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  • Pilkinton-Pihko, Diane (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    In higher education, the desire to internationalize has created demands for an internationalized academia to use English increasingly in teaching outside the English native-speaking world. Given this situation, perhaps other criteria for measuring successful communication should be considered than that of the native-speaking minority. With lecturers whose native language is not English increasingly teaching their subjects through English, there is a growing need to develop adequate measures for this purpose and situation as the current normative standards are no longer tenable. Establishing adequate measures for this purpose and situation are relevant to institutions facing the challenge of providing EMI courses and programs while ensuring credible quality control. In order to determine what criteria might be adequate for assessing spoken professional English in an international context, this study investigates self-assessments of professional language in relation to language ideologies. The study involves English-medium instruction (EMI) in the field of engineering and takes place at a Finnish university. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study employed an explorative strategy that involved a concurrent design. The two methods were used in parallel and the results integrated at the interpretation phrase. This approach provides a general picture through micro- and macro-level analyses: the self-perceptions of EMI lecturers (i.e. qualitative) and their students perceptions of English in lectures (i.e. quantitative). The investigation employs a bottom-up approach, and is primarily qualitative. The findings are based on authentic data: video-recorded interviews and lectures, their transcriptions, and a questionnaire. The findings show that EMI lecturers have two basic representations of their English: A) when they compare their English to native-like targets, they find fault with their English, and B) when they think of themselves in their normal work environment, they see their English as working rather well. Certain language ideologies induced type A discourse, including standard language and NS language ideologies, and others induced type B discourse, such as English-as-a-global-language ideologies. The results from the student questionnaire also support interpretation B. Since meaningful testing should reflect the target situation, what my informants say in the type B discourse is relevant to developing assessment criteria. Their views to Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scales are also extremely useful in pointing the way towards the central elements upon which relevant assessments for professional English in an international environment should be based. The conclusions indicate a comprehensibility goal over native-likeness for assessing spoken professional English in an international context. The study outlines some criteria relevant for assessing spoken English for this purpose and situation.
  • Ryytty, Jussi-Pekka (2003)
    Syftet med avhandlingen var att i form av en fallstudie studera de service inom socialvården, som produceras av icke-offentliga aktörer och som stiger direkt på den offentliga serviceproduktionens ansvarsområde, utgående ur debatter kring den tredje sektorn och välfärdspluralism anknutet till samhällets strukturella förändringar. Jag ville granska vilken roll den tredje sektorn har i den kommunala serviceproduktionen och som mitt fönster till samhället valde jag de privata aktörerna inom socialvården i Ekenäs, till vilken den empiriska undersökningen var koncentrerad. Jag utgick ur en diskursiv insikt på orsaker och bakgrund via utländska debatter för att sedan vinkla in mig till Finland på 90-talet med de utländska rötterna som grund för debatt från 70-talet, med en inblick på det nya årtusendet. Den huvudsakliga datainsamlingsmetoden var fem temaintervjuer, med tre representanter för den offentliga sektorn och två för den privata. Analysen framskred i flere gallringar, kategorier bildades, vilket resulterade i rubriker med en offentlig- och privat synvinkel. Varje kapitel består av dessa bägge synvinklar och slutar med en kort sammanfattning. Implikationer som kunde dras var att de privata enheternas roll i Ekenäs inom socialvården var marginella och kompletterande, samt som en lokal företeelse steg åldringsvården starkt fram. Av arbetet framgick att en blandad ekonomi av välfärd är inte i en vidare utsträckning ett trovärdigt alternativ.
  • Liu, Shanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Bacteriocins are natural weapons of bacterial inter-species competition in food preservation arsenal. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria have gained particular attention owing to their potential application as the substitute of artificial chemical preservatives. This research made use of genetic engineering technologies to clone the class IIa bacteriocin genes and construct bacteriocin structural gene expression systems, aiming at solving the problem of low bacteriocin production in wild type lactic acid bacteria strains and achieving efficient killing of Listeria monocytogenes. The total DNA of Pediococcus acidilactici PA003 was used as the template to amplify the structural gene pedA, which was inserted into pET32a(+) vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. The recombinant plasmid containing the pedA gene was verified by DNA sequencing. This recombinant strain was induced with IPTG and it efficiently expressed a 22 kDa Trx-PedA fusion protein as inclusion bodies. One protein band corresponding to the predicted molecular mass of pediocin was obtained after renaturation and enterokinase treatment. The agar diffusion assay revealed that 512 arbitrary unit (AU) antilisterial activities were obtained from 1 ml culture of recombinant E. coli. The same strategy was adopted using pET20b(+) as the expression vector. The PelB signal peptide in this vector resulted in soluble expression of fusion protein both in the intracellular and periplasmic space with totally 384 AU/ml production. Lactococcus lactis cells were engineered to bind to cellulose by fusing cellulose-binding domain of Cellvibrio japonicus with PrtP, NisP and AcmA anchors for surface display. The CBD-PrtP showed the most efficient immobilization. Expression of sortase with the CBD-PrtP fusion did not improve binding of the anchor to the cell wall. Next, the surface display technique was aimed to be combined with secretion of antilisterial bacteriocins in order to construct an E. coli strain with capacity to bind and kill L. monocytogenes cells. Such cells could be used to test the hypothesis that antilisterial bacteriocin secreting cells kill listerial cells more efficiently if they also have the capacity to bind to listerial cells. Therefore, the CBD500 and CBDP35 cell-wall binding domains from Listeria phage endolysins were used to engineer E. coli cells to bind to L. monocytogenes cells using different cell anchoring domains. First CBD500 was fused to the outer membrane anchor of Yersinia enterocolitica adhesin YadA for potential surface display. Whole-cell ELISA showed that CBD-YadA fusion was displayed on the cell surface. However, production of the fusion protein was detrimental to the growth of recombinant cells. Therefore, a fragment of the E. coli outer membrane protein OmpA was selected for fused expression of CBD500 in E. coli. Western blot revealed the OmpA-CBD was mainly localized on the external surface of recombinant cells. However, the accessibility of the CBD on the cell envelope to cells of Listeria could not be shown. For an improved surface display, CBD was expressed as FliC CBD chimeric protein in flagella. CBD500 and CBDP35 domain coding sequences were inserted into vector pBluescript/fliCH7. CBD insertion in flagella was confirmed by Western blot. The FliC CBDP35 flagella were isolated and shown to bind to L. monocytogenes WSLC 1019 cells. To test the hypothesis that bacteriocin-secreting cells kill target cells more efficiently by binding to the target cells, bacteriocin-secreting strains with binding ability to Listeria cells were constructed. Antilisterial E. coli was obtained either by transferring pediocin production from Lactobacillus plantarum WHE 92 or leucocin C production from Leuconostoc carnosum 4010. The Listeria-binding cells producing pediocin decreased approximately 40 per cent of the Listeria cells during three hours, whereas the cell-free medium with the corresponding amount of pediocin could only inhibit cell growth but did not decrease the number of viable Listeria cells after the three hours incubation. The cell-mediated leucocin C killing resulted in a two-log reduction of Listeria, whereas the corresponding amount of leucocin C in spent culture medium could only inhibit growth without bacteriocidal effect. These results indicate that close contact between Listeria and bacteriocin-producing cells is beneficial for the killing effect by preventing its dilution in the environment and adsorption onto particles before taking effect to the target cells.
  • Clark, Barnaby (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The Taita Hills in southeastern Kenya form the northernmost part of Africa’s Eastern Arc Mountains, which have been identified by Conservation International as one of the top ten biodiversity hotspots on Earth. As with many areas of the developing world, over recent decades the Taita Hills have experienced significant population growth leading to associated major changes in land use and land cover (LULC), as well as escalating land degradation, particularly soil erosion. Multi-temporal medium resolution multispectral optical satellite data, such as imagery from the SPOT HRV, HRVIR, and HRG sensors, provides a valuable source of information for environmental monitoring and modelling at a landscape level at local and regional scales. However, utilization of multi-temporal SPOT data in quantitative remote sensing studies requires the removal of atmospheric effects and the derivation of surface reflectance factor. Furthermore, for areas of rugged terrain, such as the Taita Hills, topographic correction is necessary to derive comparable reflectance throughout a SPOT scene. Reliable monitoring of LULC change over time and modelling of land degradation and human population distribution and abundance are of crucial importance to sustainable development, natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, and understanding and mitigating climate change and its impacts. The main purpose of this thesis was to develop and validate enhanced processing of SPOT satellite imagery for use in environmental monitoring and modelling at a landscape level, in regions of the developing world with limited ancillary data availability. The Taita Hills formed the application study site, whilst the Helsinki metropolitan region was used as a control site for validation and assessment of the applied atmospheric correction techniques, where multiangular reflectance field measurements were taken and where horizontal visibility meteorological data concurrent with image acquisition were available. The proposed historical empirical line method (HELM) for absolute atmospheric correction was found to be the only applied technique that could derive surface reflectance factor within an RMSE of < 0.02 ps in the SPOT visible and near-infrared bands; an accuracy level identified as a benchmark for successful atmospheric correction. A multi-scale segmentation/object relationship modelling (MSS/ORM) approach was applied to map LULC in the Taita Hills from the multi-temporal SPOT imagery. This object-based procedure was shown to derive significant improvements over a uni-scale maximum-likelihood technique. The derived LULC data was used in combination with low cost GIS geospatial layers describing elevation, rainfall and soil type, to model degradation in the Taita Hills in the form of potential soil loss, utilizing the simple universal soil loss equation (USLE). Furthermore, human population distribution and abundance were modelled with satisfactory results using only SPOT and GIS derived data and non-Gaussian predictive modelling techniques. The SPOT derived LULC data was found to be unnecessary as a predictor because the first and second order image texture measurements had greater power to explain variation in dwelling unit occurrence and abundance. The ability of the procedures to be implemented locally in the developing world using low-cost or freely available data and software was considered. The techniques discussed in this thesis are considered equally applicable to other medium- and high-resolution optical satellite imagery, as well the utilized SPOT data.
  • Rajala, Taneli (2014)
    Enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cell tolerance to CO impurities would allow the use of lower quality hydrogen, thus reducing the costs without compromising fuel cell performance. In this work, the effect of carbon monoxide is mitigated by combining different methods, including air bleed, varying the anode flow rate and using a state-of-the-art Pt-Ru catalyst at two operating temperatures. The tolerance was investigated by feeding a novel arrangement of segmented cells with hydrogen containing carbon monoxide less than 20 ppm. Anode exhaust gas was constantly analysed using a gas chromatograph. It was discovered that increasing the volumetric flow rate of hydrogen and especially utilising ruthenium in the catalyst enhance the carbon monoxide tolerance. When applying the air bleed, an oxygen/CO molar ratio of at least 117 was required to stop the poisoning with a platinum catalyst. Approximately a fifth of the air bleed needed with platinum was enough with Pt-Ru. The results also suggest that when applying air bleed at elevated temperatures, it is beneficial to lower the cell temperature for the duration of the air bleed.
  • Kangas, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Children's participation in early childhood education has raised concern and discussion in the international researches lately. Young children have been considered to have lack of participation experiences in early education settings because of institutional policies, social understanding about childhood and perspectives of educators (Bae, 2009; Emilson and Folkesson, 2006; Smith, 2002). Focus of children as active agents of their own development through sociocultural learning paradigm the approach of participatory learning has been considered important in early childhood education and research (Berthelsen, Brownlee and Johansson, 2009). This approach of children's learning views participation as a developing and dynamic cultural phenomenon. This research is focusing on the educators' perspectives and the conceptions of children's participation in everyday pedagogic practices and is based on a survey conducted in early childhood education in Metropolitan area of Helsinki in 2010. The survey was realized in the VKK-Metro development and research project funded by the Ministry of Social and Health affairs. The participants represented 1114 working teams from 350 kindergartens. The working teams included 3721 educators taking care of 19 907 children. The analytical framework of research is based on an abductive approach conducted with mixed methods. The findings indicate that children's voice was considered important by educators. Also opportunities to make independent initiatives and choices were considered as a right and an item of learning and of developing of skills of participation. However children's chances to participate in decision making process and pedagogical processes were weak because of challenges of children's participation experienced by educators. These challenges were connected to both institutional issues, such as routines and adult-child-ratios, and professional skills and beliefs about children's competence. According to findings of this research children's participation is understood to include such aspects as having opportunities to have an influence in their learning and the culture of kindergartens, becoming respected and listened to by educators and having chances to practice responsibility and self-regulation. The role of educators as facilitators of children's participation is found essential and the research builds knowledge of children's participation through framework of participatory pedagogy in early education context. Through this framework the challenges of children's participation could be reflected and a culture of developing participation built in co-operation between educators, children and political and social environment of early childhood education.
  • Rissanen, Antti (Edita prima Oy, 2011)
    This research is connected with an education development project for the four-year-long officer education program at the National Defence University. In this curriculum physics was studied in two alternative course plans namely scientific and general. Observations connected to the later one e.g. student feedback and learning outcome gave indications that action was needed to support the course. The reform work was focused on the production of aligned course related instructional material. The learning material project produced a customized textbook set for the students of the general basic physics course. The research adapts phases that are typical in Design Based Research (DBR). The research analyses the feature requirements for physics textbook aimed at a specific sector and frames supporting instructional material development, and summarizes the experiences gained in the learning material project when the selected frames have been applied. The quality of instructional material is an essential part of qualified teaching. The goal of instructional material customization is to increase the product's customer centric nature and to enhance its function as a support media for the learning process. Textbooks are still one of the core elements in physics teaching. The idea of a textbook will remain but the form and appearance may change according to the prevailing technology. The work deals with substance connected frames (demands of a physics textbook according to the PER-viewpoint, quality thinking in educational material development), frames of university pedagogy and instructional material production processes. A wide knowledge and understanding of different frames are useful in development work, if they are to be utilized to aid inspiration without limiting new reasoning and new kinds of models. Applying customization even in the frame utilization supports creative and situation aware design and diminishes the gap between theory and practice. Generally, physics teachers produce their own supplementary instructional material. Even though customization thinking is not unknown the threshold to produce an entire textbook might be high. Even though the observations here are from the general physics course at the NDU, the research gives tools also for development in other discipline related educational contexts. This research is an example of an instructional material development work together the questions it uncovers, and presents thoughts when textbook customization is rewarding. At the same time, the research aims to further creative customization thinking in instruction and development. Key words: Physics textbook, PER (Physics Education Research), Instructional quality, Customization, Creativity
  • Loukomies, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    An inquiry-based site visit teaching sequence for school science was designed in co-operation with researchers and science teachers, according to the principles of Design Based Research (DBR). Out-of-school industry site visits were central in the design. Theory-based conjectures arising from the literature on motivation, interest and inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) were embodied in the design solution, and these embodied conjectures were studied in order to uncover the aspects of the design related to students motivation and interest. The design solution was researched throughout the process. The aim of the design was to generate a phenomenon to be investigated in the research stage. The aim of the research was to clarify which particular aspects of the design have appealed particular students and enhanced their motivation and interest, and what scientific content students have learnt within the project. In this research report, the iterative design process with several implementations of the site visit teaching sequence, research methodology and the results that emerged, are considered. The design process took place in the years 2007 2009. A pilot cycle, two implementation-refinement cycles and a final trial were conducted. Lower secondary school students (age 14 15) participated in the cycles. Data were collected using a mixed-methods approach. The students experiences of school science were mapped with the Evaluation of Science Inquiry Activities Questionnaire (ESIAQ) before and after the implementations. The students Self-determination theory (SDT) based motivation orientations were examined using the Academic Motivation Questionnaire (AMQ) before the implementations. Both questionnaires are based on SDT. Students with different motivational profiles and their teachers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. The interviews were analysed by employing a theory-driven content analysis approach. The students representations of the scientific content of the sequence were examined by comparing the informal mind maps they constructed before and after the sequence, and with interviews. The results of the research reveal that a teaching sequence that combines inquiry activities, industry site visits and writing tasks contains the potential to enhance students feeling of relevance of their science studies and promote motivation and interest in school science. When asked about the most motivating aspects of the teaching sequence, students emphasised different aspects depending on their motivational profile. Students with an autonomous motivation orientation emphasised the support for their independent planning and decision making and support for their personal interest, whereas amotivated students reported an increase in their feeling of the relevance of studying. The results show that students in science classes value different aspects of science learning based on their motivational profile. The site visit teaching sequence offers science teachers an appropriate way of differentiating teaching according to students different needs. Because the research problems of this research project are multifaceted, concerning the design process, students motivation and students learning of the scientific content of the sequence, the problems of design, motivation and learning are reported in three different sub-studies, each containing specific research questions, data analysis and discussion. Keywords: motivation orientation, industry site visit, design-based research, inquiry-based science teaching
  • Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL), which may be doped into a p- and n-type semiconductor, has been chemically modified to enhance its processability. In its pristine form BBL is processable only in some concentrated acids and nitromethane/Lewis acid solutions. The corrosiveness of these solvents and moisture sensitivity of the solutions severely limits the possibilities for the use of BBL as an electroactive material in organoelectronic devices and limit the possibilities for its post synthetic chemical modification. In this work processable BBL derivatives have been prepared using two different approaches i) preparation of block-copolymers by attachment of water soluble polymers on BBL functional chain ends ii) attaching bulky side groups on one of the monomers and using that as a starting material in the polymerization reaction. Short BBLs of DP 10 or 20 were prepared with functional chain ends and monofunctional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) of several different molecular weights were attached at the chain ends. Elemental analysis showed that the extent of chain end substitution varied quite a lot when PEO was used. It was also shown that thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was not suitable to determine the fraction of PEO in BBL-PEO block-copolymers. However, the extent of chain end substitution using PNIPAM was evaluated using TGA. BBL-PEOs could be processed into aqueous dispersions at concentrations ≥ 1.5 mg/ml by means of ultrasonication, and these dispersions were proven to be colloidally very stable. The dispersions could be used to spin- or drop cast films. At higher concentrations BBL-PEO dispersions were shown to form gels. The reason for the gelling is the packing of the polymer into nano-wire structures which then aggregate into 3D-network. SEM- and cryo-TEM imaging confirmed the existence of wire-type structures. Wire structures and gelation were also observed for aqueous dispersions of pristine BBL. BBL-PNIPAM block-copolymers were found to be indispersible in water with PNIPAM fractions lower than 35 mass %. However, they gelled upon ultrasonication. With higher PNIPAM fractions the polymers were dispersible and did not form gels in any of the studied concentrations. Dispersibility in water and the colloidal stability of BBL-PEOs and BBL-PNIPAMs was attributed to electrostatic stabilization as the particles showed negative zeta-potentials. Dispersible BBL-PNIPAMs were more stable due the high amount of dissociative groups originating from the partial degradation of the amide moieties during the coupling to BBL. One of the monomers used to prepare BBL, 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid 1,8-monoanhydride, was successfully mono- and dibrominated. The bromine was then used as a functional group and replaced either directly with 2-ethyl-1-hexylamine or substituted with azide and reacted with 1-hexyne. The modified monomers were used in preparation of BBL. BBLs bearing either 2-ethyl-1-hexylamine or 4-butyl-1,2,3-triazole groups were found to be sparingly soluble in dimethylsulphoxide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
  • Assmuth, Lari (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Thomas Wulffs roman En Hjälte för Vår Tid Fragment, incidenter och andra fantasier ur Ivarlassys liv är den första delen av en planerad trilogi som baserar sig på en relativt okänd historisk person, Ivar Lassy. Huvudpersonen i romanen, Ivarlassy, är dock en markerat skönlitterär karaktär och parodisk hjälte. Romanens förhållande till historia är också problematiserande och lekfullt, och gränserna mellan fakta och fiktion suddas ut med parodiska och metafiktiva berättargrepp. I denna avhandling analyseras två huvudspår i En Hjälte för Vår Tid. För det första behandlas berättandet, som präglas av en parodisk imitation av äldre historieskrivning där berättaren både föreställer historiker och samtidigt markerar att berättelsen är en skönlitterär text. Vissa av romanens paratexter granskas också, och de visar sig ha en liknande dubbel effekt. För det andra analyseras blandningen av fakta och fiktion genom att se på ämnesvalet i romanen, granska Ivarlassy som romankaraktär och otypisk hjälte, och ställa romanen i relation till några intertexter. Bland intertexterna granskas både fiktiva texter som Michail Lermontovs roman Vår tids hjälte, och icke-fiktiva texter som skrifter om och av den historiske Ivar Lassy och historiska förlagor till andra romankaraktärer. Teoriramarna jag använder mig av är huvudsakligen Linda Hutcheons och Elisabeth Wesselings teorier om historiografisk metafiktion, det som Wesseling kallar för den postmoderna historiska romanen. Historiografisk metafiktion är en typ av metafiktion som kritiskt granskar gränsen mellan historieskrivning och skönlitteratur, fakta och fiktion. Historiografiska metafiktioner anknyter till en värld utanför fiktionen, t.ex. genom att använda sig av karaktärer som baserar sig på historiska personer, men gör det på ett sätt som problematiserar förhållandet mellan fiktionen och det den refererar till. I fallet med En Hjälte för Vår Tid betyder det bl.a. att det på olika sätt poängteras att romankaraktären Ivarlassy inte är identisk med Ivar Lassy, fast det samtidigt också finns ett samband mellan dem. En sådan här paradoxal dubbelhet som bejakar motsägelsefullhet är typisk för den postmoderna kulturen och för historiografisk metafiktion. Andra teorier som används, främst för att analysera berättandet i En Hjälte för Vår Tid, är bl.a. Simon Dentiths inkluderande teori om parodi och Sanna Nyqvists teori om pastisch, mera specifikt om pastischer som är imitationer av en viss tidsperiods stil. I En Hjälte för Vår Tid är objektet för den parodiska eller pastischartade imitationen nämligen en rätt så odefinierad ålderdomlig stil att skriva historia. Jag har valt att exemplifiera denna äldre stil med Bernhard Estlanders biografi över Eugen Schauman från 1924. Vid en jämförelse mellan Estlanders verk och Wulffs roman kan man se vissa likheter, som sättet att idealisera huvudpersonerna och att se teleologiska samband mellan karaktärsdrag som de visar som barn och deras senare livsöden. Samtidigt presenteras den pacifistiske Lassy som en radikalt annorlunda hjälte än Schauman och de övriga aktivisterna som var redo att gripa till våld för att nå sina mål. En Hjälte för Vår Tid presenterar på ett lekfullt vis en alternativ hjältetyp och tar upp relevanta teman som politiskt våld och terrorism och kulturell pluralism. Samtidigt väcker romanen epistemologiska frågor om hur historia skapas och förmedlas.
  • Eriksson, Aila (1988)
  • Sorokina, Dina (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally recognized as safe micro-organisms and used in food preservation and as health promoting probiotics. Beside lactic acid, LAB produce several antimicrobial compounds of which especially bacteriocins provide new potential applications for food and pharmaceutical industries. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthetized proteins or peptides with antimicrobial activity usually against closely related species. Whole genome sequencing project of lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis N8 has revealed a new bacteriocin operon which consists of a bacteriocin gene and ABC transporter genes. Similar operon has been also found in several other L.lactis strains including IL1403. Peptides expressed by these bacteriocin genes belong to lactococcin 972 protein family according to their amino acid sequences. In this master’s thesis, these novel bacteriocin genes from L. lactis N8 and IL1403 were cloned into Escherichia coli with plasmid vectors. New bacteriocins were named encacin A and B. Strong inducible promoters were chosen to achieve high bacteriocin production. Encacins were expressed in cytosolic and periplasmic spaces to compare the effect of localization on antimicrobial activity of peptides. The prevalence of encacin genes among different L. lactis strains was also studied. Four of ten E. coli recombinant strains constructed during this study were shown to produce bacteriocins. Two of them, which produced encacins into periplasmic space, also appeared to be weakly active against L. lactis MG1614 strain. Therefore it seems that localization of encacins in E. coli bacterial cell has an impact on the bioactivity of peptides. Screening of bacteriocins genes showed that over 90 % of L. lactis stains bear encacin genes, from which encacin B is the more frequent form. More precise characterization of encacin genes and peptides may help to gain new information about qualities and mode of action of these novel potential bacteriocins.
  • Jussila, Jonna (2000)
    Lisensiaattityö “Enkeleitä onko heitä – nuorten näkemyksiä uskonnosta ja Jumalasta relativismia korostavassa maailmassa” tutkii nuorten uskontoaiheisten mielipidekirjoitusten sisältöä uskontososiologian sekä aikalaisteoreetikoiden näkemysten valossa. Aineisto koostuu Helsingin Sanomien Nuorten Posti -palstan uskontoaiheisista kirjoituksista 1970-, 1980- ja 1990-luvuilla. Mitä uskonnolle on modernisaatiossa tapahtunut; syntyykö nuorten ajatusten ja aikalaissosiologien välille uskottavaa dialogia? Aineiston kirjoituksia luonnehtii pitkälti uskonvastustajien ja uskovaisten kirjoittajien välinen kiivas kädenvääntö. Oman leimansa antavat myös ne kirjoitukset, jotka asettuvat näiden kirjoitusten ”väliin”: suvaitsevaisten tai privaatin uskonnollisuuden omaavien kirjoittajien rooli aineistossa on myös merkittävä. Tutkimuskysymykseni koskevat väittämien sisältöä: mitkä ovat ne keskeisimmät argumentit, joita nuoret tuovat esiin vastustaessaan ja toisaalta puolustaessaan uskoa; erilaisia uskonnollisia näkökantoja? Lisäksi tutkin privatisoituneen uskonnollisuuden ilmentymistä palstalla: esiintyykö tällaisia kirjoituksia ja mistä niissä lopulta on kysymys? Lähestymistapani on pitkälti yhteiskunta-analyyttinen. Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, Gianni Vattimo, Thomas Luckmann ja Harvie Ferguson ovat esimerkkejä teoreetikoista, jotka toimivat tutkimuksessa ikään kuin tutkimuslinsseinä. Uskontoaiheisia kirjoituksia on luokiteltu ja niistä nousevia toistuvia komponentteja tulkitaan ja ymmärretään valittujen teorioiden valossa. Kirjoituksia luetaan nuorten kulttuurisena puheena uskonnosta. Toisaalta pyrkimyksenä on, että nuorten värikkäät ja voimalliset kertomukset voisivat kertoa jotain uutta aiheesta “jälkimoderni maailma ja uskonnollisuus”. Laaja modernisaatio-projektia käsittelevä teoria kohtaa tutkimuksessa nuorten intiimit käsitykset tästä muutosprojektista ja uskonnosta. Tutkimukseni osoittaa, kuinka ristiriitaisia signaaleja moderniksi tai jälkimoderniksi kutsuttu maailma voi nuorille uskonnollisessa mielessä tarjota. ”Uskonnollista liikettä” tapahtuu hyvin eri suuntiin. Uskonvastustajat syyttävät uskovaisia autonomian, rationaalisuuden ja suvaitsevaisuuden laiminlyömisestä. Heidän mielestään yksilön autonomia johdattaa oikeudenmukaiseen, suvaitsevaiseen maailmaan. Traditionaalisesta uskonnosta on tullut kykenemätön toteuttamaan hyviä päämääriä. Uskonto saatetaan myös kokea nuorisokulttuurin; nuorten omaksi kokeman elämäntavan hylkäämisenä. Uskovaisiin liitetyt metaforat kertovat tästä särmästä: heikkous, vanhuus ja kypsymättömyys kuvaavat muun muassa uskovaisuutta. Toisille nuorille hektinen nykykulttuuri on kuitenkin hyvin ahdistava kokemus, jota parhaiten kuvaa merkityksettömyyden tunne. Moni oli löytänyt ratkaisun uskonnosta. Useat Nuorten Postin kirjoitukset kertovat paluusta metafyysisen perustan pariin. Valintojen maailman käydessä kestämättömäksi on alkanut traditionaalisen uskonnon esiin kaivaminen. Kristinuskolla on yhä tärkeä funktio merkityksellisyyden tuojana. Uskonnolla on kuitenkin myös uudenlaisia merkityksiä nuorten elämässä. Dogmaattisuuden sijasta uudelleen rakennetun privaatin uskonnollisuuden merkitys saattaa piillä kyvyssä tuoda elämään rikkautta, syvällisyyttä ja eksotiikkaa.
  • Nyman, Vivan (2008)
    I pro gradu-avhandlingen undersöktes hur snabbt föränderliga krav och förväntningar på arbetsplatsen inverkade på upplevda rollproblem. Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera avdelningsskötarnas upplevelser av rolloklarhet, rollöverlastning och rollkonflikt. Ytterligare ett syfte med undersökningen var att belysa vilka lösningsstrategier avdelningsskötarna hade för de olika rollproblemen. De studerade rollproblemen utgick från Joseph McGraths rollproblemteori. I jämförelse med andra rollteorier har McGrath skapat en mer nyanserad syntes på rollproblemen. Denna teori hade en central ställning i undersökningen. Materialet samlades in genom strukturerade intervjuer med åtta kvinnliga avdelningsskötare från en hälsovårdscentral i huvudstadsregionen. Avdelningsskötarna var i åldern 35-60 år och var från tre olika sjukhusområden, som hörde till samma enhet. Kritisk-händelse-metoden valdes i denna undersökning som utgångspunkt för både datainsamling och analys. Utgående från de upplevda kritiska händelserna kunde olika kärnproblem upptäckas. Resultaten visade att även om avdelningsskötarnas upplevda kritiska händelser fördelade sig jämnt mellan de tre rollproblemen fanns det skillnader i förekomsten av de olika typerna inom rollproblemen. Utifrån materialet kunde olika kärnproblem upptäckas. Kärnproblemen kan ses som konkreta exempel på olika upplevda rollproblemsituationer. De kärnproblem som placerades under rolloklarhet var omorganisering, föregående tjänsteinnehavare och vänskapsförhållanden. I rollöverlastningssituationer betonades budgeten, övertidsarbete, arbetstimmar hemma och dubbla roller. I rollkonfliktsituationer förekom det mera av de intrapsykiska rollkonflikterna, i vilka det betonades egna värderingar, principer och arbetsmängden. Av de tre rollkonflikterna upplevdes motstridiga förväntningar från ledningen och underordnade minst, vilket var ett överraskande fynd. Rollkonfliktsituationer kunde ses som det mest oroväckande rollproblemet i och med att inga lösningsmöjligheter framkom från berättelserna. Både inom rolloklarhet- och rollöverlastningssituationer kunde olika lösningsstrategier urskiljas. De viktigaste källorna i undersökningen var: Israel (1963); Katz & Kahn (1978); Olsen (1992); McGrath (1984).
  • Pettersson, Dann (2014)
    I denna pro gradu avhandling har maktförhållandena i Finland undersökts. Avhandlingen innefattar två olika undersökningshelheter, den första behandlar näringslivet och den andra näringslivets förhållande till riksdagen. Studiet av näringslivet är intressant med tanke på att isolera makten och kunna undersöka maktens utformning i Finland utan hinder. Den andra delen, jämförelsen mellan riksdagen och näringslivet, motiveras främst av den en demokratisk aspekt. Ifall Finlands hade en utvecklad maktelit, uppgjord av riksdagsledamöter och toppar inom näringslivet kan detta inte sägas inverka positivt på demokratin. I studiet av maktförhållandena, har elitbildningar i det finländska samhället eftersökts. Den första delen av avhandlingen är en litteraturöversikt över det pluralistiska och det elitistiska synsättet av makt. I presentationen av den elitistiska synen av makt lyfts främst Dahl (1958) fram som kritik. Orsaken till detta är gränsen han drar upp mellan faktisk och potentiell elit. Efter detta avsnitt följer en genomgång av tidigare forskning, av internationell karaktär samt tidigare finländsk forskning. Den första delen av undersökningen i denna avhandling behandlar de 500 största företagen i Finlands styrelser. Detta område är intressant då personer här kan röra sig fritt och man kan studera uppkomsten och den naturliga förekomsten av eliter i Finland. Resultaten pekar på att det förekommer en elit inom det finländska näringslivet. Var man drar gränsen för förekomsten är dock svårt, inom denna undersökning föreslås att man drar gränsen var personer inte längre har en naturlig sannolikhet att mista maktpositioner. Undersökningsmetodiken är här, i den första delen kvantitativ analys. Det som klargörs är ifall det finns en kontinuitet över åren, ifall makten kan visas vara kumulativ utöver detta formas en modell för hur man förlorar maktpositioner. Den andra delen av undersökningen fokuserar på kopplingen mellan näringslivet och riksdagen. Detta för att undersöka Mills (1956) tanke på sammanflytande spelplaner. Det kan dock konstateras att det inte förekommer i någon stor utsträckning. Det förekommer undantag men generellt kan man utesluta ett sammanflytande av spelplaner mellan politiken och näringslivet på högsta nivå i Finland. Denna del av undersökningen är av kvalitativ karaktär.