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  • Reinikainen, Iina (2015)
    Sukupuoli määräytyy nisäkkäillä yksilönkehityksessä sen perusteella, mitkä kromosomit tuleva yksilö saa hedelmöityksessä vanhemmiltaan. Uroksella on Y-kromosomi, jossa sijaitseva Sry-geenialue laukaisee sukupuolielinten kehittymistä säätelevien transkriptiotekijöiden ilmentymisen. Näiden tekijöiden vaikutuksesta uroksen varhaiset sukupuolijuosteet kehittyvät kiveksiksi. Naaraalla ei ole Y-kromosomia, joten sen sukupuolijuosteista kehittyvät munasarjat. Freemartin-syndrooma on lähinnä nautojen kaksostiineyksissä esiintyvä sukupuolen kehityshäiriö, joka kehittyy, kun kahden eri sukupuolta olevan sikiön istukoiden välille muodostuu verisuoniyhteyksiä. Verisuoniyhteyden takia urossikiön erittämät sukupuolen kehittymistä ohjaavat hormonit, kuten anti-Müllerin hormoni ja testosteroni, pääsevät vaikuttamaan naaraan sukupuolielinten kehittymiseen. Tällöin naarassikiön sukupuolielimet eivät kehity normaalisti, vaan naaraan sukupuolielimiin kehittyy uroksen piirteitä. Sekasukupuolinen freemartin on lisääntymiskyvytön ja näin ollen arvoton maidontuotannossa. Tämän lisensiaattitutkielman tarkoituksena oli tutkia, onko freemartinin sukurauhasissa uroksen kaltaiseen hormonieritykseen kykeneviä soluja sekä pohtia uroshormonien erityksen vaikutuksia freemartinin sukupuolen kehittymiselle. Tutkielma sisältää kirjallisuuskatsauksen lisäksi tutkimusosuuden. Tutkimusosuudessa 12 eri-ikäisen freemartinin sukurauhaset tutkittiin immunohistokemiallisin menetelmin käyttäen tyramidiamplifioitua menetelmää. Koska kiinnostuksen kohteena olivat uroksen hormonierityksestä vastaavat solut eli Sertolin solut ja Leydigin solut, freemartinien sukurauhaset värjättiin kolmella eri vasta-aineella: Sox9- ja AMH-vasta-aineita käytettiin Sertolin solujen ja 3β-HSD-vasta-ainetta steroidihormonien synteesiin kykenevien solujen paikantamiseksi freemartinin sukurauhasista. Tässä tutkimuksessa käyttämäni aineisto oli muihin viimeaikaisiin tutkimuksiin verrattuna poikkeuksellisen laaja. Laajan aineiston ansiosta tekemäni tutkimus antoi kattavamman kuvan freemartinien välisestä vaihtelusta kuin yksittäinen tapausselostus. Tutkittujen freemartinien sukurauhasissa oli suurta vaihtelua. Suurin osa freemartineiden sukurauhasista edusti keskiarvoa: värjäytyneitä soluja oli jonkin verran ja osa soluista oli järjestäytynyt ryppäiksi tai ryhmiksi. Aineistossa oli lisäksi kaksi freemartinia, joiden sukurauhanen muistutti eniten kivestä ja neljä freemartinia, joiden sukurauhasissa havaittiin munasarjan piirteitä. Kaikilla freemartineilla oli sukurauhasessaan kuitenkin Sox9:llä ja AMH:lla värjäytyviä soluja, jotka siten todennäköisesti ovat Sertolin soluja. Lisäksi vain yhtä freemartinia lukuun ottamatta kaikilla freemartineilla oli myös steroidihormonien tuotantoon kykeneviä soluja. Saadut tulokset viittaavat siihen, että freemartineilla esiintyy uroksenkaltaista hormonieritykstä sikiökaudella ja syntymän jälkeen. Hormonierityksen voidaan olettaa vaikuttavan freemartinin omaan sukupuolen kehittymiseen, jos hormonit erittyvät samalla tavoin kuin uroksen sukupuolen kehittymisessä. Toisin sanoen mitä enemmän hormonituotantoon kykeneviä soluja on ja mitä järjestäytyneemmin ne ovat sijoittuneet sukurauhasessa, sitä todennäköisemmin näiden solujen tuottamat uroshormonit vaikuttavat freemartinin maskulinisoitumiseen. Näin ollen niillä freemartineilla, joilla solujen järjestäytyminen ei ole selvää tai solujen värjäytyminen on heikkoa, freemartinin sukurauhasten tuottamien hormonien vaikutus sukupuolen kehittymiseen olisi vähäinen.
  • Palmberg, Marisa (2010)
    Freemartinism är en av de allvarligaste och vanligaste formerna av onormal könsdifferentiering hos nötboskap. Det är ett hos nötboskap förekommande fenomen där tvåäggstvillingar av olika kön p.g.a. sammanväxta fosterhinnor får ett gemensamt blodomlopp. Hontvillingens embryonala könsdifferentiering störs och kvigkalven blir i de flesta fall steril och kallas freemartin. Tidigare histologiska studier har visat stor variation i freemartingonadernas maskulinisering. I denna studie undersöktes 14 freemartingonader från 12 olika freemartinkalvar immunohistokemiskt med avidin-biotin-komplex- metoden tillsammans med äggstock, testikel och bitestikel från normala nötkreatur. Fördelningen av antigenerna protein S100, aktin, desmin, cytokeratin och CD45 i vävnaden undersöktes immunohistokemiskt. Oocyter och Sertoli celler är protein S100-positiva, glattmuskelceller i exempelvis bitestikelgången är aktin- och desminpositiva, cytokeratiner finns i epiteliala celler såsom germinalepitelet och CD45 är en leukocytmarkör. Syftet var att analysera freemartingonaderna immunohistokemiskt och att jämföra resultatet med den normala gonadens antigendistribution samt med resultat från tidigare studier av freemartingonadens histologiska uppbyggnad. De normala gonadernas antigendistribution jämfördes med tidigare studiers resultat. Förhoppningen var att immunohistokemiskt synliggöra maskulina och feminina strukturer. Enligt författarens vetskap så har freemartingonader inte undersökts immunohistokemiskt i tidigare studier. Samtliga gonader hade störts i den feminina utvecklingen och hade genomgått varierande grad av maskulinisering. Majoriteten av freemartingonaderna innehöll såväl feminina som maskulina strukturer. Undersökningens mest maskuliniserade gonad saknade de feminina komponenterna och innehöll istället sädeskanals- och bitestestikelliknande formationer. Resultaten från freemartingonadernas immunohistokemiska undersökning korrelerade på många plan med tidigare histologiska studier. I jämförelse gav den immunohistokemiska undersökningen tilläggsinformation angående exempelvis primordialfollikelliknande formationer. Resultaten från denna studie indikerar att immunohistokemi kan användas som metod för att hjälpa till att dels bekräfta och dels ytterligare förtydliga oklara histologiska resultat.
  • Kivekäs, Otso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Free and open source software development is an alternative to traditional software engineering as an approach to the development of complex software systems. It is a way of developing software based on geographically distributed teams of volunteers without apparent central plan or traditional mechanisms of coordination. The purpose of this thesis is to summarize the current knowledge about free and open source software development and explore the ways on which further understanding on it could be gained. The results of research on the field as well as the research methods are introduced and discussed. Also adapting software process metrics to the context of free and open source software development is illustrated and the possibilities to utilize them as tools to validate other research are discussed.
  • Vilkuna, Maria (1989)
  • Koivupalo, Heikki Tapani (2013)
    Tutkielmassa esitellään fregeläisen logiikan yleistys ja todistetaan yhdenmukaisia malleja koskevia tuloksia. Kun fregeläisessä logiikassa lauseiden referenssien joukossa on tasan kaksi alkiota - tosi ja epätosi - fregeläisen logiikan yleistyksessä kyseisen joukon mahtavuudelle ei aseteta ylärajaa. Referenssejä kutsutaan tilanteiksi, ja lisäksi oletetaan, että tilanteita on vähintään kaksi. Tuloksena on logiikka, joka on loogisesti kaksiarvoinen mutta ontologisesti ei. Yhdenmukainen malli tekee syntaktisesta ja semanttisesta seurauskuvauksesta samat. Aluksi osoitetaan, että eräällä syntaktisella seurauskuvauksella on yhdenmukainen malli. Tämän jälkeen todistetaan, että kyseinen malli on ylinumeroituva. Viimeiseksi näytetään, että sellaisia syntaktisia seurauskuvauksia, joilla on yhdenmukainen malli, on ylinumeroituvasti.
  • Suihkonen, Pentti (1994)
  • Léger, André (2012)
    The European Union was widely contrived by French leadership, and based on a French system. Until the joining of the United Kingdom in 1973, the status of the French language had remained unchallenged in the European Economic Community. Since then, France has had to extensively defend the significant status of their language in the European Union and, more precisely, in European institutions. With every enlargement, the use of French statistically suffered. Nevertheless, its status as a working language remained the same. The 2004 and 2007 enlargement of the European Union introduced a total of twelve new countries, none of which had French as a primary lingua franca. With a continual rise in the use of English on one side, and the addition of thirteen official languages by the enlargements on the other, France needed to legitimise the important status its language had.historically possessed in the European Union. The fear of a monolingual Europe was apparent and France needed to orchestrate a new language stegy in order to combat the predicted outcome. A makeover of its own language policy was employed, and this study seeks to find the new methods applied by France. As such, an in dept examination of France's language policy, concentrating on the European enlargement of 2004 and 2007, is presented by using the thirteen point language-spread method developed by Ulrich Ammon. By Analysing French government reports on language issues, and European Union documents on multilingualism, an overview of the political history of the French language inside EU institutions is presented, including an analysis of the historical and important relation France has had with its language. The results of the study conceptualise the French language spread-policy by using two counteracting strategic modeis. On one hand, France sought to safeguard the status of its language by speaking and demanding French in European institutions, while on the other hand, by presenting their language as one respecting multilingualism and European cultural plurality. With a policy focused on teaching the French language Central and Eastern European elites, the main objective of France was to solidify their language as a second European lingua franca alongside English. In concluding terms, the language-spread policy is presented as something more than merely influencing the European population on the need to know French. It is used as instrument helping a nation achieve political power by having a strong language status in a Union with 23 official languages.
  • Fredman, Johannes (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Cytochrome P-450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is a monoxygenase enzyme contributing to the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Significant genetic variability in CYP2B6 exists in different ethnic groups, contributing to interindividual differences in pharmacokinetics and drug response. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of CYP2B6 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in the Finnish population. The frequencies of nine CYP2B6 SNVs were determined in 261 healthy Finnish volunteers by allelic discrimination with TaqMan 5'-nuclease assays. The variant allele frequencies of CYP2B6 c.419G>A (p.Arg140Gln), c.516G>T (p.Gln172His), c.785A>G (p.Lys262Arg), c.1172T>A (p.Ile391Asn), and c.1459C>T (p.Arg487Cys) were 0.58% (95% confidence interval 0.20-1.7%), 19.3% (16.1-22.9%), 23.8% (20.3-27.6%), 0.4% (0.11-1.39%), and 13.2% (10.6-16.4%), respectively. None of the subjects carried the CYP2B6 c.136A>G (p.Met46Val), c.296G>A (p.Gly99Glu), c.415A>G (p.Lys139Glu), or c.983T>C (p.Ile328Thr) SNVs. The variant alleles of CYP2B6 occur in Finnish population in similar or slightly lower frequencies as described in previous studies with other European Caucasian subjects.
  • Karhu, Juho (2014)
    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) are sources of coherent light, often used to produce laser like light in wavelength regions where ordinary laser operation is challenging. In terms of chemistry, most attractive such a region is in mid-infrared, where strong fundamental vibrational transitions occur. OPOs are based on nonlinear polarization, which some materials exhibit when radiated with strong coherent light and effectively allow transferring optical power from one wavelength region to another. Even a simple OPO setup can offer watt-level of continuous-wave power in mid-infrared. There are ongoing challenges with the stability of OPO output frequency and continuous tuning of the wavelength, both of which are important for a light source used in high-resolution molecular spectroscopy. Theory and literature part of this thesis first covers the fundamentals of the theory behind OPO, centering on a continuous-wave single resonant operation. Afterwards, we look into the more well-known features affecting the stability of the OPO, as well as some common schemes used to combat the instabilities. In the experimental part, we measure and attempt to characterize some features of instabilities we have previously noticed that are not readily explained by known instability sources. The OPO's output wavelength occasionally changes in discrete jumps known as mode hops. There appear to be some preferences to the magnitude of these jumps that do not seem to fit in the current understanding of OPO operation. We followed the frequency changes of a typical singly resonant continuous-wave OPO for longer time periods and offered some possible explanations for the observations. We utilize a few methods to increase the number of mode hops to produce meaningful statistical data.
  • Sjöblom, Jan (2001)
    Avhandlingen behandlar det nordiska kriminalpolissamarbetets utveckling fr.o.m. den nordiska passfrihetens ikraftträdande år 1952 t.o.m. antagandet av det nordiska polissamarbetsavtalet år 1968. Centrala forskningsfrågor är bl.a. följande: Varför inleddes polisiära nordiska samarbetssträvanden på just 1950-talet, och varför skedde detta på regional bas? Vilka var de gemensamma problem man sökte åtgärda genom intensifierad polisiär samverkan? Vilka former hade det nordiska samarbetet och hur skiljde sig denna från den samverkan som idkades inom ramerna för det globala organet ICPO-Interpol? Vem bestämde om samarbetets prioriteter och om dess utformning? Den viktigaste forskningshypotes som verifieras är att behovet av effektiviserat polissamarbete uppkom till följd av passfriheten och 1950-talets fortsatta nordiska integration i form av bl.a. den gemensamma arbetsmarknaden av år 1954. Reformerna ledde till en ökad inomnordisk rörlighet och som en följd därav till en dramatisk ökning av de gränsöverskridande brottsundersökningarnas antal. Sverige stod i brännpunkten för den gränsöverskridande nordiska kriminaliteten och följaktligen tog svenskarna också ivrigast initiativ till polissamarbetets effektivisering. Ett viktigt syfte var att bekämpa den finska kriminaliteten i landet. Den allt överskuggande målsättningen i 1950-60-talens samarbetssträvanden var påskyndandet av informationsgången mellan nationella polisväsenden. En forcerad utväxling av kriminalinformation uppnåddes genom den nordiska polissamarbetsöverenskommelsen som efter flerårig beredning antogs år 1959. Överenskommelsen tillerkände lokalpolismyndigheterna rätten till direkta ömsesidiga samarbetsrelationer. Förutsättningar för denna globalt sett exceptionella rätt var kulturell och rättslig nordisk samhörighet, släktskapet mellan skandinaviska språk och regionens geografiska enhet. Samarbetsöverenskommelsen framförhandlades på relativt låg hierarkisk nivå och stadfästes aldrig av de nordiska polisledningarna. Sålunda kunde den heller inte utgöra någon oomtvistad grund för samverkan. I avsikt att tillfå ett mer formellt avtalsdokument inleddes år 1967 nya samarbetsförhandlingar, vilka sommaren 1968 resulterade i antagandet av det nordiska polissamarbetsavtalet. Detta sanktionerades av de nordiska rikspolischeferna och bekräftade det omedelbara lokalpolissamarbetets princip. Avtalet ligger till grund för det förundersökningssamarbete som idkas än idag. Avhandlingen baserar sig främst på primärkällor. Betydande finska arkivhelheter är centralkriminalpolisens arkiv, inrikesministeriets arkiv och förra rikspolischefen Fjalar Jarvas samling i Riksarkivet. De viktigaste svenska aktsamlingarna är Statens kriminaltekniska anstalts arkiv i svenska Riksarkivets filialarkiv (Arninge) och Rikspolisstyrelsens arkiv (Stockholm). Också publicerat primärmaterial har brukats i stor omfattning.
  • Ylisirniö, Mika (2014)
    Potenssisarjamenetelmällä on mahdollista ratkaista differentiaaliyhtälöitä potenssisarjayritteellä niiden säännöllisten pisteiden ympäristöissä. Menetelmä on mahdollista yleistää Frobeniuksen menetelmäksi, jonka avulla differentiaaliyhtälöiden ratkaiseminen onnistuu yleistetyllä potenssisarjayritteellä myös yhtälöiden singulaaristen pisteiden ympäristöissä, kun singulaariset pisteet eivät ole luonteeltaan ”oleellisia”. Työn tarkoituksena on esitellä ja johtaa Frobeniuksen menetelmä vaiheittain ja vahvistaa sillä löydettyjen ratkaisujen oikeellisuus. Työssä keskitytään vain toisen kertaluvun, lineaarisiin ja homogeenisiin differentiaaliyhtälöihin, joiden kaikki funktiot ovat reaaliarvoisia. Aluksi työssä kerrataan muutamia menetelmän johdossa vaadittavia analyysin määritelmiä ja tuloksia esitiedoiksi oletettujen lähteiden pohjalta. Työn toisessa luvussa menetelmän pohjustukseksi tutustutaan Cauchy-Eulerin yhtälöihin ja luokitellaan yhtälön singulaariset pisteen heikkoihin ja vahvoihin erikoispisteisiin. Osoittautuu, että näistä oleellisia ovat vahvat erikoispisteet ja Frobeniuksen menetelmällä yhtälöiden ratkaiseminen onnistuu heikkojen erikoispisteiden ympäristöissä. Luvun lopuksi johdetaan testi erikoispisteiden luonteelle pisteiden luokittelun helpottamiseksi. Työn kolmannessa luvussa menetelmän motivoimiseksi esitetään lyhyt, suuntaa-antava kuvaus siitä, miten Frobenius alun perin sai idean menetelmäänsä, minkä jälkeen siirrytään työn päätavoitteeseen eli Frobeniuksen menetelmän johtamiseen. Menetelmän johtaminen etenee vaiheittain ja johtamisen aikana löydetyt tulokset kootaan lauseiksi. Johtamisen päätteeksi esitetään muutamia yleisiä huomioita menetelmän käytöstä. Työn lopuksi viimeisessä luvussa annetaan yksinkertainen esimerkki differentiaaliyhtälön ratkaisemisesta menetelmän avulla. Työn päälähteenä on Kenneth Howellin teos Ordinary Differential Equations, An Introduction to the Fundamentals (2014), joka on toistaiseksi internetistä vapaasti luettavissa. Työn toisena tärkeänä lähteenä on R. Kent Naglen, Edward B. Saffin ja Arthur David Sniderin teos Fundamentals of Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (2008).
  • Wahlström, Gudrun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for a large variety of cell biological processes. Actin exists in either a monomeric or a filamentous form, and it is very important for many cellular functions that the local balance between these two actin populations is properly regulated. A large number of proteins participate in the regulation of actin dynamics in the cell, and twinfilin, one of the proteins examined in this thesis, belongs to this category. The second level of regulation involves proteins that crosslink or bundle actin filaments, thereby providing the cell with a certain shape. α-Actinin, the second protein studied, mainly acts as an actin crosslinking protein. Both proteins are conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In this thesis, the roles of twinfilin and α-actinin in development were examined using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Twinfilin is an actin monomer binding protein that is structurally related to cofilin. In vitro, twinfilin reduces actin polymerisation by sequestering actin monomers. The Drosophila twinfilin (twf) gene was identified and found to encode a protein functionally similar to yeast and mammalian twinfilins. A strong hypomorphic twf mutation was identified, and flies homozygous for this allele were viable and fertile. The adult twf mutant flies displayed reduced viability, a rough eye phenotype and severely malformed bristles. The shape of the adult bristle is determined by the actin bundles that are regularly spaced around the perimeter of the developing pupal bristles. Examination of the twf pupal bristles revealed an increased level of filamentous actin, which in turn resulted in splitting and displacement of the actin bundles. The bristle defect was rescued by twf overexpression in developing bristles. The Twinfilin protein was localised at sites of actin filament assembly, where it was required to limit actin polymerisation. A genetic interaction between twinfilin and twinstar (the gene encoding Cofilin) was detected, consistent with the model predicting that both proteins act to limit the amount of filamentous actin. α-Actinin has been implicated in several diverse cell biological processes. In Drosophila, the only function for α-actinin yet known is in the organisation of the muscle sarcomere. Muscle and non-muscle cells utilise different α-actinin isoforms, which in Drosophila are produced by alternative splicing of a single gene. In this work, novel α-actinin deletion alleles, including ActnΔ233, were generated, which specifically disrupted the transcript encoding the non-muscle α-actinin isoform. Nevertheless, ActnΔ233 homozygous mutant flies were viable and fertile with no obvious defects. By comparing α-actinin protein distribution in wild type and ActnΔ233 mutant animals, it could be concluded that non-muscle α-actinin is the only isoform expressed in young embryos, in the embryonic central nervous system and in various actin-rich structures of the ovarian germline cells. In the ActnΔ233 mutant, α-actinin was detected not only in muscle tissue, but also in embryonic epidermal cells and in certain follicle cell populations in the ovaries. The population of α-actinin protein present in non-muscle cells of the ActnΔ233 mutant is referred to as FC-α-actinin (Follicle Cell). The follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary is a well characterised model system for studies on patterning and morphogenesis. Therefore, α-actinin expression, regulation and function in this tissue were further analysed. Examination of the α-actinin localisation pattern revealed that the basal actin fibres of the main body follicle cells underwent an organised remodelling during the final stages of oogenesis. This involved the assembly of a transient adhesion site in the posterior of the cell, in which α-actinin and Enabled (Ena) accumulated. Follicle cells genetically manipulated to lack all α-actinin isoforms failed to remodel their cytoskeleton and translocate Ena to the posterior of the cell, while the actin fibres as such were not affected. Neither was epithelial morphogenesis disrupted. The reorganisation of the basal actin cytoskeleton was also disturbed following ectopic expression of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) or as a result of a heat shock. At late oogenesis, the main body follicle cells express both non-muscle α-actinin and FC-α-actinin, while the dorsal anterior follicle cells express only non-muscle α-actinin. The dorsal anterior cells are patterned by the Dpp and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathways, and they will ultimately secrete the dorsal appendages of the egg. Experiments involving ectopic activation of EGFR and Dpp signalling showed that FC-α-actinin is negatively regulated by combined EGFR and Dpp signalling. Ubiquitous overexpression of the adult muscle-specific α-actinin isoform induced the formation of aberrant actin bundles in migrating follicle cells that did not normally express FC-α-actinin, provided that the EGFR signalling pathway was activated in the cells. Taken together, this work contributes new data to our knowledge of α-actinin function and regulation in Drosophila. The cytoskeletal remodelling shown to depend on α-actinin function provides the first evidence that α-actinin has a role in the organisation of the cytoskeleton in a non-muscle tissue. Furthermore, the cytoskeletal remodelling constitutes a previously undescribed morphogenetic event, which may provide us with a model system for in vivo studies on adhesion dynamics in Drosophila.
  • Seppälä, Riikka (2011)
    This study approaches the problem of poverty in the hinterlands of Northeast Brazil through the concept of structural violence, linking the environmental threats posed by climate change, especially those related to droughts, to the broader social struggles in the region. When discussions about potentials and rights are incorporated into the problematic of poverty, a deeper insight is obtained regarding the various factors behind the phenomenon. It is generally believed that climate change is affecting the already marginalized and poor more than those of higher social standing, and will increasingly do so in the future. The data for this study was collected during a three month field work in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba in Northeast Brazil. The main methods used were semi-structured interviews and participant observation, including attending seminars concerning climate change on the field. The focus of the work is to compare both layman and expert perceptions on what climate change is about, and question the assumptions about its effects in the future, mainly that of increased numbers of ‘climate refugees’ or people forced to migrate due to changes in climate. The focus on droughts, as opposed to other manifestations of climate change, arises from the fact that droughts are not only phenomena that develop over a longer time span than floods or hurricanes, but is also due to the historical persistence of droughts in the region, and both the institutional and cultural linkages that have evolved around it. The instances of structural violence that are highlighted in this study; the drought industry, land use, and the social and power relations present in the region, including those between the civil society, the state and the private agribusiness sector, all work against a backdrop of symbolic and moral realms of value production, where relations between the different actors are being negotiated anew with the rise of the climate change discourse. The main theoretical framework of the study consists of Johan Galtung’s and Paul Farmer’s theory of structural violence, Ulrich Beck’s theory of the risk society, and James Scott’s theory of everyday peasant resistance.
  • Belskaya, Alina (2009)
    Topic of research is the four-years of activities of the Advisory and Monitoring Group (AMG) of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Belarus. The aim of the study is to look at the OSCE as an organization that has democratization as one of its tasks, what strategies and tools it can deploy, and whether it was the best suited for the job. The example used to highlight these questions is the work of the AMG in Belarus, because it was the first OSCE mission with a clearly democratization mandate. The paper contains a review of several theories of democracy promotion, democratization, and international organizations as a promoter of democracy to help pose questions to the available sources, then it looks directly at the activities of the AMG on the ground and evaluates them. The main sources for research include primary sources such as writings by the Head of Mission Wieck, restricted reports of the AMG, OSCE and EU documents, and media reports from that period. As secondary sources it uses monographs and articles about Belarus which, unfortunately, do not cover a wide range of topics. The main results are that the OSCE/AMG came to play an important role in Belarus, but it had its shortcomings: the late realization of the nature of transition; infighting among the donors stemming from the differences in evaluation; the strategy of the political opposition which relied heavily on international pressure and did not focus enough on building internal; not all transformational actors were involved fully in the process. As for the OSCE , at the time it was best placed to negotiate and support a longer-term presence on the ground. The characteristics of the OSCE (wide-ranging membership, consensual decision making, and commitments based on political will) made it the most suitable organization to mediate in a political conflict where one side did not show a political will to find a solution. The OSCE's tools for conflict management- the missions on the ground, the High Representatives for National Minorities and for Freedom of the Media as well as Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights - were flexible enough to be adapted to the situation on the ground. While the efforts from the international community could be evaluated as satisfactory, the internal developments prevented the opposition forces from becoming an effective internal force. The realization by the international community that the bottom up movement was needed and adapted its strategy accordingly to attempt to build up the internal actors, the regime already consolidated its grip on society. While the OSCE had no power to adopt or implement punitive measures as it had no economic or aid leverage over the country, it possessed a certain leverage in legitimizing the regime through declaring the elections free and fair. However, delegitimization by the OSCE was strong enough to put pressure for small adjustments and was not strong enough to delegitimize the regime in the eyes of its main constituents, or the population of Belarus.
  • Tuusjärvi, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The metal mining industry has experienced a marked boom in Finland since the beginning of the 21st century, driven by the general rise in the price levels of base metals, iron and gold, in particular. The boom started with increased exploration and mine development activity, and from 2007 onwards has increased the mined ore levels to all-time highs. Before the current boom, the industry had been suffering a gradual downturn during the 1990s, and was considered as a minor branch in the economic structure of the country. Furthermore, the strong domestic metals industry started to lean increasingly on imported mineral raw materials. The rapid growth in exploration and mining activity in the country has now raised expectations of increased socio-economic benefits, but also fears of environmental degradation and negative effects on other lines of business, such as nature tourism. Reflecting this, the mining industry has already faced more intensive opposition than ever in its history in Finland. The opposition reflects the changed values of civil society in Finland in the 21st century, and the expectations towards the good environmental and socioeconomic performance of the mining industry. In this thesis study, the future directions of the Finnish metals mining industry and the related environmental and expected socio-economic effects were examined, as well as the trade of minerals to Finland and its environmental effects and governance context in origin countries. The focus was also on considering the environmental pressures and material flows of production chains of metals (e.g. life cycle assessment and material flow analysis), and on investigating the roles of governance, industry and academia in striving towards increased sustainability of the metal mining industry in Finland. The results suggest that in the context of international production chains of metals in Finland, the environmental pressures abroad related to mining and mineral processing are higher than domestic pressures. However, the domestic effects are increasing, as the mining industry in Finland will most probably continue to grow in the future. This growth has the potential to bring socio-economic prosperity to the country, but also increases in environmental pressures. In reaching towards a more sustainable mining industry, the co-operation between governance, industry and academia has to be profound. Environmental protection has to be strengthened and preventing further environmental accidents in mines needs to be the key goal. Further developments in environmentally sound mining and processing technologies will help to both steer environmental performance and enhance the competitiveness of the Finnish mining technology branch. Additionally, transparent CSR and communication strategies in mining companies will help to raise common knowledge and acceptance of mining. Finally, careful legislation and solid project feasibility planning support the continuation of mining activity in a climate of economic fluctuation.