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  • Hyvönen, Salla (2014)
    Tutkimuskohteena on Englannin oikeuden trustin siirrettävyys Suomen velvoiteoikeuteen. Tutkimus vastaa kysymykseen siitä, mitä oikeudelliset siirrännäiset ovat, ja siihen, onko trustin siirtyminen Suomen oikeuteen mahdollista. Trust-instituutio on vieras, ja sen käsitteet sekä rakenne ovat vaikeasti istutettavissa Suomen oikeuteen. Trustia ei myöskään sellaisenaan tunnusteta Suomen kansallisessa oikeusjärjestyksessä. Trustit ovat kuitenkin merkittäviä kansainvälisessä vaihdannassa, ja ne vaikuttavat vahvasti erityisesti common law -maissa. Euroopan komission aloitteesta laadittuun Draft Common Frame of Referenceen on myös sisällytetty kokonainen luku trusteista. Trust-oikeuden vaikutus näkyy Euroopan lisäksi muilla mantereilla siirtomaahistorian vuoksi. Tutkimuksessa tutkitaan oikeusvertailevan tiedon avulla eri muuttujien, kuten oikeusjärjestelmäerojen, vaikutusta siirrännäiseen trustien tapauksessa. Trusteihin liittyvät sui generis -tyyppiset oikeusvaikutukset ovat merkittävä syy siihen, miksi instituutiota ei tunnusteta Suomen oikeudessa sekä siihen, miksi niihin liittyvä lainvalinta voi olla tapauskohtaisesti työlästä. Trust-instituution velvoiteoikeudellisia erityispiirteitä tarkkaillaan etenkin siitä näkökulmasta, mitkä olisivat trustin mahdollisuudet menestyä siirrännäisenä Suomen velvoiteoikeuden järjestelmässä. Tutkielman metodina on oikeusvertailu, ja aihealueen kantavana teemana on siirrännäisiin liittyvä teoreettinen keskustelu. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa selvennetään tutkittavan ilmiön ominaispiirteet eli trust-osapuolten oikeudet ja velvollisuudet. Toisessa osuudessa tarkastellaan siirrettävyyden edellytyksiä siirrännäisteorioita ja konkreettista velvoiteoikeudellista systematisointia ja tulkintaa käyttäen. Varsinainen trustin siirrettävyys käsitellään kolmiosaisesti perehtymällä ensin oikeudellisia siirrännäisiä koskevaan keskusteluun. Tämän jälkeen tutkitaan oikeusjärjestelmäeroihin liittyviä ongelmakohtia ja viimeisenä tarkastellaan Englannin oikeusjärjestykseen ja trust-oikeuteen vaikuttavaa equity-oikeutta. Osien välissä trust-instituution toiminnallisia piirteitä tutkitaan esimerkinomaisesti velvoiteoikeudellisesta näkökulmasta tosiasiallisen siirrettävyyden selvittämiseksi.
  • Jääskeläinen, Tarja-Leena (1992)
  • Pitkäjärvi, Mari-Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to obtain information to support decision making in the development of successful teaching strategies and clinical placements among English-Language-Taught Degree Programmes (ELTDP) in faculties of healthcare in Finnish universities of applied sciences. This was achieved by descriptions and analysis of the experiences and conceptions of students and teachers. A methodological triangulation was used to conduct the study. In the first phase, descriptions of the students and the teachers experiences of teaching strategies and clinical placements were sought. Data were collected from general nursing and public health nursing teachers (n=18) and also from nursing students (n=27) through focus groups interview. The data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. In the second phase, a structured questionnaire based on the results of the first phase and relevant literature was developed to further investigate the students views. This instrument included items grouped as dimensions for teaching strategies (7 dimensions) and for clinical placements (5 dimensions). The quantitative data were collected from 283 general nursing, public health nursing and physiotherapy students. Statistical methods were used to analyze the data, which compared Finnish students experiences with Finnish students experiences. The findings of the first phase of the study suggest that both students and teachers alike perceived concreteness of instruction as important for ELTDP students learning. Similarly, both groups emphasized the value of the use of a variety of student centered methods to promote the learning of everyone in the culturally diverse student population. The clinical placements were perceived as challenging, due to international students lack of Finnish or Swedish speaking proficiency and also due to their negative experiences in the placements. The findings of the second phase revealed that all ELTDP students experiences of the dimensions of teaching strategies were mainly positive. The most positive experiences for all were with the cultural diversity in the learning community and with concreteness and practicality of theoretical instruction. The most negative experiences were about assessments. The international students felt less satisfied with their lives than did their Finnish peers. However, all students felt motivated to complete their studies. Despite the fact that the international students felt welcome on their placements, they were more likely than the Finnish students to have had the experience of an unsupportive clinical environment. Key words: cultural diversity, healthcare student, teaching strategies, clinical placements, ELTDP students, conceptions of students and teachers.
  • Pilkinton-Pihko, Diane (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    In higher education, the desire to internationalize has created demands for an internationalized academia to use English increasingly in teaching outside the English native-speaking world. Given this situation, perhaps other criteria for measuring successful communication should be considered than that of the native-speaking minority. With lecturers whose native language is not English increasingly teaching their subjects through English, there is a growing need to develop adequate measures for this purpose and situation as the current normative standards are no longer tenable. Establishing adequate measures for this purpose and situation are relevant to institutions facing the challenge of providing EMI courses and programs while ensuring credible quality control. In order to determine what criteria might be adequate for assessing spoken professional English in an international context, this study investigates self-assessments of professional language in relation to language ideologies. The study involves English-medium instruction (EMI) in the field of engineering and takes place at a Finnish university. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study employed an explorative strategy that involved a concurrent design. The two methods were used in parallel and the results integrated at the interpretation phrase. This approach provides a general picture through micro- and macro-level analyses: the self-perceptions of EMI lecturers (i.e. qualitative) and their students perceptions of English in lectures (i.e. quantitative). The investigation employs a bottom-up approach, and is primarily qualitative. The findings are based on authentic data: video-recorded interviews and lectures, their transcriptions, and a questionnaire. The findings show that EMI lecturers have two basic representations of their English: A) when they compare their English to native-like targets, they find fault with their English, and B) when they think of themselves in their normal work environment, they see their English as working rather well. Certain language ideologies induced type A discourse, including standard language and NS language ideologies, and others induced type B discourse, such as English-as-a-global-language ideologies. The results from the student questionnaire also support interpretation B. Since meaningful testing should reflect the target situation, what my informants say in the type B discourse is relevant to developing assessment criteria. Their views to Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scales are also extremely useful in pointing the way towards the central elements upon which relevant assessments for professional English in an international environment should be based. The conclusions indicate a comprehensibility goal over native-likeness for assessing spoken professional English in an international context. The study outlines some criteria relevant for assessing spoken English for this purpose and situation.