's demands met an invisible barrier in both job training and prostitution policy. However, in job training women's substantive impact was more limited, due to the closed sub-system and the strong vested interests that excluded women. On the basis of the empirical analyses, the study also aimed at providing partial and situated answers to the questions concerning the nature of the concept of gender equality and the relation between women and the state, which have been prominent in feminist theory. The results can be condensed into the notion that feminist studies should avoid too simplistic viewpoints and start paying more attention to the multifaceted and contextualised character of both gender equality and the state.
  • Gutierrez Zamora, Violeta (2014)
    Currently La Via Campesina plays an important role in the political field of food and agriculture, and as some scholars from rural and development studies have highlighted (Desmarais 2007; Patel 2006; Wittman 2009; Martínez-Torres and Rosset 2010; Borras 2010) it has increased the visibility of peasants and other agrarian workers among international actors within the international political field of food and agriculture. In addition, La Via Campesina has challenged important concepts used in international development agencies, such as food security, with the formulation of new notions like Food Sovereignty. For long time the neglected voices of peasants are gaining recognition in the international arena and thereby contributing in political debates over rural development and more recently in environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, as some activists have declared and researchers have exposed (Edelman 2003, Borras 2010; Desmarais 2007, 2008) bringing together such diverse organizations has not been an easy task and requires great efforts. Few scholars (Desmarais 2007, Borras 2008) have analyzed the relationships between organizations within this transnational social movement and there is a trend of studying La Via Campesina on a world scale and assumed as a homogenous actor. This leads to a problematic supposition that La Via Campesina is a homogenous unity rather than a field of action (Borras, 2010) where different identities, claims and contexts converge, and as such cannot be free of conflicts. The aim of this Master’s thesis is to explore the dynamics between La Via Campesina as a transnational social movement and two Mexican peasant organization members of the movement: Unión Nacional de Organizaciones Regionales Campesinas Autónomas (UNORCA) and Asociación Nacional de Empresas Comercializadoras de Productores del Campo (ANEC). The former has been one of the key founding members of La Vía Campesina and remain the main organization functioning as a representative within the Regional Coordination; the later has had a limited involvement in the recent years and has questioned the effectiveness of participation in La Via Campesina’s representation structures, particularly in the North American region. The findings of this thesis present that empty signifiers as “Peasant” and “Food sovereignty” enables that these groups achieve to develop temporary attachments in which they perceive themselves as part of this transnational movement.However, in Mexico both organizations have had persistent differences and conflicts that did not allow them to work together in the construction of common strategies. Consequently, this blocked the construction of a solid coalition with La Via Campesina North American regional coordination.
  • Hyttinen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The causal relationships determining the behaviour of a system under study are inherently directional: by manipulating a cause we can control its effect, but an effect cannot be used to control its cause. Understanding the network of causal relationships is necessary, for example, if we want to predict the behaviour in settings where the system is subject to different manipulations. However, we are rarely able to directly observe the causal processes in action; we only see the statistical associations they induce in the collected data. This thesis considers the discovery of the fundamental causal relationships from data in several different learning settings and under various modeling assumptions. Although the research is mostly theoretical, possible application areas include biology, medicine, economics and the social sciences. Latent confounders, unobserved common causes of two or more observed parts of a system, are especially troublesome when discovering causal relations. The statistical dependence relations induced by such latent confounders often cannot be distinguished from directed causal relationships. Possible presence of feedback, that induces a cyclic causal structure, provides another complicating factor. To achieve informative learning results in this challenging setting, some restricting assumptions need to be made. One option is to constrain the functional forms of the causal relationships to be smooth and simple. In particular, we explore how linearity of the causal relations can be effectively exploited. Another common assumption under study is causal faithfulness, with which we can deduce the lack of causal relations from the lack of statistical associations. Along with these assumptions, we use data from randomized experiments, in which the system under study is observed under different interventions and manipulations. In particular, we present a full theoretical foundation of learning linear cyclic models with latent variables using second order statistics in several experimental data sets. This includes sufficient and necessary conditions on the different experimental settings needed for full model identification, a provably complete learning algorithm and characterization of the underdetermination when the data do not allow for full model identification. We also consider several ways of exploiting the faithfulness assumption for this model class. We are able to learn from overlapping data sets, in which different (but overlapping) subsets of variables are observed. In addition, we formulate a model class called Noisy-OR models with latent confounding. We prove sufficient and worst case necessary conditions for the identifiability of the full model and derive several learning algorithms. The thesis also suggests the optimal sets of experiments for the identification of the above models and others. For settings without latent confounders, we develop a Bayesian learning algorithm that is able to exploit non-Gaussianity in passively observed data.
  • Marttinen, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Advancements in the analysis techniques have led to a rapid accumulation of biological data in databases. Such data often are in the form of sequences of observations, examples including DNA sequences and amino acid sequences of proteins. The scale and quality of the data give promises of answering various biologically relevant questions in more detail than what has been possible before. For example, one may wish to identify areas in an amino acid sequence, which are important for the function of the corresponding protein, or investigate how characteristics on the level of DNA sequence affect the adaptation of a bacterial species to its environment. Many of the interesting questions are intimately associated with the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the items under consideration. The aim of this work is to develop novel statistical models and computational techniques to meet with the challenge of deriving meaning from the increasing amounts of data. Our main concern is on modeling the evolutionary relationships based on the observed molecular data. We operate within a Bayesian statistical framework, which allows a probabilistic quantification of the uncertainties related to a particular solution. As the basis of our modeling approach we utilize a partition model, which is used to describe the structure of data by appropriately dividing the data items into clusters of related items. Generalizations and modifications of the partition model are developed and applied to various problems. Large-scale data sets provide also a computational challenge. The models used to describe the data must be realistic enough to capture the essential features of the current modeling task but, at the same time, simple enough to make it possible to carry out the inference in practice. The partition model fulfills these two requirements. The problem-specific features can be taken into account by modifying the prior probability distributions of the model parameters. The computational efficiency stems from the ability to integrate out the parameters of the partition model analytically, which enables the use of efficient stochastic search algorithms.
  • Haiminen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Toivonen, Hannu (Helsingin yliopisto, 1996)
  • Faccio, Greta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Enzymes offer many advantages in industrial processes, such as high specificity, mild treatment conditions and low energy requirements. Therefore, the industry has exploited them in many sectors including food processing. Enzymes can modify food properties by acting on small molecules or on polymers such as carbohydrates or proteins. Crosslinking enzymes such as tyrosinases and sulfhydryl oxidases catalyse the formation of novel covalent bonds between specific residues in proteins and/or peptides, thus forming or modifying the protein network of food. In this study, novel secreted fungal proteins with sequence features typical of tyrosinases and sulfhydryl oxidases were iden-tified through a genome mining study. Representatives of both of these enzyme families were selected for heterologous produc-tion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and biochemical characterisation. Firstly, a novel family of putative tyrosinases carrying a shorter sequence than the previously characterised tyrosinases was discovered. These proteins lacked the whole linker and C-terminal domain that possibly play a role in cofactor incorporation, folding or protein activity. One of these proteins, AoCO4 from Aspergillus oryzae, was produced in T. reesei with a production level of about 1.5 g/l. The enzyme AoCO4 was correctly folded and bound the copper cofactors with a type-3 copper centre. However, the enzyme had only a low level of activity with the phenolic substrates tested. Highest activity was obtained with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Since tyrosine was not a substrate for AoCO4, the enzyme was classified as catechol oxidase. Secondly, the genome analysis for secreted proteins with sequence features typical of flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidases pinpointed two previously uncharacterised proteins AoSOX1 and AoSOX2 from A. oryzae. These two novel sulfhydryl oxidases were produced in T. reesei with production levels of 70 and 180 mg/l, respectively, in shake flask cultivations. AoSOX1 and AoSOX2 were FAD-dependent enzymes with a dimeric tertiary structure and they both showed activity on small sulfhydryl compounds such as glutathione and dithiothreitol, and were drastically inhibited by zinc sulphate. AoSOX2 showed good stabil-ity to thermal and chemical denaturation, being superior to AoSOX1 in this respect. Thirdly, the suitability of AoSOX1 as a possible baking improver was elucidated. The effect of AoSOX1, alone and in combi-nation with the widely used improver ascorbic acid was tested on yeasted wheat dough, both fresh and frozen, and on fresh water-flour dough. In all cases, AoSOX1 had no effect on the fermentation properties of fresh yeasted dough. AoSOX1 nega-tively affected the fermentation properties of frozen doughs and accelerated the damaging effects of the frozen storage, i.e. giving a softer dough with poorer gas retention abilities than the control. In combination with ascorbic acid, AoSOX1 gave harder doughs. In accordance, rheological studies in yeast-free dough showed that the presence of only AoSOX1 resulted in weaker and more extensible dough whereas a dough with opposite properties was obtained if ascorbic acid was also used. Doughs containing ascorbic acid and increasing amounts of AoSOX1 were harder in a dose-dependent manner. Sulfhydryl oxidase AoSOX1 had an enhancing effect on the dough hardening mechanism of ascorbic acid. This was ascribed mainly to the produc-tion of hydrogen peroxide in the SOX reaction which is able to convert the ascorbic acid to the actual improver dehydroascorbic acid. In addition, AoSOX1 could possibly oxidise the free glutathione in the dough and thus prevent the loss of dough strength caused by the spontaneous reduction of the disulfide bonds constituting the dough protein network. Sulfhydryl oxidase AoSOX1 is therefore able to enhance the action of ascorbic acid in wheat dough and could potentially be applied in wheat dough baking.
  • Pietilä, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Extremophiles are found in all three domains of cellular life but especially archaea are able to withstand harsh conditions. Halophilic archaea thrive in hypersaline environments like salt lakes and salterns which have been shown to contain high abundance of virus-like particles. So far, head-tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting haloarchaea, which is in contrast to a variety of morphologies described for the viruses of hyper-thermophilic archaea. Altogether, approximately 100 archaeal viruses have been isolated but only a fraction of them has been subjected to detailed structural analyses. In this thesis, a novel haloarchaeal virus, Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1), was isolated from a solar saltern. This virus was shown to have a flexible, pleomorphic vesicle-like virion devoid of a rigid protein capsid. The genome analyses revealed that HRPV-1 is the first archaeal virus to be isolated which does not have a double-stranded but a single-stranded DNA genome. A genomic region of HRPV-1 showed similarity to the genome of another haloarchaeal virus, Haloarcula hispanica virus 2 (His2), as well as to the genome of Haloarcula marismortui and Natronomonas pharaonis indicating that HRPV-1-like elements are widespread. Consistent with this, pleomorphic viruses resembling HRPV-1 and infecting haloarchaea of the genera Haloarcula, Halorubrum and Halogeometricum have subsequently been isolated from geographically distant locations, and this study was extended to altogether seven viruses. All these viruses were sensitive to lowered ionic strength confirming their halophilic nature. Based on the virion properties, these haloviruses were defined as pleolipoviruses. Life-cycle studies showed that the pleolipoviruses are nonlytic and progeny virions are produced continuously resulting in host growth retardation. The most likely exit mechanism is budding which is consistent with the observation that the pleolipoviruses acquire their lipids unselectively from the host lipid pool. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, and biochemical dissociation studies showed that the larger-sized proteins form spike-like protrusions on the virion surface and the smaller-sized proteins are embedded in the inner surface of the membrane vesicle. The three-dimensional virion structure of HRPV-1 revealed that the spike structures are randomly distributed on the virion surface. The genome of the pleolipoviruses is enclosed in a lipid vesicle without associated nucleoproteins. Although the pleolipoviruses have different genome types, single- or double-stranded, circular or linear DNA, the membrane vesicle-based virion architecture is conserved. This work introduced a novel group of pleomorphic viruses infecting extremely halophilic archaea and showed that vesicle-like virion architecture is common in hypersaline environments. Interestingly, the archaeal pleolipoviruses were observed to share several similarities with a bacterial mycoplasmavirus indicating that these viruses may form a viral lineage with an ancient origin.
  • Vartia, Olli (2013)
    Porous structures, such as foams make excellent thermal insulators. This happens because thermal transfer by conduction is hindered by the voids in the material. However, heat can still radiate through the material or just past the voids. Due to Stefan-Boltzmann law, heat transfer by radiation can be especially significant for large temperatures, and it follows that thermal transfer models that account for radiation may be necessary in some cases. Several existing models for radiative thermal transfer in porous materials, such as continuum models and Monte Carlo, have been used in the past. What many of these models tend to have in common, is that they are highly specific to the systems they were originally made for and require some rather limiting approximations. A more general method which would only require knowing the material and the geometry of the system would be useful. One candidate for such a method, discrete dipole approximation for periodic structures, was tested. In the discrete dipole approximation a structure is discretized into a collection of polarizable points, or dipoles and an incoming electromagnetic planewave is set to polarize it. This has the benefits that it accurately takes into account the target geometry and possible near field effects. It was found that this method is limited for high wavelength, by computation time and for small wavelengths by errors. The cause of the errors for small wavelengths was not entirely caused by the discretization and remains not fully understood.
  • Mehtälä, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Continuous-time Markov processes with a finite state space can be used to model countless real world phenomena. Therefore, researchers often encounter the problem of estimating the transition rates that govern the dynamics of such processes. Ideally, the estimation of transition rates would be based on observed transition times between the states in the model, i.e., on continuous-time observation of the process. However, in many practical applications only the current status of the process can be observed on a pre-defined set of time points (discrete-time observations). The estimation of transition rates is considerably more challenging when based on discrete-time data as compared to continuous observation. The difficulty arises from missing data due to the unknown evolution of the process between the actual observation times. To be able to estimate the rates reliably, additional constraints on how they vary in time will usually be necessary. A real world application considered in this thesis involves the asymptomatic carriage state (colonisation) with the bacterium \textit{Streptococcus pneumoniae} (the pneumococcus). The pneumococcus has over 90 strains and for understanding the dynamics of the pneumococcus among humans it is important to understand within-host competition between these strains. Research questions regarding competition in this thesis are: does colonisation by one serotype protect from acquisition of other serotypes and is clearance affected by concurrent colonisation by other serotypes? A question regarding the implication of competition to pneumococcal dynamics after vaccination is also of interest. In addition, vaccine protection may be heterogeneous across individuals, leading to a question about how well such vaccine protection can be estimated from discrete-time data. When only discrete-time observations are available, the decision when to measure the current status of the process is particularly important. With measurements that are temporally apart from each other, information about the state of the process at one point does not give information about the state at the other points. When measurements are very close to each other, knowing the state at one point bears information about the state at other, temporally close points. This thesis addresses the estimation of transition rates based on repeated observations of the current status of an underlying continuous-time Markov process. Applications to actual data concern the process of pneumococcal colonisation. Optimal study designs are considered for improved future studies of similar type, applications including but not limited to pneumococcal colonisation studies.
  • Martiskainen de Koenigswarter, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Discursive Matrixes of Motherhood examines women's discourse on their experiences of new motherhood in Finland and France. It sets out from two culturally prevalent turns of speech observed in different social forums: in conversations amongst mothers with tertiary education and in the print media. The pool of data includes: 30 interviews, 8 autobiographically inspired novels and 80 items from women's magazines. With instruments loaned from the toolbox of rhetorical analysis, the recurrence of certain expressions or clichés is analyzed with regard to the national, cultural, biographical, political and daily contexts and settings in which the speaking subjects are immersed. "Staying at home is such a short and special time", the first expression under scrutiny, caught the sociological eye because of its salience in Finland and because it appeared as contradictory with a core characteristic of the Finnish context:long family leave. The cliché was found to function as a discursive micromechanism which swept mothers' 'complaints' under the proverbial carpet. Proper emotions and decency in mother-talk thereby appear as collective achievements. An opposite phenomenon - that of the scaling up of rewards procured by children - was also discerned in the data. Indeed, the French expression "Profiter de mon enfant" ["making the most of my child"/"enjoying my child"] is interpreted as a crystallization of a hedonist ethos of motherhood in everyday language. Secondly, the recurrence of this utterance is analyzed in the light of a requisite located in child-rearing expert literature: that of pleasure that women should take in mothering. Hence, one of the rules found to structure the discursive matrixes of motherhood is the laudability and audibility of enjoyment and conversely the discretion and discouragement of 'complaints'. The cultivation of decent matches between certain categories of emotions and certain categories of individuals also appears as a characteristic of discursive matrixes. One of the methodological findings relates to the fact that such matches may be constituted as sociological objects through the identification of recurrent discursive crystallizations in a given culture. Ideal matches may crystallize in turns of speech and mismatches can be managed through clichés. Becoming a mother entails an immersion in such a particular economy of speech. Key words: mothers, motherhood, transition to parenthood, family, emotions, morality, bonds, rhetorical analysis, discourse analysis, media analysis, France, Finland, comparative sociology
  • Falk, Hanna (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, 2013)
    This dissertation examines the institutional interaction in the treatment of anorexic patients. The research describes how challenges of the treatment of adolescent eating disordered patients described in the literature and standard care guidelines are visible in the interaction of the treatment discussions between the professionals and the patients. This study shows how these different challenges and central concepts are visible in the interaction, how they are manifested by interactional choices and how the challenges are thus reproduced in the interaction. The four empirical chapters look at the professionals interactional ways of pursuing the patient s recognition of illness, confronting her by suggesting a problem in the treatment and producing psycho educative turns using a supportive, understanding approach . One chapter focuses on the psychiatrist s ways of creating a co-operational, shared situation in a half-structured diagnostic interview. The last empirical chapter examines the notion of resistance from the patient s perspective: the patient s ways of producing resisting turns using the turn-initial I don t know. The data consists of one-on-one discussions between the patients and professionals involved in the treatment. All the patients in this data suffer from anorexia nervosa and are 13-17-year-old girls in the fairly early stages of this treatment program. The analysis is conducted using conversation analysis as method. The main result is that the central challenges considered by the professionals involved in the treatment can be clearly pinpointed in the interaction. The analysis of this study shows that professionals use specific interactional ways to work with the different challenges and to implement an approach. One central finding of this study is that professionals use the patients own words to carry out their interactional projects, be it suggesting a problem in the patient s thoughts and desires or producing psycho educative turns. The study shows on the level of immediate interaction how professionals direct the discussion towards showing patients their relation to the illness, its symptoms, and the actions they take due to the illness. The study also shows how patients carry out the resistance mentioned in the textbooks. On the level of immediate interaction, resistance is not by any means limited to a clear denial of the illness or unco-operative behavior. The results relate strongly to results found in conversation analytical studies on psychotherapeutic interaction and interaction concerning the treatment of addictions.
  • Kervinen, Silja (2008)
    This paper explores the role of the press in shaping US foreign policy towards an international conflict. Its theoretical basis draws from the fields of Peace and Conflict Research and Communication Studies. It combines these two research traditions to construct a framework that defines the relations between the media, the political leadership and the public, and describes the role of each in the formation of US political response to an international conflict. The paper examines US press coverage of the Darfur conflict through the New York Times and the Washington Post reporting on the issue. It explores the kind of understanding provided by the press on the conflict, the US role as an international actor and the nature and extent of US responsibility to respond to the conflict and the related humanitarian crisis. It also describes the role the press had in advocating policy options to the administration and in increasing public pressure on the administration to implement them. The findings reveal that the US press presented the conflict with a focus on its victims. It appealed emotionally to the common responsibility of humanity to protect the victims against the villains and called for the Bush administration to lead the world’s response. Because the administration failed to meet this demand, the press portrayed its Darfur policy from an overwhelmingly negative perspective. The accusation levelled against the administration by the press was that the only unifying motivation behind its policy on Darfur was to pass on responsibility to others, among them its Sudanese counterpart, which Washington was far too willing to treat as a cooperative partner. Washington argued that it was working gradually towards a solution from the inside, between Khartoum and the Darfur rebels. Meanwhile the press demanded for a solution to be immediately imposed on the parties from the outside and considered it immoral to negotiate on the terms of Khartoum, which it portrayed as the villain. In its continuous criticism of the Bush administration, the press potentially contributed to the gradual increase of pressure to scale up the administration’s response to Darfur. That response eventually took the form of intensified diplomatic negotiations with Khartoum, economic sanctions on individuals responsible for violence in Darfur and humanitarian relief to victims. The response fell short of the more urgent and coercive measures demanded by the press. It is possible that the administration’s response was mainly directed at demonstrating to the impatient press, the lobby groups and the public that it was working on the crisis, while avoiding politically and financially costlier commitments.
  • Taipale, Risto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources, vegetation being the dominant source on a global scale. Some of these reactive compounds are deemed major contributors or inhibitors to aerosol particle formation and growth, thus making VOC measurements essential for current climate change research. This thesis discusses ecosystem scale VOC fluxes measured above a boreal Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland. The flux measurements were performed using the micrometeorological disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), which is an online technique for measuring VOC concentrations. The measurement, calibration, and calculation procedures developed in this work proved to be well suited to long-term VOC concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS. A new averaging approach based on running averaged covariance functions improved the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements, which is a common challenge in DEC when measuring fluxes near the detection limit. The ecosystem scale emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone were substantial. These three oxygenated VOCs made up about half of the total emissions, with the rest comprised of monoterpenes. Contrary to the traditional assumption that monoterpene emissions from Scots pine originate mainly as evaporation from specialized storage pools, the DEC measurements indicated a significant contribution from de novo biosynthesis to the ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions. This thesis offers practical guidelines for long-term DEC measurements with PTR-MS. In particular, the new averaging approach to the lag time determination seems useful in the automation of DEC flux calculations. Seasonal variation in the monoterpene biosynthesis and the detailed structure of a revised hybrid algorithm, describing both de novo and pool emissions, should be determined in further studies to improve biological realism in the modelling of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine forests. The increasing number of DEC measurements of oxygenated VOCs will probably enable better estimates of the role of these compounds in plant physiology and tropospheric chemistry. Keywords: disjunct eddy covariance, lag time determination, long-term flux measurements, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, Scots pine forests, volatile organic compounds
  • Kiuru, Mari Elina (2004)
    ”Diskurssianalyyttinen näkökulma erikoisturvallisuuteen” on tutkimus erikoisturvallisuuden käsitteestä ja siihen liittyvistä toiminnoista (Suomessa vuoden 2004 alussa). Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on sosiaalinen konstruktionismi ja tutkimusmenetelmänä diskurssianalyysi. Tutkimusaineisto on kerätty haastattelemalla henkilökohtaisesti 17 turvallisuusalan asiantuntijaa ja ammattilaista (sekä yksityiseltä että viranomaissektorilta). Tutkimus osoittaa, että erikoisturvallisuuden käsitteelle on olemassa tarve ja että sillä on jo jossain määrin vakiintunut merkitys. Erikoisturvallisuuteen liitetään yleisesti: näkymättömyys (salassapitovelvollisuudet, työn luonne ym.), erikoisosaaminen (tiettyjen menetelmien hallinta, asiantuntijuus), erityistilanteet (tapauskohtainen suunnittelu), korkeat riskit (hengissä säilyminen, asioiden arkaluonteisuus), pelisääntöjen korostunut merkitys (luottamus) sekä voimakkaat kulttuurisen mielikuvat (tiedon puute). Erikoisturvallisuuden sisällöstä ja käsitteen hyväksyttävyydestä ei kuitenkaan ole olemassa yhtä yhtenäistä näkemystä. Tutkimus osoittaakin, että erikoisturvallisuus voidaan ymmärtää ja tehdä ymmärrettäväksi viidestä erilaisesta diskurssista käsin: (1) lakidiskurssi, (2) liiketoimintadiskurssi, (3) ammattidiskurssi, (4) tarvediskurssi ja (5) kulttuuridiskurssi. Tutkimuksessa pohditaan alustavasti myös sitä, minkälaisia seurauksia näihin diskursseihin perustuvalla kielenkäytöllä voi olla sekä yksilöiden välisessä vuorovaikutuksessa että yhteiskunnallisen vallankäytön välineinä.
  • Kangas, Terhi (2007)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan professorien John J. Mearsheimer ja Stephen M. Walt julkaiseman tutkimuspaperin The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy aloittamaa debattia Yhdysvaltain ja Israelin välisestä erityissuhteesta. Mearsheimer ja Walt tarkastelevat tutkimuksessaan Amerikan juutalaisen tradition toimintaa vaikutusvaltaisena painostusryhmänä, jolle professorit antavat nimen "the Israel Lobby". Kaksikko Mearsheimer ja Walt kritisoi tutkimuspaperissaan muun muassa kyseisen "lobbyn" vaikutusta Yhdysvaltain ulkopoliittiseen päätöksentekoon. Kyseessä on diskurssianalyyttinen tapaustutkimus kahdeksan politiikan tutkijan kannanotosta juutalaisryhmiä ja Yhdysvaltain ulkopolitiikkaa koskevaan keskusteluun. Tarkoituksena on tarkastella politiikan tutkijoiden kirjoituksia suomalaiseen yhteiskuntatieteeseen omaksutun diskurssianalyysin kautta, joka on syntynyt vuorovaikutuksessa brittiläisen suuntauksen kanssa. Tutkielman analyyttisina käsitteinä toimivat tulkintarepertuaarit ja vakuuttamistekniikat. Tutkielmassa pyrittiin piirtämään esiin moninaiset ja ristiriitaiset merkitysrakenteet, joiden pohjalta tutkijat muodostavat käsityksen Yhdysvaltojen ja Israelin välisestä erityissuhteesta. Tutkielmassa pyrittiin myös esittämään näkemys siitä, mikä on hallitseva tapa ymmärtää Yhdysvaltain ja Israelin välistä suhdetta. Tarkoituksena oli lisäksi aineistossa esiintyvän erilaisen vakuuttelevan retoriikan analysoiminen. Yhdysvaltain ja Israelin erityissuhde ei kuitenkaan näyttänyt lähemmässä tarkastelussa muotoutuvan helposti yhden tai kahdenkaan merkitysrakenteen pohjalta, vaan suhde merkityksellistyi erilaisten taloudellisten, poliittisten, diplomaattisten ja ideologisten merkitysten ympärille. Tunnistamani, keskenään ristiriitainen tulkintarepertuaarien kirjo (erityisyyden repertuaari, vehkeilyn repertuaari, velvollisuuden repertuaari, yhtenäisyyden repertuaari, realistinen repertuaari ja uskollisen kumppanin repertuaari) osoittaa, ettei Yhdysvaltain ja Israelin välistä suhdetta voi selittää yksiselitteisesti. Vaikka siitä olisikin vallalla hegemoninen käsitys, on sosiaaliseen mielikuvitukseen tai myyttiin rinnastettavissa oleva hegemonia kuitenkin vain väliaikaista. ”Jatkuvissa valtakamppailuissa toisenlainen puhe pääsee taas jossain vaiheessa niskan päälle ja pyrkii näin pönkittämään asemaansa” (Lounasmeri 2006). Voidaan siis ajatella, että kamppailu Yhdysvaltain ja Israelin välisestä suhteesta ja sen merkityksistä on jatkuvassa prosessissa. Tärkeimmät käytetyt lähteet: Jokinen, Arja, Juhila, Kirsi & Suoninen, Eero (1999): Diskurssianalyysi liikkeessä. Vastapaino, Tampere Sheffer, Gabriel (1997) U.S. – Israeli Relations at the Crossroads. Frank Cass and Company Limited, England.
  • Metsälampi, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Muutokset suomalaisten uskonnollisuudessa ja kirkon jäsenyyteen sitoutumisessa haastavat Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon hakemaan uudenlaisia tapoja toimia ja perustella olemassaolonsa. Pro gradu - tutkielmani käsittelee tätä paikantamisprosessia. Lähestyn aihetta Helsingin seurakuntien nuorille aikuisille suunnatun Usko toivo rakkaus -mainoskampanjan avulla. Kampanjan tavoitteena oli luoda kuvaa Helsingin seurakunnista kiinnostavana ja merkityksellisenä yhteisönä, innostaa osallistumaan seurakunnan toimintaan sekä pohtimaan uskon kysymyksiä. Aineistoni koostuu 19 printtimainoksesta, jotka ovat ilmestyneet lehdissä vuosina 2007-2009. Sovellan työssäni Norman Fairclough'n diskurssianalyyttista kehystä, jonka tarkoituksena on liittää yhteen tekstin, sen tuottamisen, levittämisen ja kuluttamisen käytäntöjen, sekä sosiokulttuuristen käytäntöjen analyysi. Asemoin UTR -mainoskampanjan osaksi kirkollisia ja yhteiskunnallisia kielenkäytön tapoja olettaen diskurssianalyyttisen näkökulman mukaisesti näiden aspektien olevan vuorovaikutteisessa suhteessa toisiinsa. Tarkastelen mainontaa uudenlaisena kirkollisen viestin välittämisen muotona ja kysyn, mitä tämä muutos viestinnän käytänteissä kertoo kirkon muuttuvista suhteista jäseniinsä ja laajemmin yhteiskuntaan. Analyysissäni selvitän tapoja kuvata kirkkoa ja sen sanomaa, ja pyrin paikantamaan ne osaksi laajempia tulkintakokonaisuuksia, joita kutsun diskursseiksi. Esitän, että UTR -mainoskampanjan määräävänä jäsennyksenä toimii kirkossa vaikuttavan psykouskonnollisen kulttuurin tulkintarakenne oikeanlaisesta uskosta ja uskonyhteisön merkityksestä. Tämä ajatuskokonaisuus sovittaa yhteen viestin kohdeyleisön oletetun yksilöllisesti muodostuvan uskonnollisuuden, sen muodostamisen ja ilmentämisen tavat, sekä kirkon uskonyhteisöön jäsentymisen. Mainokselle ominaisen suostuttelevan kielen ja sanoman kohderyhmälähtöisen muokkaamisen voi tulkita passiiviseksi reaktioksi kirkon aseman heikentymiseen. Toisaalta kirkko on lähtenyt muutokseen omista lähtökohdistaan ja monipuolisesta perinteestään käsin. Usko toivo rakkaus on aktiivista toimintaa, jolla kansankirkko jäsentää paikkaansa suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa.
  • Jurvainen, Marjaana (2001)
    Tutkimuksen kohteena on suomalainen kuurojen ryhmä, jonka käyttämiä strategioita asemansa parantamiseksi tutkitaan diskurssianalyyttisessä viitekehyksessä. Kiinnostus kohdistuu niihin sanoihin ja lausumiin, joilla kuurojen ryhmä on tuottanut itsensä voimakkasti syrjitystä ja alistetusta vammaisryhmästä yhdeksi suomalaiseksi kieli- ja kulttuuriryhmäksi. Diskurssianalyysin keinoin tarkastellaan sitä, millaisia diskursseja kuurojen ryhmä tuottaa puhuessaan itsestään ja omasta asemastaan. Tarkastellaan ennen kaikkea sitä, millaisen puheen kautta kuurojen ryhmä rakentaa uutta identiteettiä ja ryhmätodellisuutta. Kiinnostavana nähdään se, millaisia seurauksia ryhmän käyttämällä puheella on ja millaista sosiaalista todellisuutta sillä tullaan rakentaneeksi. Tämän opinnäytetyön teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on tajfelilainen sosiaalisen identiteetin teoria. Teorian mukaan ryhmät, jotka eivät pysty saavuttamaan positiivisesti arvostettua sosiaalista identiteettiä, pyrkivät kohottamaan ryhmänsä arvostusta sosiaalisten ryhmien kentässä. Teoria esittää, että ryhmät pyrkivät saamaan sosiaalista muutosta ryhmänsä asemaan käyttämällä sosiaalisen muutoksen strategioita. Tässä opinnäytetyössä kuurojen ryhmän käyttämiä sosiaalisen muutoksen strategioita tutkittiin analysoimalla Kuurojen Lehden pääkirjoitussivuja. Aineiston analysoinnin ja tulkinnan tuloksena tunnistettiin neljä diskurssia. Aineistosta esille nousivat seuraavat diskurssit: tasa-arvoisena mutta erilaisena -diskurssi, kuurous kielenä ja kulttuurina -diskurssi, kuurot kansana -diskurssi ja poliittinen diskurssi. Kolmessa ensin mainitussa diskurssissa ryhmä uusinsi itsemäärittelyjään ja merkityksellisti ryhmäänsä tavoilla, joilla ryhmän voitiin havaita hakevan positiivisemmin arvostettua ryhmäidentiteettiä. Eniten kuurojen ryhmä käytti sosiaalisen luovuuden strategiaa merkityksellistäessään ryhmäänsä viittomakielisenä kieli- ja kulttuurivähemmistönä. Aineiston anlyysissä ja tulkinnassa tulee näkyväksi se, miten erilaisilla kielenkäyttötavoilla rakennetaan ja uusinnetaan sitä sosiaalista todellisuutta jossa eletään. Kuurojen ryhmän itsemäärittelyjen muuttuessa rakentuivat myös ryhmälle tuotetut identiteetit erilaisiksi. Tässä opinnäytetyössä osoittautui poliittinen diskurssi siksi näyttämöksi, jolla ryhmän (ainakin) julkista identiteettityötä tehdään. Tärkeimmät lähteet: Jokinen,A.- Juhila,K.- Suoninen,E. (1993):Diskurssianalyysin aakkoset;Fairlough,N.(1992)Discourse and Social Change;Tajfel,H.(1981). Human Groups and Social Categories;Liebkind,K.(1988)Me ja muukalaiset -Ryhmärajat ihmisten suhteissa.
  • Skog, Jani-Kai (2015)
    Tutkielma käsittelee Habermasin diskurssietiikkaa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää ja arvioida, voidaanko diskurssietiikkaa hyödyntää yhteiskunnalliseen moraalinormiston luomiseen. Tutkielmassa pyritään myös selvittämään, pystyykö diskurssietiikka ratkaisemaan etiikan teorioihin liittyviä yleisiä ongelmia, vai ajautuuko diskurssietiikka uusiin ongelmiin. Habermas rakentaa diskurssietiikan teoriaa erilaisista lähtökohdista, miten etiikkaa on yleensä tutkittu. Hän ei tutki sitä, mitä moraali ja etiikka ovat. Hän kehittää yhteiskuntaan kommunikaation avulla teorian, jolla voitaisiin muodostaa moraalinormeja. Tämän takia on perusteltua arvioida sitä, onko Habermasin diskurssieettinen kommunikaatio mahdollista toteuttaa yhteiskunnassa tai yhteisössä niin, että diskurssietiikan teorian avulla voitaisiin käytännössä päättää yhteisesti moraalinormeista. Tutkielmassa käsitellään aluksi Habermasin kommunikatiivisen toiminnan teoriaa, jolle diskurssietiikka perustuu. Sitten käsitellään diskurssietiikan perusosa-alueet ja esitellään kaksi muuta etiikan teoriaa (realismi ja relativismi). Näiden jälkeen selvitetään ja arvioidaan diskurssietiikan merkitystä ja hyödyntämistä käytännössä. Habermasin diskurssietiikan hyödyntämistä arvioidaan vertaamalla diskurssietiikkaa muihin moraaliteorioihin (eettinen realismi ja relativismi). Näiden avulla tutkitaan sitä, voiko diskurssietiikka ratkaista näihin teorioihin sisältyviä yleisiä etiikan ongelmia. Vertaamalla diskurssietiikkaa näihin teorioihin, voidaan arvioida sitä, miten Habermasin diskurssietiikan lähtökohdat eroavat näistä teorioista. Teorian toimivuutta tutkitaan myös diskurssietiikalle esitetyn kritiikin kautta. Tutkielmassa kyseenalaistetaan joitakin Habermasin teorian osa-alueita. Teoriaa verrataan myös olemassa oleviin yhteiskunnallisiin ilmiöihin ja niiden toimintaan, ja haetaan tätä kautta vastausta kysymykseen sen mahdollisuudesta toimia käytännössä. Keskeisimpinä aineistoina Habermasilta ovat suomennokset Järki ja kommunikaatio vuosilta 1987 ja 1994, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action vuodelta 1990 ja Justification and Application: Remarks on Discourse Ethics vuodelta 1993. Tutkielmassa todetaan, että Habermasin diskurssietiikka kykenee ratkaisemaan etiikalle ominaisia ongelmia. Teoriaa voidaan pitää lähtökohdiltaan yhteiskunnallisesti hyödyllisenä. Sen avulla on mahdollista päästä ainakin keskustelemaan yksilöiden ja yhteisöjen moraalinormeista ja niiden syistä, ja teorian avulla on helpompi ymmärtää moraalinormistoja. Habermasille keskeinen käsite keskustelutilanteessa on yhteisymmärrykseen pyrkiminen. Pyrkimys Yhteisymmärrykseen velvoittaa ihmisiä. Vaikka Habermasin diskurssietiikka ei välttämättä ole helppo tapa muodostaa yhteisiä moraalinormeja, voidaan se nähdä ainakin tukevana pohjana muille teorioille yhteiskunnallisen moraalinormiston muodostamisessa.