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  • Kuusisto, Jukka (1990)
    Ns. restriktioentsyymin keksimisen myötä on kehitetty uusi menetelmä tutkia yksilön perimää geenitasolla. Perimäns isältämä DNA pilkotaan lyhyemmiksi pätkiksi restriktioentsyymin tunnistamista paikoista. Nämä pätkät kokoerotellaan elektroforeesilla. Radioaktiivisella koettimella saadaan näkyviin ne perimän sisältämät pätkät, joissa on kyseisen koettimen tunnistama ns. minisatellittialue. Näin saatu juovasto on yksilöspesifinen, ja sitä nimitetään yksilön DNA-sormenjäljeksi (DNA-fingerprint). Koirilla menetelmää voidaan käyttää yksilön tunnistamiseen, isyystutkimuksiin ja rodun sisäsiittoisuuden arvioimiseen. Isyystutkimuksessa jälkeläisen jokaisen juovan on löydyttävä jommalta kummalta vanhemmalta. Rodun sisäsiittoisuutta tutkittaessa arvioidaan rodun eri yksilöiden juovastojen samankaltaisuutta. Tutkimuksessa asetettiin pohdittavaksi, voiko voimakas sisäsiivoisuus alentaa menetelmän tuloksellisuutta varsinkin isyysmäärityksiä tehtäessä. Aineistona käytettiin 3 bedlingtoninterrieriä ja verrokkiryhmänä 8 sekarotuista. DNA eristettiin 2 ml verinäytteestä (EDTA). Aineiston perusteella laskettiin todennäköisyydet, että isyystapaus jäisi ratkaisematta käytettäessä kahta koetinta. Bedlingtoneilla tämä prosentti oli 36.0% (eli 36 isyystapausta sadasta jäisi ratkaisematta) ja sekarotuisilla 6.4%. Saadut prosentit ovat muihin vastaaviin tutkimuksiin verrattuna melko suuria. Tulosten perusteella havaitaan sisäsiittoisuuden vähentävän menetelmän tuloksellisuutta merkittävästi. Menetelmän käyttö isyysmäärityksiin ei ole mielekästä rutiininomaisena menetelmänä johtuen menetelmän kalleudesta ja hitaudesta. Perinteisillä menetelmillä ratkeamattomissa kiistatapauksissa voidaan DNA-sormenjälkianalyysillä kuitenkin saada hyödyllistä lisätietoa. Myös eri koirarotujen sisäsiittoisuuden arvioimisessa voidaan menetelmää soveltaa tuloksellisesti.
  • Mannela, Marianne (2003)
    Koirien perinnöllisten sairauksien diagnostiikkaan on viime vuosina kehitetty monia DNA-testejä. Tällä hetkellä DNA-testi on saatavilla ainakin 14:lle eri sairaudelle ja testien lukumäärä tulee edelleen lisääntymään lähitulevaisuudessa. Perinnöllisen sairauden DNA-testi voi perustua mutaation (suora analyysi) tai markkerigeenin tunnistamiseen (kytkentä-analyysi). Tutkimus voidaan suorittaa esimerkiksi veri-, karva- tai limakalvonäytteestä. DNA-testin avulla pystytään tunnistamaan resessiivisesti periytyvän taudin kantajat teettämättä pentuja sairaan tai tunnetun kantajan kanssa. Tämä mahdollistaa sairausgeenin esiintyvyyden vähentämisen populaatiosta ilman että geenipohja merkittävästi kaventuu. Tutkimusosuudessa kartoitetaan koiranomistajien ja –kasvattajien mielipiteitä perinnöllisistä sairauksista ja niiden vastustusohjelmista. Tiedonkeräys tehtiin vuonna 1998 postitse kyselykaavakkeilla, joita lähetettiin 640:lle koiranomistajalle ja 320:lle kasvattajalle. Kyselyyn vastasi 214 omistajaa ja 108 kasvattajaa. Suurin osa kyselyyn vastanneista piti perinnöllisten sairauksien vastustusohjelmia tärkeinä.
  • Vekkaila, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation study explored students engagement in the doctoral process and factors associated with it. Doctoral students experiences of engagement were investigated in three studies, while the associated factors were analysed in a further two. The dissertation used a mixed-methods approach; accordingly, the data were collected through interviews and surveys, and were analysed by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Study I investigated the key learning experiences that the students perceived to be either inspiring or challenging in their doctoral process. Altogether 19 natural sciences doctoral students were interviewed. The majority of the key learning experiences identified by the students were positive. Most of the experiences were related to the students participation in the scholarly community, developing as a scholar, and developing specific research competencies. The students situated such experiences typically in various scholarly activities including research work, courses, and academic meetings. Study II focused on analysing students engagement by exploring the main experiences and sources, as well as the qualitatively different forms of engagement in the doctoral process. Altogether 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students were interviewed. The students described their engagement in terms of experiences of dedication, efficiency, and sometimes absorption. They typically emphasised their sense of competence and relatedness as the main sources of engagement. In the students descriptions three qualitatively different forms of engagement in doctoral work were also identified: an adaptive form of engagement, an agentic form of engagement, and a work-life inspired form of engagement. Further, there was variation among the students in terms of what forms of engagement they emphasised in different phases of their doctoral studies. Study III focused on students disengagement by exploring the main experiences and sources of disengagement from the doctoral process. Also, the students perceptions of the dynamic interplay between themselves and their environments with respect to disengaging experiences were explored by analysing the perceived misfits between the students and their environments. Altogether 16 behavioural sciences doctoral students were interviewed. The students described their disengagement in terms of experiences of inefficacy, cynicism, and sometimes exhaustion. They typically emphasised their struggles and conflicts within the scholarly community as the main source of disengagement. The students typically attributed their disengagement to the perceived misfit between themselves and their environments, and in particular often associated the problem with the scholarly community rather than themselves. Study IV focused on the collective fit between doctoral students and their environments that had contributed to their engagement. Altogether 1 184 doctoral students and 431 supervisors from different disciplines participated in the surveys. The collective fit was explored at the faculty level in terms of similarities and differences in the students and supervisors perceptions of the main resources and challenges with respect to the doctoral process. The relation between the perceived fit and the doctoral students satisfaction with their study process and supervision was explored. The results showed that either a fit, a partial fit, or a misfit existed between the students and supervisors perceptions in the different faculties. A relation was also found between the collective fit and students satisfaction with their overall study process and supervisory support. This dissertation contributes to the literature on doctoral student engagement by breaking down the complexity of engagement; it does this by identifying the qualitatively different experiences, sources, and forms of engagement. Moreover, the study reveals the nature of engagement at the interface of study and work by shedding light on the dual role of doctoral students as both students and professional researchers. Further, the results provide a new understanding of the perceived student learning environment fit as a primary determinant of doctoral student engagement. The results encourage viewing doctoral student engagement as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon supported by the constructive interplay between doctoral students and their learning environments that fosters students meaningful participation and a sense of belonging in their scholarly communities. Keywords: doctoral education, doctoral process, doctoral student, engagement, disengagement, learning environment, scholarly community, student environment fit
  • Kääriäinen, Aino (2003)
    The primary task of this study is to clarify the significance of documentation in professional practices and information formation involved in social work concerning child protection. The document texts under study were examined from three angles: 1) How were the documents written? 2) What information did the documents contain? 3) Why were the documents written as they were? The research material consisted of information from a database of client information compiled from notes and custody decisions by social workers involved in child protection. Documents relating to twenty children of varying ages and their families were selected for this study, a total of 1613 pages. The texts are dated between 1989 and 2000. The method of study is discourse analytical and is based on a three-dimensional model developed by Fairclough (1997) in which discourse is defined as the interaction between texts, practices and socio-cultural environment. The model used for the analysis consists of rhetoric and thematic material as well as investigation from the pragmatic point of view. Categorizing the documents into speaker categories revealed the polyphony of the texts, text-structures including viewpoints and opinions of several people. The rhetorical analysis showed that documents pertaining to social work involving child protection contain a large amount of dynamic description of the work. The polyphony of the texts adds to their credibility and is one way to influence the meaning by using rhetoric. The thematic study showed that the content of the themes in the documents and the empirical themes repeat themselves as dynamically interchanging concentric and superimposed threads. Social workers introduce many simultaneous themes into their documents, which help them to form a professional judgement of the case at hand. Studying the documents from the pragmatic angle revealed the contextual dimensions of reading and writing and the process of information formation. The drawing up of documents is one of the practices employed in social work. It is also a crucial part of the creation and maintenance of professional understanding. The dynamics of information forming that is revealed in documents originates in writing practices, and in the common areas of writing and reading and occupational practices.
  • Kankkunen, Juho (2014)
    Välimiesmenettelyn merkitys kansainvälisessä riidanratkaisussa on kasvanut merkittävästi viime vuosikymmenten aikana. Tämä kehitys on tuonut erilaisten oikeuskulttuurien prosessuaaliset käytännöt ja niiden erityisluonteet konflikteihin keskenään, ja pakottanut välimiesmenettelyiden osapuolet etsimään kompromisseja konfliktien ratkaisemiseksi. Tällaisia konfliktitilanteita ilmenee erityisesti kirjallisessa todistelussa, jossa civil law ja common law -maiden väliset eroavaisuudet todistelussa nousevat erityisongelmaksi. Konfliktien ratkaisemiseksi International Bar Association laati 1983 julkaistut todistelusäännöt. Näiden sääntöjen vuonna 1999 julkaistu uussittu versio saavutti huomattavaa suosiota niin oikeustieteilijöiden kuin välimiesmenetttelyjen ammattilaisten keskuudessa. Vuonna 2010 IBA julkaisi säännöistä uuden, päivitetyn version. Tämä tutkielma esittelee IBA:n sääntöjen uusitun version mukaisen todistelujärjestelmän niin välimiesmenettelyn osapuolien kuin välimiestuomioistuimenkin näkökulmasta. Tutkielmassa kiinnitetään erityistä huomiota kirjallisten todisteiden esittämisvaatimuksiin, joiden osalta käsitellään niin menettelyn osapuolien oikeudet ja velvollisuudet kuin välimiesten toimivalta. Esittämisvaatimuksten rajojen oikeudellinen tarkastelu on erityisen tärkeää kansainvälisessä välimiesmenettelyssä, sillä civil law ja common law -maiden välillä on vaatimusten laajuden osalta huomattavia eroja. IBA:n säännöt pyrkivät erityisesti tarjoamaan välimuodon civil law -maiden rajoitettujen esittämisvaatimusten sekä common law -maiden laajemman discovery-menettelyn väliltä. IBA:n uusittujen sääntöjen tavoitteena on tarjota joustava, tehokas ja moderni todistelumenettely. Tässä tutkielmassa arvioidaan erityisesti vuoden 2010 uudistuksessa tehtyjä muutoksia ja lisäyksiä sekä niiden vaikutusta sääntöjen mukaiselle menettelylle. Uudistetut IBA:n säännöt tarjoavat edelleen joustavan ja tehokkaan mallin kirjallisen todistelun toteuttamiselle kansainvälisessä välimiesmenettelyssä, sillä tehdyt muutokset eivät radikaalisti muuta sääntöjen sisältöä niiden aikaisemmasta muodosta. Tässä tutkielmassa kiinnitetään erityistä huomiota sääntöihin lisättyyn vilpittömän menettelyn vaatimukseen ja sen suhteeseen sääntöjen muiden osa-alueiden kanssa. Tämä tarkastaelu on erittäin tärkeää, sillä säännöt eivät määrittele vilpitöntä menettelyä eivätkä tarjoa erityisiä ohjeita kyseisen vaatimuksen soveltamiseen sääntöjen kontekstissa. Niinpä välimiesmenettelyn osapuolten on suositeltavaa pyrkiä nostamaan tällaiset soveltamiskysymkset esiin sopiessaan noudatettavista menettelyistä.
  • Kähkönen, Mikko (2000)
    The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of an enlargement of a common market on economic growth and incomes. The analytical framework is developed by Uwe Walz (1998). The underlying growth model draws on the work of Grossman and Helpman (1991). Growth is explained with continuous developing of new differentiated intermediate inputs in an R&D sector. The use of these intermediates yields economies of scale and further, productivity gains in final goods production. The countries’ specialisation patterns are determined together with the mentioned scale economies and agglomeration advantages and disadvantages arising from transport costs. The new country to the common market is considered to be technologically lagging compared to the initial countries. The differences in technology are of such magnitude that the entrant cannot take part in the R&D activity at all. The study of the enlargement is divided into two sequences: liberalisation of trade and liberalisation of migration. The result of removing the barriers to trade is faster economic growth and income convergence between the initial common market countries. The enhanced welfare is observed as better wages in the new member state. The specialisation patterns become less drastic, with the reallocation of resources leading to the innovating activity being more evenly distributed. In the case of labour mobilisation, faster growth is achieved with qualifications. The migration of unskilled workers to the initial common market countries slows down growth. The immigration of skilled workers in turn leads to faster growth if and only if it was used relatively less intensively in the new member country prior to the enlargement. In this case wages converge. The starting point of the study consists of the following papers: Grossman, G. M. & Helpman, E. (1991): Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma. USA. Walz, U. (1998): Does an Enlargement of a Common Market Stimulate Growth and Convergence? Journal of International Economics 45, 297 – 321. Walz, U. (1996): Transport costs, Intermediate Goods, and Localized Growth. Regional science and Urban Economics 26, 671 – 695.
  • Kähkönen, Mikko (2000)
    Työssä tarkastellaan sisämarkkina-alueen laajenemisen vaikutusta taloudelliseen kasvuun ja tuloihin. Tutkimuksen viitekehyksen on kehittänyt Uwe Walz (1998), jonka malli pohjautuu Grossmanin ja Helpmanin (1991) sisäsyntyisen kasvun malliin. Ongelman tarkasteluun käytettävässä mallissa taloudellinen kasvu perustuu jatkuvaan uusien, erilaistettujen välituotteiden kehittämiseen talouden tutkimus- ja kehityssektorissa. Välituotteiden käyttö johtaa skaalaetujen kautta tuottavuuden paranemiseen lopputuotteiden valmistuksessa. Edellä mainittu sekä kuljetuskustannuksista aiheutuvat tuotantoyksiköiden keskittymisen edut ja haitat johtavat sisämarkkina-alueen maiden epätäydelliseen erikoistumiseen hyödykkeiden tuotannossa. Sisämarkkina-alueen uuden jäsenen oletetaan olevan teknologialtaan jäljessä alkuperäisistä jäsenistä. Kehittymättömyys on sitä luokkaa, ettei ko. maa pysty osallistumaan tuotekehittelyyn lainkaan. Laajentumisen vaikutuksia tarkastellaan kahdessa vaiheessa: ensimmäisessä poistetaan kaupan esteet ja toisessa sallitaan työvoiman liikkuminen alueella. Kaupan vapauttaminen johtaa taloudellisen kasvun nopeutumiseen ja tuloerojen vähenemiseen sisämarkkina-alueen alkuperäisten jäsenmaiden välillä. Uudessa maassa hyvinvoinnin nousu näkyy suurempina palkkoina. Erikoistuminen tuotannossa muuttuu, resurssien uudelleenallokointi johtaa t&k –toiminnan tasaisempaan jakautumiseen. Työvoiman liikkuvuus johtaa nopeampaan kasvuun vain tietyin ehdoin. Kouluttamattoman työvoiman virtaaminen sisämarkkina-alueen alkuperäisiin jäsenmaihin hidastaa kasvua, koulutetun työvoiman muutto taas johtaa nopeampaan kasvuun jos ja vain jos sen käyttö uudessa jäsenmaassa oli tehottomampaa ennen jäsenyyttä verrattuna alkuperäisjäseniin. Tässä tapauksessa myös palkat lähentyvät toisiaan. Keskeisiä artikkeleita: Grossman, G. M. & Helpman, E. (1991): Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma. USA. Walz, U. (1998): Does an Enlargement of a Common Market Stimulate Growth and Convergence? Journal of International Economics 45, 297 – 321. Walz, U. (1996): Transport costs, Intermediate Goods, and Localized Growth. Regional science and Urban Economics 26, 671 – 695.
  • Mytty, Tuukka (2013)
    Does carbon dioxide predict temperature? No it does not, in the time period of 1880-2004 with the carbon dioxide and temperature data used in this thesis. According to the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) carbon dioxide is the most important factor in raising the global temperature. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that carbon dioxide truly predicts temperature. Because this paper uses observational data it has to be kept in mind that no causality interpretation can be made, only predictive inferences. The data is from the years 1880-2004 and consists of carbon dioxide emissions and temperature anomalies, the base period for the anomalies is 1961-1990. The main analysis method is the cointegrated VAR model but also the standard VAR model is used. The variables were tested for possible unit roots and it was found that there were unit roots present. Then the variables were tested for the cointegrating rank and here the analysis divided into three parts. One, with the assumptions that the variables are integrated of order one, a constant as a deterministic term and one cointegrating relation. Two, variables are allowed to be integrated of order two, a linear trend as a deterministic term and one cointegrating relation. Three, based on some weak evidence there was a result that variables weren’t cointegrated and the analysis could be done in differences. In the first the case it the result was that carbon dioxide doesn’t predict temperature but actually temperature predicted carbon dioxide, the second version gave the same result. In the third case neither one of the variables predicted the other one. These results go against the what is considered as the common consensus in the subject matter of climate change.
  • Brylka, Asteria Anna (2012)
    Integration of immigrants into the receiving societies has already long ago been acknowledged as fundamental for both the well-being of the immigrants and the welfare of the receiving states. While much of researchers’ attention is dedicated to immigrants’ acculturation, labour market integration of immigrants is less focused on, especially when it concerns immigrant professionals. Although successful labour market integration depends partially on immigrants themselves, it is nevertheless, a bilateral process and members of the receiving societies may either facilitate it or interfere with it. This study, anchored in the context of the European Union and its eastward expansion in 2004, approaches the problem of immigrants’ labour market integration by investigating the attitudes of the Finnish national majority towards employment of dentists trained in other EU member states (the EU15 vs. the A8 group). The study is based on data from 99 dentistry students; the data was collected during a field experiment conducted throughout 2011. The theoretical framework of this study is based on the SIT paradigm, but it also accommodates findings on the labour market outcomes of the A8 immigrants in the EU15 member states, and the ethnic hierarchies in Finland. There are two foci of interest: (1) whether national in-group identification of participants has an effect on their willingness to employ an applicant (the national in-group or out-group member), and (2) whether a specific EU nationality of an applicant (the EU15 vs. the A8 nationality) affects participants’ recruitment choices. The assumptions of SIT are partly supported by the results. It was found that the participants in general did not favour their national in-group applicant over the foreign applicants. This effect, however, depended on the specific EU nationality of an applicant and whereas the national in-group applicant was not favoured over the EU15 applicant, he was favoured over the A8 group applicant. Contrary to the expectations, national in-group identification did not have an effect on the participants’ willingness to employ either a national in-group or out-group applicant. Specific EU nationality, as expected, was an important factor affecting the participants’ recruitment decision: When juxtaposed with each other, the EU15 applicant was favoured over the A8 group applicant. The findings of this study, identifying nationality of EU immigrant professionals to be an important factor in recruitment and, therefore, in the process of immigrants’ labour market integration in another EU member state, have revealed a vivid problem of the contemporary EU which nevertheless, has so far not been addressed. In this thesis it is argued that A8 citizens are not regarded by EU15 citizens as in-group members on any supra-national level, including the supra-national level of the EU and, therefore, they are discriminated against as out-group members.
  • Kalmbach, Aino (2015)
    Naiset ovat nykyään huomattavasti aiempaa korkeammin koulutettuja. Naiset ovat yliedustettuina sekä korkeakoulussa opiskelevien että korkeakoulusta valmistuneiden joukossa lähes kaikissa maissa, myös Suomessa. Naiset ovat kuitenkin lähes poikkeuksetta aliedustettuja luonnontiede- ja insinöörialoilla (STEM) sekä opiskelijoiden että valmistuneiden joukossa. Naisten aliedustus kyseisillä aloilla johtaa tehottomuuteen, jos huippukyvyt hakeutuvat kyvykkyydestään huolimatta muille aloille. Tässä Pro gradu – tutkielmassa tarkastelen kulttuurin vaikutusta naisten aliedustukseen luonnontiede- ja insinöörialoilla. Aiempi tutkimus on selittänyt naisten aliedustusta luonnontiede- ja insinöörialoilla muun muassa eroilla preferensseissä, kyvykkyydessä ja kilpailullisuudessa. Kulttuurin vaikutusta taloudellisiin tuloksiin on tutkittu enenevissä määrin 2000-luvulla. Hyödynnän tässä tutkielmassa kulttuurin vaikutusta tutkivassa kirjallisuudessa käytettyä ns. epidemiologista lähestymistapaa, joka tutkii maahanmuuttajien taloudellisia päätöksiä. Ajatuksena on, että maahanmuuttajat eroavat toisistaan kulttuuritaustaltaan, mutta asuessaan Suomessa he kohtaavat keskenään samat markkinat ja instituutiot. Erilainen kulttuuritausta ajaisi siis esimerkiksi erilaisiin kouluttautumispäätöksiin. Käytän Tilastokeskuksen paneeliaineistoa, josta tarkastelen vuoden 2012 poikkileikkausta. Aineisto koostuu kahdesta osasta. Ensimmäiseen osaan kuuluvat alle 10-vuotiaana maahan muuttaneet, havaintohetkellä 18–36 -vuotiaat maahanmuuttajat, joiden kumpikaan vanhempi ei ole suomalainen. Lisäksi aineistoon kuuluu yhden kolmasosan satunnaisotos 18–36 -vuotiaista kantaväestöön kuuluvista yksilöistä. Tutkielman päätuloksen mukaan maahanmuuttajanaisen alkuperämaan kulttuuri vaikuttaa todennäköisyyteen osallistua luonnontiede- tai insinöörialan pääaineeseen kolmannen asteen koulutuksessa Suomessa. Alkuperämaan kulttuuria mittaan todennäköisyyksien suhdeluvulla (odds ratio), joka kuvaa kussakin alkuperämaassa naisten todennäköisyyttä valmistua luonnontiede- tai insinöörialalta. Tuloksen mukaan naiset, joiden alkuperämaassa on suhteellisesti enemmän naisia STEM-aloilla, osallistuvat todennäköisemmin kyseisten alojen koulutukseen myös Suomessa. Otoskoko on kuitenkin hyvin pieni, sillä mahanmuuttajien määrä Suomessa on pieni ja aineiston rajoitukset rajoittavat tutkimuksen otosta entisestään. Siten tuloksesta ei voi vetää lopullisia johtopäätöksiä. Maahanmuuttajien vanhempien koulutustasoa ei havaita aineistossa, joten on mahdotonta sanoa, johtuuko korrelaatio vanhempien suuremmasta todennäköisyydestä olla kyseiseltä alalta valmistuneita.
  • Vänskä, Bettina (2014)
    In contrast to conventional economic growth theory, natural resource abundance can harm country's economic growth. This puzzling phenomenon is called resource curse. Resource curse is defined as a decrease in national income due to an increase of natural resources. In general, resource rich countries have had lower growth rates than their resource poor counterparts during last four decades. However, not all resource abundant countries perform poorly. There are also countries with large natural resources that have experienced fast economic growth. Recent studies have suggested that institutional quality could explain this divergence. By institutions it is referred for example to the level of corruption, rule of law and government accountability. This thesis examines whether institutional quality has any effect on resource curse and whether differences in institutional quality explain the divergence between well and poorly performing resource abundant countries. The problem is examined with two rent-seeking theories. The first one (Mehlum et al. 2006a) examines entrepreneurs' allocation between two competing activities: production and rent-seeking activity. The institutional quality of the country determines whether or not natural resources induce the entrepreneurs to participate in rent-seeking activity. The second theory (Robinson and Torvik 2013) differs from Mehlum et al. in the specialization possibility and functional forms used. It shows that the allocation decision of entrepreneurs and the aggregate income of the country are conditional on the institutional quality of the country. Both theories examine how entrepreneurs' allocation decision and national income respond to an increase in natural resources. Resource curse is shown to exist only in countries with poor institutions. In that case an increase in natural resources decreases national income because talents are transferred into rent-seeking activity. Strong institutions mitigate the entrepreneurs’ participation to rent-seeking activity. As more entrepreneurs are participating in production activity and incentives to participate in rent-seeking are mitigated, the national income is increased. Institutional quality determines whether a resource rich country suffers from resource curse. Institutions are shown to be essential in explaining the divergence of resource rich countries to well and poorly performing. Resource rich country can turn the curse over by improving its institutions. The results stress the importance of underlying institutions on economic performance.
  • Penny, Kaisa (2012)
    This thesis investigates the relationship between different welfare models and the realisation of gender equality in European states. Despite the European level legislation that should ensure the equal treatment of women in many areas of life, levels of gender equality vary in states across Europe. The research question of this thesis addresses the effects of welfare state models upon the differential realisation of gender equality across a range of social, economic and political indicators. The thesis relies upon a theoretical and empirical element. Chapters 1 and 2 address the literature and theory on both gender equality, and European welfare state models. Both concepts are defined and their theoretical relationship is addressed from both 'mainstream' and feminist viewpoints. This research adopts and describes a theoretical framework based upon a modified version of G0sta Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare models, incorporating a fourth group - the Mediterranean states. Chapter 3 outlines and performs a comparative analysis of the relationship between gender equality in Europe, and the welfare models in question. Statistical data on 11 indicators of gender equality is collected and analysed. These indicators address a range of aspects relevant to gender equality, focusing on labour market situation, educational achievement, parental employment support and political participation and representation. A statistical model is built to rank the states and welfare models by their relative performance according to these metrics. In Chapter 4 these results are analysed, and seen to confirm a number of the hypotheses drawn from the theory. Similar welfare models appear to affect gender equality similarly - i.e. forming clusters. These clusters also exhibit differences between them, implying that welfare models do affect gender equality in determinate ways. Furthermore these differences are observed to be broadly similar to those proposed in the literature. Social Democratic states ameliorate gender inequalities most effectively, with other models achieving less in this regard. The conclusionsalso identify limitations in the theory however, indicating that the Mediterranean welfare model is less coherent than assumed, but apparently more effective in addressing gender equality than was expected.
  • Mitrunen, Matti (2013)
    Job polarization, loss of middle skilled employment relative to low and high skilled, has been visible in many western countries in the past decades (Goos et al. 2009), but its causes are not completely understood. Most of the research blames uneven technological change, which allows machinery to replace routine middle skilled work (Autor et al. 2003, Autor & Dorn 2012), but cheap foreign workforce could also contribute to the job polarization trend by replacing middle skilled manufacturing labour. This relationship between job polarization and offshoring has been explored with indices, but not with actual trade data. The contribution of this thesis is to show the Finnish job polarization trend in detail, and use firm-level imports data to examine its relation to offshoring. I have in my disposal Structure of Earnings Statistics, Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and firm-level imports data from 2000 to 2008. These data allow me to illustrate job polarization trend in Finland, as well as the trend within firms. I divide Finnish labour in low, middle and high skilled occupations, and create a firm-level variable for how much each of these groups is employed in a firm. I also construct a variable measuring firm’s offshoring, which is done following Feenstra & Hanson (1999). I estimate basic Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions to figure out how much exactly the offshoring of a firm affects the skill structure of a firm. I control for technological aspects and add firm and time specific effects. I perform this exercise also at the industry level, because it is more likely that the structure of industry is changing due to increasing offshoring. To assure causality I develop my own industry-level instrumental variable (following Autor et al. 2011), and run Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regressions. I find that there has been job polarization in Finland, where the middle skilled labour has lost approximately 7 percent points of its share between 2000 and 2008. Furthermore, I find that the losing occupations perform excessively routine tasks. In this study I find that offshoring does not explain job polarization very well at the firm level, when added firm and time specific effects. My instrumental variable approach states that offshoring does cause statistically significant demise in the share of the middle skilled at the industry level, but these results are subject to some doubt, since the instrumental variable might be weak. I conclude that offshoring might have an effect on job polarization, but this effect should not be overestimated. Like the previous literature, I come to the conclusion that routine-intensity of work might be better explanation for diminishing middle skilled labour than offshoring.
  • Linnoinen, Krista (2013)
    Mathematics teaching has been an active field of research and development at the Department of Mathematics and Systems Analysis at Aalto University. This research has been motivated by a desire to increase the number of students that pass compulsory basic mathematics courses without compromising on standards. The courses aim to provide the engineering students with the mathematical skills needed in their degree programmes so it is essential that a proper foundation is laid. Since 2006, a web-based automated assessment system called STACK has been used on basic mathematics courses for supplementary exercises to aid learning at Aalto University. In this thesis, computer-aided mathematics teaching and, in particular, automated assessment are studied to investigate what effect attempting to solve online exercises has on mathematical proficiency. This is done by using a Granger causality test. For this, the first two of three basic courses are examined. The concepts relating to learning and computer-aided mathematics teaching as well as the developments, including Mumie, made at Aalto University are first presented. Then, the statistical methodology, the theoretical framework and the test procedure for Granger causality are described. The courses and data, which was collected from STACK and used to quantify mathematical proficiency for the Granger causality test, are then reviewed. Finally, the results and implications are presented. The Granger causality tests show that there exists a Granger-causal relationship such that mathematical proficiency affects the desire to attempt to solve exercises. This holds for both of the interpretations used for quantifying mathematical profiency and all variations of the penalty deducted for incorrect attempts. The results imply that the exercises are too difficult for the students and that students tend to give up quickly. Thus, the Granger causality tests produced statistically significant results to back up what teachers have always known: students are discouraged by failure, but encouraged by success. The results provide teachers with valuable information about the students' abilities and enable teachers to alter the teaching accordingly to better support the students' learning.
  • Richter, Katharina (2013)
    Recently, two phenomena have received increasing attention across the social science disciplines which investigate European integration: Europeanization and migration. Within sociology, the Europeanization of identities in particular has become a “growth industry“ (Checkel 2007). This thesis focuses on the nexus between Europeanization and migration by looking at the relationship between European identity, cross-border interactions and transnational family background of European Union (EU) citizens. Specifically, three different groups of EU citizens (with European transnational family background, non-European transnational family background, and without any transnational family background) are compared in their levels of European identity and engagement in cross-border interactions. Using a set of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions it is then analyzed whether transnational family background fosters European self-identifications and cross-border interactions if variables identified as influential in the literature is controlled for. Results indicate that transnational family background is a positive predictor of European identity and cross-border interactions, alongside education, suggesting that higher cross-border migration may be beneficial for future societal integration in the EU beyond the first generation movers. All calculations are computed using a Eurobarometer survey from 2010 (EB 73.3) which includes individual-level data from the EU-27 countries.
  • Kotiranta, Annu (2008)
    Although Finland is one of the leading countries when it comes to gender equality, only few of the top managers are female. In fact, less than ten percent of chief executive officers of Finnish companies are women. In this thesis this phenomena is investigated from an economic perspective. If the reasons for the low female participation are a consequence of gender based discrimination in Finnish business life, the non-discriminating companies should have a clear advantage over their discriminative competitors. Do female leaders boost firm profitability? The question of the gender composition of the top management team and firm profitability is addressed by reflecting the results of the micro level analysis to the theoretical literature of discrimination. Discrimination is modelled using two classics, the discrimination theories of Becker (1957) and Arrow (1972). Also some critical remarks are included and the key aspects of Becker’s taste-based discrimination are reviewed using some facts of the Finnish labour market. In addition to the theoretical literature, several empirical articles examining the connection between the gender composition of the top management and firm profitability are introduced. The aim of this study is to bring genuine added value to the results of the existing literature by using a large data set and statistical methods in order minimize the common problems of empirical research of this field. The core and the true contribution of this thesis is the empirical part of the study, which is realized using the linked employer-employee dataset of Statistics Finland. The sample includes 3230 companies, which employed at least 20 persons during the time period 2000–2004. The analysis is carried out using Maliranta’s micro level decomposition method, which takes into account the labour productivity and wage effects of the employees, when examining the effects of different worker groups on the profitability growth of the companies. In addition to the base line results, also analyses are carried out, where the firm size is limited to companies employing at least 10 persons and some personal characters of the employees are taken into account. Also the possible problems of endogenity are addressed by additional examination. However, these do not change the conclusions of the original results, according to which, the gender of the top management team does not have a statistically significant impact on the profitability growth of the Finnish companies.
  • Kotiranta, Annu (2008)
    Vaikka sukupuolten välisen tasa-arvon katsotaan Suomessa toteutuvan varsin hyvin, on naisten osuus ylimmästä liikkeenjohdosta varsin vähäinen - alle kymmenen prosenttia suomalaisyritysten toimitusjohtajista on naisia. Tässä pro gradu -tutkimuksessa ilmiöön paneudutaan kansantalouden näkökulmasta. Mikäli naisten alhainen edustus johtoportaassa on seurausta syrjinnästä liike-elämästä, tulisi sukupuolista tasa-arvoa vaalivien yritysten olla etulyöntiasemassa kilpailijoihinsa nähden. Parantaako naisjohto yrityksen kannattavuutta? Kysymykseen johdon sukupuolijakauman ja kannattavuuden välisestä yhteydestä paneudutaan peilaamalla laajalla mikrotason aineistolla toteutetun empiirisen analyysin tuloksia syrjintää mallintavaan teoreettiseen kehikkoon. Syrjintää mallinnetaan käyttäen kahta kansantaloustieteen klassikkoa, Beckerin (1957) ja Arrown (1972) diskriminaatioteorioita, sekä esitellään niihin kohdistunutta kritiikkiä. Lisäksi Beckerin hahmotteleman mieltymyksiin perustuvan teorian avaintekijöitä tarkastellaan Suomen työmarkkinoihin liittyvien tosiasioiden valossa. Teoreettisen kirjallisuuden lisäksi työssä esitellään lukuisia akateemisia artikkeleita, joissa on tutkittu johdon sukupuolijakauman sekä yrityksen kannattavuuden välistä yhteyttä. Tässä työssä pyritään saamaan tuloksia sekä käyttämään aineistoja sekä menetelmiä, jotka luovat todellista lisäarvoa jo olemassa olevaan tutkimustietoon aiheesta. Tähän pyritään harvinaislaatuisen laajalla sekä laadukkaalla aineistolla sekä tilastollisin menetelmin, joiden avulla pystytään minimoimaan usein tämän tyylisiin empiirisiin töihin liittyviä ongelmia. Työn ytimenä ja varsinaisena kontribuutiona toimiva empiirinen osuus on toteutettu Tilastokeskuksen yhdistetyllä työntekijä-työnantaja -aineistolla. Käytetty otos sisältää 3230 vähintään 20 henkeä työllistänyttä suomalaisyritystä vuosilta 2000–2004. Analyysi on toteutettu hyödyntämällä Malirannan kehittämää mikrotason hajoitelmaa, jossa otetaan huomioon työntekijöiden tuottavuus sekä palkkaus tarkasteltaessa työntekijäryhmien vaikutuksia yritysten kannattavuuden kasvuun. Perusanalyysin lisäksi tuloksia testataan myös rajaamalla yrityskoko yli 10 hengen yrityksiin, lisäämällä työntekijöiden ominaisuuksia analyysiin sekä lisätarkastelulla, jolla rajataan pois mahdollista endogeenisyydestä johtuvia ongelmia. Lisätarkastelut ja testaukset eivät kuitenkaan muuta alkuperäistä tulosta, jonka mukaan yritysjohdon sukupuolella ei ole tilastollisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta yrityksen kannattavuuden kasvuun.
  • Silvo, Aino (2011)
    Ever since its initial introduction some fifty years ago, the rational expectations paradigm has dominated the way economic theory handles uncertainty. The main assertion made by John F. Muth (1961), seen by many as the father of the paradigm, is that expectations of rational economic agents should essentially be equal to the predictions of relevant economic theory, since rational agents should use information available to them in an optimal way. This assumption often has important consequences on the results and interpretations of the models where it is applied. Although the rational expectations assumption can be applied to virtually any economic theory, the focus in this thesis is on macroeconomic theories of consumption, especially the Rational Expectations–Permanent Income Hypothesis proposed by Robert E. Hall in 1978. The much-debated theory suggests that, assuming that agents have rational expectations on their future income, consumption decisions should follow a random walk, and the best forecast of future consumption level is the current consumption level. Then, changes in consumption are unforecastable. This thesis constructs an empirical test for the Rational Expectations–Permanent Income Hypothesis using Finnish Consumer Survey data as well as various Finnish macroeconomic data. The data sample covers the years 1995–2010. Consumer survey data may be interpreted to directly represent household expectations, which makes it an interesting tool for this particular test. The variable to be predicted is the growth of total household consumption expenditure. The main empirical result is that the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI), a balance figure computed from the most important consumer survey responses, does have statistically significant predictive power over the change in total consumption expenditure. The history of consumption expenditure growth itself, however, fails to predict its own future values. This indicates that the CCI contains some information that the history of consumption decisions does not, and that the consumption decisions are not optimal in the theoretical context. However, when conditioned on various macroeconomic variables, the CCI loses its predictive ability. This finding suggests that the index is merely a (partial) summary of macroeconomic information, and does not contain any significant private information on consumption intentions of households not directly deductible from the objective economic variables. In conclusion, the Rational Expectations–Permanent Income Hypothesis is strongly rejected by the empirical results in this thesis. This result is in accordance with most earlier studies conducted on the topic.