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  • Holm, Carl-Christian (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Målsättningen med denna studie var att karaktärisera familjära fall av förmaksflimmer (FA) och bestämma förekomsten av fokalt fött FA i detta material. Undersökningsmaterialet bestod av FA patienter på Mejlans rytmkardiologiska klinik, samt familjemedlemmar till dessa. För detta arbete analyserades 24 eller 48 timmars ambulatoriskt EKG på 42 personer. Bland dessa fanns 17 familjer av flera generationer vilka studerades närmare, främst med avseende på förekomsten av fokala triggrar. 40% av FA fallen uppfyllde de uppställda kriterierna för fokalt FA. Denna siffra är signifikant lägre än de ca 80% som tidigare rapporterats vid non-familjärt enskilt FA. Detta kunde tyda på en vid familjärt FA ökad känslighet i förmaken för ändå förekommande men lågfrekventa fokala triggrar. Undersökningen visade att en detaljanalys av 24 timmars Holter registrering är ett användbart sätt att kartlägga förmaksflimrets bakgrund.
  • Castrén Anna-Maija (2001)
    The social networks of teachers in Helsinki and St. Petersburg are compared in order to describe the ways in which people relate to each other in Finnish and Russian societies. The main theme concerns the mechanisms of social inequality on the level of everyday interaction. The analysis is focused on the formation of social networks in life history and especially on the role of conjugal relationship and occupation in this process. The data were collected in 1993 and 1994 and are composed of the networks of 38 teachers in Helsinki and 40 in St. Petersburg. The information on the networks was gathered with diary questionnaires and interviews. In the analysis a so-called configurational perspective was used. This perspective differs from the mainstream of social network analysis, which is characterized by focusing on network structures and large survey analyses. The teachers' networks are understood to be meaningful resources through which individuals can obtain important immaterial as well as material goods. Network ties are part of the individual's social capital. The role of the spouse in the formation of networks can be characterized in three ways: the spouse mediates in the process of social mobility, introduces a new cultural milieu and assists in settling into a new place of residence. In Helsinki, the first two roles mentioned were important, while in St. Petersburg only the third role had any significance. More generally, the role of the spouse in network formation is much less significant in St. Petersburg. While the conjugal relationship is the most central tie in Finnish families, it is the social dyad composed of parent and child that is important in Russian families. Work contexts mediate a large number of network members. However, there are differences concerning the meaning of work-related ties in everyday life. In Helsinki, the significance of work seems to crystallize into membership in an influential academic professional group, while in St. Petersburg the particular workplace, i.e. the school, as a community of active social ties is important. The observed peculiarities imply significant differences in the characteristics of meaningful resources in the everyday lives of Finnish and Russian teachers. What is especially important for the Russians is the feasibility of obtaining valuable information, goods and services through network contacts. Network ties are also important in building trust between people and social institutions. The importance of network relations in Helsinki is based more on the symbolic significance of contacts with people in prestigious social positions than on the practical and concrete feasibility of obtaining goods or services through them. These differences indicate that social capital is also defined differently in the two societies. Factors that make one powerful and that can be understood as capital, differ. The most important forms of capital in Helsinki are economic and cultural capital. In St. Petersburg, however, social capital plays a more central role in defining social positions. While economic and cultural capitals are not insignificant either, social capital is a useful form of capital in a society undergoing severe changes and is easily converted into economic and cultural capital.
  • Römer-Paakkanen, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Louko, Eeva Elina (2007)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää vastaanotto- ja fanitutkimuksen avulla, miksi nuoret 18-30 -vuotiaat aikuiset lukevat J. K. Rowlingin kirjoittamaa Harry Potter -kirjasarjaa ja mitä se heille merkitsee. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään myös nuorten aikuisten mahdollista Harry Potter -faniutta, ja sitä, miten he sitä kuvailisivat. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on väljä laadullinnen sisällönanalyysi ja teemoittelu. Aineisto koostuu kymmenen nuoren aikuisen teemahaastatteluista. Analyysi on aineistolähtöinen. Tutkielma rakentuu vastaanotto- ja fanitutkimuksen ympärille. Työssä vastaanotosta puhuttaessa painotetaan elämystä ja tunnepohjaista sitoutumista. Työssä painotetaan vastaanottajien aktiivista ja tulkitsevaa otetta tekstiin. Fanius käsitetään työssä puolestaan positiiviseksi voimavaraksi, ei patologiseksi tai hallitsemattomaksi tilaksi. Kumpikin tutkimusala korostaa aktiivista, itsenäiseen tulkintaan kykenevää tekstin tulkitsijaa. Tutkimuksen tärkeimmät tulokset liittyvät elämyksen käsitteeseen. Nuoret aikuiset lukevat Harry Pottereita kokonaisvaltaisen elämyksen saavuttamiseksi, joka koostuu monesta eri osatekijästä. Toinen tärkeä tulos oli hillityn faniuden kokemus. Fanius koetaan positiiviseksi voimavaraksi, jos se ei riistäydy käsistä. Faniuden arvottamiseen kietoutui niin yhteiskunnan mielipiteet kuin myös henkilökohtaisemmatkin suhteet. Tärkeimpiä lähteitä tutkielmassa ovat Maaria Lingon väitöskirja Aitojen elämysten kaipuu (1998), Kaarina Nikusen väitöskirja Faniuden aika. Kolme tapausta televisio-ohjelmien faniudesta vuosituhannen taitteen Suomessa (2005), Giselle Anatolin kokoama Reading Harry Potter. Critical Essays (2003) ja Lana Whitedin toimittama The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter. Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon (2004).
  • Perttilä, Taina (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, miten musiikista puhutaan ja miten sen ilmiöitä kielennetään. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat klassisen musiikin orkesterikonserttien arvioinneissa käytettävät metaforat: miten ne kuvailevat ja arvottavat eli evaluoivat kohdettaan. Tutkimuksen taustaoletuksena on, että se miten konsertteja kielennetään, kertoo jotain musiikin hahmotuksesta, klassiseen musiikkiin liittyvistä arvoista ja konserttikulttuurista. Metaforia tarkastellaan Lakoffin ja Johnsonin (1980) kognitiivisen metaforateorian valossa. Ne nähdään siis laajoina ajattelua ja hahmotusta ohjaavina rakenteina, ei vain kielellisen ilmaisun keinoina. Metaforien ilmaisemia arvoja analysoidaan venäläisen tutkijan Arutjunovan (1984) laatiman aksiologisen (eli arvoteoreettisen) luokituksen avulla. Sen mukaan arvot ovat jaettavissa kolmeen pääryhmään: sensorisiin, sublimoituihin ja rationaalisiin. Tarkastelun kohteena on 18 Helsingin Sanomissa vuosien 2010 2011 aikana julkaistua klassisen musiikin orkesterikonsertin arvostelutekstiä, ja niissä esiintyvät metaforat. Aineisto on rajattu siten, että joukossa on sekä kiittäviä että kriittisiä tekstejä monelta eri kirjoittajalta. Tutkielman kahdessa analyysiluvussa tarkastellaan kritiikkiteksteissä käytettäviä metaforia. Ensin tarkastelun kohteena ovat metaforien lähdealueet, ja se millaisia merkityksiä niiden kautta siirretään metaforien kohteille. Metaforat on luokiteltu kolmeen pääryhmään: ensin tarkastellaan strukturaalisia rakennemetaforia, seuraavaksi ontologisia metaforia ja lopuksi orientoivia metaforia. Tämän jälkeen tarkastellaan metaforien kohteita ja sitä, mistä näkökulmasta ja millä keinoilla ne kuvailevat ja arvottavat kohdettaan. Huomiota kiinnitetään konsertin toimijoihin (kapellimestari, solistit ja orkesteri), konsertin ohjelmistoon (säveltäjä, teokset ja konserttikokonaisuus) ja lopuksi vielä konserttitilan akustiikkaan liitettäviin metaforiin. Tutkielma osoittaa, että metaforat ovat keskeinen väline musiikin kuvailuun ja arvottamiseen.
  • Kauppinen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The quality of stockmanship has a major influence on farm animal welfare and productivity. Farmers attitudes are reflected in their management decisions and behaviour towards animals, which, in turn, affects animal behaviour, welfare and productivity. Attitudes can affect the way farmers treat their animals, the environment they provide the animals, and even their own job satisfaction through feedback received from the animals. Farmers perceptions of what animal welfare is and how to improve it may differ from the perceptions of consumers and other stakeholders, and therefore it is crucial to understand what farmers mean when they talk about improving animal welfare. In this study I wanted to establish how farmers perceive improving animal welfare , what the phrase means to farmers, and how is it constructed in their speech. I also wanted to study how farmers perceive relationships among their personal attitudes, animal welfare and production, and if the attitudes are related to animal welfare and/or production. To chart farmers perceptions, we conducted two sets of qualitative interviews and a questionnaire survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework. The theory states that personal attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control, together shape an individual's behavioural intentions and behaviours. We found that the farmers perceived the improvement of animal welfare as four specific, practical attitude objects (providing animals with a favourable environment; taking care of animal health; treating animals humanely; and taking care of the farmer s own well-being) and two different, but often overlapping, general attitudinal dimensions (the instrumental and intrinsic evaluations of animal welfare). The farmers intentions to improve animal welfare were best explained by their attitudes towards the specific welfare-improving actions. To ensure the validity of the findings of the questionnaire survey we interviewed farmers on 30 Finnish commercial pig farms. At the same time, we also assessed sow welfare (A-index) on-farm. The majority of the farmers considered that animal welfare does affect productivity and that there are linkages between farmer attitudes, animal welfare and productivity. Good stockmanship and healthier animals resulted in more piglets born and a shorter reproduction cycle. To study the relationships between farmer attitudes and animal welfare, we conducted correlation analyses for psycho-social data (gathered via questionnaire survey) and welfare indicator data, including also demographic parameters, from 117 dairy farmers. The environment-based animal welfare indicator data consisted of categorized housing and management parameters for cows. Analyses showed that some of the psycho-social factors were correlated with animal welfare indicators: perceiving the measures to improve animal welfare to be important and easy were positively related to higher animal welfare indicators, and sources of subjective norms, such as an agricultural adviser, were mostly negatively linked with animal welfare indicators. When studying the relationships between farmer attitudes and animal productivity, we used the same partial correlation procedure for psycho-social, production and demographic data from 124 piglet farmers. Among these farmers, treating animals humanely, perceiving it easy to provide the animals with a favourable environment, and having a positive attitude towards new information and scientific research were associated with above average piglet productivity. Through larger litters, decreased piglet mortality and higher numbers of weaned piglets, especially in first parity litters, these factors proved to be the most effective elements of the TPB in improving piglet production. The statistical linkages, even the weak ones, are noteworthy because also in the light of the farmers own views, such correlations were expected. The concept of improvement of animal welfare examined in this study outlines measures to improve animal welfare from the farmers point of view. Actions to improve animal welfare also have an economic impact as they enhance animal production. In order to identify attitudes of greatest relevance to both welfare and productivity, we still need a deeper understanding of the effects of attitudes on animal welfare.
  • Kukkola, Elias (2014)
    Lääkekehityksen alkuvaiheessa kapseli on tavallisesti suositeltavampi annosmuoto verrattuna muihin kiinteisiin annosmuotoihin, kuten tablettiin, koska se on koostumukseltaan yksinkertainen ja helppo sokkouttaa lumelääkkeen kanssa. Yksinkertainen kapseliformulaatio ei kuitenkaan ole tuotannollisessa mittakaavassa mahdollinen ja tavallisesti se vaihdetaan taloudellisempaan tablettiformulaatioon tai nopeatoimisessa kapselointiprosessissa toimivaan kapseliformulaatioon. Lähes aina kaupalliseksi annosmuodoksi valitaan tabletti, mikäli se ei ole teknisesti mahdoton valmistaa esimerkiksi lääkeaineen huonon puristuvuuden tai liukoisuuden takia. Tabletointiprosessi asettaa hyvin erilaiset farmaseuttistekniset vaatimukset jauheelle kuin kapselointi, koska siinä käytetään suurempaa puristusvoimaa ja jauheen annostelu tapahtuu eri tavalla. Tyypillisimpinä ongelmina siirryttäessä tabletointiprosessiin ovat riittämätön jauheen valuvuus ja heikko tablettien mekaaninen lujuus sekä tablettien kansimuodostus ja laminoituminen. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää kapseliformulaation kehityksen aikana huomioitavia asioita, jotta siirtyminen kapseliannosmuodosta tablettiannosmuotoon ja tabletointiprosessiin onnistuisi. Työn lähtökohtana käytettiin yksinkertaista kapseliformulaatiota, joka sisälsi tyyppiainetta karbidopaa, suorapuristettavaa mannitolia ja esigelatinoitua maissitärkkelystä. Kapseliformulaation pohjalta kehitettiin kaksi erillistä seoskaaviota, joiden avulla tutkittiin siirron kannalta kriittisiä jauheen ominaisuuksia ja prosessien toimivuutta ominaisuuksiltaan hyvin erilaisilla jauheilla. Kapselit valmistettiin automaattisella kapselointilaitteella putkiannostelumenetelmää käyttäen ja tabletit pneumohydraulisella tablettikoneella. Annosmuotojen vasteina käytettiin niiden painonvaihtelua, hajoamisaikaa, kapseloitavuutta ja tabletoitavuutta. Työn tuloksena havaittiin automaattisen kapselointikoneen tuottavan kapseleita hyvällä täyttöpainonvaihtelulla useilla eri jauhekoostumuksilla. Merkittävimpinä jauheen kapseloitavuuteen vaikuttavina ominaisuuksina olivat sen hiukkaskoko, kaato- ja tärytiheys sekä kohesiivisuus. Jauheilla saavutettiin hyvä tabletoitavuus ja valuvuus lisäämällä koostumukseen Avicel PH200:aa, mutta kapselien täyttöpainonvaihtelu lisääntyi. Yksittäiset valumisominaisuudet, kuten valumiskeon kulma ja Carrin indeksi, kuvasivat pääasiassa vain jauheen valumista, mutta eivät sen prosessoitavuutta. Jauheen kapseloitavuutta tutkittaessa on syytä käyttää useita toisiaan täydentäviä valumismenetelmiä, jotta ne antavat kokonaisvaltaisemman kuvan jauheen prosessoitavuudesta. Avicel PH102 toimi tutkimuksessa hyvänä referenssimateriaalina arvioitaessa jauheen valumisominaisuuksien riittävyyttä nopeatoimisessa tabletointiprosessissa.
  • test, test (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Farmasiatesti
  • Birge, Traci (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    ABSTRACT Traditional rural biotopes are high nature value (HNV) farmlands that include grazed forests, woodlands, and semi-natural meadows formed through traditional agricultural practices. Agricultural intensification and associated changes in demographics and land use have resulted in a decline in traditional rural biotopes throughout Europe. Despite the downward trend, some farmers still do manage traditional rural biotopes. Literature in farmer behavior variously suggests that agency and structural factors determine farmer decision-making and conservation behavior, and that farmers engage in farming styles according to their own values. The objectives of this research are to 1) understand what motivates farmers and landowners to manage traditional rural biotopes, 2) test whether managers differ in motivation, knowledge or structural factors according to whether the traditional rural biotopes are used in the farming system or managed separately from it as conservation sites or landscape elements, and 3) explore conservation tools and frameworks that might be used to improve policy and agri-extension services for conservation and management of traditional rural biotopes. The purpose of this thesis is to provide support to traditional rural biotope conservation in agriculture by furthering knowledge about manager behavior and motivations and to add to the literature on farmer conservation behavior more broadly with management of traditional rural biotopes as a focus for understanding farmer conservation related decision-making. The thesis is based on a two-part study in which research was carried out via postal questionnaires and interviews with farmers in Raasepori Municipality, on the southern coast of Finland. In the first part of the study, I sent postal questionnaires to all farms in Raasepori to identify farms with managed traditional rural biotopes. I asked farmers about activities on their farms to determine whether farmers managing traditional rural biotopes differed from other farmers according to nature-based activities or entrepreneurship and to determine whether non-agricultural activities take place on traditional rural biotopes. I considered the results in the context of existing extension services and agri-environmental schemes and explored how holistic conservation tools and approaches, including adaptive management, and social-ecological systems could be used to improve services for farmers engaged in TRB management. In the second part of the study, I conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with TRB managers to determine whether sites were managed as part of the farming system or apart from it, motivations for managing traditional rural biotopes, interest and knowledge of conservation of traditional rural biotopes and experiences with extension and inspection services. I tested whether managers who used traditional rural biotopes in their farming system differed from those who did not and examined farmer engagement in traditional rural biotope management according to two sociological theories used in studying farmer behavior: theory of planned behavior and farming styles. I also compare summary findings of management activities to an inventory carried out by Pykälä and Bonn (2000) and present evidence of non-agricultural direct-use benefits (direct use ecosystem services) provided by traditional rural biotopes. Results indicate that farmers mainly manage traditional rural biotopes for intrinsic values, especially of open landscape, and are less motivated by extrinsic values such as fodder production or collecting special agri-environmental subsidies. Farmers with managed traditional rural biotopes are more likely to engage in entrepreneurship activities that bring the public to their farms or result in branding of their products. Findings support the theory of planned behavior insofar as agency and personal values are important to decision-making. Managers of traditional rural biotopes do not form a distinct farming style, but a group of farmers was identified whose farming system is based on managing traditional rural biotopes and direct sale of the traditional rural biotope products, was identified as a distinct farming style. We called it TRB entrepreneurship . Implications of the findings for extension services and policy development are that farmers and landowners engaged in management should be viewed as partners in conservation and that adaptive management and understanding of manager heterogeneity should be used to develop and target extension services and conservation strategies.
  • Sonkkila, Sauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Ojanen, Meri (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    This thesis is a Rapid Rural Analysis (RRA) of the farmers’ perceptions of potato production in Nicaragua. The thesis data was collected during the summer of 2011 in the main potato production areas of Nicaragua (Matagalpa, Jinotega and Estelí) through structured interviews. The structured interviews gave consideration to the five different capitals of the Sustainable Rural Livelihood- approach (SRL). These five capitals (social capital, natural capital, human capital, financial capital and physical capital) were incorporated in the study in order to achieve the multidisciplinarity of the RRA- methodology. The thesis data, consisting of 63 individual interviews, was compacted and analysed utilizing cross tabulation. A further statistical analysis was then conducted with Cramer’s V allowing a more detailed view of the dependencies between variables (detected in the cross tabulation). The main finding of this study is that the situation of the potato producers cannot be determined by the size of the production, as has been previously suggested. The size of the farm does not determine yield levels nor perceived financial incentive for production. This study gives a more complex view of potato producers and production in Nicaragua. This study suggests an alternative approach to developmental program planning for the potato production sector in Nicaragua; the production environmental zones. Utilizing the production environmental zones as a basis for planning takes the project to a more practically suitable level that considers the existing variance in yields and access to extension. The main conclusion of this study is that sector development of potato production in Nicaragua is complex. Inclusion of the project beneficiaries in the planning processes may significantly improve development programme planning, outcomes and resilience in time. A development programme, like the one implemented by FAO (United Nations Food- and Agriculture Organization) in Nicaragua, with an overly simplified view of the sector, may lead to severe misjudgements and potentially even cause harm.
  • Vepsäläinen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The biodiversity of farmland ecosystems has decreased remarkably during the latter half of the 20th century, and this development is due to intensive farming with its various environmental effects. In the countries of the EU the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the main determinant affecting farmland biodiversity, since the agricultural policy defines guidelines of agricultural practices. In addition to policies promoting intensive farming, CAP also includes national agri-environment schemes (AES), in which a part of subsidies paid to farmers is directed to acts that are presumed to promote environmental protection and biodiversity. In order to shape AES into relevant and powerful tools for biodiversity protection, detailed studies on the effects of agriculture on species and species assemblages are needed. In my thesis I investigated the importance of habitat heterogeneity and effects of different habitat and landscape characteristics on farmland bird abundance and diversity in typical cereal cultivation-dominated southern Finnish agricultural environments. The extensive data used were collected by territory mapping. My two main study species were the drastically declined ortolan bunting (Emberiza hortulana) and the phenomenally increased tree sparrow (Passer montanus); in addition I studied assemblages of 20 species breeding in open arable and edge/bush habitats. In light of my results I discuss whether the Finnish AES take into account the habitat needs of farmland birds, and I provide suggestions for improvement of the future AES. My results show that heterogeneity of both uncultivated and cultivated habitats increases abundance and species richness among farmland birds, but in this respect the amount and diversity of uncultivated habitats are essential. Ditches in particular are a keystone structure for farmland birds in boreal landscapes. Ditches lined by trees or bushes increased ortolan bunting abundance. Loss of that kind of ditches (and clearance of forest and bush patches), reduced breeding ortolan buntings, mainly by decreasing availability of song-posts that are important for the breeding groups of the species. Heterogeneity of uncultivated habitats, most importantly open ditches and the habitat patch richness, increased densities and species richnesses of species assemblages of open arable and edge/bush habitats. Human impact (winter-feeding, nest-boxes) affected favourably the tree sparrow s rapid range expansion in southern Finland, but any habitat types had no significant effects. At the moment the Finnish agri-environmental policy does not conserve farmland ditches as a habitat type. Instead, sub-surface drainage is financially promoted. This is a fatal mistake as far as farmland biodiversity is concerned. In addition to the maintenance of ditches, at least the following aspects should be included more than is done previously in the measures of the future AES: 1) promotion of diverse crop rotation (especially by promoting animal husbandry), 2) maintenance of tree and bush vegetation in islets and along ditches, 3) promotion of organic farming.
  • Piiparinen, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of this thesis was to study ecology of Baltic Sea ice from two perspectives. In the first two studies, sea-ice ecology from riverine-influenced fast ice to drift ice in the Bothnian Bay was investigated, whereas the last two studies focus on the sensitivity of sea-ice bacteria and algae to UVA examined in situ. The seasonal sea ice cover is one of the main characteristics of the Baltic Sea, and despite the brackish parental water, the ice structure is similar to polar ice with saline brine inclusions, the sea ice habitat. The decreasing seawater salinity from the northern Baltic Sea to the Bothnian Bay translates to decreasing brine volumes along the gradient, governing the size and community structure of the food webs in ice. However, the drift and fast ice in the Bothnian Bay may differ greatly in this sense, as drift ice may have been formed at more southern locations. Rafting and the formation of snow ice are common processes in the ice field of the Bothnian Bay. As evidenced in this thesis, rafting altered the vertical distribution of organisms and snow-ice formation provided habitable space in the better-illuminated, nitrogen-rich surface layer. The divergence between fast and drift ice became apparent at the more advanced stages, and chlorophyte biomass decreased from fast to drift ice, while the opposite held true for protozoan and metazoan biomass. The brine volumes affected the communities somewhat, and a higher percentage of flagellate species was generally linked to lower brine volumes, whereas chain-forming diatoms were mostly concentrated in layers with larger brine volumes. These results add to knowledge of the ecological significance of the ice cover lasting up to 7 months per year in this area. Sea-ice food webs are generally light-limited, but while increasing light irradiances typically enhance the primary production and further, the secondary production in sea ice, any increase in solar radiation also includes an increase in harmful UVA radiation. The Baltic Sea ice microbial communities were clearly sensitive to UVA and the responses were strongly linked to the earlier light history, as well as to the solar irradiances they were exposed to. The increased biomass of chlorophytes and pennate diatoms, when UVA was excluded, indicates that their normally minor contribution to the biomass in the upper layers of sea ice might be partly dictated by UVA. The effects of UVA on bacterial production in Baltic Sea ice mostly followed the responses in algal growth, but occasionally the exposure to UVA even enhanced the bacterial production. The dominant bacterial class, Flavobacteria, seemed to be UVA-tolerant, whereas all the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria present in the surface layer showed UVA sensitivity. These results indicate that changes in the light field of ice may alter the community structure and affect the functioning of ice food webs, and are of importance when the effects of thinning of the ice cover are assessed.
  • Kallinen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    To study fatal burns in the Helsinki Burn Center, sixteen years of data on burn deaths were collected and analyzed. These data included information obtained during pre-hospital care, clinical notes and autopsy reports. The study classified clinically missed diagnosis revealed in autopsy and paid special interest in the prevalence of adrenal hemorrhage (AH). The study was carried out in two phases. First phase included all deceased burn victims of Helsinki Burn Center from 1995 to 2005. The clinical charts and medicolegal autopsy reports with organ specific changes were retrieved and compared. The data were evaluated by a team of two plastic surgeons specialized in burn care, an intensivist, and a pathologist. Causes of death, incidence of multiple organ failure (MOF) and AH and occurrence of diagnostic discrepancies were documented and analyzed. The second phase includedburn patients with life-threatening burns in Helsinki Burn Center during 2006-2010.Pre-hospital patient records and clinical data collected during treatment were analyzed with reference to survival. The data were analyzed in groups based on the presence or absence of a physician in the pre-hospital phase. The majority of the burn victims die of untreatable burn injury (40%) or MOF (40%). Kidneys (100%) and liver (82%) were the organs most commonly affected in MOF. Lethal sepsis was never a sole cause of death, but always associated with MOF. Three MOF patients had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. Medicolegal autopsies revealed major diagnostic discrepancies in less than 6% of patients. These diagnostic discrepancies would have altered the clinical outcome or therapy had they been known in time. The most commonly missed diagnosis was pneumonia. Patients treated by paramedics compared with patients treated by pre-hospital physicians were comparable with regard to age, gender and etiology of the injury. However, patients treated by pre-hospital physicians were more severely injured than patients treated by paramedics in terms of percentage of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned, injury severity score (ISS) and inhalation injuries. Patient s age, %TBSA and ISS are significantly associated with short- and long-term survival in burn patients. The study reveals all the causes of death of the burn patients in the study period in the Helsinki Burn Center.The usefulness of autopsies in providing valuable clinical data for the treatment of burn patients is emphasized. The study also highlights a few missed diagnoses that may occur in burn patients. The prevalence of AH was shown to be higher than previously estimated in non-surviving patients with burns. This study also reveals that the emergency medical system is able to recognize the situations and patients more likely to benefit from physician attendance.
  • Äijö, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Automaattinen tietojenvaihto on yksi tehokkaimmista keinoista veronkierron torjuntaan. Termillä tarkoitetaan tiettyjen, esimerkiksi sopimuksessa tai direktiivissä yksilöityjen tietojen vuosittaista, massaluonteista ja ilman erillistä pyyntöä tai ilmoitusta tapahtuvaa vaihtamista valtioiden toimivaltaisten viranomaisten välillä. Ensimmäinen maailmanlaajuinen askel kohti yksityisten toimijoiden entistä suurempaa osallistamista veronkierron torjunnassa nähtiin vuonna 2010, kun Yhdysvallat sääti Foreign Account Tax Compliance Actin (FATCA). Kyseiset normit velvoittavat ulkomaisia finanssilaitoksia sillä uhalla, että velvoitteiden laiminlyönnistä seuraa 30 %:n ennakonpidätys kaikista yhdysvaltalaislähtöisistä, finanssilaitokselle kohdistuvista maksuista. Useiden valtioiden tietosuojalainsäädännöstä johtuvien ongelmien vuoksi FATCA:sta kehitettiin sittemmin kaksi erillistä valtiosopimusmallia. Suomi allekirjoitti tällaisen FATCA-sopimuksen yhdessä Yhdysvaltojen kanssa 5.3.2014. Sopimus astui Suomessa lakina voimaan 2.3.2015. FATCA-sopimus velvoittaa Suomea muuttamaan kansallista lainsäädäntöään niin, että se mahdollistaa FATCA-velvoitteiden noudattamisen suomalaisten finanssilaitosten osalta. Tällaisten ns. raportoivien finanssilaitosten tulee tutkia ja tunnistaa asiakaskunnastaan ne tilinhaltijat, jotka ovat Yhdysvaltojen kansalaisia, maahan rekisteröityjä yhtiöitä tai yhdysvaltalaisomisteisia ulkomaisia yrityksiä. Finanssilaitosten tulee raportoida tietyn kynnysarvon ylittävät yhdysvaltalaisomisteiset tilit Verohallinnolle, joka lähettää tiedot edelleen Yhdysvaltoihin. Lisäksi raportoivien finanssilaitosten tulee rekisteröityä Internal Revenue Servicen (IRS) ylläpitämälle verkkosivulle erityisen GIIN-tunnuksen (Global Intermediary Identification Number) saamiseksi. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että käytännössä velvoitteista yksikään ei ole finanssilaitoksille täysin uusi GIIN-rekisteröitymistä lukuun ottamatta. Laki rahanpesun ja terrorismin rahoittamisen estämisestä ja selvittämisestä sekä lukuisat finanssisektorin erityislait velvoittavat finanssilaitoksia jo nyt tunnistamaan ja tuntemaan asiakkaansa sekä näiden tosiasialliset edunsaajat. Tuntemisvelvoite on niin vahva, että pankeilla ja muilla finanssialan toimijoilla on oikeus kieltäytyä asiakassuhteen perustamisesta tai liiketoimen suorittamisesta, ellei se saa pyytämiään tietoja asiakkaalta. Finanssilaitokset ovat myös jo aiemmin joutuneet raportoimaan Verohallinnolle tietoja asiakkaidensa sijoituksista ja näille maksetuista tietyn tulolajin suorituksista verotusmenettelylain nojalla. Tutkimuksessa kävi ilmi, että sopimuksen implementointiin Suomessa liittyy useita ongelmakohtia. Ensinnäkin Yhdysvaltojen ekspansiivinen ote kansalaistensa veronkierron torjuntaan aiheuttaa ongelmia Suomen kansallisen suvereniteetin kannalta. Valtiosopimuksen teksti perustuu yhdysvaltalaiseen oikeusperinteeseen ja sisältää viittauksia Yhdysvaltojen lainsäädäntöön, ja se voi olla tämän vuoksi vaikeaselkoinen suomalaiseen oikeuskieleen tottuneille toimijoille. Sopimus on myös Suomen näkökulmasta paikoitellen ristiriidassa Suomen ja Yhdysvaltojen verosopimuksen kanssa. Lisäksi etenkin verovelvollisten, mutta myös finanssilaitosten on mahdollista kiertää FATCA-raportointia esimerkiksi sijoituksia hajauttamalla. Tutkimuksessa esiteltiin lyhyesti myös muut automaattisen tietojenvaihdon mallit (OECD:n Common Reporting Standard, Rubik-sopimukset ja EU:n uudistettu virka-apudirektiivi) ja verrattiin näiden kattavuutta ja muita ominaisuuksia FATCA:n vastaaviin. Erilaiset päällekkäiset tietojenvaihtomallit ovat kuitenkin omiaan aiheuttamaan epävarmuutta ja ylimääräistä työtä alan toimijoille, joten yhden globaalin tietojenvaihtomallin koostaminen eri vaihtoehdoista voisi olla suositeltavaa. De lege frernda olisi myös syytä pohtia, onko pelotevaikutus oikea kannustin, jotta yksityiset tahot saadaan mukaan tukemaan valtioiden tämän suuntaisia pyrkimyksiä.
  • Perkola, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The newly detected chemicals, the environmental distribution, fate, and effects in the environment of which are not well known, are called emerging compounds. Artificial sweeteners are one group of emerging compounds. The consumption of artificial sweeteners is high, and because they do not significantly metabolise, all that is consumed finds its way to wastewater treatment plants. Two artificial sweeteners, acesulfame and sucralose, do not degrade in wastewater treatment either, leading to elevated concentrations in the receiving water bodies. Another group of emerging compounds is perfluoroalkyl acids. They have been used both in industry and consumer products since the 1950s. The fluorine-carbon chain of perfluoroalkyl acids makes them extremely resistant to biological, chemical and physical degradation. They are ubiquitous in the environment and are suspected to be carsinogenic, immunotoxic and to interfere with reproduction. The aim of this study was to add to knowledge about the environmental distribution, fate and effects of artificial sweeteners and perfluoroalkyl acids. The occurrence of artificial sweeteners and perfluoroalkyl compounds was surveyed in surface waters. Wastewater effluents and sludge, storm water, and landfill leachate were analysed to evaluate the fluxes of perfluoroalkyl acids into the aquatic environment. Artificial sweeteners and perfluorooctanoic acid were irradiated under artificial sun to investigate their potential to transform via direct and indirect photochemical reactions in surface waters and ultraviolet radiation and during germicidal ultraviolet water treatment. Furthermore, Daphnia magna were exposed to artificial sweeteners to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects. It was discovered that artificial sweeteners and perfluoroalkyl acids are ubiquitous in the Finnish aquatic environment. Of the studied emission sources, wastewater effluents were the most important source of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters. Based on the irradiation of perfluorooctanoic acid with a solar simulator, perfluorocarboxylic acids do not transform via direct or indirect photochemical reactions in the environment. Although a decrease in acesulfame was observed under irradiation with artificial sun, the photolytic half-life in surface water is at least one year. The photolytic half-lives of the other sweeteners were estimated to be 3 to 6 years. The ecotoxicological tests suggest that cyclamic acid might hinder the reproduction of Daphnia magna. Perfluorocarboxylic acids, sucralose and acesulfame are persistent and ubiquitous in surface waters.