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  • af Hällström, Camilla (2014)
    This thesis examines immunity from execution of state property in execution proceedings of arbitral awards. In this study, I aim to consider the extent of immunity from execution in these execution proceedings. This includes considerations of current rules in public international law on immunity from execution and the application of these rules on national execution proceedings of arbitral awards. Immunity from execution protects state property from execution measures. Immunity from execution is based on equality of states and the upholding of friendly relations between states. States have in the 20th century started to participate in commercial transactions and dealings with individuals. This has led to the revision of the traditionally absolute notion of immunity from execution. Immunity from execution has been limited in certain instances. The view on the extent of immunity from execution is not always coherent in the international community. There is no universal international convention in force that regulates the matter. National courts interpret the rules on immunity from execution, which means that there can be quite incoherent and unexpected decisions in this area of public international law. The certainty of execution is of crucial importance in relation to arbitral proceedings. Immunity from execution is a factor that compromises this certainty. As arbitration is time-consuming and costly, uncertainty relating to the execution of arbitral awards can mean that individuals refrain from arbitrating against states. This, again, can impact trade and investment involving states. The Sedelmayer saga is an excellent illustration of the implications that immunity from execution can have on execution of mixed arbitral awards. Sedelmayer is an investor whose investment was expropriated by the Russian Federation. An arbitral award was subsequently rendered against Russia. Sedelmayer has sought execution against Russian property in both Germany and Sweden over the last 13 years, without fully succeeding to satisfy the award. He also appealed to the European Court of Human Rights on the ground of the German proceedings. In this thesis, I will critically consider the implications that immunity from execution can have on execution of arbitral awards. Regard will be taken to sources of public international law, especially treaties and customary international law. I will also examine domestic legislation and case law in order to accurately consider national perceptions and tendencies of immunity from execution. I will especially use the Sedelmayer saga as an illustrating and exemplifying series of case law.
  • Zalmanovitch, Oded (2014)
    The recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards is of paramount significance for the success of arbitration in the international arena. In fact, the enforceability of arbitral awards throughout the world is perceived as one of the main advantages of arbitration. Since the inception of the New York Convention in 1958, nearly 150 states have acceded to the Convention, making it one of the most successful international conventions in history. By means of establishing a mechanism through which arbitral awards are easily enforceable worldwide, the New York Convention has empowered commercial parties with an effective method of resolving their disputes via a neutral forum and a process they confide in. However, the ultimate test of any arbitration proceeding is its ability to render an award which, if necessary, will be recognized and enforced in relevant national courts. The recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards entangle a potentially complicated succession of topics. In numerous cases, enforcement of an arbitral award implicates the national law of the state where an award is made, the national law of the state where enforcement is sought, and the stipulations of feasible international conventions or treaties. Essentially, the New York Convention, the UNCITRAL Model Law and other national arbitration statutes not only form a common presumption that international arbitral awards are legitimate and must be recognized, but also allow for non-recognition and enforcement of awards on the same enumerated and considerably limited substantive grounds. In a theoretical sense, perhaps the most intriguing facet of the New York Convention resides in the limitations placed on the grounds for resisting enforcement. It is inevitable that the grounds for non-enforcement as stipulated under the New York Convention are susceptible to be interpreted divergently by various dissimilar courts seized in any particular matter. In an ideal world, the provisions of the New York Convention and of the Model Law would be understood and interpreted in the same exact way by courts everywhere. In practice, however, this ideal does not quite happen as there are recurring inconsistent decisions under the New York Convention. The main objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive legal analysis of the challenging boundaries and exceptions to the enforcement of international arbitral awards in an attempt to reach conclusive findings regarding the extent of their impact. The primary focus will be put on the obstacles and hurdles to the enforcement of international arbitral awards, namely the exhaustive resisting grounds stipulated under the New York Convention. These resisting grounds will be thoroughly explored and examined both theoretically and pragmatically.
  • Rautelin, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The study analyses the prevention or endorsing of the crime of infanticide in Finland 1702 1807, rather than the result. Also the impacts of the female body, biology of childbirth and experiences of pregnancy are examined, together with insights from modern medical research. Circumstances are reconstructed by a critical reading of judicial records on all levels of the judicial system. In all 269 cases of infanticide and 142 accessory crimes within the jurisdiction of the Turku court of appeal are studied, with particular focus on exceptionally well recorded cases of 83 accused women and 41 women and men accused of being party to the crime. Secondary sources are medical and jurisprudential writings, the public debate on infanticide, broadsheets and letters asking the King for pardon. Infanticide was considered murder by law. Unmarried women were predetermined as the main culprits. Nevertheless, deliberate infanticides were rare and committed mostly in accomplice. The majority of the infanticides studied were cases where inexperienced and unmarried women accidentally had given birth alone and usually to a dead child. Unaware that the pain they were experiencing was in fact a labour, the accused women instinctively sought solitude to push out the child. Some misunderstood the birth as an urgent need to defecate. The unexpected delivery ended in hiding the baby without remorse. This crime was promoted by several factors in Finnish rural culture, amongst others that also married women hid their pregnancy. The immediate household members did not necessarily know about the childbirth and failed to help the woman. This typical pattern in most cases of infanticide in 18th century Finland is also recorded in modern cases of unknown pregnancies. Fear of accountability prevented witnesses testifying to the actual course of events. The truth remained elusive. With only a few exceptions, the women were sentenced to death or imprisonment. The majority of those accused of accomplice were acquitted. However, too harsh sentences for accidents affected the reporting of the crime. Criminal politics failed to curtail infanticide as the crime was unsatisfactorily addressed by law, society and the judicial system.
  • Musah, Iddrisu (2009)
    Emergence of the third sector of Non-governmentalism has created a situation of partnership and cooperation in the two worlds; the developed and the developing, with the goal of ameliorating the ills in society. Where as NGOs in one divide have been showered with all sort of accolades such as magic bullets , new sociological reality, and micro- organism of the democratic process, in another, they have come under heavy criticism on issues bordering accountability with respect to financial irregularities. Against this backdrop is the purpose of the study which aims at bringing into limelight activities of NGOs in rural communities to enable actors in development better understand what actual happens in the field of development work at the grassroots level, in order to factor into their cooperation and partnership issues that will possible lead to the development of beneficiary communities. The study looks at the engagement of development NGOs in rural communities of the northern region of Ghana as they contribute to state efforts in development. As a result, the materials of the research came from varied but complementary ethnographic research methods, pioneered by interviews with actors in the field. These included documents in the form of reports, visits to communities and observations as well as recording interviewees facilitated by research guide, ultimately gathering information that underpins the frameworks on Nongovernmental organizations and community in development. Consequently, finding from the field attest to nongovernmental organizations in the northern region of Ghana contributes their widow mite to development in programme areas of advocacy and service delivery. In addition, projects of NGOs in rural settings received general acceptance, and the relationship within the divide appeared cordial. The recognition of community roles in development by organizations could not be underestimated. However, the lack of capacity to source funding internally and locally post some danger in the immediate future to these organizations. They therefore relied heavenly on donor partners for funding. Moreover, facilitation of development was carried out in an integrated fashion, and four main strategies were found to be used by NGOs in selecting communities for development projects at the grassroots level. The strategies vary but that depends on the situation and the environment. Interesting, the organizations and especially the actors in the field faced numerous challenges contrary to the wild perception and notion in the Ghanaian public domain.
  • Aaltonen, Patrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    I denna uppsats undersöker jag hur tre finlandssvenska essäister – Werner Söderhjelm, Sigurd Frosterus och Rolf Lagerborg – uppfattat och använt genrebeteckningen essä under åren 1900–1920. Min avsikt är att granska frågan 'Vad är en essä?' ur ett nytt perspektiv; att ta avstånd från alla förutfattade definitioner av essän och i stället undersöka hur tre framstående essäister själva uppfattat och använt genrebeteckningen. Jag undersöker också vilka slags essäer Söderhjelm, Frosterus och Lagerborg själva har skrivit, samt huruvida och i vilken utsträckning de använt genrebeteckningen essä om sina egna texter. För att finna svaret på dessa frågor granskar jag ett antal av Söderhjelms, Frosterus och Lagerborgs texter från tidsperioden 1900–1920. Det analyserade materialet består av böcker, tidnings- och tidskriftsartiklar, litteraturkritiker och diverse andra uppsatser från åren 1900–1920. Min studie visar att Werner Söderhjelm, Sigurd Frosterus och Rolf Lagerborg varit mycket förtjusta i essän som genre. Alla tre har dock uppfattat och använt begreppet essä på något olika sätt. Om Werner Söderhjelms essäer kan räknas till den (dominerande) litteraturkritiska essätraditionen och Sigurd Frosterus essäer uppvisar en släktskap med den engelska essäistiken, så kunde Rolf Lagerborg betraktas som en av den subjektiva, montaignska essätraditionens första representanter i Finland. Min undersökning visar också att ingen av de tre författarna kallat sina egna texter från 1900–1920 för essäer, utan föredragit genrebeteckningar som uppsats, studie och kritik.
  • Toivari, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The baker s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a long tradition in alcohol production from D-glucose of e.g. starch. However, without genetic modifications it is unable to utilise the 5-carbon sugars D-xylose and L arabinose present in plant biomass. In this study, one key metabolic step of the catabolic D-xylose pathway in recombinant D-xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strains was studied. This step, carried out by xylulokinase (XK), was shown to be rate-limiting, because overexpression of the xylulokinase-encoding gene XKS1 increased both the specific ethanol production rate and the yield from D xylose. In addition, less of the unwanted side product xylitol was produced. Recombinant D-xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains have been constructed by expressing the genes coding for the first two enzymes of the pathway, D-xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from the D-xylose-utilising yeast Pichia stipitis. In this study, the ability of endogenous genes of S. cerevisiae to enable D-xylose utilisation was evaluated. Overexpression of the GRE3 gene coding for an unspecific aldose reductase and the ScXYL2 gene coding for a xylitol dehydrogenase homologue enabled growth on D-xylose in aerobic conditions. However, the strain with GRE3 and ScXYL2 had a lower growth rate and accumulated more xylitol compared to the strain with the corresponding enzymes from P. stipitis. Use of the strictly NADPH-dependent Gre3p instead of the P. stipitis XR able to utilise both NADH and NADPH leads to a more severe redox imbalance. In a S. cerevisiae strain not engineered for D-xylose utilisation the presence of D-xylose increased xylitol dehydrogenase activity and the expression of the genes SOR1 or SOR2 coding for sorbitol dehydrogenase. Thus, D-xylose utilisation by S. cerevisiae with activities encoded by ScXYL2 or possibly SOR1 or SOR2, and GRE3 is feasible, but requires efficient redox balance engineering. Compared to D-xylose, D-glucose is a cheap and readily available substrate and thus an attractive alternative for xylitol manufacture. In this study, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) of S. cerevisiae was engineered for production of xylitol from D-glucose. Xylitol was formed from D-xylulose 5-phosphate in strains lacking transketolase activity and expressing the gene coding for XDH from P. stipitis. In addition to xylitol, ribitol, D-ribose and D-ribulose were also formed. Deletion of the xylulokinase-encoding gene increased xylitol production, whereas the expression of DOG1 coding for sugar phosphate phosphatase increased ribitol, D-ribose and D-ribulose production. Strains lacking phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1p) activity were shown to produce 5 carbon compounds through PPP when DOG1 was overexpressed. Expression of genes encoding glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus subtilis, GapB, or NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh2p of S. cerevisiae, altered the cellular redox balance and enhanced growth of pgi1 strains on D glucose, but co-expression with DOG1 reduced growth on higher D-glucose concentrations. Strains lacking both transketolase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities tolerated only low D-glucose concentrations, but the yield of 5-carbon sugars and sugar alcohols on D-glucose was about 50% (w/w).
  • Hekkanen, Raila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This doctoral thesis focuses on the translation of Finnish prose literature into English in the United Kingdom between 1945 and 2003. The subject is approached using translation archaeology, interviews, archival material, detailed text analysis and reception material. The main theoretical framework is Descriptive Translation Studies, and certain sociological theories (Bourdieu s field theory, actor-network theory) are also used. After charting the published translations, two periods of time are selected for closer analysis: an earlier period from 1955 to 1959, involving eight translations, and a later one from 1990 to 2003, with a total of six translations. While these translation numbers may appear low, they are actually rather high in proportion to the total number of 28 one-author literary prose translations published in the UK over the approximately 60 years being studied. The two periods of time, the 1950s and 1990s, are compared in terms of the sociological context of translation activity, the reception of translations and their textual features. The comparisons show that the main changes in translation practice between these two periods are increased completeness (translations in the 1950s group often being shortened by hundreds of pages) and lesser use of indirect translation via an intermediary language (about half of the 1950s translations having been translated via Swedish). Otherwise, translation practices have not changed much: except for large omissions, which are far more frequent in the 1950s, variation within each group is larger than between groups. As to the sociological context, the main changes are an increase in long-term institution-level contacts and an increase in the promotion of foreign translation rights by Finnish publishing houses. This is in contrast to the 1950s when translation rights were mainly sold through personal contacts by individual authors and translators. The reception of translations is difficult to study because of scarce material. However, the 1950s translations were aggressively marketed and therefore obtained far more reviews and reprints than the 1990s translations. Several of the 1950s books, mostly historical novels by Mika Waltari, were mainstream bestsellers at the time, while current translations are frequently made for niche markets. The thesis introduces ample new material on the translation of Finnish prose literature into English in the UK. The results are also relevant to translation from a minority literature into a majority one. As to translation theory, they lead us to question the social nature of translation norms and the assumption of a static target culture. The translations analysed here are located in a very fragmented interculture and gain a stronger position in the Finnish culture than in the British one.
  • Härkälä, Heli (1995)
    Tutkimusaineistona käytettiin Kennelliittoon lähetettyjä cockerspanielien silmätarkastuslausuntoja vuosilta 1989-1994, jona aikana cockerspanielit ovat kuuluneet PEVISA-ohjelmaan. Aineisto käsitti 1206 eri koiraa. Tutkimuslausuntoja oli 2042 kpl. Lausuntoihin merkittyjä muutoksia löytyi 323 koiralta. Muutokset jaettiin 15 luokkaan: PRA, RD, HC, nukleaarinen fibrillaarinen katarakta, samentumat, Y-suturat, fataalinen Y-suturakatarakta, seniili katarakta, PHTVL/PHPV, A. hyaloidean jäänteet, PPM, pigmentit, luomiviat, ylimääräiset ripset ja muut löydökset. Lausuntopapereista huomioitiin muutosten ohella koiran sukupuoli, väri ja ikä. PRA,RD, HC ja nukleaarinen fibrillaarinen katarakta tarkasteltiin lisäksi koirien välisten sukulaisuussuhteiden varalta. PRA-koirien omistajia haastateltiin puhelimitse. Kontrollitutkimus järjestettiin PRA- ja HC-oireita osoittaville koirille. Ainoastaan kolme koiraa ja yhden koiran neljä jälkeläistä tuli uusintatarkastukseen.
  • Hyvönen, Salla (2014)
    Tutkimuskohteena on Englannin oikeuden trustin siirrettävyys Suomen velvoiteoikeuteen. Tutkimus vastaa kysymykseen siitä, mitä oikeudelliset siirrännäiset ovat, ja siihen, onko trustin siirtyminen Suomen oikeuteen mahdollista. Trust-instituutio on vieras, ja sen käsitteet sekä rakenne ovat vaikeasti istutettavissa Suomen oikeuteen. Trustia ei myöskään sellaisenaan tunnusteta Suomen kansallisessa oikeusjärjestyksessä. Trustit ovat kuitenkin merkittäviä kansainvälisessä vaihdannassa, ja ne vaikuttavat vahvasti erityisesti common law -maissa. Euroopan komission aloitteesta laadittuun Draft Common Frame of Referenceen on myös sisällytetty kokonainen luku trusteista. Trust-oikeuden vaikutus näkyy Euroopan lisäksi muilla mantereilla siirtomaahistorian vuoksi. Tutkimuksessa tutkitaan oikeusvertailevan tiedon avulla eri muuttujien, kuten oikeusjärjestelmäerojen, vaikutusta siirrännäiseen trustien tapauksessa. Trusteihin liittyvät sui generis -tyyppiset oikeusvaikutukset ovat merkittävä syy siihen, miksi instituutiota ei tunnusteta Suomen oikeudessa sekä siihen, miksi niihin liittyvä lainvalinta voi olla tapauskohtaisesti työlästä. Trust-instituution velvoiteoikeudellisia erityispiirteitä tarkkaillaan etenkin siitä näkökulmasta, mitkä olisivat trustin mahdollisuudet menestyä siirrännäisenä Suomen velvoiteoikeuden järjestelmässä. Tutkielman metodina on oikeusvertailu, ja aihealueen kantavana teemana on siirrännäisiin liittyvä teoreettinen keskustelu. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa selvennetään tutkittavan ilmiön ominaispiirteet eli trust-osapuolten oikeudet ja velvollisuudet. Toisessa osuudessa tarkastellaan siirrettävyyden edellytyksiä siirrännäisteorioita ja konkreettista velvoiteoikeudellista systematisointia ja tulkintaa käyttäen. Varsinainen trustin siirrettävyys käsitellään kolmiosaisesti perehtymällä ensin oikeudellisia siirrännäisiä koskevaan keskusteluun. Tämän jälkeen tutkitaan oikeusjärjestelmäeroihin liittyviä ongelmakohtia ja viimeisenä tarkastellaan Englannin oikeusjärjestykseen ja trust-oikeuteen vaikuttavaa equity-oikeutta. Osien välissä trust-instituution toiminnallisia piirteitä tutkitaan esimerkinomaisesti velvoiteoikeudellisesta näkökulmasta tosiasiallisen siirrettävyyden selvittämiseksi.