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  • Jurvainen, Marjaana (2001)
    Tutkimuksen kohteena on suomalainen kuurojen ryhmä, jonka käyttämiä strategioita asemansa parantamiseksi tutkitaan diskurssianalyyttisessä viitekehyksessä. Kiinnostus kohdistuu niihin sanoihin ja lausumiin, joilla kuurojen ryhmä on tuottanut itsensä voimakkasti syrjitystä ja alistetusta vammaisryhmästä yhdeksi suomalaiseksi kieli- ja kulttuuriryhmäksi. Diskurssianalyysin keinoin tarkastellaan sitä, millaisia diskursseja kuurojen ryhmä tuottaa puhuessaan itsestään ja omasta asemastaan. Tarkastellaan ennen kaikkea sitä, millaisen puheen kautta kuurojen ryhmä rakentaa uutta identiteettiä ja ryhmätodellisuutta. Kiinnostavana nähdään se, millaisia seurauksia ryhmän käyttämällä puheella on ja millaista sosiaalista todellisuutta sillä tullaan rakentaneeksi. Tämän opinnäytetyön teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on tajfelilainen sosiaalisen identiteetin teoria. Teorian mukaan ryhmät, jotka eivät pysty saavuttamaan positiivisesti arvostettua sosiaalista identiteettiä, pyrkivät kohottamaan ryhmänsä arvostusta sosiaalisten ryhmien kentässä. Teoria esittää, että ryhmät pyrkivät saamaan sosiaalista muutosta ryhmänsä asemaan käyttämällä sosiaalisen muutoksen strategioita. Tässä opinnäytetyössä kuurojen ryhmän käyttämiä sosiaalisen muutoksen strategioita tutkittiin analysoimalla Kuurojen Lehden pääkirjoitussivuja. Aineiston analysoinnin ja tulkinnan tuloksena tunnistettiin neljä diskurssia. Aineistosta esille nousivat seuraavat diskurssit: tasa-arvoisena mutta erilaisena -diskurssi, kuurous kielenä ja kulttuurina -diskurssi, kuurot kansana -diskurssi ja poliittinen diskurssi. Kolmessa ensin mainitussa diskurssissa ryhmä uusinsi itsemäärittelyjään ja merkityksellisti ryhmäänsä tavoilla, joilla ryhmän voitiin havaita hakevan positiivisemmin arvostettua ryhmäidentiteettiä. Eniten kuurojen ryhmä käytti sosiaalisen luovuuden strategiaa merkityksellistäessään ryhmäänsä viittomakielisenä kieli- ja kulttuurivähemmistönä. Aineiston anlyysissä ja tulkinnassa tulee näkyväksi se, miten erilaisilla kielenkäyttötavoilla rakennetaan ja uusinnetaan sitä sosiaalista todellisuutta jossa eletään. Kuurojen ryhmän itsemäärittelyjen muuttuessa rakentuivat myös ryhmälle tuotetut identiteetit erilaisiksi. Tässä opinnäytetyössä osoittautui poliittinen diskurssi siksi näyttämöksi, jolla ryhmän (ainakin) julkista identiteettityötä tehdään. Tärkeimmät lähteet: Jokinen,A.- Juhila,K.- Suoninen,E. (1993):Diskurssianalyysin aakkoset;Fairlough,N.(1992)Discourse and Social Change;Tajfel,H.(1981). Human Groups and Social Categories;Liebkind,K.(1988)Me ja muukalaiset -Ryhmärajat ihmisten suhteissa.
  • Skog, Jani-Kai (2015)
    Tutkielma käsittelee Habermasin diskurssietiikkaa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää ja arvioida, voidaanko diskurssietiikkaa hyödyntää yhteiskunnalliseen moraalinormiston luomiseen. Tutkielmassa pyritään myös selvittämään, pystyykö diskurssietiikka ratkaisemaan etiikan teorioihin liittyviä yleisiä ongelmia, vai ajautuuko diskurssietiikka uusiin ongelmiin. Habermas rakentaa diskurssietiikan teoriaa erilaisista lähtökohdista, miten etiikkaa on yleensä tutkittu. Hän ei tutki sitä, mitä moraali ja etiikka ovat. Hän kehittää yhteiskuntaan kommunikaation avulla teorian, jolla voitaisiin muodostaa moraalinormeja. Tämän takia on perusteltua arvioida sitä, onko Habermasin diskurssieettinen kommunikaatio mahdollista toteuttaa yhteiskunnassa tai yhteisössä niin, että diskurssietiikan teorian avulla voitaisiin käytännössä päättää yhteisesti moraalinormeista. Tutkielmassa käsitellään aluksi Habermasin kommunikatiivisen toiminnan teoriaa, jolle diskurssietiikka perustuu. Sitten käsitellään diskurssietiikan perusosa-alueet ja esitellään kaksi muuta etiikan teoriaa (realismi ja relativismi). Näiden jälkeen selvitetään ja arvioidaan diskurssietiikan merkitystä ja hyödyntämistä käytännössä. Habermasin diskurssietiikan hyödyntämistä arvioidaan vertaamalla diskurssietiikkaa muihin moraaliteorioihin (eettinen realismi ja relativismi). Näiden avulla tutkitaan sitä, voiko diskurssietiikka ratkaista näihin teorioihin sisältyviä yleisiä etiikan ongelmia. Vertaamalla diskurssietiikkaa näihin teorioihin, voidaan arvioida sitä, miten Habermasin diskurssietiikan lähtökohdat eroavat näistä teorioista. Teorian toimivuutta tutkitaan myös diskurssietiikalle esitetyn kritiikin kautta. Tutkielmassa kyseenalaistetaan joitakin Habermasin teorian osa-alueita. Teoriaa verrataan myös olemassa oleviin yhteiskunnallisiin ilmiöihin ja niiden toimintaan, ja haetaan tätä kautta vastausta kysymykseen sen mahdollisuudesta toimia käytännössä. Keskeisimpinä aineistoina Habermasilta ovat suomennokset Järki ja kommunikaatio vuosilta 1987 ja 1994, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action vuodelta 1990 ja Justification and Application: Remarks on Discourse Ethics vuodelta 1993. Tutkielmassa todetaan, että Habermasin diskurssietiikka kykenee ratkaisemaan etiikalle ominaisia ongelmia. Teoriaa voidaan pitää lähtökohdiltaan yhteiskunnallisesti hyödyllisenä. Sen avulla on mahdollista päästä ainakin keskustelemaan yksilöiden ja yhteisöjen moraalinormeista ja niiden syistä, ja teorian avulla on helpompi ymmärtää moraalinormistoja. Habermasille keskeinen käsite keskustelutilanteessa on yhteisymmärrykseen pyrkiminen. Pyrkimys Yhteisymmärrykseen velvoittaa ihmisiä. Vaikka Habermasin diskurssietiikka ei välttämättä ole helppo tapa muodostaa yhteisiä moraalinormeja, voidaan se nähdä ainakin tukevana pohjana muille teorioille yhteiskunnallisen moraalinormiston muodostamisessa.
  • Vuorenmaa, Kirsi (1997)
  • Muszynski, Johann Michael (2015)
    The presence of dislocations in metal crystals accounts for the plasticity of metals. These dislocations do not nucleate spontaneously, but require favorable conditions. These conditions include, but are not limited to, a high temperature, external stress, and an interface such as a grain boundary or a surface. The slip of dislocations leads to steps forming on the surface, as atomic planes are displaced along a line. If a void is placed very near a surface, the possibility of forming a dislocation platelet exists. The skip of the dislocation platelet would displace the surface atoms within a closed line. Repeating such a process may form a small protrusion on the surface. In this thesis, the mechanism with which a dislocations displace the surface atoms within a closed loop is studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of copper. A spherical void is placed within the lattice, and the lattice is then subjected to an external stress. The dislocation reactions which lead to the formation of the dislocation platelet after the initial dislocation nucleation on the void is studied by running MD simulations of a void with the radius of 3 nm under tensile stress. Since the dislocations are thermally activated, the simulation proceeded differently for each run. We describe the different ways the dislocations nucleate, and the dislocation reactions that occur when they intersect to form the platelet. The activation energy of this process was studied by simulating half of a much larger void, with a radius of 8 nm, in order to obtain a more realistic nucleation environment. Formulas connecting the observable and controllable simulation variables with the energies of the nucleation are derived. The activation energies are then calculated and compared with values from literature.
  • Pohjonen, Aarne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The work presented in this thesis is related to the design of the future electron-positron collider, called the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), which is currently under development at CERN. The designed operation of the collider requires accelerating electric field strengths of ∼ 100 MV/m range to reach the target energy range of 0.5 to 5 TeV for the collisions in a realistic and cost efficient way. An important limiting factor of the application of the very high electric fields is the electrical breakdown rate, which has drastic dependence on the accelerating electric field strength E (approximately proportional to E^30 ). In order to achieve material properties capable of tolerating higher electric fields, research on the materials related physical origin of the fundamental cause of electrical breakdown onset needs to be undertaken. The onset stage of the electrical breakdown on a broad area metal surfaces under electric field is still unknown, although many theories have been proposed earlier. In many of the theories, it has been common to postulate the existence of a geometric protrusion on the surface that is capable of causing high field enhancement and pre-breakdown electric currents in the vacuum over metal surfaces under electric field. However, such protrusions have never been seen on the metal surface prior to the breakdown. It has been recently experimentally observed that the average field that the material can tolerate without breakdown is correlated with the crystal structure of the material. This observation hints that some dislocation mechanism could be possibly related to the onset stage of the breakdown event. In this thesis, the following mechanism that can be responsible for the breakdown onset is analyzed. Application of the electric field exerts stress on a metal surface, which can cause the nucleation and mobility of the dislocations, i.e. plasticity. The localized plastic deformation can eventually lead to protrusion growth on the metal surface. Once a protrusion is formed on the surface, the electric field is enhanced on the protrusion site, further enhancing the protrusion growth. A defect such as a void can act as a stress concentrator which changes the otherwise uniform stress field and acts as an initiation site for plastic deformation caused by dislocations. In this thesis, we have examined the effect of an external stress on a near surface void in conditions which are relevant for the research and design of the accelerating structures of the CLIC collider. A void present at a near surface region of the accelerating structure causes local concentration of the stress induced by the external electric field on the conducting metal surface. The presence of such near surface void was experimentally observed in a metal sample prepared for experimental spark setup. By means of molecular dynamics simulation method we have shown that the stress can cause nucleation and/or movement of dislocations near the void. The mobility of dislocations then leads to formation of a protrusion on the material surface. We analyzed the nucleation of the dislocations in detail and constructed a simplified analytical model that describes the relevant physical factors affecting the nucleation event. Since the shear stress on the slip plane causes the mobility and nucleation of the dislocations, we analyzed the stress distribution on the slip plane between the void and surface by using finite element method and by calculating the atomic level stress with molecular dynamics method. The results were compared also to an analytic solution for a void located deep in the bulk under similar stress. It was found that the nearby surface had significant effect on the stress distribution only when the void depth was less than its diameter. Below this the maximum stress is equal to that for a void located deep in the bulk under similar external stress. The comparison of the finite element results to the atomic level stress revealed that the pre-existing surface stress near the void surface had significant effect on the stress distribution. In addition to the tensile stress caused by the electric field on the charged metal surface, pulsed surface heating also induces stress in the material surface region under alternating electric field. This cyclic thermal stress is known to cause fatigue and severe deformation of the metal surface. We investigated the condition relevant for yield by calculating atomic level von Mises strain which has been earlier related to dislocation nucleation. The strain concentration caused by the void was 1.9 times the bulk value. In order to see activated slip planes, we exaggerated the compressive stress to the extent that dislocation nucleation could be observed within the timespan allowed by the molecular dynamics simulation method. Dislocations were observed to nucleate at the sites of maximum von Mises strain. Taken together, the results presented in thesis contribute to the understanding of the stress distributions and possible dislocation related mechanisms under different stressing conditions assuming existence of a stress concentrator, such as a near surface void.
  • Castrén, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Disordered gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and consequently many factors have a role in its development and maintenance. Adverse consequences of disordered gambling can be mental, social and legal. Only a few epidemiological studies of disordered gambling have previously been conducted in Finland, and none of these studies have been published internationally. Gambling research in Finland has increased during the past years, especially the investigation of treatment options for disordered gambling. In this thesis, disordered gambling is approached from two angles: the epidemiological angle provides an overall picture of the current situation in Finland, and the treatment angle studies the phenomenon from an individual standpoint. In the epidemiological studies of this thesis, the prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, comorbid substance use, perceived health and well-being and the type of gambling and its relations to the severity levels of gambling were measured. The data were derived from two samples, The Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population, Spring 2010, postal survey (N = 2826) and The Finnish Gambling 2011 (N = 3451), telephone interview. These studies used South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and Problem Gambling Severity Index as a measure of gambling severity. In the epidemiological studies the prevalence of disordered gambling was found to be about 3% (Finnish Gambling 2011). Disordered gambling was more common among males and the younger age group. Disordered gambling was generally associated with socio-economic disadvantages like being divorced, unemployed or having a low level of education. Comorbid alcohol use and nicotine dependency as well as low self-perceived mental health status were associated with disordered gambling. Lotto (Finnish lottery) was the most popular type of game gambled, but slot machine and internet gambling were found to be associated with disordered gambling. The two treatment studies of this thesis describe the socio-demographic characteristics (N = 471), the severity of disordered gambling, gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous thoughts and the level of control of gambling among the treatment-seeking gamblers. In the treatment studies, comorbid alcohol use and depression were also studied. Moreover, changes in the severity of gambling, gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous thoughts and control of gambling, as well as alcohol use and the level of depression at baseline, post-treatment and 6- and 12-month follow- up were studied. The data were derived from the Peli Poikki program which is an internet-based 8-week cognitive behavioural therapy for gamblers. This study used NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems as a measure of gambling severity. Results revealed that 78.8% of the treatment-seeking participants were disordered gamblers. 224 participants completed the treatment and after 8 weeks of treatment a significant decline was seen in gambling-related problems and gambling urge, and an improvement in control of gambling. The mood of participants improved and alcohol use decreased during the treatment period, and participants reported improvements in their social situations after the treatment. In conclusion, the prevalence of disordered gambling has been more or less unchanged during the past years in Finland. A specific socio-demographic group of individuals seems to be at higher risk of having and developing disordered gambling, especially with the abundant gambling opportunities in Finland. The results of the Peli Poikki program encourages implementing more evidence-based treatment options for disordered gambling in Finland.
  • Pylkkänen, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Spectroscopy can provide valuable information on the structure of disordered matter beyond that which is available through e.g. x-ray and neutron diffraction. X-ray Raman scattering is a non-resonant element-sensitive process which allows bulk-sensitive measurements of core-excited spectra from light-element samples. In this thesis, x-ray Raman scattering is used to study the local structure of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, including liquid water, a series of linear and branched alcohols, and high-pressure ice phases. Connecting the spectral features to the local atomic-scale structure involves theoretical references, and in the case of hydrogen-bonded systems the interpretation of the spectra is currently actively debated. The systematic studies of the intra- and intermolecular effects in alcohols, non-hydrogen-bonded neighbors in high-pressure ices, and the effect of temperature in liquid water are used to demonstrate different aspects of the local structure that can influence the near-edge spectra. Additionally, the determination of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure is addressed in a momentum-transfer dependent study. This work demonstrates the potential of x-ray Raman scattering for unique studies of the local structure of a variety of disordered light-element systems.
  • Palin, Eino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson s disease and inherited ataxia syndromes. Frequent causes of mitochondrial dysfunction are mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or mutations in the genes encoding the mtDNA replication machinery. Mutations in the gene POLG1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase, POLG, cause a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying clinical phenotypes, such as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), PEO with parkinsonism (POLG1-PD) and Alpers syndrome. The cause of variability in the clinical manifestations is unknown and is most evident in POLG1 diseases. In this thesis, we set to elucidate this variability by examining the neuropathological changes in MIRAS, POLG1-PD, IOSCA and PEO. We found that the cell number in substantia nigra correlated well with parkinsonism in POLG1 defects. Respiratory chain complex I defect, however, is a general consequence of mtDNA maintenance defects, and does not explain manifestation of parkinsonism or degree of mesencephalic cell death in patients with mtDNA maintenance disorders. We studied the biochemical background underlying MIRAS by biochemically characterizing the recombinant POLG1, with the MIRAS causing amino acid change, p.Trp748Ser. The recombinant POLG1 does not exhibit a biochemical phenotype in DNA polymerase function. Our findings challenge previously published results and their implications. We examined the distribution of Alpers syndrome causing mutations on the protein structure of POLG1. We found that the mutations can be divided into five distinct groups, each with a different biochemical profile. Our findings were supported by the published biochemical characterizations of various mutant POLG1 enzymes. Based on the structural data, we predict that the p.Trp748Ser amino acid change affects the interaction with mitochondrial single stranded-DNA binding protein and not intrinsic DNA polymerase activity or DNA binding of POLG1. We also studied the clinical picture of MIRAS. The high carrier frequency of the MIRAS disease allele in Finland, Norway and Belgium may lead to multiple introductions of the disease allele and some MIRAS cases to be mistakenly recognised as dominantly inherited, thereby leading to the exclusion of MIRAS as the diagnosis. We described a family in which both mother and son had MIRAS-like disease. We found that the father was a carrier of the MIRAS disease allele. Thus, MIRAS should not be ruled out by an apparently dominant mode of inheritance in countries with high carrier frequency of the disease allele.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Most studies of life history evolution are based on the assumption that species exist at equilibrium and spatially distinct separated populations. In reality, this is rarely the case, as populations are often spatially structured with ephemeral local populations. Therefore, the characteristics of metapopulations should be considered while studying factors affecting life history evolution. Theoretical studies have examined spatial processes shaping the evolution of life history traits to some extent, but there is little empirical data and evidence to investigate model predictions. In my thesis I have tried to bridge the gap between theoretical and empirical studies by using the well-known Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) metapopulation as a model system. The long-term persistence of classic metapopulations requires sufficient dispersal to establish new local populations to compensate for local extinctions. Previous studies on the Glanville fritillary have shown that females establishing new populations are not a random sample from the metapopulation, but they are in fact more dispersive than females in old populations. Many other life-history traits, such as body size, fecundity and lifespan, may be related to dispersal rate. Therefore, I examined a range of correlated traits for their evolutionary and ecological consequences. I was particularly interested in how the traits vary under natural environmental conditions, hence all studies were conducted in a large (32 x 26 m) outdoor population cage built upon a natural habitat patch. Individuals for the experiments were sampled from newly-established and old populations within a large metapopulation. Results show that females originating from newly-established populations had higher within-habitat patch mobility than females from old populations. I showed that dispersal rate is heritable and that flight activity is related to variation in a gene encoding the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase. Both among-individual and among-population variation in dispersal are correlated with the reproductive performance of females, though I found no evidence for a trade-off between dispersal and fecundity in terms of lifetime egg production or clutch size. Instead, the results suggest that highly dispersive females from newly-established populations have a shorter lifespan than females from old populations, and that dispersive females may pay a cost in terms of reduced lifetime reproductive success due to increased time spent outside habitat patches. In summary, the results of this thesis show that genotype-dependent dispersal rate correlates with other life history traits in the Glanville fritillary, and that the rapid turnover of local populations (extinctions and re-colonisations) is likely to be the mechanism that maintains phenotypic variation in many life history traits at the metapopulation level.
  • Järvinen, Zara (2012)
    This thesis is motivated by what some would consider as the erosion, or demise, of nation-state sovereignty today. There is a growing consensus that the nature of sovereignty has changed in the recent decades, as the state as the centrepiece of power and authority is being increasingly affected by forces of globalization and the proliferation of international organizations and institutions. However, the approaches adopted by theorists to confront this perceived crisis of sovereignty seem to be largely divided between those aiming to defend some notion of nation-sate sovereignty, and those aiming to discard it, transform it, migrate or divide it. There is thus an urgent need to re-examine and re-think the concept of sovereignty, and its place and status in today’s politics and political theory. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to this project through a philosophical analysis of the concept of sovereignty, and the various approaches and conceptualizations present in the modern sovereignty discourse. Especially, the thesis will explore a possibility of re-configuring sovereignty towards a conceptualization that enables it to be dispersed, shared or transferred away from the nation-state to other political units. One such re-configuration is suggested by Thomas Pogge, who promotes a cosmopolitan institutional reform through a vertical dispersal of sovereignty, or a process of decentralization and centralization downwards to local, and upwards to global level - his idea will be critically assessed in detail. The key modern sources adopted in this thesis include: Jacques Maritain’s “The Concept of Sovereignty” (1950); Literature and Evil by George Bataille (1973); Rogues: Two Essays on Reason by Jacques Derrida (2005); “Democracy, Demography and Sovereignty” by Seyla Benhabib (2008); World Poverty and Human Rights by Thomas Pogge (2008); Walled States, Waning Sovereignty by Wendy Brown (2010); and After Sovereignty edited by Pavlich & Barbour (2010). The historical texts considered in this thesis are Polybius’ Histories (264-146 BC); Six Books of the Commonwealth by Jean Bodin (1576); Leviathan by the Thomas Hobbes (1651); and John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government (1689). The main conclusion in this thesis is that through a thorough philosophical analysis of the concept of sovereignty, it becomes evident that sovereignty evades any fixed meanings, and is inherently ambiguous and polysemic. Being polysemic the concept then allows re-configurations and re-conceptualizations that enable conceiving sovereignty as something that can be dispersed, shared or transferred. In addition, such re-conceptualization is further enabled by deliberations and iterations of the concept manifesting in deliberative sovereignty discourse. Throughout the thesis some important considerations and reservations are identified, which will eventually suggest several avenues for further research on the concept of sovereignty.
  • Johansson, Maria (2013)
    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed in 2006 for the extraction of organic compounds from water samples. Since then, more complex matrices have been processed and the technique includes nowadays a variety of subsets. To the advantages of the technique are, for example, its rapidity, low cost and high enrichment factors. A pretreatment and analysis method was developed for the five harmful flame retardants, dechlorane plus (syn and anti) and dechloranes 602, -603 and -604 (component A) from solid environmental samples. The pretreatment method included extraction with pressurised liquid extraction and clean-up with multilayer silica and basic alumina columns. The analytes were separated and analysed with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Electron capture negative ionisation was applied as the ionisation technique. The developed method was sensitive, resulting in acceptable recoveries and low detection limits. The chosen ionisation technique was proven to be superior over the more used electron ionisation.
  • Wayessa, Gutu Olana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The study focuses on population displacement and the livelihood implications of state-planned resettlement schemes that have been implemented in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. It addresses the livelihoods of both the resettlers and the hosts. Although such resettlements have been implemented in the country since the 1960s, this study addresses those carried out since 2003. The broad objective of the study was to explore the dynamics of displacement and resettlement, and their impacts on the livelihoods of resettler and host populations. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the policies and practices of the resettlement program carried out during the tenure of the current government; (2) to analyze the livelihood outcomes of the resettlements for resettlers and hosts in terms of changes in access to livelihood resources and social services; and (3) to examine resettlers and hosts perceptions of and attitudes towards the resettlement program. The theory of impoverishment risks and livelihood reconstruction (IRLR), the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), and political ecology constitute the pillars of the theoretical framework. Primary data were collected in 2009 through a survey of 630 households in eight resettlement sites, and 68 thematic (group and individual) interviews in 13 resettlement sites. Several interviews were also held with government officials. Households were selected for the survey through stratified random sampling, whereas informants were selected for the interviews purposively. The primary data were complemented with relevant secondary data. The study is interdisciplinary, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods through a concurrent mixed-methods design. Qualitative methods were used to address how and why questions through thematic analysis of the interviews and policy documents, thereby illuminating the substantive significance of the issues at stake. Quantitative methods were employed to quantify changes and establish the statistical significance of variables of interest. The quantitative methods used include descriptive statistics, such as percentages, means and cross-tabulations, and inferential statistics, such as logistic regression, mean comparisons using non-parametric tests, factor analysis, Chi-square tests, and loglinear analysis. The complementary relation between the two methods has proved useful in understanding and explaining the processes and the outcomes of the resettlement scheme. The research illuminates the causes, the processes, and the outcomes of the current resettlement program in particular, and critically analyzes the assumptions underlying the resettlement policies of the current and the previous regimes in general. Multiple causes and assumptions underlay the resettlement scheme, most notably land and rainfall shortages in resettlers areas of origin, and the government s claim of land abundance. This last assumption has been persistently made by regime after regime, despite empirical counter-evidence, as also shown in this study. By revealing that the scheme resulted in the displacement of the host population to make way for resettlement, that the resettlers were given less land than promised, and that the relocation led to serious conflicts and disputes over land between resettlers and hosts, the study challenges the state s supposition and rhetoric of ample land. The evidence also illuminates the relocation s glaring lack of inclusiveness of both resettlers and hosts, despite the benign principles of voluntarism and consultation. The outcomes were multiple, leaving some better-off, others worse-off, and still others with no noticeable livelihood deterioration or improvement. In cases where old problems were alleviated, new ones emerged in a context of little plan and capacity to meet contingencies. This calls into question government propagation of generalized success in the resettlement scheme. Although little is known about the sustainability of the improved outcomes for some resettlers in some resettlement sites, the evidence from this study also counteracts the depiction of the scheme as a general failure. The findings suggest that the relative importance of the risks experienced by the resettlers and the hosts varied between the two population groups, and among different resettlement sites. The resettlement sites were widely differentiated in terms of biophysical factors, notably soil fertility and the availability of grazing land. This has serious implications for the resettlers and the hosts as their livelihoods are almost entirely based on agricultural activities. Moreover, historical issues, wider socio-political structures, physical infrastructure, and resettler-host relations are crucial for the understanding of how people s access to livelihood resources and social services is shaped. However, resettler-host relations should be seen in a broader context of state-society relations, as the state is a key actor in planning and implementing the resettlement programs. An important policy lesson from this study is that when one focuses on certain livelihood aspects, one also needs to be aware that other potential livelihood components not evident today may become vital in the future. This awareness should motivate adaptive planning and management to meet contingencies in a way that reflects the multifaceted nature of livelihoods. Key words: displacement, resettlement, livelihood, resettler, host, state, IRLR, SLF, political ecology, mixed methods, resources, processes, outcomes, Oromia, Ethiopia
  • Ylikoski, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 1997)
  • Puurunen, Tapio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Kousi, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of symptomatic epilepsies characterized by myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, psychomotor regression and ataxia. Different disorders have been classified as PMEs. Of these, the group of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) comprise an entity that has onset in childhood, being the most common cause of neurodegeneration in children. The primary aim of this thesis was to dissect the molecular genetic background of patients with childhood onset PME by studying candidate genes and attempting to identify novel PME-associated genes. Another specific aim was to study the primary protein properties of the most recently identified member of the NCL-causing proteins, MFSD8. To dissect the genetic background of a cohort of Turkish patients with childhood onset PME, a screen of the NCL-associated genes PPT1, TPP1, CLN3, CLN5, CLN6, MFSD8, CLN8 and CTSD was performed. Altogether 49 novel mutations were identified, which together with 56 mutations found by collaborators raised the total number of known NCL mutations to 364. Fourteen of the novel mutations affect the recently identified MFSD8 gene, which had originally been identified in a subset of mainly Turkish patients as the underlying cause of CLN7 disease. To investigate the distribution of MFSD8 defects, a total of 211 patients of different ethnic origins were evaluated for mutations in the gene. Altogether 45 patients from nine different countries were provided with a CLN7 molecular diagnosis, denoting the wide geographical occurrence of MFSD8 defects. The mutations are private with only one having been established by a founder-effect in the Roma population from the former Czechoslovakia. All mutations identified except one are associated with the typical clinical picture of variant late-infantile NCL. To address the trafficking properties of MFSD8, lysosomal targeting of the protein was confirmed in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The major determinant for this lysosomal sorting was identified to be an N-terminal dileucine based signal (9-EQEPLL-14), recognized by heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor proteins, suggesting that MFSD8 takes the direct trafficking pathway en route to the lysosomes. Expression studies revealed the neurons as the primary cell-type and the hippocampus and cerebellar granular cell layer as the predominant regions in which MFSD8 is expressed. To identify novel genes associated with childhood onset PME, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genomewide scan was performed in three small families and 18 sporadic patients followed by homozygosity mapping to determine the candidate loci. One of the families and a sporadic patient were positive for mutations in PLA2G6, a gene that had previously been shown to cause infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Application of next-generation sequencing of candidate regions in the remaining two families led to identification of a homozygous missense mutation in USP19 for the first and TXNDC6 for the second family. Analysis of the 18 sporadic cases mapped the best candidate interval in a 1.5 Mb region on chromosome 7q21. Screening of the positional candidate KCTD7 revealed six mutations in seven unrelated families. All patients with mutations in KCTD7 were reported to have early onset PME, rapid disease progression leading to dementia and no pathologic hallmarks. The identification of KCTD7 mutations in nine patients and the clinical delineation of their phenotype establish KCTD7 as a gene for early onset PME. The findings presented in this thesis denote MFSD8 and KCTD7 as genes commonly associated with childhood onset symptomatic epilepsy. The disease-associated role of TXNDC6 awaits verification through identification of additional mutations in patients with similar phenotypes. Completion of the genetic spectrum underlying childhood onset PMEs and understanding of the gene products functions will comprise important steps towards understanding the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, and will possibly shed light on the general processes of neurodegeneration and nervous system regulation, facilitating the diagnosis, classification and possibly treatment of the affected cases.