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  • Nuutinen, Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The point of departure in this dissertation was the practical safety problem of unanticipated, unfamiliar events and unexpected changes in the environment, the demanding situations which the operators should take care of in the complex socio-technical systems. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of demanding situations and of the resources for coping with these situations by presenting a new construct, a conceptual model called Expert Identity (ExId) as a way to open up new solutions to the problem of demanding situations and by testing the model in empirical studies on operator work. The premises of the Core-Task Analysis (CTA) framework were adopted as a starting point: core-task oriented working practices promote the system efficiency (incl. safety, productivity and well-being targets) and that should be supported. The negative effects of stress were summarised and the possible countermeasures related to the operators' personal resources such as experience, expertise, sense of control, conceptions of work and self etc. were considered. ExId was proposed as a way to bring emotional-energetic depth into the work analysis and to supplement CTA-based practical methods to discover development challenges and to contribute to the development of complex socio-technical systems. The potential of ExId to promote understanding of operator work was demonstrated in the context of the six empirical studies on operator work. Each of these studies had its own practical objectives within the corresponding quite broad focuses of the studies. The concluding research questions were: 1) Are the assumptions made in ExId on the basis of the different theories and previous studies supported by the empirical findings? 2) Does the ExId construct promote understanding of the operator work in empirical studies? 3) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ExId construct? The layers and the assumptions of the development of expert identity appeared to gain evidence. The new conceptual model worked as a part of an analysis of different kinds of data, as a part of different methods used for different purposes, in different work contexts. The results showed that the operators had problems in taking care of the core task resulting from the discrepancy between the demands and resources (either personal or external). The changes of work, the difficulties in reaching the real content of work in the organisation and the limits of the practical means of support had complicated the problem and limited the possibilities of the development actions within the case organisations. Personal resources seemed to be sensitive to the changes, adaptation is taking place, but not deeply or quickly enough. Furthermore, the results showed several characteristics of the studied contexts that complicated the operators' possibilities to grow into or with the demands and to develop practices, expertise and expert identity matching the core task. They were: discontinuation of the work demands, discrepancy between conceptions of work held in the other parts of organisation, visions and the reality faced by the operators, emphasis on the individual efforts and situational solutions. The potential of ExId to open up new paths to solving the problem of the demanding situations and its ability to enable studies on practices in the field was considered in the discussion. The results were interpreted as promising enough to encourage the conduction of further studies on ExId. This dissertation proposes especially contribution to supporting the workers in recognising the changing demands and their possibilities for growing with them when aiming to support human performance in complex socio-technical systems, both in designing the systems and solving the existing problems.
  • Björklund, Michaela Ann-Charlotte (2008)
    Föreliggande undersökning kan inrymmas i den forskningstradition, vars syften i forskningshänseende fokuseras till konkretisering och synliggörande av det sociala arbetet. Syftet med min pro gradu-avhandling har varit att lyfta fram det specifika kunnande och den expertis som socialarbetarna inom psykiatriska specialsjukvården innehar och hur denna expertis utkristalliseras sig i ett mångprofessionellt team. Frågeställningen granskas utgående från teman som kunskapskärna och mångprofessionellt samarbete Undersökningen genomfördes som kvalitativa temaintervjuer av fem (5) socialarbetare vid ett (1) sjukhus. Den teoretiska referensramen för avhandlingen har utgjorts av teorier om sakkunskap, profession, multiprofessionellt samarbete samt en kontextuell del, som beskriver den samhälleliga kontexten för socialt arbete. I analysen användes kvalitativ innehållsanalys, där intervjuguidens teman delvis strukturerade analysen. Förutom tematisering kodades materialet utgående från informanternas tal i tre olika huvudkategorier: samhällskontext, kunskapskärna och mångprofessionellt samarbete. Två av dessa huvudkategorier fick tillhörande underkategorier. Huvudkategorin kunskapskärnan fick underkategorin kunskapsutveckling medan mångprofessionellt samarbete fick underkategorierna: gränsdragningar mellan socialarbetarens och de övriga professionernas expertis, spänningar mellan den medicinska och sociala expertisen samt spänningar mellan anstalts och öppen vården. Denna indelning av materialet utgjorde stommen för den empiriska delen av avhandlingen. På basen av undersökningens resultat ser det ut som om förhållanden i samhället påverkar det sociala arbetet som sker inom hälsovården. Förändringar, som t.ex. kraven på ökad effektivitet, har gjort att socialarbetare som arbetar inom psykiatriska specialsjukvården allt mer diskuterar sitt eget arbete, dess innehåll, ställning och betydelse. Det har blivit allt viktigare att också för utomstående och den egna ledningen visa vad detta sociala arbete består av. Synliggörandet av socialarbetet är knutet till stärkandet av socialarbetets position som profession För detta behövs det ett nära förbund mellan systematisk utvärdering, kritisk reflektion, praktiskt arbete och forskning. Det är också viktigt att uppmuntra socialarbetarna till ett undersökande och utvecklande grepp om arbetet samt till kompetenshöjande utbildning och påbyggnadsstudier. På det praktiska socialarbetet ställs allt större krav på en omfattande allmänsakkunskap och å andra sidan på kärn- och specialsakkunskap. Av socialarbetaren krävs mångsidig sakkunskap och behärskande av helheter och sociala kontexter. Arbetet med psykiatrisk specialsjukvård som miljö och medlemskap i ett mångprofessionellt team förutsätter att kärn- och specialsakkunskapen i socialarbete förenar till psykiatriska sjukdomars sociala karaktär ur ett samhälls- och patientperspektivet. Realiserandet av samarbetet i de mångprofessionella teamena varierar beroende på ett flertal olika faktorer, samarbete och gränsöverskridande främjas av ett samarbete med samma aktörer över en längre tidsperiod så samarbetsformerna blir stabil. Det är också i det mångprofessionella samarbetet som socialarbetarens expertis framträder klarast. Socialarbetaren är den enda representanten på avdelningen för sin sektor bland tiotals vårdare och läkare. Upprätthållandet av en stark yrkesidentitet vid sidan av andra starka yrken förutsätter kontinuerligt fortbildning och handledning. Även ömsesidigt stöd av socialarbetar kolleger och yrkesmässig diskussion är synnerligen viktig. De centrala utmaningarna finns i samarbetet med öppen vården, närsektorerna och de anhöriga, framförallt genom att vårdtiderna förkortas, servicestrukturen förändras och patienternas många problem ställer krav på ett fungerande nätverkssamarbete.
  • Södergran, Fanny (2015)
    Avhandlingen bygger på att undersöka coaching som en för Finland relativt ny typ av privat serviceform som antar sig området arbetslöshet, vilket traditionellt betraktas som en social och välfärdspolitisk fråga.
  • Niitamo, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. This qualitative study explored a phenomenon of epistemic communality around a Twitter hashtag. The primary aim of the study was to explore communal epistemic production on the Twitter platform, especially in the context of a mutually shared hashtag. The study explored the peer- production of knowledge and epistemic structures in the context of a specialist domain collaborating in the open Web. The secondary aim was to explore how Twitter functions as a platform for networked expertise and as a public agora for practitioners’ expert discourse. This nascent mode of cultural production leads to the development of expert cultures on Twitter and in the open Web. This creates new contexts for informal collaborative learning and cultral production potentially answering some of the competence challenges presented by the 21st century. Methods. The hashtag #okfest was launched for the ’Open Knowledge Festival’ conference held in Helsinki, Finland (17–22.9.2012). The participants of the study were open knowledge practitioners who participated in the hashtag discourse of #okfest on Twitter. All public tweets containing the string ’#okfest’ were collected as data. Tweets were analyzed with qualitative thematic analysis exploring the epistemic contributions either included in the tweets or as hyperlinked attachments. Results and conclusions. The analysis indicated how the hashtag was appropriated to serve as a node of communal knowledge sharing beyond mere reporting from the conference. The analysis observed six themes of communal knowledge building in the hashtag space. The communal epistemic activities in #okfest were likened to the properties of a community of practice (Wenger, 1998). A network of practitioners engaging in a mutual domain creates a dynamic ’social learning system’ combining social interaction with the production and dissemination of knowledge. The study yielded a novel theoretical concept of ’expert microblogging’, recognized as a significant genre of cultural production in a specialist domain on Twitter and in the open Web. Finally the Twitter platform was ascertained as a site for the manifestation of cultures of networked expertise.
  • Heinonen, Terhi (2003)
    Regionalismi (alueellinen kaupan vapauttaminen) on levinnyt laajalti maailmassa, tosin erityisesti uroopassa. Tutkielma tarkastelee Euroopan unionin (EU) itälaajentumista esittämällä kaksiteoreettista mallia, empiirisia tuloksia ulkomaankaupan vapauttamisen vaikutuksista ja tapaustutkimuksen Tshekin tasavallasta. Tutkielman lähtökohtana on regionalismia tarkastelukahdella tasolla: Kuinka regionalismia voidaan yleisesti selittää? Selittävätkö ulkomaankaupan jahyvinvoinnin parannukset EU:n itälaajentumista? Richard Baldwinin (1993) dominoteorian mukaan regionalismia voidaan kuvata selittämättömien vaikutusten ketjuna, jossa vientisektorin lobbaajilla on tärkeä rooli. Ketjusta johtuen useammatmaat haluavat liittyä EU:hun. Sen sijaan Bond, Syropoulos ja Winters (2001) selittävätregionalismia tullien sopeutumismallin avulla, joka tarkastelee syvemmän integraation tuomia hyvinvointivaikutuksia. Mallin mukaan tulliliitto ja ulkopuoliset maat voivat valita tullinsa niin, ettei hyvinvointi laske EUssa eikä EU:n ulkopuolella. Tutkielma arvioi mallien soveltuvuutta nimenomaan itälaajentumiselle ja väittää, että mallit sopivat jossakin määrin selittämään itälaajentumista, mutta epäonnistuvat kiteyttämään itälaajentumiselle tyypilliset tekijät. Näin ollen mallit eivät sellaisenaan selitä, miksi Keski- ja Itä-Euroopan maat (KIE-maat) liittyvät EU:hun. Tutkielma referoi myös itälaajentumiseen liittyviä empiirisia tutkimuksia ja esittelee KIE-maidenlisäksi EU:n ja KIE-maiden välistä ulkomaankauppaa. Empiirinen referointi perustuu muun muassa Alhon (2003), Baldwinin et al. (1997) ja Lejourin et al. (2001) artikkeleihin. Näiden perusteella todetaan, että taloudellisesti KIE-maat hyötyvät merkittävästi ja nykyiset EU-maat hieman itälaajentumisesta. Tutkielma käsittelee myös lyhyesti laajentumiseen liittyviä ongelmia esimerkiksi sisämarkkinoihin liittyen. Lopuksi tutkielma tarkastelee EU:n jäsenyyden, erityisesti ulkomaankauppaan liittyviä, vaikutuksia Tshekin tasavallalle. Koska Tshekin ulkomaankauppa onjo hyvin integroitunut EU:n markkinoihin, kaupankäynti ei tule muuttumaan merkittävästi EU:njäsenyyden yhteydessä vuonna 2004.
  • Heinonen, Terhi (2003)
    Regionalism (preferential trade liberalisation) has been spreading rapidly world wide, albeit predominantly in Europe. The paper considers the case of European Union (EU) eastern enlargement by presenting two theoretical models, empirical assessment on trade effects and a case study of the Czech Republic. The paper aims at handling regionalism in two layers: How regionalism in general can be explained? Do trade and welfare improvements explain EU eastern enlargement? The domino theory by Richard Baldwin (1993) explains regionalism as a chain of unexplained effects causing more and more countries to join the EU. The driving force in the model is export sector lobbying. The tariff adjustment model by Bond-Syropoulos-Winters (2001) considers welfare effects of deepening regional arrangements. The model handles how tariffs are chosen by a customs union and an outer country. It shows that deeper integration does not cause a welfare loss to non-members. The paper evaluates the significance of the chosen models and concludes that they convey to some extent, but not adequately, the European environment for eastern enlargement. Hence do not explain per se why Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) are joining the Union. The empirical assessment summarises enlargement and concentrates on trade between the EU and CEECs based inter alia on articles by Alho (2003), Baldwin et al. (1997) and Lejour et al. (2001). Based on these results, the paper concludes that in economic terms CEECs seem to benefit significantly and the EU modestly from enlargement. In addition, observations of EU-CEE trade and a case study on the Czech Republic investigate how CEEC and Czech trade are affected by EU membership. It concludes that Czech trade will not face any significant changes after entering the Union in 2004, for its trade is already very integrated to European markets.
  • Tähkä, Sari (2013)
    This Master’s thesis deals with the use of block copolymers in capillary electromigration techniques (literature part) and both in material chemistry and capillary electrophoresis (experimental part). Amphiphilic block copolymers are an interesting research topic due to their specific molecular structure, which consists of at least two parts with different chemical natures. The great potential of block copolymers arises from their tunability of size, shape and composition. In recent years, numerous copolymer architectures have been developed and the demand to find new materials for biomolecule separations remains high. The literature part introduces rarely used coating materials, block copolymers, in capillary electromigration techniques. The two main electromigration techniques where block copolymers have been tested are capillary electrophoresis and capillary gel electrophoresis. Block copolymers have been attached to capillary inner surface permanently and dynamically. In capillary gel electrophoresis the micellization ability of block copolymers has been already well-known for many decades, and specific studies of copolymer phases have been published. In the experimental part of this M.Sc. thesis, double-hydrophilic poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide- block –ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer was used in two very different applications to emphasize the potential of block copolymers in various fields. In both studies, the hydrophilicity of ethylene oxide block and polycationic nature of vinylpyridinium block were utilized. First poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide- block –ethylene oxide) was used to mediate the self-assembly of ferritin protein cages. The aim of this research was to explore complexation of double-hydrophilic diblock copolymers with protein cages and to study the molecular morphology of the formed nanoparticle/copolymer assemblies. Complexation process was studied in aqueous solvent medium and formation of complexes was investigated with dynamic light scattering. Transmission electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering technique were used to characterize the size and shape of the particles. In the second approach the double-hydrophilic block copolymer was used as capillary coating material in two different capillary electromigration techniques. The possibility to alter the electro-osmotic flow and to gain a new tool for biomolecule studies was explored. Our results indicated that poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide- block- ethylene oxide) binds efficiently with oppositely charged objects and surfaces via electrostatic interactions, and the polyethylene oxide block gives good stability in aqueous medium. Nanoparticle co-assembly studies showed that the poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide- block- ethylene oxide) complexes were approximately 200-400 nm in diameter. For capillary coating studies, the polymer suppressed electro-osmotic flow efficiently and showed good run-to-run stability with RSD values from 1.4 to 7.9 %. Coating was observed to be very stable at pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 with ultra-low mobilities. The results achieved prove the potential of double-hydrophilic block copolymers in different various fields in the future.
  • Eresmaa, Reima (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Data assimilation provides an initial atmospheric state, called the analysis, for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). This analysis consists of pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity on a three-dimensional NWP model grid. Data assimilation blends meteorological observations with the NWP model in a statistically optimal way. The objective of this thesis is to describe methodological development carried out in order to allow data assimilation of ground-based measurements of the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) NWP system. Geodetic processing produces observations of tropospheric delay. These observations can be processed either for vertical columns at each GPS receiver station, or for the individual propagation paths of the microwave signals. These alternative processing methods result in Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) and Slant Delay (SD) observations, respectively. ZTD and SD observations are of use in the analysis of atmospheric humidity. A method is introduced for estimation of the horizontal error covariance of ZTD observations. The method makes use of observation minus model background (OmB) sequences of ZTD and conventional observations. It is demonstrated that the ZTD observation error covariance is relatively large in station separations shorter than 200 km, but non-zero covariances also appear at considerably larger station separations. The relatively low density of radiosonde observing stations limits the ability of the proposed estimation method to resolve the shortest length-scales of error covariance. SD observations are shown to contain a statistically significant signal on the asymmetry of the atmospheric humidity field. However, the asymmetric component of SD is found to be nearly always smaller than the standard deviation of the SD observation error. SD observation modelling is described in detail, and other issues relating to SD data assimilation are also discussed. These include the determination of error statistics, the tuning of observation quality control and allowing the taking into account of local observation error correlation. The experiments made show that the data assimilation system is able to retrieve the asymmetric information content of hypothetical SD observations at a single receiver station. Moreover, the impact of real SD observations on humidity analysis is comparable to that of other observing systems.
  • Johnson Longfor, Rita Waye (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to describe, analyse and interpret secondary school language teachers conceptions and methods of teaching English as a second language in Cameroon, the justification of their methods and how they scaffolded their students study processes. This was investigated through the following three research questions: (1) What are the main language teaching methods of Cameroon teachers of English as a second language? (2) In what ways do Cameroon teachers of English as a second language justify the language teaching methods they use? (3) In what ways do Cameroon teachers of English as a second language scaffold their students study processes? The data were gathered from five Cameroon teachers of English as a second language from six classes (Form 1 5) in three schools through participant observation. 1) Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the five teachers after lesson observations, 2) a focus group interview was conducted with six teachers of English, 3) a national pedagogic inspector for English second language teaching at the Cameroon Ministry of Education was also interviewed, and 4) informal discussions were held with the participants in order to get a better view of the context and participants. In addition to this, a number of documents were consulted: the Cameroon syllabus/scheme of work, a ministerial circular defining the objectives and organisation of bilingualism at secondary schools in Cameroon, and professional development objectives of the Cameroon English Language and Literature Teachers Association (CAMELTA). The field work period lasted from February 2010 until June 2010. The data were analysed through qualitative content analysis methods. The findings of the present study indicate that the five teachers main language teaching methods were not in line with communicative language teaching methodology since the English second language teaching was highly teacher-centred and the emphasis was on grammar and examinations. Discussions on meaningful language input, functional and skill language learning theories, however, pointed to their awareness of communicative principles. The justification for the use of a non-communicative approach focused on restrictions in the school context, the home context and restrictions coming from the Cameroon Ministry of Education. These contextual restrictions nevertheless affected the five teachers teaching and their conceptions of ESL on personal and professional levels. However, as this study indicates, justifications underpinned by theory and not drawing solely on personal maxims and opting for the best of poor alternatives can still have a positive impact on the language teaching situation. In everyday language teaching, scaffolding English second language students was an important consideration and the students study processes was scaffolded in many ways. The analysed data show encouraging signs of English second language teachers willingness to engage in scaffolding within lesson frameworks, provide a safe supportive study environment, inquire into and pay attention to students previous knowledge, but the results also reflect that the knowledge of when to fully withdraw scaffolding to help the student gain independence was still undeveloped. The highly examination-oriented environment, the teachers practical approach to teaching English as a second language and the non-support of the Cameroon Ministry of Education in the professional development of language teachers are some of the current problems in the teaching of English as a second language. The findings of this study suggest that the Cameroon Ministry of Education should play a more active role in promoting the didactic teaching studying learning process of English as a second official language in Cameroon and in changing the conceptions of how to teach this language. The findings emphasise the need for designing professional development courses, providing opportunities for teachers to reflect on and discuss their teaching experiences and for redefining their role as professionals. Keywords: English as a second language; communicative language teaching; language teachers pedagogical justifications; scaffolding; teaching studying learning process; didactics; professional development
  • Kervinen, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The internal structure of the NEPSY-II, a developmental cognitive test, was examined by explorative factor analyses (EFAs). The EFAs were conducted employing the NEPSY-II Finnish standardization sample. The structure of the NEPSY-II, as presented in the manual, is divided into six cognitive domains: Attention and Executive Functioning, Language, Memory and Learning, Sensorimotor Functions, Social Perception and Visuospatial Processing. The objectives of the current study were: 1) To explore what are the best fitting factor structures for 3- to 4-year-old, 5- to 6-year-old, and 7- to 15-year-old children; and 2) To compare the resulting factor structures to the NEPSY-II six cognitive domains. Four-factor structures were found best fitting for all the age groups. These structures shared three roughly similar factors: Language, Visuospatial/Motor Functions, and Processing Speed, although the exact set of subtests loading on each factor differed from one group to another. The four-factor structures considerably differed from the NEPSY-II six cognitive domains. Further, although there were similarities between the factor structures, there were also notable differences in how the subtests related together. The thesis produces scientific knowledge on the relations between the subtests that may also be employed in clinical assessment. The presented psychometrical knowledge might clarify how the problems that present themselves in distinct subtest in an assessment setting are related. Thus, it provides an additional perspective to clinical assessment alongside the prevailing neuropsychological knowledge.
  • Piitulainen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    A straightforward computation of the list of the words (the `tail words' of the list) that are distributionally most similar to a given word (the `head word' of the list) leads to the question: How semantically similar to the head word are the tail words; that is: how similar are their meanings to its meaning? And can we do better? The experiment was done on nearly 18,000 most frequent nouns in a Finnish newsgroup corpus. These nouns are considered to be distributionally similar to the extent that they occur in the same direct dependency relations with the same nouns, adjectives and verbs. The extent of the similarity of their computational representations is quantified with the information radius. The semantic classification of head-tail pairs is intuitive; some tail words seem to be semantically similar to the head word, some do not. Each such pair is also associated with a number of further distributional variables. Individually, their overlap for the semantic classes is large, but the trained classification-tree models have some success in using combinations to predict the semantic class. The training data consists of a random sample of 400 head-tail pairs with the tail word ranked among the 20 distributionally most similar to the head word, excluding names. The models are then tested on a random sample of another 100 such pairs. The best success rates range from 70% to 92% of the test pairs, where a success means that the model predicted my intuitive semantic class of the pair. This seems somewhat promising when distributional similarity is used to capture semantically similar words. This analysis also includes a general discussion of several different similarity formulas, arranged in three groups: those that apply to sets with graded membership, those that apply to the members of a vector space, and those that apply to probability mass functions.
  • von Becker, Eini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives: The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health has developed a method of Change Workshop to promote occupational well-being in organizations. Change Workshop is based on the activity theory and developmental work research methodology. The aim of this study was to analyse the emergence of an expansive learning cycle in the Change Workshop and to ascertain what share interventionists and participants have in the learning process. The second objective was to analyse the developmental cycle of one developmental project called Annual Clock during the different phases of the Change Workshop. The Annual Clock was developed as a tool to distribute work load among persons in different Services. Methods: The research data was from a Change Workshop conducted for the Finnish Forest Centre during 2012-2013. The Change Workshop consisted of five sessions each lasting about three hours and which were attended by 12-25 persons and 2-3 interventionists. The Change Workshop sessions were videotaped and audio-recorded. Transcriptions were made from video and audio recordings. There were a total of 1,190 speaking turns. Thematic analysis was applied to analyse the transcriptions. Since the first objective of the study was to examine the emergence of an expansive learning cycle (questioning, historical- and actual - empirical analysis, modelling, examination of the new model, implementation of the new model, reflection on the process and consolidating the new practice), so these formed part of the coding. This was supplemented by some additional codes based on the data: non-expansive learning, organizational issue, Change Workshop method and off-topic or non-related issue. Each speaking turn was first analysed to ascertain if it could represent any phase of the expansive learning cycle. If this was the case, a closer analysis was made to decide which phase in the expansive learning cycle. Quite a number of speaking turns were classified into several classes of expansive learning cycle, e.g. including elements of questioning, the prevailing situation, analysing the actual empirical situation and modelling. If the speaking turn did not indicate any traces of expansive learning, it was coded under the other headings: non-expansive learning, organizational issue, Change Workshop method or off topic (non-related) issue, and only in one of these headings. Since one speaking turn could be coded under several subcategories of expansive learning actions, the number of discursive elements was 1,378. In addition, a distinction in coding was made between interventionists and participants (except for the off-topic). For the analysis of the developmental cycle of the Annual Clock, a separate table was constructed by collecting all the speaking turns including the word Annual Clock and all such disturbances expressed in which the Annual Clock provided a solution. Results and conclusion: Expansive learning comprised 52% of the discursive elements. The learning process proceeded mainly according to the expansive learning cycle, but some of the learning actions, such as questioning, historical, actual-empirical and modelling, appeared throughout the Change Workshop process. The consolidating phase was not discovered during the Change Workshop, but was discussed in an evaluation meeting of the Change Workshop process two months later. The share of participants in discursive elements was 60% and the share of interventionists 37%. In the expansive learning category, the share of discursive elements by the participants was 81% and the share of interventionist was 19%. The Annual Clock as a germ cell appeared already during the first Change Workshop meeting, but it was mentioned not at all in the assignment for the second Change Workshop meeting, whereas afterwards the Annual Clock was again appearing in the discussions and the development of the idea continued according the expansive learning cycle until the 5th Change Workshop meeting.
  • Kantojärvi, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Abstract.pdf
  • Hämäläinen, Taina (2013)
    There are many studies concerning the supply of labor. However, although overtime work is a common phenomenon, it is rarely the topic of these studies. This thesis studies remuneration policy and the prevalence of overtime work for professional engineers in Finland. The data used in this study are annually collected survey data, for the period 2002-2011. The data represent union members of the Union of Professional Engineers in Finland (UIL ry). The data mainly consist of senior salaried employees. Remuneration policy and the incidence of overtime work are studied by descriptive methods and by regression models. A multinominal logit model is used for the overtime remuneration policy estimation. The method is used to impute missing data for those who do not work overtime. The Tobit regression model is applied as the overtime model. The findings of this thesis are that an individual’s position affects both the incidence of overtime work and remuneration policy. Individuals in a managerial position more often work overtime and bonus payment systems are the main incentive for this. This overtime model is reasonable for those senior salaried employees who are covered by the Working Hour Act. According to the Working Hour Act, those who work, for instance, as a specialist or in an expert position should be compensated for overtime work. In the overtime function for middle management, experts, and salaried employees the income effect initially dominates as remuneration for overtime increases, but finally, as overtime remuneration further increases, more individuals actually tend to work more overtime. As work experience increases, individuals work less overtime at first, but the relationship turns out to be U-shaped. Overtime work is less common for women and those in the public sector. The overtime model provides only a weak positive indication of the incidence of overtime for those who have recently been promoted to a new position or duties. The findings are only partly in accordance with empirical studies. The differences are explained by the characteristics of senior salaried employees. The results of this thesis might stem from the nature of their duties, the working environment and also from individual characteristics. That is why I assume here that long-run career objectives affect the incidence of overtime. In conclusion, there still remains the question of whether short-run or long-run factors have more explanatory power. For example is overtime work motivated by overtime rates or wage levels in the long run.
  • Gerouki, Margarita (2010)
    This study examines how sex education is currently developed and implemented in Greek primary schools. The four publications that comprise it explore the following themes: (1) the position and visibility of sex education as one of the topics for health education programme development; (2) the inhibiting and enhancing factors in the development and implementation of primary school sex education programmes; (3) how issues of sex, sexuality, the human body and romantic relationships are visually and textually represented in primary school textbooks; (4) the impact of sex education on teachers and pupils; and (5) teachers experiences as practitioners who deal with sexuality- related issues at school. -- The research was based on conducting multiple sub-studies using a mixed-methods approach. Specifically, qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed. The initial quantitative data that had been obtained by questionnaire was followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. The qualitative data were acquired by way of examining one particular case, various texts, interviews with teachers and self-reflective material. The results of the sub-studies are presented in a more detailed manner in the study s four publications. -- In general, the sub-studies found that sex education as an educational activity occupies a marginal place within the instructional practices of Greek primary school teachers, since the subject is hardly mentioned in classroom material, such as textbooks. However, engaging in the provision of sex education programmes can become a meaningful and rewarding experience for many teachers as well as pupils and their families. Further, teachers classroom experiences pointed to school settings as sexualized environments. These contextual factors and conditions nevertheless affected teachers practices and perceptions on a personal and professional level.Health indicators in Greece provide a picture of a population that faces various sexual health related problems. However, as many studies (including this work) indicate, sex education programmes that meet specific standards can have a positive impact on students overall health and well-being. Sex education teaching has always been a controversial issue. Its successful implementation in Greece demands knowledgeable educators and responsible policy-makers. The findings of this study suggest that the content of Greek primary school textbooks needs to be revised in order to include texts and pictures that deal with the human body and human sexuality, encourage pupils to become involved in designing the content and methods of programmes and give teachers the opportunity to reflect on and discuss their experiences. Keywords: sex education, primary school, Greece
  • Raento, Mika (Mika Raento, 2007)
    Ubiquitous computing is about making computers and computerized artefacts a pervasive part of our everyday lifes, bringing more and more activities into the realm of information. The computationalization, informationalization of everyday activities increases not only our reach, efficiency and capabilities but also the amount and kinds of data gathered about us and our activities. In this thesis, I explore how information systems can be constructed so that they handle this personal data in a reasonable manner. The thesis provides two kinds of results: on one hand, tools and methods for both the construction as well as the evaluation of ubiquitous and mobile systems---on the other hand an evaluation of the privacy aspects of a ubiquitous social awareness system. The work emphasises real-world experiments as the most important way to study privacy. Additionally, the state of current information systems as regards data protection is studied. The tools and methods in this thesis consist of three distinct contributions. An algorithm for locationing in cellular networks is proposed that does not require the location information to be revealed beyond the user's terminal. A prototyping platform for the creation of context-aware ubiquitous applications called ContextPhone is described and released as open source. Finally, a set of methodological findings for the use of smartphones in social scientific field research is reported. A central contribution of this thesis are the pragmatic tools that allow other researchers to carry out experiments. The evaluation of the ubiquitous social awareness application ContextContacts covers both the usage of the system in general as well as an analysis of privacy implications. The usage of the system is analyzed in the light of how users make inferences of others based on real-time contextual cues mediated by the system, based on several long-term field studies. The analysis of privacy implications draws together the social psychological theory of self-presentation and research in privacy for ubiquitous computing, deriving a set of design guidelines for such systems. The main findings from these studies can be summarized as follows: The fact that ubiquitous computing systems gather more data about users can be used to not only study the use of such systems in an effort to create better systems but in general to study phenomena previously unstudied, such as the dynamic change of social networks. Systems that let people create new ways of presenting themselves to others can be fun for the users---but the self-presentation requires several thoughtful design decisions that allow the manipulation of the image mediated by the system. Finally, the growing amount of computational resources available to the users can be used to allow them to use the data themselves, rather than just being passive subjects of data gathering.
  • Liikkanen, Lassi A (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Design embraces several disciplines dedicated to the production of artifacts and services. These disciplines are quite independent and only recently has psychological interest focused on them. Nowadays, the psychological theories of design, also called design cognition literature, describe the design process from the information processing viewpoint. These models co-exist with the normative standards of how designs should be crafted. In many places there are concrete discrepancies between these two in a way that resembles the differences between the actual and ideal decision-making. This study aimed to explore the possible difference related to problem decomposition. Decomposition is a standard component of human problem-solving models and is also included in the normative models of design. The idea of decomposition is to focus on a single aspect of the problem at a time. Despite its significance, the nature of decomposition in conceptual design is poorly understood and has only been preliminary investigated. This study addressed the status of decomposition in conceptual design of products using protocol analysis. Previous empirical investigations have argued that there are implicit and explicit decomposition, but have not provided a theoretical basis for these two. Therefore, the current research began by reviewing the problem solving and design literature and then composing a cognitive model of the solution search of conceptual design. The result is a synthetic view which describes recognition and decomposition as the basic schemata for conceptual design. A psychological experiment was conducted to explore decomposition. In the test, sixteen (N=16) senior students of mechanical engineering created concepts for two alternative tasks. The concurrent think-aloud method and protocol analysis were used to study decomposition. The results showed that despite the emphasis on decomposition in the formal education, only few designers (N=3) used decomposition explicitly and spontaneously in the presented tasks, although the designers in general applied a top-down control strategy. Instead, inferring from the use of structured strategies, the designers always relied on implicit decomposition. These results confirm the initial observations found in the literature, but they also suggest that decomposition should be investigated further. In the future, the benefits and possibilities of explicit decomposition should be considered along with the cognitive mechanisms behind decomposition. After that, the current results could be reinterpreted.
  • Lindgren, Eveliina (2015)
    An experiment-driven approach to software product and service development is getting increasing attention as a way to channel limited resources to the efficient creation of customer value. In this approach, software functionalities are developed incrementally and validated in continuous experiments with stakeholders such as customers and users. The experiments provide factual feedback for guiding subsequent development. Although case studies on experimentation conventions in the industry exist, an understanding of the state of the practice is incomplete. Furthermore, the obstacles and success factors of continuous experimentation have been little discussed. To these ends, an interview-based qualitative survey was conducted, exploring the experimentation experiences of ten software development companies. The study found that although the principles of continuous experimentation resonated with industry practitioners, the state of the practice was not mature. In particular, experimentation was rarely systematic and continuous. Key challenges related to changing organizational culture, accelerating development cycle speed, measuring customer value and product success, and securing resources. Success factors included an empowered organizational culture and deep customer and domain knowledge. There was also a good availability of technical tools and competence to support experimentation.