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  • Dastmalchi, Keyvan (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Oxidative stress has been proposed to play a cardinal role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, antioxidants have been studied for their therapeutic potential in AD therapy. However, there is still a need for novel sources of antioxidants. Recently, there has been an increased interest in aromatic and medicinal plants as sources of natural antioxidants. The plants Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Melissa officinalis L., which belong to the family Lamiaceae, have been used in Iran for their culinary usefulness and medicinal properties. Therefore, extracts of the plants were screened for antioxidant properties in a battery of in vitro assays. The plant extracts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant activities. Furthermore, because it was important to determine which constituents present within the extracts may contribute to the observed activity, compositional fingerprint analyses were carried out using HPLC-PDA techniques. The extracts were found to contain polyphenolic compounds such as hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant constituent in both plants. The plant M. officinalis has been used since antiquity in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. The plant was recently assessed for its clinical efficacy against AD and was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate AD patients. According to a review carried out by the author, screening of medicinal plants for bioactivities relevant in the treatment AD can provide useful leads in the discovery of drugs against AD. Therefore, in addition to antioxidant evaluation, M. officinalis was screened for another bioactivity relevant to AD therapy, viz. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The plant extract showed AChE inhibitory activity, which formed the basis for activity guided fractionation. The extract was fractionated using semipreparative scale HPLC fractionation. Fractions were subsequently subjected to AChE inhibitory screening. Most of the fractions demonstrated inhibitory activity and were proved to be significantly (P < 0.05) more potent than the crude extract. This is an indication of the complex nature of potential interactions between various components within the extract. The contents of the most potent fraction were tentatively identified as a mixture of cis- and trans-rosmarinic acid using LC-DAD-MS and NMR techniques. There is a need to further investigate the efficacy of these chemical constituents in in vivo AD models. The remaining potent fractions should be analysed further to determine the identity of their chemical constituents and the possibility of a correlation existing between antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition should be investigated. The current study showed the multifaceted nature of antioxidant action of D. moldavica and M. officinalis. Furthermore, the latter demonstrated AChE inhibitory activity. A review of the potential benefits of ethnopharmacological screening of plants in AD therapy was made and the importance of bioactivity guided screening and fractionation of medicinal plants was highlighted. It can be concluded that M. officinalis is a potential source for discovery and development of drugs against AD.
  • Söderling, Trygve (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The objective of my dissertation Pull (or Draught, or Moves) at the Parnassus , is to provide a deeper understanding of Nordic Middle Class radicalism of the 1960 s as featured in Finland-Swedish literature. My approach is cultural materialist in a broad sense; social class is regarded a crucial aspect of the contents and contexts of the novels and literary discussions explored. In the first volume, Middle Class With A Human Face , novels by Christer Kihlman, Jarl Sjöblom, Marianne Alopaeus, and Ulla-Lena Lundberg, respectively, are read from the points of view of place, emotion, and power. The term "cryptotope" is used to designate the hidden places found to play an important role in all of these four narratives. Also, the "chronotope of the provincial small town", described by Mikhail Bakhtin in 1938, is exemplified in Kihlman s satirical novel, as is the chronotope of of war (Algeria, Vietnam) in those of Alopaeus and Lundberg s. All the four novels signal changes in the way general "scripts of emotions", e.g. jealousy, are handled and described. The power relations in the novels are also read, with reference to Michel Foucault. As the protagonists in two of them work as journalists, a critical discussion about media and Bourgeois hegemony is found; the term "repressive legitimation" is created to grasp these patterns of manipulation. The Modernist Debate , part II of the study, concerns a literary discussion between mainly Finland-Swedish authors and critics. Essayist Johannes Salminen (40) provided much of the fuel for the debate in 1963, questioning the relevance to contemporary life of the Finland-Swedish modernist tradition of the 1910 s and 1920 s. In 1965, a group of younger authors and critics, including poet Claes Andersson (28), followed up this critique in a debate taking place mainly in the newspaper Vasabladet. Poets Rabbe Enckell (62), Bo Carpelan (39) and others defended a timeless poetry. This debate is contextualized and the changing literary field is analyzed using concepts provided by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. In the thesis, the historical moment of Middle Class radicalism with a human face is regarded a temporary luxury that new social groups could afford themselves, as long as they were knocking over the statues and symbols of the Old Bourgeoisie. This is not to say that all components of the Sixties strategy have lost their power. Some of them have survived and even grown, others remain latent in the gene bank of utopias, waiting for new moments of change.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina (2008)
    Pro gradu -työni on teoriapohjainen empiirinen tutkimus kiinalaisten yliopisto-opiskelijoiden kansallisen identiteetin rakentumisesta. Materiaali on kerätty kolmesta yliopistosta Pekingistä vuonna 2007, ja se muodostuu kyselytutkimuksesta, johon osallistui 1346 opiskelijaa sekä kahdestatoista haastattelusta. Aineistoa analysoidaan kansallisen identiteetin dimensiomallin avulla, ja viitekehyksenä toimivat nationalismin tutkimuksen etnosymbolistinen suuntaus, identifikaatioteoria, sekä Kiinan hallituksen ajama isänmaallisten arvojen edistyskampanja osana epätraditionaalista turvallisuusdiskurssia. Kiinan tapaus on kiinnostava akateemisen tutkimuksen kohde, koska se osoittaa monia nationalismin tutkimuksen teoreettisia ongelmia. Nationalismi määritellään usein nojaamaan joko demokratiakeskeiseen kansallisuusaatteeseen tai etnisyyteen, joista kumpikaan ei ole merkitsevässä asemassa kiinalaisessa nationalismissa. Toinen nykytutkimuksen ongelma on teoreettisten ja empiiristen elementtien yhdistämisen puute. Kansallisen identiteetin dimensiomalli pyrkii parantamaan näitä puutteita. Monitieteisellä tutkimusotteella analysoin työssäni, millainen kansallinen identiteetti kiinalaisilla yliopisto-opiskelijoilla on. Lisäksi pohdin laajemmin, mikä on kansallisen identiteetin rooli kansainvälisessä politiikassa, sillä kansallinen identiteetti osallistuu keskusteluun kansallisista intresseistä, jotka määrittävät osaltaan millaista ulkopolitiikkaa hallitus voi toteuttaa. Tutkimusaineistoa valitessani olen noudattanut triangulaation periaatetta, joten aineisto koostuu sekä kvantitatiivisista että kvalitatiivisista lähteistä. Kyselytutkimusaineiston analyysissa pääasiallisina metodeina on käytetty faktorianalyysiä sekä tilastollisia testejä. Laadullinen aineisto tuo analyysiin mukaan opiskelijoiden subjektiivisen kokemusmaailman. Haastattelujen aikana osallistujat tekivät myös projektiivisen piirustustestin, jonka tarkoituksena oli saada sellaista tietoa, jota on vaikea tavoittaa suorilla kysymyksillä. Opiskelijoiden mielipiteet Kiinan perinteisestä kulttuurista, historiasta, sekä alueellisesta ja kansallisesta yhtenäisyydestä noudattivat hallituksen linjauksia. Kyseiset teemat ovat olleet keskiössä isänmaallisten arvojen edistyskampanjassa. Yli puolet opiskelijoista ilmoitti kuitenkin, ettei ole valmis tukemaan hallitusta jos sen toiminta koetaan vääräksi. Kiinan perinteinen kulttuuri nauttii arvostusta opiskelijoiden keskuudessa, ja kulttuurin arvostuksen havaittiin korreloivan positiivisesti kansallisen ylpeyden kanssa. Alueellisia ja poliittisia kysymyksiä koskevat mielipiteet olivat varsin yhteneviä: ”yhden Kiinan politiikka” ja patriotismin opetus saivat kannatusta. Käsitykset historiasta jakautuivat selvästi kahteen narratiiviin, toisaalta opiskelijat tiedostivat dynastisen historian loiston, toisaalta lähihistoriaa leimasivat nöyryytyksen ja häpeän tunteet. Kansainväliseen yhteistyöhön liittyvät kysymykset jakoivat eniten mielipiteitä. Tunnetason kiinnittyminen Kiinaan oli voimakasta, ja suurinta osaa opiskelijoista voidaan kuvata kansallismielisiksi. Kovasta ulkokuoresta huolimatta kiinalaisten kansallisella identiteetillä näyttäisi kuitenkin olevan pehmeä sisus: alemmuuskompleksi suhteessa ulkoisiin ”toisiin” aiheuttaa voimakkaita reaktioita aina kun kansallinen identiteetti kokee kolauksen. Hallituksen ajama historiallinen nöyryytyskertomus vahvistaa hyökkäävää käyttäytymismallia.
  • Holm, Emmi (2014)
    This is a study of the Nigerian video-film industry called Nollywood. The twenty-year-old film industry is estimated to be the second largest film industry in the world in terms of production. Nollywood productions are based on shooting with video cameras, quick releases, small budgets and informal distribution networks. The contents of Nollywood films are mostly a mixture of “from rags to riches”-kind of stories, occultism and melodrama. Through the study of film production I approached my other subject-matters: modernity, globality, popular culture and the different standards of living in Lagos. The data was gathered in Lagos, the natal home of Nollywood, during a three-month fieldwork. The methods used in the field were participant observation, interviews and free-flowing discussions. The data consists of field notes, diaries, photographs, films and daily blog/gossip writings in the Nigerian media. The main informants were film practitioners in various fields of film production and distribution, and a group of young and wealthy Lagosians to whom I refer with the term “friends” throughout the study. The main topic for my research is film production in the Lagosian context. However, the film production is very much related to the broader cultural and societal way of being in Nigeria: the anxieties and the aspirations of the Nigerian people are mediated in Nollywood films. Nollywood is a product of the global and the local. In this case ‘global’ means the technicalities of filmmaking and the global ‘messages’, a stream of global information, of the globalized world. Nollywood is an apt example of a local media’s wellbeing in the globalized world of today. Nollywood also functions as a mediative power in the Nigerian society. On the one hand Nollywood makes the global more intelligible locally and on the other hand it reflects and represents the local cultural and societal entities. The film industry and the surrounding Nigerian society are not separate entities. It is important to study cultural producers in order to understand how the media takes part in constituting a society. Similar to its surrounding society, Nollywood is going through a fundamental change. Nigeria is on the road of becoming Africa’s biggest economy while Nollywood is promoting itself in the global film scene: filmmakers now look to better quality films and cinema distribution. The storylines of Nollywood remodel the collective sphere of Nigerian aspirations and hope: the films and the real-life stories of the celebrities show Nigerians a possibility of improving one’s life. Nollywood tries to make sense of what it means to be Nigerian today by intertwining traditional and modern, global and local forces together, creating its own style of storytelling and a way of being in the global world.
  • Immonen, Perttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Suomen rannikkoalueille muutti keskiajalla runsaasti ruotsinkielisiä uudisasukkaita, mikä vaikutti keskeisesti koko maan historiaan. Aiemmassa historiallisessa tutkimuksessa on kuitenkin jäänyt vähälle huomiolle se, millainen suomen- ja ruotsinkielisen väestön suhde oli maaseudulle syntyneellä kielirajalla. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään 1) suomen- ja ruotsinkielisen maaseutuväestön välisen kielirajavyöhykkeen ominaispiirteitä 1600 - 1700-luvuilla sekä 2) kielirajan vaikutuksia sen tuntumassa eläneisiin ihmisiin. Alueellisesti tutkimus rajautuu keskipohjalaisiin Kokkolan ja Kälviän pitäjiin, joista ensin mainittu oli pääosin ruotsinkielinen ja jälkimmäinen suomenkielinen. Tutkimuksen päähuomio kohdistuu kaksikieliseen Korpilahden kyläseutuun, joka levittäytyi mainittujen pitäjien väliselle kielirajavyöhykkeelle. Tutkimuksen tärkeimpänä lähdeaineistona toimivat Kokkolan ja Kälviän käräjäkunnan tuomiokirjat 1690- ja 1770-luvuilta. Niiden ohella alkuperäislähteinä käytetään Pohjanmaan rykmentin sotilaskatselmusluetteloita (1690-luku), Kokkolan ja Kälviän seurakuntien rippikirjoja sekä Kokkolan pitäjän- ja kirkonkokousten pöytäkirjoja (1770 -1780-luvut). Lähdeaineistoa analysoidaan ensisijaisesti laadullisesta näkökulmasta. 1) Tulokset osoittavat keskipohjalaisen kielirajavyöhykkeen olleen alituisesti, joskin hyvin hitaasti liikkuva talonpoikaisyhteisöjen ominaisuus. Aikakauden muihin yhteiskunnallisiin ryhmiin ei vastaavaa kielirajaa syntynyt. 1600 - 1700-lukujen säätyläistö ja porvaristo olivat nimittäin valtaosin ruotsinkielisiä, kun taas tilaton väestö oli maantieteellisesti liikkuvaista ja kielelliseltä koostumukseltaan muuntuvaista. Keski-Pohjanmaan ruotsin- ja suomenkielisiä talonpoikia erottivat kielen ohella tietyt kulttuuripiirteet, jotka kuitenkin olivat vähäpätöisiä verrattuna esimerkiksi Pohjanmaan ja Savon välisiin kulttuurieroihin. Pohjalainen kielirajavyöhyke herättikin 1600 - 1700-luvuilla varsin vähän huomiota. Kirkollinen ja maallinen esivalta kylläkin kehittelivät ajoittain ajatusta Pohjanmaan suomalaisalueiden ruotsalaistamisesta sekä jyrkensivät paikoin kielirajaa hallinnollisten rajanvetojensa avulla. Yhteinen uskonto, sotaväki, oikeusjärjestelmä ja kauppayhteydet toisaalta loivat yhteenkuuluvuutta kieliryhmien välille. Niinpä keskipohjalainen talonpoikaisväestö suhtautui keskinäisiin kielellisiin eroavaisuuksiinsa käytännönläheisesti, ilman voimakkaita tunnelatauksia. 2) Tulokset osoittavat, että väkivaltaa ei keskipohjalaisten kieliryhmien välillä esiintynyt käytännössä lainkaan. Keskipohjalaista kielirajavyöhykettä leimasivat kuitenkin sitkeät maankäyttöriidat. Ne eivät perustuneet etnisiin vastakkainasetteluihin. Sen sijaan hyvin hallitun yhteisen kielen puuttuminen vaikeutti maankäyttöriitojen sopimista käräjien ulkopuolella. Asenteiden kärjistymistä ehkäisivät kielirajavyöhykkeen kaksikielisyys ja talonpoikaisten kieliryhmien sosiaalinen tasavertaisuus. Ruotsinkielisillä säätyläisillä oli kuitenkin taipumus suhtautua kielteisesti suomenkieleen, jota pidettiin leimallisesti rahvaan kielenä. Kokkolan ja Kälviän käräjillä suomenkieliset joutuivat lisäksi ruotsinkielisiä useammin syytetyksi siveysrikoksista ja noituudesta, vaikka esimerkiksi varkaus- ja paloviinarikoksissa ei vastaavia eroja ollut. Tämä oletettavasti johtui suomalaiskylien väljemmästä sosiaalisesta kontrollista, mitä ilmensi myös ruotsalaiskylille tyypillisen oltermannijärjestelmän vajavaisuus. Kielirajavyöhykkeen myönteisiä vaikutuksia aikaansai ennen kaikkea kaksikielisyys, josta myös Korpilahden seudun talonpojat hyötyivät kaupanteossa, käräjillä ja monissa heille myönnetyissä luottamustoimissa.
  • David, Leticia Screta (2014)
    This thesis studies the consumers’ willingness to pay for renewable electricity. Green electricity consumption induced by improved information on electricity sources appears as an additional alternative to renewable energy support policies in practice today. It is believed that a shift of the demand towards green sources can stimulate renewable generation and have a positive impact on the environment. However, this voluntary initiative will only work if it is perceived worth paying a premium for green electricity. This work aims to examine the drivers of consumers’ behaviour towards green electricity and to develop economic models that embrace these findings. The analysis also elucidates how the demand for renewable electricity is affected by market prices and by consumers’ income and how information and advertising campaigns can stimulate the behaviour towards green electricity so that the voluntary demand system can fully achieve its goals.
  • Nylén, Tua (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    General patterns and processes of the unique land uplift beaches are still insufficiently understood. Advanced modelling methods and large homogeneous datasets provide novel opportunities to analyse spatio-temporal environmental processes. This doctoral thesis aims at expanding on the knowledge of the beach and adjacent coastal dunes as an ecogeomorphic system. More specifically, the thesis aims at answering: (1) which abiotic, biotic and temporal factors are the main determinants of substrate and vegetation properties, (2) what are the effects of the main drivers on substrate and vegetation properties, (3) how temporal processes interact with main spatial drivers in determining species richness and (4) how these effects differ between functional groups representing different adaptive strategies? Two advanced statistical methods, boosted regression trees and generalised linear mixed models, are utilised to analyse the effects of multiple factors on substrate and vegetation. My results demonstrate that substrate properties vary stronger along regional than local environmental gradients. The main drivers of textural properties are parent material and shore exposure, while organic properties are also determined by the local disturbance regime. Vegetation is mainly controlled by time, disturbance, productivity and biotic interactions. Specialist species richness and distribution are also influenced by habitat patch size and connectivity. The study highlights three mechanisms in shaping the mosaic of vegetation patterns: biotic interactions (i.e. competition and facilitation), the interplay of spatial and temporal processes and functional group (or species-) specific responses to environmental drivers. The doctoral thesis contributes to understanding the components of the ecogeomorphic beach system by identifying the main drivers of substrate and vegetation. Particularly, I demonstrate the variety of ecologic responses and the importance of dominant species in shaping vegetation assemblages. Furthermore, the feasibility of extensive homogeneous datasets and advanced modelling methods are demonstrated in analysing beach processes. Thus, the thesis may serve as one step towards a more in-depth understanding of the complex beach system and provide new methodology for further research. This knowledge is vital to the conservation of beaches that are unique landscapes and considerably contribute to biodiversity but are subject to multiple land use pressures.
  • Mäkinen, Simo (2012)
    Test-driven development is a software development method where programmers compose program code by first implementing a set of small-scale tests which help in the design of the system and in the verification of associated code sections. The reversed design and implementation process is unique: traditionally there is no attempt to verify program code that does not yet exist. Applying practices of test-driven design to a software development process—a generally complex activity involving distinct individuals working in an organization—might have an impact not only on the process itself but on the outcome of the process as well. In order to assess whether test-driven development has perceivable effects on elements of software development, a qualitative literature survey, based on empirical studies and experiments in the industry and academia, was performed. The aggregated results extracted from the studies and experiments on eleven different internal and external process, product and resource quality attributes indicate that there are positive, neutral and negative effects. Empirical evidence from the industry implies that test-driven development has a positive, reducing, effect on the number of defects detected in a program. There is also a chance that the code products are smaller, simpler and less complex than equivalent code products implemented without test-driven practices. While additional research is needed, it would seem that the test-driven produced code is easier for the developers to maintain later, too; on average, maintenance duties took less time and the developers felt more comfortable with the code. The effects on product attributes of coupling and cohesion, which describe the relationships between program code components, are neutral. Increased quality occasionally results in better impressions of the product when the test-driven conform better to the end-user tests but there are times when end-users cannot discern the differences in quality between products made with different development methods. The small, unit-level, tests written by the developers increase the overall size of code products since most of the program code statements are covered by the tests if a test-driven process is followed. Writing tests takes time and the negative effects are associated with the effort required in the process. Industrial case studies see negative implications to productivity due to the extra effort but student experiments have not always been able to replicate similar results under controlled conditions.
  • Käld, Tobias (2013)
    I Finland följs kvaliteten av utförda beståndsvårdande avverkningar upp årligen i Finlands skogscentrals regi. Inom Skogscentralens Kusten regions verksamhetsområde har resultaten under de senaste åren varit en källa till oro. Som en stor aktör inom Skogscentralens Kusten region och i Finland i sin helhet berör och oroar den höga skadeprocenten i kvarstående bestånd även Metsäliitto. Metsäliitto följer upp den respons man årligen får av Finlands skogscentral, men utför även egna kvalitetsuppföljningar. Drivningsuppföljningsmetoden framtagen av Skogsbrukets utvecklingscentral Tapio är tidskrävande och dåligt lämpad för bruk inom virkesanskaffningsorganisationer. Detta ledde till att Metsäteho Oy utvecklade en egen metod för drivningsuppföljning. Metsäliitto Osuuskunta var representerade i den arbetsgrupp som utarbetade Metsätehos alternativa metod men har valt att utveckla en egen. Syftet med denna Pro Gradu avhandling är att klargöra om resultaten av Metsäliittos drivningsuppföljningsmetod korrelerar på ett tillfredställande sätt med resultaten från Skogsbrukets utvecklingscentral Tapios metod. Vidare undersöks hur de två alternativa drivningsuppföljningsmetodernas resultat korrelerar. Det fokuseras på skadeandelen i kvarstående bestånd i denna avhandling, men även samband mellan Tapios provyteplacering och skadeandel undersöks. Metsäliittos metod innefattar en fullständig inventering av körstråksfördjupningarna, därför undersöktes hur Tapios och Metsätehos resultat förhåller sig till dessa resultat. Även korrelationen i resultat för körstråksavstånd mellan Metsäliittos och Metsätehos metod undersöks. Valet av drivningar baserar sig på Skogscentralens Kusten regions slumpmässiga urval av objekt för drivningsuppföljningar under åren 2010 och 2011. Från drivningsuppföljningarna i svenska Österbotten sållades de drivningar ut vars anmälan om användning av skog gjorts av Metsäliitto eller av Skogsvårdsföreningen Österbotten. Ur Metsäliittos register kontrollerades ifall de fanns med i registret över köp och att drivningen blivit utförd av egna entreprenörer. De drivningar som fyllde dessa kriterier utgör försöksmaterialet för denna avhandling. Avhandlingens fältarbete utfördes i juli 2011. Drivningsuppföljning enligt Metsäliittos modell samt Metsätehos modell utfördes på samtliga drivningar. Resultaten från Skogscentralens drivningsuppföljningar erhölls direkt av Skogscentralens Kusten region. Eftersom denna avhandling är en metodjämförelse där de sanna värdena för objekten inte är kända används inte analysmetoder baserade på hypoteser. För en överblick över trender i metodernas resultats och inbördes korrelation uppgjordes så kallade Bland & Altman-diagram (Altman & Bland 1983 och Bland & Altman 1999). De centrala resultaten av denna studie var att Metsäliittos och Tapios resultat för skadeprocenten inte skiljer sig på ett statistiskt betydelsefullt sätt. Metsäliittos och Metsätehos resultat däremot kan inte jämföras sinsemellan. Metsätehos och Tapios resultat lämpar sig inte för jämförelse vilket konstaterats av Poikela (2003b). Tapios och Metsätehos metoder uppskattar körstråksfördjupningarnas andel på ett tillfredställande sätt i förhållande till Metsäliittos metod. Vidare konstaterades att resultaten för körstråksavstånd mellan Metsäliittos och Metsätehos metoder korrelerar väl. Ett samband mellan provyteplacering och skadeprocent vid drivningsuppföljning enligt Tapios metod kunde ej iakttas. Slutsatserna av denna avhandling är att resultaten för Metsäliittos och Tapios drivningsuppföljningar, med reservation för de svagheter en liten sampel medför, är jämförbara vad ankommer skadeandel. Metsäliittos och Metsätehos resultat är ej kompatibla, varvid det inte går att ersätta Metsäliittos metod med Metsätehos, ej heller bör Metsätehos metod användas som ett komplement till Metsäliittos metod eftersom man då erhåller två material som inte kan jämföras sinsemellan. Både Metsätehos och Tapios resultat för körstråksfördjupningar är jämförbara med Metsäliittos resultat. Detta kunde utnyttjas för att effektivera drivningsuppföljningar enligt Metsäliittos metod, vidare kunde bestämningen av körstråksavstånd effektiveras genom att anamma Metsätehos metod. . Resultaten från Tapios och Metsäliittos drivningsuppföljningar kan jämföras sinsemellan utan en förlust av resultatens tillförlitlighet vilket betyder att Metsäliitto kunde sammanställa resultaten från egna och Tapios drivningsuppföljningar för att få en statistiskt mer heltäckande och representativ bild av sina gallringar och energidrivningar. Detta skulle i framtiden ge ännu bättre möjligheter till uppföljning och utvärdering av hur väl de egna målsättningarna nåtts.
  • Still, Viveca (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Digital rights management (DRM) systems are increasingly being developed and used in order to protect the commercial interests of copyright holders. These systems have developed over time from singular copy prevention mechanisms towards all-encompassing trusted systems enabling the control of digital content throughout its life cycle and in a multi-media context. The impossibility of effectively controlling the use of the copyrighted work once it has been put on the market can be seen as a fundamental reason for the legal regulation of copyright. Digital rights management systems seem to provide for an unprecedented ability to control the use of copyrighted works from production to consumption, thereby changing the setting for copyright regulation. The principal research question of this doctoral thesis concerns how copyright s balance can be restored considering copyright owners increased power to control use through technical and contractual means, possibly backed up by the legal system. Answering this question requires us first to look into the current regulation of DRM, assessing how the current legislative framework takes into consideration the shift in the power position that DRM offers. Thereafter, the shortcomings of the current legislative framework are analysed in view of the prospective legal dimensions of DRM. This analysis is followed by an assessment of current suggestions for corrective means in the regulation of DRM, which ends in a regulative model proposed by the author. The method used in the research is that of legal informatics and information law. Legal informatics analyses the interrelationship between law and information and communication technologies. In this thesis, copyright is seen as part of information law and more specifically the modern European information policy, which usually is referred to as the common information area . A fundamental principle emanating form this body of law is the principle of free flow of information, which is used as a guiding principle for the regulative model proposed in this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of DRM as an object of regulation within the copyright system and to further the discussion of the proper regulation of digital rights management systems as a part of a balanced copyright regime.
  • Ranne, Katriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Euphrase Kezilahabi on tansanialainen kirjailija, joka ensimmäisenä julkaisi swahilinkielisen vapaalla mitalla kirjoitetun runokokoelman. Perinteisessä swahilirunoudessa tiukat muotosäännöt ovat tärkeitä, ja teos synnytti kiivasta keskustelua. Runoteokset Kichomi ( Viilto , Kipu , 1974) ja Karibu Ndani ( Tervetuloa sisään , 1988) sekä Kezilahabin muu tuotanto voidaan nähdä uuden sukupolven taiteena. Kezilahabi on arvostettu runoilija, mutta hänen runojaan ei aiemmin ole käännetty englanniksi (yksittäisiä säkeitä lukuunottamatta), eikä juurikaan tutkittu yksityiskohtaisesti. Yleiskuvaan pyrkivissä lausunnoissa Kezilahabin runouden on hyvin usein määritelty olevan poliittista. Monet Kezilahabin runoista ottavatkin kantaa yhteiskunnallisiin kysymyksiin, mutta niiden pohdinta on kuitenkin runoissa vain yksi taso. Sen lisäksi Kezilahabin lyriikassa on paljon muuta ennen kartoittamatonta tämä tutkimus keskittyy veden kuvaan (the image of water). Kezilahabi vietti lapsuutensa saarella Victoria-järven keskellä, ja hänen vesikuvastonsa on rikasta. Tutkimuskysymyksenä on, mitä veden kuva runoteoksissa Kichomi ja Karibu Ndani esittää. Runojen analysoinnissa ja tulkinnassa on tarkasteltu myös sitä, miten äänteellinen taso osallistuu kuvien luomiseen. Tutkimuksen määritelmä kuvasta pohjautuu osittain Hugh Kennerin näkemykseen, jonka mukaan oleellista kuvassa on kirjaimellinen taso. Kennerin lähtökohtaan on yhdistetty John Shoptawin teoriaa, joka korostaa runon äänteellisen puolen tärkeyttä merkityksen muodostumisessa. Foneemien analyysissä vaikutteena on ollut Reuven Tsurin teoria. Analyysiosio osoittaa, että veden kuva edustaa ja käsittelee teoksissa lukuisia teemoja: elämää, kuolemaa, fyysistä vetovoimaa, runoutta, mielikuvitusta ja (ali)tajuntaa sekä moraalia. Veden kuvan tutkimuksen pohjalta on nähtävissä, että Kezilahabin filosofia asettuu elävä/kuollut- ja elämä/kuolema dikotomioiden ulkopuolelle.
  • Ojanperä, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Drug Analysis without Primary Reference Standards: Application of LC-TOFMS and LC-CLND to Biofluids and Seized Material Primary reference standards for new drugs, metabolites, designer drugs or rare substances may not be obtainable within a reasonable period of time or their availability may also be hindered by extensive administrative requirements. Standards are usually costly and may have a limited shelf life. Finally, many compounds are not available commercially and sometimes not at all. A new approach within forensic and clinical drug analysis involves substance identification based on accurate mass measurement by liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) and quantification by LC coupled with chemiluminescence nitrogen detection (LC-CLND) possessing equimolar response to nitrogen. Formula-based identification relies on the fact that the accurate mass of an ion from a chemical compound corresponds to the elemental composition of that compound. Single-calibrant nitrogen based quantification is feasible with a nitrogen-specific detector since approximately 90% of drugs contain nitrogen. A method was developed for toxicological drug screening in 1 ml urine samples by LC-TOFMS. A large target database of exact monoisotopic masses was constructed, representing the elemental formulae of reference drugs and their metabolites. Identification was based on matching the sample component s measured parameters with those in the database, including accurate mass and retention time, if available. In addition, an algorithm for isotopic pattern match (SigmaFit) was applied. Differences in ion abundance in urine extracts did not affect the mass accuracy or the SigmaFit values. For routine screening practice, a mass tolerance of 10 ppm and a SigmaFit tolerance of 0.03 were established. Seized street drug samples were analysed instantly by LC-TOFMS and LC-CLND, using a dilute and shoot approach. In the quantitative analysis of amphetamine, heroin and cocaine findings, the mean relative difference between the results of LC-CLND and the reference methods was only 11%. In blood specimens, liquid-liquid extraction recoveries for basic lipophilic drugs were first established and the validity of the generic extraction recovery-corrected single-calibrant LC-CLND was then verified with proficiency test samples. The mean accuracy was 24% and 17% for plasma and whole blood samples, respectively, all results falling within the confidence range of the reference concentrations. Further, metabolic ratios for the opioid drug tramadol were determined in a pharmacogenetic study setting. Extraction recovery estimation, based on model compounds with similar physicochemical characteristics, produced clinically feasible results without reference standards.
  • Allaste, Airi-Alina (Tallinn University Press, 2006)
    In Estonia, illicit drug use hardly existed before the social changes of the 1990s when, as a result of economic and cultural transformations, the country became part of a world order centred in the West. On the one hand, this development is due to the spread of international youth culture, which many young people have perceived as being associated with drugs; on the other hand, it results from the marginalisation of a part of the population. The empirical part of the study is based mostly on in-depth interviews with different drug users conducted during between 1998 and 2002. Complementary material includes the results of participant observations, interviews with key experts, and the results of previous quantitative studies and statistics. The young people who started experimenting with illicit drugs from the 1990s and onwards perceived them as a part of an attractive lifestyle - a Western lifestyle, a point which is worth stressing in the case of Estonia. Although the reasons for initiation into drug use were similar for the majority of young people, their drug use habits and the impact of the drug use on their lives began to differ. I argue that the potential pleasure and harm which might accompany drug use is offset by the meanings attached to drugs and the sanctions and rituals regulating drug use. In the study both recreational and problem use have been analysed from different aspects in seven articles. I have investigated different types of drug users: new bohemians, cannabis users, in whose case partying and restrictive drug use is positively connected to their lives and goals within established society; stimulant-using party people for whom drugs are a means of having fun but who do not have the same restrictive norms regulating their drug use as the former and who may get into trouble under certain conditions; and heroin users for whom the drug rapidly progressed from a means of having fun to an obligation due to addiction. The research results point at the importance not only of the drug itself and the socio-economic situation of the user, but also of the cultural and social context within which the drug is used. The latter may on occasions be a crucial factor in whether or not initial drug use eventually leads to addiction.
  • Alvesalo, Joni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common obligate intracellular bacterium that causes upper and lower respiratory infections worldwide. C. pneumoniae infections are persistence by nature, and an acute infection sometimes turn into chronic. The treatment of acute infections can be problematic. High doses and prolonged treatment with currently used antibiotics are often needed in order to achieve a clinical cure. In addition, more serious diseases such as atherosclerosis have recently been associated with chronic C. pneumoniae infection, which has proven to be extremely difficult to diagnose and impossible to treat with current antibiotics. In the present study, new antichlamydial compounds were searched among synthetic, natural and natural-derived compounds. A library of structurally diverse natural compounds, which were known to have a variety of health promoting effect in humans, was tested against C. pneumoniae. A library of synthetic compounds was pre screened in silico, in order to create smaller and more active targeted library, which was tested against C. pneumoniae. Antichlamydial compounds were found from both libraries, nature based compounds showing higher activity. A new high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed in order to search antichlamydial compound more efficiently. After optimizations of this partly automated time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay (TR-FIA) we were able to obtain results that were reliable, reproducible and consistent with mostly used assays in chlamydia susceptibility testing. Host cell response to acute C. pneumoniae infection was monitored in a gene and protein level. We were able to find four different human proteins with a significant difference in their expression, caused by the C. pneumoniae infection. All of these identified proteins were structural proteins, which supports earlier observations about the structural rearrangement that are requirement for a successful infection. In the genome level we were able to identify hundreds of genes that were significantly affected by the infection. In order to get more information out of the microarray data we used gene ontology (GO) classification, which group genes according to biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. One set of potential drug target genes, was selected using GO classification data and another set of was selected using gene-wise analysis data, where data from the infected cells is compared against the control cell data. Expression changes of all target genes were confirmed with q-PCR, validated genes were silenced with the corresponding small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule and the effect of silencing to C. pneumoniae infection was monitored. The greatest reduction in the number of C. pneumoniae inclusions was due to the silencing of the gene coding for the transcription factor EGR1, which decreased the number of inclusions by 38.6 %. Both data analysis methods revealed genes whose silencing reduced the number of C. pneumoniae particles more than 25 %, but GO-classified data proved to be more accurate and much more informative, compared to gene-wise analysis data.
  • Launiainen, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Use of adverse drug combinations, abuse of medicinal drugs and substance abuse are considerable social problems that are difficult to study. Prescription database studies might fail to incorporate factors like use of over-the-counter drugs and patient compliance, and spontaneous reporting databases suffer from underreporting. Substance abuse and smoking studies might be impeded by poor participation activity and reliability. The Forensic Toxicology Unit at the University of Helsinki is the only laboratory in Finland that performs forensic toxicology related to cause-of-death investigations comprising the analysis of over 6000 medico-legal cases yearly. The analysis repertoire covers most commonly used drugs and drugs of abuse, and the ensuing database contains also background information and information extracted from the final death certificate. In this thesis, the data stored in this comprehensive post-mortem toxicology database was combined with additional metabolite and genotype analyses that were performed to complete the profile of selected cases. The incidence of drug combinations possessing serious adverse drug interactions was generally low (0.71%), but it was notable for the two individually studied drugs, a common anticoagulant warfarin (33%) and a new generation antidepressant venlafaxine (46%). Serotonin toxicity and adverse cardiovascular effects were the most prominent possible adverse outcomes. However, the specific role of the suspected adverse drug combinations was rarely recognized in the death certificates. The frequency of bleeds was observed to be elevated when paracetamol and warfarin were used concomitantly. Pharmacogenetic factors did not play a major role in fatalities related to venlafaxine, but the presence of interacting drugs was more common in cases showing high venlafaxine concentrations. Nicotine findings in deceased young adults were roughly three times more prevalent than the smoking frequency estimation of living population. Contrary to previous studies, no difference in the proportion of suicides was observed between nicotine users and non-nicotine users. However, findings of abused substances, including abused prescription drugs, were more common in the nicotine users group than in the non-nicotine users group. The results of the thesis are important for forensic and clinical medicine, as well as for public health. The possibility of drug interactions and pharmacogenetic issues should be taken into account in cause-of-death investigations, especially in unclear cases, medical malpractice suspicions and cases where toxicological findings are scarce. Post-mortem toxicological epidemiology is a new field of research that can help to reveal problems in drug use and prescription practises.
  • Panhelainen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Drug addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder of the brain. The characteristic compulsive drug use behaviour despite the negative consequences has been explained by a maladaptive learning phenomenon. Synaptic plasticity, i.e. the ability of neuronal connections to change on demand, forms the basis for learning and memory storage in the brain. Interestingly, many drugs of abuse have been shown to converge in their actions on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway as they induce synaptic plasticity in the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that also mediate the recognition of natural rewards and reward-driven learning. This drug-induced plasticity is thought to facilitate future use of the drug i.e. reinforce drug-seeking behavior. Benzodiazepines are anxiolytic and sedative drugs that unfortunately can be addictive in a subset of users. The role of the DA system in benzodiazepine addiction is still controversial and thus this thesis was aimed at studying possible synaptic alterations in the VTA DA neurons induced by acute administration of benzodiazepine ligands. Diazepam and zolpidem were shown to induce persistent plasticity at the glutamatergic synapses in VTA DA neurons; a phenomenon claimed to be a common feature of different kinds of drugs of abuse. The possible effects of this synaptic plasticity at the behavioral level were examined by challenging the locomotor activity of mice with morphine and amphetamine, as the DA system plays a central role in their actions. We found that indeed the locomotor reactions of mice were altered: morphine-induced hyperlocomotion and amphetamine-induced sensitization were attenuated in mice while there was diazepam-induced plasticity at VTA DA neurons (24-72 h after diazepam administration). These findings indicated that the effects of morphine and amphetamine on DA neuron activity might be blunted during diazepam-induced synaptic plasticity. Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the hypothalamus; they posses important roles in several behaviors such as the regulation of sleep-wake cycle, arousal, energy balance, stress, motivation and reward. In particular, orexinergic signaling in VTA has been postulated to be important for drug-induced plasticity. The effects of diazepam on the activity of this neuronal population were studied by c-Fos immunohistochemistry as the levels of c-Fos are believed to mirror the activity of neurons. An anxiolytic dose of diazepam prevented the stress-induced increment in the orexinergic activity whereas a clearly sedative dose reduced the activity of these neurons even from the basal levels. These findings led to the formation of the hypothesis that orexinergic activity in the brain could have a role in the anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic actions of benzodiazepines. In conclusion, this project revealed new aspects about the brain areas and the mechanisms mediating both the therapeutic properties as well as the addictive features of benzodiazepines. New evidence was found for a role of the mesolimbic DA system in mediating the addictive potential of benzodiazepines and a novel hypothesis was devised about how the orexinegic system may play a role in the therapeutic actions of benzodiazepines.
  • Salasuo, Mikko (2004)
    The long development trends in drug use in Finland are often described by means of a 'wave' metaphor. Usually two drug waves are mentioned, the first wave being the more general experimentation with and use of drugs, especially cannabis, in the 1960s. The second wave was an increasingly more common experimentation and use that can be traced to the beginning of the 1990s. The result of the latest increase was a higher use of drugs than ever before. Typical of both of these drug waves was a tie up to international youth culture trends (the hippie movement and the techno and rave culture respectively), whilst both drug waves are also characterised by occasional drugs use and the central position of the user culture. In the study, the cultural appearance of the two drug waves in Finland is viewed from different standpoints within qualitative research, as found in a summary article and in seven other articles. Thematically, the study starts with the cannabis pattern of the 1960s and 1970s, when youth culture was linked to drug use for the first time. The first article to be reviewed analyses these patterns, and will serve as a historical background and thematic standard of comparison for the other articles to be reviewed, which will analyse drug use as linked to the new party culture of the 1990s. The analysis starts with the history of ecstasy—the symbol of the drug phenomena of the 1990s—and how it intersected with the international youth culture. In relation to the spread of ecstasy, the parallel development of the drug markets is surveyed, as well as the difficulties faced when combating these markets. Following this, the "slower" history of the drug phenomenon is analysed through sociological analyses, with the focus on what forms the drug culture has taken in Finland, how users stood out from the rest of the youth culture and what kind of health issues were connected with drug use. Finally, current forms of drug education are studied. The Study Material Several different kinds of study material were used, and were seen to function at different levels, and it was possible to create interesting perspectives on the drug culture by linking these materials together. Among the most important materials to be used were the user interviews, interviews with the authorities, official control data, materials collected from the Internet, and a targeted Internet questionnaire. In particular, the interview material gives information that can be of use when analysing the cultural context of drug use. The remaining materials also contain cultural elements that support the interview material and raise new viewpoints that differ from it. The Study Results Drug waves are connected to certain periods and generations that attach special importance to the use of drugs and the meanings given to it. Both drug use and the users are mobilized as part of a historical and cultural experience that certain generations share. A common world of experience gives rise to different kinds of social and cultural movements, within which people organize themselves in order to pursue and promote a way of life and goals that they find fulfilling. The common world of experience shapes tastes, preferences and behaviour, and thus influences the prevalence of experimentation with drugs and drug use and the meanings attached to them. In practice, this has resulted in new ways of using drugs and new drugs, the emergence of new markets and a new kind of criminality, the development of new drug concepts, and thus the development of new drug patterns. The informal social control of the new cultures of drug use—as well as their rituals and norms—contribute to determining and regulating drug use.
  • Ahtola, Martti (2015)
    The goal of the thesis was to optimize a dry powder layering process that would produce a swelling polymer layer that could work as a base layer for another layer. The GPCG 1 (Glatt) fluidized bed granulator was equipped with a rotor. Such hydrophilic polymers were used for coating that would not be sensible timewise for wet coating methods because of long process time. For design of experiments Definitive Screening was chosen because it works in situations where time is limited and there is high number of parameters. There were six parameters, four related to the equipment settings and two related to the formulation, that were tested on three levels. The results were used to get optimized parameters using a model in MODDE software. The quality of the coating was analyzed by measuring the friability (strain test with fluidized bed granulator), particle size (dynamic image analyzer), density (helium pycnometer and mercurity porosimeter), erosion (size exclusion chromatography), loss on drying (halogen moisture analyzer) and coating efficiency (weighing and loss on drying). Coating was also analyzed also with scanning electron microscopy. The process was robust with regards to sphericity of the coated pellets. In SEM pictures none of the coatings showed complete film formation. Friability method did not show significant differences between batches. Coating efficiency was high for all batches. Correlations between product characteristics were analyzed and some correlations were observed between including correlations between LOD/CE and densities. No correlation between the densities measured with two different methods were seen. Some of the settings in the DOE were too extreme and produced batches that were very difficult to analyze. Two more batches were produced with adjusted settings. This affected somewhat the ability to develop a reliable model. Model development were also affected by insufficient results from erosion tests and because coating efficiency results with water was used. Some stability problems were noticed during design of experiments and chosen equipment limited the scale of settings. Coating material adhered to the surface of the pellets and process could be adjusted by changing the parameters of the DOE. Some correlations were noticed between formulation, equipment settings and coating properties.