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  • Annala, Saara (1949)
  • Mielikäinen, Aila (1982)
  • Klinkman, Toivo (1935)
  • Huhtinen, Päiviö (1926)
  • Rusanen, Pia (2007)
    Tutkimuskohteeni on demokratia Tansaniassa maan kolmansien vuonna 2005 järjestettyjen monipuoluevaalien jälkeen. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää haastatteluaineiston valossa, eteneekö demokratisoitumisen prosessin lujittumisen vaihe maassa tuona aikana. Kysymykseen vastatakseni tarkastelen Tansanian demokratisoitumisen haasteita ja edistysaskelia sekä syitä niiden keskeiseen asemaan prosessissa. Lisäksi arvioin hallitusten välisen järjestön IDEAn (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance) demokratiamittaria, johon laatimani haastattelukaavake pohjautuu. Tarkastelen myös IDEAn mittarin demokratiakäsitettä. Teoreettisen viitekehyksen rakennan demokratiakäsityksien ja aiemman demokratisoitumisen tutkimuksen pohjalta. Tarkastellakseni Tansanian demokratisoitumista kattavasti poimin tutkimukseeni mahdollisimman laajat IDEAn, Stepan & Linzin sekä Leftwichin määritelmät demokratiasta. Sijoitan ne Robert Pinkneyn taulukkoon, jossa vertaillaan eri teoreetikkojen näkemyksiä demokratiaa edistävistä olosuhteista. Stepan & Linzin viidestä demokratian lujittumisen yhteiskuntasektorista ja Leftwichin viidestä demokratisoitumisen kannalta tärkeimpänä määrittelemästä olosuhteesta rakennan kahdeksan indikaattoria, joita käytän haastatteluaineistoni analysoimiseen. Tansaniaa koskevan tapaustutkimuksen menetelmän lisäksi käytän pääosin laadullisia menetelmiä. Niistä keskeisin on IDEAn demokratiamittarin ja sen sisältämän laajan demokratiamääritelmän käyttäminen teemahaastattelukaavakkeen pohjana ja siten myös haastatteluaineiston keruuvälineenä. Tutkimuspäiväkirjan havainnot täydentävät keräämääni aineistoa, joka koostuu lisäksi aiemmasta tutkimuskirjallisuudesta, artikkeleista ja internet-lähteistä. Tutkimuksesta selviää, että Pinkneyn jaottelun mukaisesti Tansanian demokratisoituminen on poliittisten instituutioiden eli poliittisen yhteisön ja lain, korruption sekä arvomaailman tasoilla hidastuneessa ellei jopa pysähtyneessä tilassa kansallisesti ja paikallisesti. Valtapuolueen mahdollinen hajoaminen vauhdittaisi demokratisoitumista molemmilla tasoilla. Demokratisoitumisen ongelmat poliittisissa instituutioissa liittyvät Tansanian historialliseen taustaan ja valtapuolueen vankkaan asemaan yhteiskunnassa. Pinkneyn viitekehyksen ulkoisiin vaikuttimiin yhdistetty köyhyys jarruttaa demokratisoitumista läpi yhteiskunnan. Toisaalta donorien kehitysapuna ulkopuolelta tuleva demokratiatuki on kansallisella tasolla prosessia keskeisesti vauhdittava tekijä. Sen keskeinen asema selittyy Tansanian apuriippuvaisuudella. Donorien edistämän demokratian ulottuminen paikalliselle tasolla voidaan kyseenalaistaa. Pinkneyn taulukon prosessin kulkuun sisältyy väestön laaja osallistuminen politiikkaan. Sen voidaan nähdä edistävän demokratisoitumista kaikilla tasoilla ja vahvistavan prosessia maan sisältä käsin. Pinkneyn jaottelun ulkopuolelle jäävät demokratisoitumista jarruttava yhteiskunnallisten kuilujen kasvaminen sekä prosessin edistäjät media ja rauha, joka Tansaniassa selittyy historiallisin syin. IDEAn mittari on demokratiakäsitykseltään muita mittareita kattavampi. Se esittelee tuloksia, joita vertailevan tutkimuksen mittarit eivät nosta esiin. Muista mittareista poiketen menetelmä huomioi ulkoisten tekijöiden vaikutuksen demokratisoitumiseen. IDEAn mittarin heikkoutena on käsitteiden epäselvyys, joka jättää tutkijalle useita tulkinnan mahdollisuuksia. Metodi on aikaa ja voimavaroja vievä tapa tutkia maiden demokratiaa. IDEAn mittarissa voidaan nähdä viitteitä liberaaliin demokratiaan, jonka soveltuvuus afrikkalaisiin demokratioihin voidaan kyseenalaistaa.
  • Kapanen, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Objectives. The thesis objective was to analyze how person-centred planning is applied to develop short term care in interaction between the disabled children, their families and the workers of the family service centre of Eteva Järvenpää. The thesis contributes to developing the methods of person-centred planning. I applied theoretical frameworks of activity theory and developmental work research, family-based work framework and disability phenomenon. The research questions were: What development needs did the families of disabled children have for the services? How were viewpoints of disabled children, their families and Eteva workers noticed in person-centred planning in the interaction between the disabled children, their families and Eteva workers? What disturbances and development challenges emerged during the person-centred planning? Methods. I first analysed the local history of the disability sector and the short term care to analyse challenges arising from the local history. The actural research material consisted of interviews with four families, two person-centred planning discussions and two discussions where the person-centred planning was reflected by the families.I used interaction voice analysis as defined by the activity theory and developmental work research. From the recorded interviews and discussions I analysed scripts, disturbances, innovation attempts and innovations. From the discussions I analysed also the interaction types (cooperation, coordination and communication). Results and conclusions. As problems, the families considered the scarce resources and the inflexibility of services. The challenges of developing the short term care were how to transfer information from short term care to home, how to develop activities for the children and how to take into account the individual needs of the children in the short term care. Both from the local history analysis and from the family interviews arised the conflict between caring and fulfilling the individual needs. In person-centred planning, the voice of the child was either interpreted by other family members or guided by family members or workers. I modelled the progress of person-centred planning in a two-dimensional coordination. Person-centred planning should be deepened in cooperation between the child, the family and the workers in everyday situations at home and during the short term care. The challenge is to expand person-centred planning to become cross-organizational cooperation connecting the actors of the child s service network in everyday life. Avainsanat Nyckelord - Keywords short term care, activity theory and developmental work research, person-centred planning, disability
  • Tillonen, Jyrki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Holm, Kristiina (Waxmann, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to develop measurement instruments to scale adolescents ethical, intercultural and interreligious sensitivities and to assess the self-evaluations of students from two Finnish urban secondary schools concerning ethical, intercultural and interreligious sensitivities. The measurement instruments developed and used in the study were the Ethical Sensitivity Scale (ESS), the Intercultural and Religious Sensitivity Scale (IRSS), the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ICSS) and the Interreligious Sensitivity Scale (IRRSS). The theoretical frameworks for the instruments were Narvaez s (2001) operationalization of ethical sensitivity, Bennett s (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity and Abu-Nimer s (2004) Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old secondary school students from Helsinki and Jyväskylä. The first set up data was gathered from 249 Lutheran students with the use of the ESS and IRSS questionnaires. The second set up data was collected from 549 students who represented various other religions including Lutheranism or were not religiously affiliated, with the use of the ICSS and IRRSS questionnaires. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the psychometric properties of the instruments used? (2) How do students assess their own levels of ethical, intercultural and interreligious sensitivities? (3) What factors can explain the differences in ethical, intercultural and interreligious sensitivities between students? The statistical analyses of the instruments showed satisfactory results with the ESS, the ICSS and the IRRSS. However, new data are needed to develop all the instruments in the future. Further, the results report on secondary school students self-assessed ethical, intercultural and interreligious sensitivities. Lutheran secondary school students assessed their best ethical skills to be reading and expressing emotions and taking the perspectives of others. The weakest ethical skills were evaluated as working with interpersonal and group differences and identifying the consequences of options and actions. Girls assessed their ethical skills more highly than boys. In addition, academically above-average students estimated some of their ethical skills more highly than their peers of average ability. In the first sample of 249 Lutheran students, their self-evaluated intercultural and interreligious sensitivities referred to Minimization orientation toward cultural difference in which differences between cultures are recognized but ignored. In the second sample of 549 students, their intercultural and interreligious sensitivities referred to Acceptance orientation in which other cultures are experienced as different but equal. The values remained moderate though. No statistically significant differences were noted between Lutheran confirmed and non-confirmed students’ intercultural or interreligious sensitivities. Girls reported having higher intercultural and interreligious sensitivities than did boys. Further, academically above-average students assessed their intercultural sensitivity more highly than their peers of average ability.
  • Ruokonen, Floora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The study addresses the question concerning the relationship between ethics and aesthetics in the philosophy of Iris Murdoch. The main argument is that Murdoch s philosophy cannot be accurately understood without an understanding of the relationship she sees between the aesthetic experience and morality. Reading Murdoch s philosophy with this relationship in mind shows that it must be considered as a relevant alternative to the main forms of aesthetic-ethical theories. The study consists of seven previously published articles and a summary. It shows that Murdoch belongs to a tradition of philosophers who seek to broaden the scope of ethics by reference to aesthetic value and aesthetic experience. She sees an attitude responsible for aesthetic experiences as relevant for morality. However, she does not collapse morality into aesthetic experience. The two meet on the level of the subject s attitude towards its object, but there is a distinction between the experiences that accompany the attitudes. Aesthetic experiences can function as a clue to morals in that they present in a pleasing manner moral truths which otherwise might be psychologically too difficult to face. Murdoch equates the aesthetic attitude with virtuous love characterized by unselfish attention to its object. The primary object of such love is in Murdoch s account another human individual in her particularity. She compares the recognition of the other person as a particular existence to the experience of the Kantian sublime and offers her own version of the true sublime which is the experience of awe in the face of the infinity of the task of understanding others. One of the most central claims in Murdoch s philosophy is that human consciousness is evaluatively structured. This claim challenges the distinction between facts and values which has had an immense influence on modern moral philosophy. One argument with which Murdoch supports her claim is the nature of great literature. According to her, the standard of greatness in literature is the authors awareness of the independent existence of individuals in the particularity of their evaluative consciousnesses. The analysis of the standard of greatness in literature is also Murdoch s only argument for the claim that the primary object of the loving unselfish attention is the other particular individual. She is convinced that great literature reveals a deep truth about the human condition with its capacity to capture the particular. Abstract philo¬sophical discourse cannot compete with this capacity but it should take truths revealed by literature seriously in its theorising. Recognising this as Murdoch s stand on the question of the relation between philosophy and literature as forms of human discourse settles whether she is part of what has been called philosophy s turn to literature. The answer is yes.
  • Heikkerö, Topi (2009)
    This study addresses the following question: How to think about ethics in a technological world? The question is treated first thematically by framing central issues in the relationship between ethics and technology. This relationship has three distinct facets: i) technological advance poses new challenges for ethics, ii) traditional ethics may become poorly applicable in a technologically transformed world, and iii) the progress in science and technology has altered the concept of rationality in ways that undermine ethical thinking itself. The thematic treatment is followed by the description and analysis of three approaches to the questions framed. First, Hans Jonas s thinking on the ontology of life and the imperative of responsibility is studied. In Jonas s analysis modern culture is found to be nihilistic because it is unable to understand organic life, to find meaning in reality, and to justify morals. At the root of nihilism Jonas finds dualism, the traditional Western way of seeing consciousness as radically separate from the material world. Jonas attempts to create a metaphysical grounding for an ethic that would take the technologically increased human powers into account and make the responsibility for future generations meaningful and justified. The second approach is Albert Borgmann s philosophy of technology that mainly assesses the ways in which technological development has affected everyday life. Borgmann admits that modern technology has liberated humans from toil, disease, danger, and sickness. Furthermore, liberal democracy, possibilities for self-realization, and many of the freedoms we now enjoy would not be possible on a large scale without technology. Borgmann, however, argues that modern technology in itself does not provide a whole and meaningful life. In fact, technological conditions are often detrimental to the good life. Integrity in life, according to him, is to be sought among things and practices that evade technoscientific objectification and commodification. Larry Hickman s Deweyan philosophy of technology is the third approach under scrutiny. Central in Hickman s thinking is a broad definition of technology that is nearly equal to Deweyan inquiry. Inquiry refers to the reflective and experiential way humans adapt to their environment by modifying their habits and beliefs. In Hickman s work, technology consists of all kinds of activities that through experimentation and/or reflection aim at improving human techniques and habits. Thus, in addition to research and development, many arts and political reforms are technological for Hickman. He argues for recasting such distinctions as fact/value, poiesis/praxis/theoria, and individual/society. Finally, Hickman does not admit a categorical difference between ethics and technology: moral values and norms need to be submitted to experiential inquiry as well as all the other notions. This study mainly argues for an interdisciplinary approach to the ethics of technology. This approach should make use of the potentialities of the research traditions in applied ethics, the philosophy of technology, and the social studies on science and technology and attempt to overcome their limitations. This study also advocates an endorsement of mid-level ethics that concentrate on the practices, institutions, and policies of temporal human life. Mid-level describes the realm between the instantaneous and individualistic micro-level and the universal and global macro level.
  • Kauppinen, Antti Mikael (2000)
    My thesis aims to situate Jürgen Habermas's theory of discourse ethics in the context of contemporary debates in English-speaking moral philosophy. To accomplish this, I treat in the first chapter Humean and Kantian conceptions of practical reason, and their contemporary defenders. In the second chapter, I move on to Habermas's own work. His ethics is built on the background of original theories of communicative action and rationality. Going through the theory I try to correct some of Habermas's terminological idiosyncrasies. The third chapter is devoted to the concept of identity in its different meanings. I situate Habermas's theory in the context built by Locke, Hegel, and Mead, and examine the normative conclusions he draws from his model. The fourth chapter is the crux of the work. It aims to present the theory of discourse ethics in as clear a form as possible. I make some new suggesstion on how to interpret it. The final chapter deals with the question of moral realism and objectivity. I argue against realist interpretations of discourse ethics on the grounds that the theory's distinctive character of second person justification would be lost in them.
  • Suikkanen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In What We Owe to Each Other, T.M. Scanlon formulated a new version of the ethical theory called contractualism. This theory took reasons considerations that count in favour of judgment-sensitive attitudes to be the fundamental normative notion. It then used normative reasons to first account for evaluative properties. For an object to be valuable, on this view, is for it to have properties that provide reasons to have favourable attitudes towards the bearer of value. Scanlon also used reasons to account for moral wrongness. His contractualism claims that an act is morally wrong if it is forbidden by any set of moral principles that no one could reasonably reject. My thesis consists of five previously published articles which attempt to clarify Scanlon s theory and to defend it against its critics. The first article defends the idea that normative reason-relations are fundamental against Joshua Gert. Gert argues that rationality is a more basic notion than reasons and that reasons can be analysed in terms of their rationally requiring and justifying dimensions. The second article explores the relationship between value and reasons. It defends Scanlon s view according to which reasons are the more basic than value against those who think that reasons are based on the evaluative realm. The last three articles defend Scanlon s views about moral wrongness. The first one of them discusses a classic objection to contractualist theories. This objection is that principles which no one could reasonably reject are redundant in accounting for wrongness. This is because we need a prior notion of wrongness to select those principles and because such principles are not required to make actions wrong or to provide reasons against wrong actions. The fourth article explores the distinctive reasons which contractualists claim there are for avoiding the wrong actions. The last article argues against the critics of contractualism who claim that contractualism has implausible normative consequences for situations related to the treatment of different-sized groups of people.
  • Gahnström, Carl Sebastian Laurentius (2012)
    Ethnicity and religion have never occupied a prominent role in the politics of Tanzania. This was particularly the case during the one-party era, during which a strong emphasis was put on the undesirability of religious and ethnic politics as part of the efforts to consolidate national identity and unity. With the introduction of multi-party politics, both forms of identity seemed to come increasingly to the fore, and accusations of ethnic or religious bias are today commonly voiced in the political discourse of the country. This thesis gives a current account of the role of ethnicity and religion in the politics of Tanzania, using the 2010 General Elections, the region of Mwanza and the support structure of opposition party Chadema as case studies. The main focus of the thesis is on ethnicity and politics, but the conceptual framework developed in the text is relevant for the analysis of religion-politics connections as well. The research is based in part on fieldwork conducted in Mwanza region and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania in the summer of 2011. The fieldwork consisted of semi-structured interviews with researchers, politicians, religious leaders and “ordinary” Tanzanians. In addition, both the theoretical and analytical parts of the thesis are based on an extensive body of literature concerning ethnicity, religion and Tanzanian political history. On the basis of this literature and augmented by the interview material, this thesis presents a framework for the understanding of ethnic identity and ethnic politics in Tanzania. It is suggested that ethnic identity may be divided into three separate categories: cultural, social and political ethnicity. Political ethnicity, or ethnic politics, is defined as the use of ethnic identity in the pursuit of public resources, and is divided into two further categories: political tribalism and the politics of origin. The former refers to evocations of the particular ethnic group identities that emerged out of colonial rule, and that are alluded to in political competition with other ethnic groups. The latter then connotes political references to identities of origin that are not reducible to political tribalism. These distinctions are important to make in order to assess the nature and the consequences of any case of ethnic politics. The research results suggest that the social significance of ethnicity in Tanzania has not translated into political tribalism to any larger extent, but that other forms of political ethnicity, related to the politics of origin, are indeed rather prevalent. In particular, interviews in Mwanza region suggest that ethnicity and common origin might be important factors of political representation and inclusion. More specifically, it is argued that ethnicity is related to judgments regarding the trustworthiness of political candidates. However, it was also clear that respondents in general tended to downplay the role of ethnicity as a political factor. It is suggested that in part, this is attributable to the fact that ethnicity in Tanzania – in whatever form – has never evolved into a decisive or indispensible factor for the political distribution of resources. This in turn may be traced back both to the rather inclusive political system that was put in place in Tanzania after independence and that inhibited the emergence and articulation of group-grievances, and to the prevalence of a strong resentment among the population against the use of tribalism. Religion and politics in Tanzania is analyzed using the same categorization into its cultural, social and political levels. Religion has assumed a rather more prominent space in the political discourse of Tanzania, involving at times severe tension between Muslims and Christians. It is suggested that the context of economic and social crisis in Tanzania enabled the emergence of religious revivalist groups, which increased the social and cultural saliency of religion. The emergence of political religion in turn was facilitated by the presence of group grievances, in particular on the part of the Muslims. Nonetheless, religious relations in Tanzania remain cordial and the research results from Mwanza suggested that religious politics were confined to accusations among political parties and competition between certain religious groups. It is suggested that similarly to ethnicity, religion has not constituted a decisive factor in resource allocation in Tanzania, and imbalances between faith groups has been addressed at least to some extent. As with ethnicity, this is attributed to Tanzania’s political history and the prevalence of the notion that religious politics should be avoided. However, it is emphasised that these conclusions are valid mainly for the region of Mwanza, and cannot be generalized for the whole country. Finally, concern is expressed regarding the future of religious relations in the country regarding the increasingly inflammatory rhetoric among religious leaders and politicians, and it is argued that these issues should be addressed politically.