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  • Nieminen, Saila (1998)
    Syventävät opintoni koostuvat kirjallisuusosasta ja tutkielmaosasta. Kirjallisuusosassa käydään läpi etukammiokulman anatomia, kammionesteen muodostuminen ja kierto. Lisäksi perehdytään uveiitin, glaukooman ja goniodysgenesian ilmenemiseen, diagnosointiin sekä hoitoon. >Goniodysgenesia tarkoittaa etukammiokulman vajaakehitystä. Pektinaattiligamentti dysplasia on goniodysgenesian muoto, jolloin normaalien pektinaattiligamenttien kehitys on pysähtynyt. Normaalisti pektinaattiligamentit kehittyvät mesodermaalisesta levymäisestä kudoksesta, joka sikiön kehityksen aikana peittää etukammiokulman. Tämä kudoslevy ohentuu ja siinä tapahtuu segmentaalista atrofiaa, jolloin pektinaattiligamentit kehittyvät. Mikäli häiriöitä tapahtuu etukammiokulman kehityksen aikana seurauksena on epätäydellinen atrofia ja epänormaalit pektinaattiligamentit. Gonioskooppisesti tällöin on todettavissa normaalien selkeiden pektinaattiligamenttien sijasta paksumpia ja matalampia pektinaattiligamentteja, levyjä pektinaattiligamenttien välissä tai vakavimmissa tapauksissa kiinteitä kudoslevyjä, jossa on ulosvirtausreikiä. Pektinaattiligamenttidysplasiaa on tavattu 14 rodulla mm. amerikancockerspanielilla, bouvierilla, ja bassetilla. Näillä roduilla on todettu pektinaattiligamentti dysplasian altistavan primaarisen glaukooman synnylle, jolloin kornean endoteelisolujen tuottama basaalimembraanin kaltainen materiaali saattaa tukkia etukammiokulman ja trabekulaariverkoston. Lisäksi uveiitti aiheuttaa sekundaarista glaukoomaa näillä koirilla tulehdussolujen ja fibriinin tukkiessa jo ennestään ahtaan etukammiokulman. Tutkimukseemme osallistui 17 leonberginkoiraa, joista 5 oli narttuja ja 12 urosta. Narttujen ikäjakauma oli tutkimushetkellä 2 vuodesta 8 vuoteen, keski-iän ollessa 4,5 vuotta ja urosten ikäjakauma vaihteli 1 vuodesta 9 vuoteen, keski-iän ollessa 5,3 vuotta. Tutkimuksessamme keskityimme pääasiassa leonberginkoirien etukammiokulman tutkimiseen. Kaikki koirat tutkittiin gonioskooppisesti, 3 koiralla diagnoosiksi ilmoitettiin goniodysgenesia ilman muutosten kuvausta. Tutkimukseen osallistuneet koirat, joilla pektinaattiligamenttien ja etukammion ulkonäkö kuvattiin, jaettiin neljään eri ryhmään muutosten vakavuusasteen mukaan. Kaikilla koirilla oli nähtävissä joko lieviä, kohtalaisia tai vakavia muutoksia pektinaattiligamenttien rakenteessa. Leonbergin koiralla useimmiten on nähtävissä normaalia lyhyempiä ja paksumpia pektinaattiligamentteja ja tämän johdosta nomaalia matalampi etukammiokulma (todettavissa tässä tutkimuksessa kuudella koiralla). Osalla koirista normaalien pektinaattiligamenttien välissä on todettavissa levyjä (todettavissa tässä tutkimuksessa kuudella koiralla). Ryhmiin kolme ja neljä kuuluivat koirat, joilla oli selkeitä levyjä ligamenttien välissä tai etukammiokulma oli kiinni. Tutkimusmateriaalista ryhmään 3 ja 4 kuuluvat koirat sekä koirat, joilla diagnoosina oli dysgenesia ilman muutosten kuvausta, kuuluvat ns. vakavaa pektinaattiligamenttidysplasiaa sairastaviin koiriin, joita oli 11 kpl eli 64,5 % koirista. Kahdeksalla koiralla oli ollut tai oli tutkimushetkellä iriitti. Näistä koirista kaikilla iiris oli tummunut kroonisen iriitin seurauksena. Ainoastaan iriittiä sairastaneista koirista neljälle (50 % iriittiin sairastuneista koirista) kehittyi glaukooma, mikä viittaisi iriitin olevan altistavana tekijänä glaukooman synnyssä. Vaikuttaako etukammiokulman rakenne ja goniodysgenesian vakavuusaste glaukoomansyntyyn, jää tämän tutkimuksen perusteella arvioituna vielä epäselväksi.
  • Ådahl, Susanne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This is an ethnographic study, in the field of medical anthropology, of village life among farmers in southwest Finland. It is based on 12 months of field work conducted 2002-2003 in a coastal village. The study discusses how social and cultural change affects the life of farmers, how they experience it and how they act in order to deal with the it. Using social suffering as a methodological approach the study seeks to investigate how change is related to lived experiences, idioms of distress, and narratives. Its aim has been to draw a locally specific picture of what matters are at stake in the local moral world that these farmers inhabit, and how they emerge as creative actors within it. A central assumption made about change is that it is two-fold; both a constructive force which gives birth to something new, and also a process that brings about uncertainty regarding the future. Uncertainty is understood as an existential condition of human life that demands a response, both causing suffering and transforming it. The possibility for positive outcomes in the future enables one to understand this small suffering of everyday life both as a consequence of social change, which fragments and destroys, and as an answer to it - as something that is positively meaningful. Suffering is seen to engage individuals to ensure continuity, in spite of the odds, and to sustain hope regarding the future. When the fieldwork was initiated Finland had been a member of the European Union for seven years and farmers felt it had substantially impacted on their working conditions. They complained about the restrictions placed on their autonomy and that their knowledge was neither recognised, nor respected by the bureaucrats of the EU system. New regulations require them to work in a manner that is morally unacceptable to them and financial insecurity has become more prominent. All these changes indicate the potential loss of the home and of the ability to ensure continuity of the family farm. Although the study initially focused on getting a general picture of working conditions and the nature of farming life, during the course of the fieldwork there was repeated mention of a perceived high prevalence of cancer in the area. This cancer talk is replete with metaphors that reveal cultural meanings tied to the farming life and the core values of autonomy, endurance and permanence. It also forms the basis of a shared identity and a means of delivering a moral message about the fragmentation of the good life; the loss of control; and the invasion of the foreign. This thesis formed part of the research project Expressions of Suffering. Ethnographies of Illness Experiences in Contemporary Finnish Contexts funded by the Academy of Finland. It opens up a vital perspective on the multiplicity and variety of the experience of suffering and that it is particularly through the use of the ethnographic method that these experiences can be brought to light. Keywords: suffering, uncertainty, phenomenology, habitus, agency, cancer, farming
  • Schoultz, Vera (2007)
    I arbetet presenteras de kommunsammanslagningar som skedde i Ekenäsregionen åren 1977 och 1993. Syftet är att ta reda på om kommuninvånarnas förutsättningar att delta i den politiska processen förändrats i och med sammanslagningarna. I arbetet används 7 demokratiindikatorer för att kartlägga kommunernas demokratiska "klimat" och de eventuella förändringar som skedde i samband med sammanslagningarna. Indikatorerna är bl.a. förändringar i valdeltagande, i antalet förtroendeuppdrag, i social representativitet och i geografiska avstånd. Det empiriska materialet baserar sig på kommunernas val- och mötesprotokoll, verksamhetsberättelser samt annat skriftligt material om de två reformerna och som finns i Ekenäs stads arkiv. Förutom dessa har även använts intervjumaterial från Radio Vega Västnyland i Ekenäs. Baserat på det data som funnits har de två sammanslagningarna haft fler negativa än positiva effekter på invånarnas förutsättningar att vara en del av det representativa systemet i kommunen. Sambandet mellan kommunstorlek och fungerande lokal demokrati beror dock mycket på vilken form av aktivitet som granskas. Till exempel visar det empiriska materialet att ökad kommunstorlek och större invånarantal i allmänhet erbjuder bättre förutsättningar för olika politiska alternativ att uppstå samtidigt som den sociala representativiteten försämras. Genom att sätta fingret på dylika effekter kan man förhoppningsvis ta fram lösningar som motverkar de negativa effekterna.
  • Anttila, Susanna (2015)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kartoittaa maantieteen lukio-opettajien valmiuksia tieto- ja viestintätekniikan sekä erityisesti Google Earthin käyttöön opetuksessa. Tavoitteena on saada ensimmäisiä tutkimustuloksia Google Earthin opetuskäytöstä, käyttökokemuksista sekä käyttöä mahdollisesti lisäävistä tekijöistä. Lisäksi pelikokeilun tarkoituksena on lisätä tietoutta Google Earthin soveltuvuudesta opetukseen sekä oppimispelin mahdollisuuksista maantieteen lukio-opetuksessa. Suomen maantieteen lukio-opettajien (n = 103) valmiuksia ja asenteita kartoitettiin sähköisellä kyselytutkimuksella. Pelikokeilu (n = 31) toteutettiin kenttätutkimuksena GE1-kurssilla helsinkiläisessä lukiossa. Pelikokeilun ohessa haastateltiin kahta kyseisen kurssin opettajaa. Tulokset analysoitiin tilasto-ohjelmalla ja esitettiin tilastokuvioina sekä sitaatteina. Tutkimuksen perusteella opettajien tieto- ja viestintätekniset valmiudet opetuksessa ovat hyvät, mutta heterogeeniset. Opettajankoulutus ei ole antanut opettajille riittäviä valmiuksia, vaan käyttötaidot on saatu itseopiskelun, täydennyskoulutusten sekä vertaistuen kautta. Suurin osa opettajista käyttää Google Earthia opetuksessaan. Google Earthin käyttö sopii hyvin lukio-opetukseen helppokäyttöisyyden, maksuttomuuden ja monipuolisuuden johdosta, erityisesti maantieteellisen ajattelun sekä paikkatiedon opettamiseen. Sitä käytetään kuitenkin melko satunnaisesti ja lähinnä opettajajohtoisesti. Oppilaslähtöisesti sovellusta käytetään eniten GE4 eli aluetutkimuskurssilla. Google Earthiin luotu oppimispeli kasvillisuusalueista lisäsi oppilaiden motivaatiota sekä vaikutti positiivisesti oppimisprosessiin. Sekä opettajat että oppilaat olivat jatkossa kiinnostuneita käyttämään Google Earthia maantieteen lukio-opinnoissa yhtenä oppimisympäristönä. Maantieteen opettajat kaipaavat käytännönläheistä täydennyskoulutusta sekä valmiita opetusideoita tehtävineen sovelluksen käytön lisäämiseksi. Tämän mahdollistamiseksi tulee täydennyskoulutusta kehittää tasa-arvoisesti koko Suomessa sekä arvioida nykyisen opettajankoulutuksen sisältöä suhteessa opetustyön vaatimuksiin. Uusi lukion opetussuunnitelma, sähköistyvät ylioppilaskirjoitukset sekä uusi tuntijako mahdollistavat keskustelun maantieteen opetuksen keskeisistä sisällöistä ja tavoitteista, erityisesti paikkatiedon ja tieto-ja viestintätekniikan osuudesta.
  • Lahtinen, Anja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This study is about governance in contemporary China. The focus is on Qinghai Province, one of the twelve provincial-level units included in the western region development strategy launched in 2000 by the government of China. Qinghai, the subject of the case study, is not a very well-known province. Hence, this study is significant, because it provides new knowledge about the province of Qinghai, its governance and diverse challenges, and deepens one s overall knowledge regarding China. Qinghai province is one of the slowest developing regions of China. My research problem is to analyze to what extent provincial development correlates with the quality of governance. The central concept of this research is good governance. This dissertation employs a grounded theory approach while the theoretical framework of this study is built on the Three World s approach of analyzing the three main themes, namely, the environment, economic development, and cultural diversity, and to support the empirical work. Philosophical issues in the humanities and contemporary theories of governance are brought in to provide deeper understanding of governance, and to understand to what extent and how characteristics of good governance (derived from the Western canon) are combined with Chinese tradition. A qualitative research method is chosen to provide a deeper understanding of the contemporary challenges of Qinghai (and China) and to provide some insight into the role and impact of governance on provincial development. It also focuses on the Tibetan ethnic group in order to develop as full an understanding as possible about the province. The challenges faced by Qinghai concern in particular its environment, economic development, and cultural diversity, all of which are closely interrelated. The findings demonstrate that Qinghai Province is not a powerful actor, because it has weak communications with the central government and weak collaboration with its stakeholders and civil society. How Qinghai s provincial government conducts provincial development remains a key question in terms of shaping the province s future. The question is how is Qinghai s government best able to govern in a way that is beneficial for the people. This study demonstrates that this is a significant question that challenges governance everywhere, and particularly in China given the absence of democracy. This study provides the ingredients for reflection as to how provincial government can be motivated to choose to govern in a sustainable way, instead of leaning on growth factors with too little consideration about the impact on the environment and the people.
  • Toikka, Arho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Governance has been one of the most popular buzzwords in recent political science. As with any term shared by numerous fields of research, as well as everyday language, governance is encumbered by a jungle of definitions and applications. This work elaborates on the concept of network governance. Network governance refers to complex policy-making situations, where a variety of public and private actors collaborate in order to produce and define policy. Governance is processes of autonomous, self-organizing networks of organizations exchanging information and deliberating. Network governance is a theoretical concept that corresponds to an empirical phenomenon. Often, this phenomenon is used to descirbe a historical development: governance is often used to describe changes in political processes of Western societies since the 1980s. In this work, empirical governance networks are used as an organizing framework, and the concepts of autonomy, self-organization and network structure are developed as tools for empirical analysis of any complex decision-making process. This work develops this framework and explores the governance networks in the case of environmental policy-making in the City of Helsinki, Finland. The crafting of a local ecological sustainability programme required support and knowledge from all sectors of administration, a number of entrepreneurs and companies and the inhabitants of Helsinki. The policy process relied explicitly on networking, with public and private actors collaborating to design policy instruments. Communication between individual organizations led to the development of network structures and patterns. This research analyses these patterns and their effects on policy choice, by applying the methods of social network analysis. A variety of social network analysis methods are used to uncover different features of the networked process. Links between individual network positions, network subgroup structures and macro-level network patterns are compared to the types of organizations involved and final policy instruments chosen. By using governance concepts to depict a policy process, the work aims to assess whether they contribute to models of policy-making. The conclusion is that the governance literature sheds light on events that would otherwise go unnoticed, or whose conceptualization would remain atheoretical. The framework of network governance should be in the toolkit of the policy analyst.
  • Mäkeläinen, Aleksi (2013)
    This paper aims to find out how should a Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system development process be organized in a functional organization in order to make it as efficient as possible. A real global organization and their ERP development process currently in use at their site in Helsinki Finland is being used as an example of the structure and functionality of these systems as well as the challenges which organizations usually face in the post-implementation phase of ERP systems. The name of the company has been classified since the research contains some classified information. The target Company is currently in the post-implementation phase of their new ERP system which went live a few years ago. I will describe the tools currently in use as well as their functionality as accurately as possible. The main objective of this thesis is to find out new ways to organize a development process in a functionally organized organization such as the target Company. One of the biggest challenges for the target Company (considering IT) is change management – how to control all the changes taking place in a constantly evolving business environment where changes in the ERP-system are not limited to one system or one location? The governance model in use at the target Company is being used as an example of the functionality of the development tools which can be used in order to ensure the integration of global and local solutions. Their system is compared to other models found from literature and other real-life organizations. Main references in the theoretical part are theories from the field of sociology as well as especially chosen theories from the field of organizational studies with a sociological twist. The most important referred academics are: Wanda J. Orlikowski, Hyötyläinen & Kalliokoski, Harold J. Leavitt, Shayne C. Kavanagh, Nurminen, Reijonen & Vuorenheimo and McLaughlin & Skinner. In the empirical part ERP implementations are not being studied just as technological changes, they are observed as larger multidimensional social processes involving individual agents, technologies and job requirements as well as other key elements of change. Since answers are sought for questions such as why some people feel the way they do towards the current process, a qualitative method has been chosen as the scientific method of this research. The target Company employee’s general feeling towards the current change process has been concretized by interviewing 18 participants from different organizational functions and several levels of organizational hierarchy. Five general themes typical to each organizational function are lined up. The idea of the qualitative analysis is to find out key discourses and themes of all of the functions, and underline themes and discourses that seem to be universal to the organization in question. After analyzing the discourses and themes on an organizational level, five universal problematic discourses remain. Eventually five “development ideas” aimed to solve them are presented as the final analytical implications. The development ideas presented in this thesis help the target Company to streamline their current development process, future implementation projects as well as their current management processes related to the ERP development process.
  • Wahlen, Stefan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Current societies face several challenges and it has been indicated that sustainability is a major problem. It appears vital to possess knowledge on how to govern problems associated with sustainable development in order to mitigate the challenges they bring about. In this frame of reference, sustainable consumption appears imperative for reaching sustainability. In accord, this dissertation elaborates on how consumption is governed by a variety of instances and hence contributes to consumer studies by progressing consumer policy as well as the everyday life of consumers in offering distinctive perspectives on governing consumption. Consumer policy attempts to govern consumption, however, predominantly focuses on market activities instead of everyday consumption. Respectively, consumption is here understood as everyday conduct in social practices so as to shed light on its routine and mundane character. The idea of government deployed in this dissertation is that of executing power over oneself or others in conduct of conduct. Hence it is possible to speak of the government of states, households, consumers, or the self. Regimes of prac tices governing consumption can then be found beyond and along the political and market spheres in the everyday. The idea of sustainable development pertains to political practices as well as to everyday routines governing consumption. In order to govern consumption towards a more sustainable form of conduct, practitioners in political, market and everyday spheres can be considered by an analytics of government. Thereby a nexus concatenating distinct features can be distinguished including modes of thought, technologies of government, visual representations and identities involved in government. These four features are considered in the analysis of the individual articles providing perspectives on how consumption is governed. On the one hand consumer policy is comparatively analysed considering first the historic development of consumer empowerment and second on the discursive construction of the consumer in policy documents. The other perspectives on governing consumption convey examples drawing on food consumption. First, a practice approach highlights routines governing consumption, and second, a policy intervention related to public catering is analysed. The results highlight the importance of a possible politico-theoretical alignment of the four features of an analytics of government by the respective practitioners in political, market and everyday spheres. The interplay between modes of thought, technologies of government, visual representations and identities plays a vital role in governing consumption. In order to achieve sustainability and especially sustainable consumption it has to be acknowledged that these four features mutually interact and influence each another.
  • Kilpi, Lyydia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The study explores how mineral resources are rendered governable through the EITI, a global multi-stakeholder governance mechanism focusing on transparency. The study focuses on Mozambique, a country with growing mining and petroleum sectors and low rankings on governance indices. Stakeholders views on extractive sector governance in Mozambique are analysed through the theoretical framework of governmentality. A governmentality approach focuses on how we govern and are governed, and the nexus between thought and governing. The data for this study consists of 20 interviews conducted in Maputo, Mozambique with government officials, civil society actors, representatives of extractive companies and development partners. The interview data was analysed by conducting a qualitative content analysis. The EITI is a governance mechanism within which governments, civil society actors and companies collaborate to publish and communicate information about the oil, gas and mining sectors. The role the EITI assigns to non-state and private actors and the value it places on liberal ideals show that the EITI reflects a neoliberal understanding of governance. Mozambique has implemented the EITI since 2009. This study demonstrates that in Mozambique, despite EITI implementation, the adoption of neoliberal governance is not complete. Actors deploy neoliberal and other techniques of governance selectively to further their agendas. The state remains a central hub for mineral resource governance, and different actors attempt to influence governance through the state apparatus. Transnational influences, such as development aid, steer the state towards adopting neoliberal governance. Civil society continues to have limited influence over mineral resource governance despite participation in the EITI. However, the adoption of neoliberal forms of governance may open up opportunities for civil society to influence governance.
  • Kilpi, Lyydia (2015)
    The study explores how mineral resources are rendered governable through the EITI, a global multi-stakeholder governance mechanism focusing on transparency. The study focuses on Mozambique, a country with growing mining and petroleum sectors and low rankings on governance indices. Stakeholders’ views on extractive sector governance in Mozambique are analysed through the theoretical framework of governmentality. A governmentality approach focuses on how we govern and are governed, and the nexus between thought and governing. The data for this study consists of 20 interviews conducted in Maputo, Mozambique with government officials, civil society actors, representatives of extractive companies and development partners. The interview data was analysed by conducting a qualitative content analysis. The EITI is a governance mechanism within which governments, civil society actors and companies collaborate to publish and communicate information about the oil, gas and mining sectors. The role the EITI assigns to non-state and private actors and the value it places on liberal ideals show that the EITI reflects a neoliberal understanding of governance. Mozambique has implemented the EITI since 2009. This study demonstrates that in Mozambique, despite EITI implementation, the adoption of neoliberal governance is not complete. Actors deploy neoliberal and other techniques of governance selectively to further their agendas. The state remains a central hub for mineral resource governance, and different actors attempt to influence governance through the state apparatus. Transnational influences, such as development aid, steer the state towards adopting neoliberal governance. Civil society continues to have limited influence over mineral resource governance despite participation in the EITI. However, the adoption of neoliberal forms of governance may open up opportunities for civil society to influence governance.
  • Pojoga, Marina Anca (2014)
    This Master’s thesis examines the way neoliberalism is being performed at a microscopic level by examining a project on immigrant women’s integration in Finland. The research is contextualized within the administrative changes brought by the New Public Management and the increase of immigrant integration-related projects with European funding. By using grounded theory method the research heavily relied on the empirical data as source of finding a suitable theoretical frame. The analysis was based on Michel Foucault’s work on governmentality and Michel Callon’s concept of agencements, which helped to better understand participants’ subjectivity in the project, while Erving Goffman’s work shed light on the dynamics of power in interaction between the project participants. This thesis focuses on analyzing the first year of the Integra project, organised as four cooperation forums where various stakeholders were invited to discuss openly about immigrant integration issues in Finland. The primary data for the thesis consists of eight focus group discussions collected from all the forums, which was later on supplemented by semi-structured interviews with the project organizers and key participants from the group discussions. The empirical data revealed that the stakeholders present in the forum actively used their agency while the group discussions followed an informal pattern as encouraged by the organizers’ methods. Despite the informal, grassroots characteristic of the project, power relations were configured in a complex manner combing techniques of self and techniques of domination. The neoliberal elements of the Integra project can be tracked in the way the project was organised; the availability of resources and criteria for such projects; the way participants display themselves in the forums; and the diffuse aspects of power and the neoliberal principles that guide the discussions in the forum. In the discussion subchapter several concerns are raised on how the neoliberalism is being performed at a grassroots level in our ‘project society’ and the effects it has on shaping the immigrants’ integration politics.
  • Sagne, Silvain (1999)
    The general aim of this study is to analyse some of the most important facets of governmentality, its technologies and methods on the one hand, and on the other hand the ethic of conviction, the ethic of responsibility and finally the ethic of politics. The analysis proposes some new ways of anatomising political reason, ways that may operate upon and through history, but which do so in order to gain a purchase upon our present and its politics. Contemporary political reason seems troubled and uncertain. The death of state socialism as a viable political doctrine has been, one can say, accompanied, not by an uncontested triumph of liberal democracy and free market individualism, but by a proliferation of political doctrines and programmes that are unstable and difficult to classify in conventional terms. In and for the favouring of empowering both individual and community, parties of both right and left advocate the removal of aspects of welfare and security from state control and supply. Ecological politics seems to be so attractive to many because of the simultaneous demands for action by public authorities and changes in the conduct of private companies and individuals. Feminist arguments have gone beyond the twin options of total destruction of patriarchy or simple campaigns for equality to take on issues raised by the new reproductive technology, the right to life, sexual abuse and sexual harassment to engage with a range of other issues such as the organization of work and child care that both call for actions by political authorities and ethical transformation across a population. It is then a political life, of ethics, which emphasizes the crucial political value for the mobilization and shaping of individual capacities and conduct. But the political reason itself is mutating analysis of political lags some way behind. As Weber sees it the antagonism between the ethics of conviction and the ethic of responsibility is fundamentally insoluble by scientific means; only an act of personal choice leads to the acceptance of one rather than of the other as a standard of concrete behaviour. On the other hand, there are strong indications that Weber, in discussing the alternative between the two ethical orientations in the field of politics, accords a special prominence to the extent, in what sense, and with what justification the ethic of responsibility is claimed by Weber to the specific standard of political behaviour, the ethic of politics. When one begins to examine Machiavelli's remedies for modem weakness, he or she will come upon an obvious difficulty that has been much discussed. Machiavelli is most famous today as the author of the Prince, an attractive work, original, short and dangerous, that advices princes on how to seize absolute power and authority, how to be good and alternatively criminal and wicked but also a specially republican. As both have pointed out (Foucault - Machiavelli) the Prince has to get out of all kinds of principalities, but soon the Prince faces "new Princes", private individual who becomes princes of new state that they found. At the same time they are live the present of what they are, they will conduct but also will learn how to conduct oneselves. Here the most important aspect remains the transparent pride of the author, he proclaims the work's radical originality as he promises to go to the effectual truth and ignore imagined states.
  • Gratt, Benno (2011)
    The thesis aims at investigating the local dimension of the EU cohesion policy through the utilization of an alternative approach, which aims at the analysis of discourse and structures of power. The concrete case under analysis is the Interreg IV programme “Alpenrhein-Bodensee-Hochrhein”, which is conducted in the border region between Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the principality of Liechtenstein. The main research question is stated as such: What governmental rationalities can be found at work in the field of EU cross-border cooperation programmes? How is directive action and cooperation envisioned? How coherent are the different rationalities, which are found at work? The theoretical framework is based on a Foucaultian understanding of power and discourse and utilizes the notion of governmentalities as a way to de-stabilize the understanding of directive action and in order to highlight the dispersed and heterogeneous nature of governmental activity. The approach is situated within the general field of research on the European Union connected to basic conceptualisations such as the nature of power, the role of discourse and modes of subjectification. An approach termed “analytics of government”, based on the work of researchers like Mitchell Dean is introduced as the basic framework for the analysis. Four dimensions (visiblities, subjectivities, techniques/practices, problematisations) are presented as a set of tools with which governmental regimes of practices can be analysed. The empirical part of the thesis starts out with a discussion of the general framework of the European Union's cohesion policy and places the Interreg IV Alpenrhein-Bodensee-Hochrhein programme in this general context. The main analysis is based on eleven interviews which were conducted with different individuals, participating in the programme on different levels. The selection of interview partners aimed at maximising heterogeneity through including individuals from all parts of the programme region, obtaining different functions within the programme. The analysis reveals interesting aspects pertaining to the implementation and routine aspects of work within initiatives conducted under the heading of the EU cohesion policy. The central aspects of an Interreg IV Alpenrhein-Bodensee-Hochrhein – governmentality are sketched out. This includes a positive perception of the work atmosphere, administrative/professional characterisation of the selves and a de-politicization of the programme. Characteristic is the experience of tensions by interview partners and the use of discoursive strategies to resolve them. Negative perceptions play an important role for the specific governmental rationality. The thesis contributes to a better understanding of the local dimension of the European Union cohesion policy and questions established ways of thinking about governmental activity. It provides an insight into the working of power mechanisms in the constitution of fields of discourse and points out matters of practical importance as well as subsequent research questions.
  • Åkermarck, Mikael (2002)
    This paper sets out to examine the forming of coalition governments in Finland between 1948 and 1999. The reason for the theoretical examination of this study is to prove that the mathematical diagrams of the developed games theories are too mathematical to fulfil the function which was given them. Although the coalition theories have been revised since they were created in the 1960s and 1970s a lot of research has shown that these theories can not be applied to the forming of coalition governments in Finland. Historical considerations have always played a greater role in deciding the different combinations of political parties found in a Finnish coalition governments than the political considerations advocated by the theories. Based on the factors that apply to the Finnish situation this paper sets out to put forward a new theory called the Coalition Competency Theory. In Finland there have been a lot of coalition competency factors which have imposed conditions on which political parties can be accepted as a coalition partner. But by far the most dominant role in the government formation process has been held by the head of state. The naming of the government is one of the most important tasks for a president. An attempt made to show this was made in Markku Laakso's research in the early 1973. Here the author shows the fact that a coalition formed on a theoretical bases is not practically possible. In the middle of 1990`s an other main reserach was published where was presented a theory that there are a number of constraints that can reduce the range of coalition options. The formation of the coalitions from 1948 to 1999 can be divided into two main time periods. The first covers the forming of the governments between 1948 and 1983. This period is referred to as the Season of the No-Alternatives because of the similar coalition governments that were formed in spite of the varied results of the general elections. Whereas the period since 1987 to 1999 is referred to as the Season of Alternatives because a distinct difference can be notice between the government coalitions formed.
  • Puustinen, Kai (2000)
    Work concentrates on the reasons and demands behind a successful internationalization of a sport and government's role behind the success. Two cases in this study are Judo and Taekwondo. They both are oriental martial arts which have become to a sport. Governments have been supporting both of the studied cases. How that support has been done and how it has been helping the sports to become international sports are the main issues of this research. The method used in the research is called understanding explaining. It is qualitative, explaining and partly empirical. The main part of the knowledge comes from the interviews made during March 27th, 1997 and March 24th, 1998. Nationalism is one main issue in the framework of the study. Nationalism and it's connections to the sports have also been taken under closer surveillance in this work. Nationalism in sports is a very important issue to understand before the actions of the governments within the sports studied are presented. After the framework both of the studied sports histories are introduced and then the comparison of the cases is made. Last part of the work concentrates to the benefits for the government from supporting the sports and after this few conclusions are made. As a result of the study, a new model to picture the development of the internationalization process - Seven Step -model - is introduced. The role of the government in both cases is clearly seen. The connection to the daily international politics of the countries studied is also pointed out.
  • Pulkkinen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The basis of this work was the identification of a genomic region on chromosome 7p14-p15 that strongly associated with asthma and high serum total immunoglobulin E in a Finnish founder population from Kainuu. Using a hierarchical genotyping approach the linkage region was narrowed down until an evolutionary collectively inherited 133-kb haplotype block was discovered. The results were confirmed in two independent data sets: Asthma families from Quebec and allergy families from North-Karelia. In all the three cohorts studied, single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging seven common gene variants (haplotypes) were identified. Over half of the asthma patients carried three evolutionary closely related susceptibility haplotypes as opposed to approximately one third of the healthy controls. The risk effects of the gene variants varied from 1.4 to 2.5. In the disease-associated region, there was one protein-coding gene named GPRA (G Protein-coupled Receptor for Asthma susceptibility also known as NPSR1) which displayed extensive alternative splicing. Only the two isoforms with distinct intracellular tail sequences, GPRA-A and -B, encoded a full-length G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane regions. Using various techniques, we showed that GPRA is expressed in multiple mucosal surfaces including epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract. GPRA-A has additional expression in respiratory smooth muscle cells. However, in bronchial biopsies with unknown haplotypes, GPRA-B was upregulated in airways of all patient samples in contrast to the lack of expression in controls. Further support for GPRA as a common mediator of inflammation was obtained from a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced inflammation, where metacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness correlated with elevated GPRA mRNA levels in the lung and increased GPRA immunostaining in pulmonary macrophages. A novel GPRA agonist, Neuropeptide S (NPS), stimulated phagocytosis of Esterichia coli bacteria in a mouse macrophage cell line indicating a role for GPRA in the removal of inhaled allergens. The suggested GPRA functions prompted us to study, whether GPRA haplotypes associate with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants sharing clinical symptoms with asthma. According to the results, near-term RDS and asthma may also share the same susceptibility and protective GPRA haplotypes. As in asthma, GPRA-B isoform expression was induced in bronchial smooth muscle cells in RDS and BPD suggesting a role for GPRA in bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the dysregulation of the GPRA/NPS pathway may not only be limited to the individuals carrying the risk variants of the gene but is also involved in the regulation of immune functions of asthma.
  • Fransberg, Malin (2013)
    Avhandlingens bakgrund ligger i ett intresse för graffitisubkulturens genusperspektiv och hur den med olika kriminal politiska åtgärder legat i en konflikt i samhället. Dessutom är det en subkultur främst för män. Forskningsfrågan för studien är hur graffiti konstruerar identiteter bland unga män i en nolltoleransmiljö. En begreppsutredning görs mellan graffitikultur och graffitisubkultur, där den senare termen är den som används för studien. Avhandlings metodologi är etnografisk, där man samlat in observationsanteckningar genom att observera tågmålare i huvudstadsregionen under ett års tid mellan året 2011 och året 2012. Underobservationstiden samtalades med cirka 20 olika graffitimålare, var av en var en kvinna. Under fältarbetets gång kom fem olika graffitimålare att ha en betydande roll i undersökningen. Ett sekundärt material i studien är bilderna av tåggraffitin som kom att spela en viktig roll i integreringen till graffitisubkulturen. Genom materialet kom graffitisubkulturens kunskapsproduktion att ha en betydande roll i analysen. Den kunskap som hjälpte graffitimålarna att förstå det komplexa tågsystemet med dens möjligheter att måla den värdesattes allt mera inom subkulturen. Undersökningens resultat visar att nolltoleransen har haft en effekt på statussystem i graffitisubkulturen, där speciellt den synliga statusen, som består av famet, har påverkats. Eftersom graffiti tvättas snabbt bort har subkulturen börjat forma alternativa sätt att skapa fame genom graffitimedier. Samtidigt har graffitisubkulturen motsatt sig kommersialiseringen av graffitin, vilket speciellt kan uttryckas genom graffitimedier. Slutligen, har kontrollen av subkulturellt kunskap blivit betydande för graffitimålarens identitet och status, där man kan genom vetskapen om hur man kan måla tåg minimera riskerna för själva graffitimålandet.
  • Komonen, Pauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Graffiti on viime vuosikymmenten kiistanalaisimpia nuorisoilmiöitä. Suomessa toiminta alkoi 1980-luvun puolivälissä ja vakiintui nopeasti. Varhaisista vuosistaan alkaen graffiti on ollut kiivaan kaupunki- ja kontrollipoliittisen väittelyn aihe, joka herättää moraalipaniikinomaisia reaktioita. Vähän on ollut puhetta siitä, miten maalarit itse kokevat toimintansa. Tämä tutkimus paikkaa kyseistä tietovajetta. Käsiteltävinä ovat toiminnan ajallinen kehityskulku alakulttuurin sisällä, toiminnan motiivit ja graffitin suhde nykyalakulttuureista käytyyn sosiologiseen keskusteluun. Miksi maalaaminen aloitetaan? Millaista toiminta on intensiivisimmillään? Miksi kulttuurista siirrytään sivuun? Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu 15 maalaria. Aineiston perusteella graffitikulttuuri luo vahvan elämäntavallisen kokemuksen, jossa on niin esteettisiä, vastakulttuurisia, yhteisöllisiä, yksilöllisiä kuin destruktiivisiakin piirteitä. Osallisten suhtautuminen sanktioihin on pragmaattista, eikä idealistisia käsityksiä täysin vapaasta kaupunkitilasta esiinny. Laittomuus koetaan toiminnan olennaisena osana, vaikka se herättääkin ambivalentteja tuntemuksia. Sosiologisessa alakulttuurikeskustelussa niin sanottu jälkialakulttuurinen paradigma - post-subkulturalismi - on problematisoinut alakulttuurin käsitteen. On ehdotettu, että alakulttuurien sijaan pitäisi puhua esimerkiksi elämäntyyleistä . Aikalaisdiagnostisen keskustelun tapaan paradigma korostaa identiteettien sirpaleisuutta ja alati kiihtyvää kommunikaatiota eri medioiden välityksellä, mikä johtaa myös alakulttuurien hajaannukseen. Tutkimuksen perusteella graffiti sijoittuu kahden paradigman välimaastoon. Graffitissa on piirteitä kiinteistä, resistanteista ja homogeenisistä vanhemmista alakulttuureista, mutta samalla se sijoittuu globaaliin mediaympäristöön, jossa alakulttuurien rajat hämärtyvät. Graffititoiminta on yleensä laitonta ja ajallisesti sekä paikallisesti marginaalista. Maalarit eivät korosta alakulttuurisidonnaisuutta esimerkiksi vaatetuksella, vaan jäävät alakulttuurin ulkopuolisille tuntemattomiksi. Samalla graffitin kulttuuriset sisällöt leviävät medioiden ja maalareiden matkustelun välityksellä. Graffiti koetaan itsenäisenä alakulttuurina, vaikka sillä onkin pitkäaikainen sidos hiphop-kulttuuriin. Osa haastatelluista sukkuloi myös muissa alakulttuureissa. Toiminnan keskeisiä motivoijia on eritelty neljä: kaveriporukka, henkilökohtainen näkyvyys, esteettinen tarve luoda jotain omaa ja tuhovimma. Oma maalariporukka on tärkeä yhteisö, mutta samalla yksilöllistä mainetta tavoitellaan levittämällä omaa nimimerkkiä mahdollisimman laajalti. Adrenaliinista päihtynyt tuhovimma usein laimenee ajan myötä, kun esteettis-taiteelliset pyrkimykset korostuvat.
  • Komonen, Pauli (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Graffiti on viime vuosikymmenten kiistanalaisimpia nuorisoilmiöitä. Suomessa toiminta alkoi 1980-luvun puolivälissä ja vakiintui nopeasti. Varhaisista vuosistaan alkaen graffiti on ollut kiivaan kaupunki- ja kontrollipoliittisen väittelyn aihe, joka herättää moraalipaniikinomaisia reaktioita. Vähän on ollut puhetta siitä, miten maalarit itse kokevat toimintansa. Tämä tutkimus paikkaa kyseistä tietovajetta. Käsiteltävinä ovat toiminnan ajallinen kehityskulku alakulttuurin sisällä, toiminnan motiivit ja graffitin suhde nykyalakulttuureista käytyyn sosiologiseen keskusteluun. Miksi maalaaminen aloitetaan? Millaista toiminta on intensiivisimmillään? Miksi kulttuurista siirrytään sivuun? Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu 15 maalaria. Aineiston perusteella graffitikulttuuri luo vahvan elämäntavallisen kokemuksen, jossa on niin esteettisiä, vastakulttuurisia, yhteisöllisiä, yksilöllisiä kuin destruktiivisiakin piirteitä. Osallisten suhtautuminen sanktioihin on pragmaattista, eikä idealistisia käsityksiä täysin vapaasta kaupunkitilasta esiinny. Laittomuus koetaan toiminnan olennaisena osana, vaikka se herättääkin ambivalentteja tuntemuksia. Sosiologisessa alakulttuurikeskustelussa niin sanottu jälkialakulttuurinen paradigma - “post-subkulturalismi” - on problematisoinut alakulttuurin käsitteen. On ehdotettu, että alakulttuurien sijaan pitäisi puhua esimerkiksi ”elämäntyyleistä”. Aikalaisdiagnostisen keskustelun tapaan paradigma korostaa identiteettien sirpaleisuutta ja alati kiihtyvää kommunikaatiota eri medioiden välityksellä, mikä johtaa myös alakulttuurien hajaannukseen. Tutkimuksen perusteella graffiti sijoittuu kahden paradigman välimaastoon. Graffitissa on piirteitä kiinteistä, resistanteista ja homogeenisistä vanhemmista alakulttuureista, mutta samalla se sijoittuu globaaliin mediaympäristöön, jossa alakulttuurien rajat hämärtyvät. Graffititoiminta on yleensä laitonta ja ajallisesti sekä paikallisesti marginaalista. Maalarit eivät korosta alakulttuurisidonnaisuutta esimerkiksi vaatetuksella, vaan jäävät alakulttuurin ulkopuolisille tuntemattomiksi. Samalla graffitin kulttuuriset sisällöt leviävät medioiden ja maalareiden matkustelun välityksellä. Graffiti koetaan itsenäisenä alakulttuurina, vaikka sillä onkin pitkäaikainen sidos hiphop-kulttuuriin. Osa haastatelluista sukkuloi myös muissa alakulttuureissa. Toiminnan keskeisiä motivoijia on eritelty neljä: kaveriporukka, henkilökohtainen näkyvyys, esteettinen tarve luoda jotain omaa ja tuhovimma. Oma maalariporukka on tärkeä yhteisö, mutta samalla yksilöllistä mainetta tavoitellaan levittämällä omaa nimimerkkiä mahdollisimman laajalti. Adrenaliinista päihtynyt tuhovimma usein laimenee ajan myötä, kun esteettis-taiteelliset pyrkimykset korostuvat.