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  • Hakanen, Jari (2005)
    This thesis investigated work-related well-being from seven rarely studied angles, e.g., the role of negative life events and pre-employment resource losses, and work engagement were explored. The data sets were a three-wave 35-year follow-up questionnaire data (N = 532), a questionnaire data based on the staff of a large educational organization (N = 3365), and qualitative interviews of the 22 most burned out participants in the 35-year prospective study. The main results of the study were: 1) Adverse socio-economic and individual conditions in childhood were negatively associated with educational achievements, which in turn exposed to jobs with less resources, and hence, led to burnout symptoms and furthermore to poor health and increased intentions of early retirement, 2) the instability of the work career during 13 years of follow-up was positively associated with burnout and negatively with life satisfaction, 3) the role of negative life events, family-to-work conflict and personality factors (strong sense of responsibility and sense of coherence) in the burnout process was small compared with the role of working conditions and work-to-family conflict, 4) however, work and non-work stressors, as well as work and personality factors had some joint effects on burnout and life satisfaction, 5) burnout could be interpreted in accordance with Hobfoll's conservation of resources (COR) theory as a loss spiral of resources, while at the same time the qualitative data analysis made it possible to refine some of the general assumptions of the COR theory. Strong initial motivation or enthusiasm seemed to be a prerequisite for burnout only in the case of some of the interviewed employees, 6) CFA confirmed the factorial validity of the Finnish version of the UWES. Work engagement was positively related to health, work ability, and job satisfaction, and negatively to intentions of quitting one's job and early retirement. Women, those with fixed-term work contracts, those with less than 5 years or more than 30 years' tenure in the present job, as well as those with long working hours, were more engaged than their counterparts, and 7) the hypothesized Job Demands - Resources model was partly supported.
  • Rimhanen, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the world´s most vulnerable regions to climate change. Even though the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions produced in SSA is low, the agricultural sector has an enormous potential for climate change mitigation. The aim here is to increase understanding of the potential of climate change mitigation to enhance food security. The focus of the study is to identify the determinants of this potential, to estimate the possibilities to increase the proportion of carbon ending up in soil and to quantify the soil carbon sequestration potential of agroecological practices in Ethiopia. Identification of the determinants of the potential of climate change mitigation to enhance food security was based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The assessment of carbon flows was based on interviews and sampling. Material flow analysis and carbon balance counting was used for tracking the carbon flows and for estimating the carbon losses. Quantification of the carbon sequestration potential of the agroecological practices was based on comparison of the existing plot pairs, including a plot with an agroecological practice and an adjacent plot with a traditional practice. Soil carbon sequestration in agricultural soil was considered as the most important means to promote climate change mitigation and to enhance food security. The primary factors enhancing food security were perceived to be increasing agricultural productivity and incomes from marketed crops. On the Ethiopian farms, 8 12% of the total harvested carbon was used for soil and 9 16% for food. The largest carbon losses were due to biomass burning and livestock metabolism. The proportion of carbon used for soil could mainly be increased by reducing gaseous losses. Agroforestry led to 11.4 t ha-1, restrained grazing to 9.6 t ha-1 and terracing to 1.7 t ha-1 greater soil carbon stock than did their control plots. The estimates are higher than those based on process-modelling studies. The difference probably resulted from the development and validation of process models under conditions that differ from those in East-Africa. From the results it can be concluded that the most important means perceived as enhancing food security through climate change mitigation is improving food availability through soil carbon sequestration. The proportion of carbon used for energy determines the proportion ending up in soil. Alternative energy sources are needed to increase the flow of carbon to soil. The soil carbon sequestration potential in Ethiopian agriculture is greater than previously estimated. Climate conditions and intercropping treatment should be incorporated into process models to improve their adequacy for farming systems in East Africa.
  • Karhemo, Piia-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The most deadly aspect of cancer is its ability to spread from its original location to other sites in the body and grow as distant metastases. Formation of metastases is a multistep process and metastases can form even decades after the removal of the primary tumor. Cell surface proteins are known to play central roles in the adhesive contacts and molecular interactions between the tumor cell and the stroma during various stages of metastasis. In addition, they mediate important signals to intracellular proteins. As the detailed mechanisms of metastasis are still unclear, the aim of this thesis was to discover novel metastasis-associated cell surface proteins for further investigation. This thesis established an optimized method for the isolation of biotinylated cell surface proteins for proteomic identification. This method was applied to compare the cell surface proteins isolated from an isogenic pair of human MDA-MB-435 cancer cell line with opposite metastatic phenotypes. We found 29 differentially expressed proteins and analyzed the molecular pathways they were involved in. Of these proteins expression of CD109 was shown to mark metastatic melanoma cells and invasive breast cancer cells. Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multitasking protein with both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions. In our comparative proteomics analysis we discovered NPM to be expressed on the surface of the non-metastatic subclone of the MDA-MB-435 cells. We showed that NPM was detected at different localizations in the non-metastatic and metastatic cells most likely due to the expression of novel NPM splice variants discovered in this thesis work. In addition, we showed that expression level of NPM is one mechanism affecting its localization. In regards to patient prognosis, we revealed that high levels of NPM were expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of histologically normal breast tissue and that high levels independently associated with good prognosis in the luminal A breast cancer subtype. On the contrary, novel granular staining pattern and Threonine199 phosphorylation of NPM (NPMpThr199) correlated with aggressive characteristics, basal subtype and poor prognosis of human breast cancer. In brief, this study provides several novel metastasis associated cell surface proteins for future investigation. By using breast cancer tumor microarrays from two large breast cancer patient cohorts and cellular models this thesis demonstrates for the first time, that different NPM forms play divergent and opposite roles in breast cancer.
  • Risku-Norja, Helmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Agriculture is an economic activity that heavily relies on the availability of natural resources. Through its role in food production agriculture is a major factor affecting public welfare and health, and its indirect contribution to gross domestic product and employment is significant. Agriculture also contributes to numerous ecosystem services through management of rural areas. However, the environmental impact of agriculture is considerable and reaches far beyond the agroecosystems. The questions related to farming for food production are, thus, manifold and of great public concern. Improving environmental performance of agriculture and sustainability of food production, sustainabilizing food production, calls for application of wide range of expertise knowledge. This study falls within the field of agro-ecology, with interphases to food systems and sustainability research and exploits the methods typical of industrial ecology. The research in these fields extends from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary, a holistic approach being the key tenet. The methods of industrial ecology have been applied extensively to explore the interaction between human economic activity and resource use. Specifically, the material flow approach (MFA) has established its position through application of systematic environmental and economic accounting statistics. However, very few studies have applied MFA specifically to agriculture. The MFA approach was used in this thesis in such a context in Finland. The focus of this study is the ecological sustainability of primary production. The aim was to explore the possibilities of assessing ecological sustainability of agriculture by using two different approaches. In the first approach the MFA-methods from industrial ecology were applied to agriculture, whereas the other is based on the food consumption scenarios. The two approaches were used in order to capture some of the impacts of dietary changes and of changes in production mode on the environment. The methods were applied at levels ranging from national to sector and local levels. Through the supply-demand approach, the viewpoint changed between that of food production to that of food consumption. The main data sources were official statistics complemented with published research results and expertise appraisals. MFA approach was used to define the system boundaries, to quantify the material flows and to construct eco-efficiency indicators for agriculture. The results were further elaborated for an input-output model that was used to analyse the food flux in Finland and to determine its relationship to the economy-wide physical and monetary flows. The methods based on food consumption scenarios were applied at regional and local level for assessing feasibility and environmental impacts of relocalising food production. The approach was also used for quantification and source allocation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of primary production. GHG assessment provided, thus, a means of crosschecking the results obtained by using the two different approaches. MFA data as such or expressed as eco-efficiency indicators, are useful in describing the overall development. However, the data are not sufficiently detailed for identifying the hot spots of environmental sustainability. Eco-efficiency indicators should not be bluntly used in environmental assessment: the carrying capacity of the nature, the potential exhaustion of non-renewable natural resources and the possible rebound effect need also to be accounted for when striving towards improved eco-efficiency. The input-output model is suitable for nationwide economy analyses and it shows the distribution of monetary and material flows among the various sectors. Environmental impact can be captured only at a very general level in terms of total material requirement, gaseous emissions, energy consumption and agricultural land use. Improving environmental performance of food production requires more detailed and more local information. The approach based on food consumption scenarios can be applied at regional or local scales. Based on various diet options the method accounts for the feasibility of re-localising food production and environmental impacts of such re-localisation in terms of nutrient balances, gaseous emissions, agricultural energy consumption, agricultural land use and diversity of crop cultivation. The approach is applicable anywhere, but the calculation parameters need to be adjusted so as to comply with the specific circumstances. The food consumption scenario approach, thus, pays attention to the variability of production circumstances, and may provide some environmental information that is locally relevant. The approaches based on the input-output model and on food consumption scenarios represent small steps towards more holistic systemic thinking. However, neither one alone nor the two together provide sufficient information for sustainabilizing food production. Environmental performance of food production should be assessed together with the other criteria of sustainable food provisioning. This requires evaluation and integration of research results from many different disciplines in the context of a specified geographic area. Foodshed area that comprises both the rural hinterlands of food production and the population centres of food consumption is suggested to represent a suitable areal extent for such research. Finding a balance between the various aspects of sustainability is a matter of optimal trade-off. The balance cannot be universally determined, but the assessment methods and the actual measures depend on what the bottlenecks of sustainability are in the area concerned. These have to be agreed upon among the actors of the area
  • Krivy, Maros (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The thesis analyses transformation of obsolete industrial space as a contested socio-spatial process of urban restructuring and examines the way 'culture' becomes a planning instrument of the transformation. The thesis studies social practices that have influenced the process and examines the main actors, conflicts, and perceptions of obsolete industrial space. The main argument is the following. Artistic practices challenged negative perceptions of obsolete industrial space and represented and practised it as a space of the everyday. The practices have recognized and defended obsolete space in its present reality of obsolescence and their success has influenced urban planning and policies. Artistic practices have been labelled as 'culture' and 'culture' has become a planning instrument of regenerating obsolete industrial spaces. Case studies of the Cable Factory and the Suvilahti in Helsinki and the influence of the former on the latter give empirical evidence to the argument. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Drawing on discussions from critical economic geography, art history, and urban semiology, the first article analyses speculative redevelopment, conservation, and speculative conservation as ideal-typical practices of transforming obsolete industrial space. In these practices, obsolescence of industrial space is understood as a 'problem to be fixed'. The role of architecture as signifying a static notion of time is discussed. By representing architectural object as situated in the future or in the past, respectively, the analysed practices obscure social and political context of the architectural process. The second article presents a study of art works by Gordon Matta-Clark, Robert Smithson and Bernd and Hilla Becher and introduces the concept of negativity in industrial architecture. Rather than representing and practising obsolete industrial space as a 'problem to be fixed', these works acknowledge obsolete industrial space in its present reality of obsolescence. The notion of representing negativity in industrial space is theorized in contrast to representing obsolete space as 'negative'. The third article studies the Pro Kaapeli movement and its role in the transformation of the Cable Factory in Helsinki during the years 1989-1991. The conflict between the Helsinki city administration and the Pro Kaapeli is examined. Introducing the concept of empty space, the article studies how the Pro Kaapeli made use of the emptiness of obsolete industrial space. The Pro Kaapeli did not contest the perception of obsolete space as empty; rather, it contested the interpretation of emptiness as negative. The movement challenged the planned demolition and redevelopment of the factory by appealing to its emptiness, not to its use or function. For the Pro Kaapeli, the emptiness of space was not something to be 'fixed'. Empty space, in its emptiness, was accepted as the starting point in the spatial practice of continuous alterations. The fourth article is a case study of the ongoing transformation of Suvilahti in Helsinki. The transformation of the industrial premises of Suvilahti has been a planning project of the city of Helsinki and 'culture' has been the main instrument used. The article introduces the concepts of culture factory and cultural governmentality and examines the influence of the Cable Factory case on the planning of Suvilahti. The success of the Pro Kaapeli movement's defence of the Cable Factory contested negative perceptions of obsolete industrial spaces, but, unintentionally, it laid foundation for using 'culture' as an instrument of regenerating the obsolete spaces. Spontaneous practices of the Pro Kaapeli have been recognized as 'culture' and 'culture' has been employed as a planning instrument in the regeneration of the Suvilahti. The article discusses culture factory as a model of regenerated obsolete industrial space, which is the objective of planning in the Suvilahti. The planners encourage spontaneous 'cultural' practices for their perceived effects on regenerating obsolete industrial space. A form of planning practice that withdraws from planning the content of culture and instead plans or wishes for the social and urban effects of culture is conceptualized as cultural governmentality.
  • Salonius-Pasternak, Charly (2008)
    The study examines the impact that the ongoing transformation of the United States military has on the ability of the U.S. military to conduct Stability and Support Operations (SASO). It does this by fusing Thomas Barnett’s Core-Gap and Leviathan-SysAdmin frameworks with Barry Posen’s Command of the Commons-Contested zones concepts and then using the synthesized framework to evaluate whether the nature of changes in three spheres of the United States Armed Forces indicate that it will have an improved and more permanent SASO capability in the future. Public material, including national security strategies and other military publications are evaluated through the synthesized conceptual model. The first sphere, changes in national strategies and doctrines, suggests that while there was recognition for the need to transform the military by the late 1990s, little was done until 2004. Since then, both strategies and doctrines suggest increased political-bureaucratic support for addressing challenges related to SASO. The second sphere, changes in the organization of the United States Army, suggests that after a shift from division to brigade sized units of maneuver the Army will be in a better position to address the unique challenges posed by SASO. Changes in the procurement and training strategies of service branches also point to an increase in the attention paid to the needs of soldiers supporting Stability and Support Operations. Overall, the analysis suggests that the ongoing transformation of the United States military will increase ability of the U.S. Armed Forces to conduct successful SASO, while maintaining an unchallenged mastery of more conventional military operations.
  • Nikolaou, Evangelos (Helsingfors universitet, )
    The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of the Francovich doctrine within the European legal order. The first part deals with the gradual development of the ECJ's case law on State liability in damages for breach of EC law. Starting from the seminal Francovich and Brasserie du Pêcheur, the clarification of the criteria set by the Court is attempted with reference to subsequent case law, whereas issues concerning the extent and form of the compensation owned are also mentioned. The second part concerns one of the more recent developments in the field, namely State liability for breaches of Community law attributed to national judiciary. The Court's ruling in Köbler is examined in connection with two other recent judgments, namely Commission v. Italy of 2003 and Kühne & Heitz, as an attempt of the ECJ to reframe its relationships with national supreme courts and appropriate for itself the position of the Supreme Court in the European legal order. The implications on State liability claims by the ruling in Commission v. France of 1997 constitute the theme of the third part, where it is submitted that Member States can also be held liable for disregard of Community law by private individuals within their respected territories. To this extent, Schmidberger is viewed as a manifestation of this opinion, with fundamental rights acquiring a new dimension, being invoked by the States, contra the individuals as a shield to liability claims. Finally, the third part examines the relationship between the Francovich doctrine and the principle of legal certainty and concludes that the solutions employed by the ECJ have been both predictable and acceptable by the national legal orders. Keywords: State liability, damages, Francovich, Köbler, Schmidberger
  • Podshivalova, Polina (2013)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine the representations of Russian-European relations in the articles covering the Pussy Riot case in four Russian newspapers: Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Kommersant, Vedomosti, and Izvestia. The subject matter is relevant due to the fact that in recent years relations between Russia and Europe have become stagnant and unproductive. There are a variety of reasons that underpin the deterioration of Russian-European relations, including the world economic crisis and NATO expansion. However, coverage of these changes in the Russian press is influenced not only by the actual situation, but also by the discourses of political parties as well as by Russian national political culture. Because media representations convey values, beliefs, and meanings, the representations in Russian newspapers play a crucial role in shaping the way people see themselves and the country they live in. Media representations also have potential to influence how people perceive their relations with others and have an impact on their behavior. It means that Russian-European relations are eventually partly constructed by the way they are represented in the Russian press. The main research question is: how are relations between Europe and Russia represented in the articles covering the Pussy Riot case and in the context of Russian political culture and the discourses of different Russian political powers? The Pussy Riot case and associated events are a suitable angle for the research because they have invoked wide spread discussion in mass media and demonstrated some fundamental differences in Russian and European cultures. The Pussy Riot case is a criminal process of three members of the punk band Pussy Riot who were charged with hooliganism. The research is conducted within the theoretical frames of media discourse and international relations theory. The basic supposition implies that media discourse is, to a large extent, shaped by the discourses of diverse political forces and by a national political culture. In order to answer the research question, a critical discourse analysis of the relevant texts has been conducted on three levels: linguistic, intertextual, and the macro level of social structures. In the course of the analysis, it has been possible to retrieve a variety of representations of Russian-European relations. These representations are: political, cultural, and religious collision, Europe as a mentor, Europe as a savior, Europe as an economic partner, Russia as an integral part of Europe. The first one is more widely employed by the pro-government publications. The second and the third seem to be more relevant for the liberal press, while the last two representations are associated with the opinions of particular experts and politicians. Overall, the results enable us to conclude that the representation of Russian-European relations as a collision is hegemonic. It purports that regardless of what Putin’s government states in official papers and speeches meant for the European audience, it still does not consider Europe as a friend.
  • Mattero, Saara (2015)
    The Financial Transaction Tax, or FTT, was supposed to alleviate the financial burden of the Member States, curb out-of-control high-frequency trading and force the wealthy bankers to take responsibility in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Instead, the tax was seen in many ways an infringement of national sovereignty and a sign of creeping federalisation; taking the powers of the European Union to areas outside its competencies and impeding heavily on the national financial markets. This thesis is interested in the Parliamentary discourse around the FTT and how the controversial topic was presented, contested and justified by the Members of the Parliament, the MEPs. What is the impact of the tension between national and supranational decision-making levels, political ideology and personal utility-maximising on the voting decisions of the representatives? Furthermore, attention should be paid not only in how the MEPs voted in the plenary but also how they framed the issue in the plenary speeches. The representatives retain a strong incentive to appeal to their constituencies to maintain voter satisfaction and ultimately, to become re-elected. The theoretical framework is drawn from research on European integration, politicisation, the political groups in the European Parliament and theories of rational choice institutionalism. The research is conducted as a case study with mixed methods: through quantitative analysis of the MEPs’ voting decisions to enlighten the national and supranational tensions and qualitative analysis of the MEPs’ plenary debate before and after the vote. The results confirm largely the assumptions rising from the theoretical literature: the voting results reveal the strong pressures arising from conflicting national interests against the integration-advancing proposal. Representatives from the FTT-opposing Member States are clearly restricted in their actions, whereas MEPs from supporting Member States are almost unison in their support across group borders. If the Member State does not have a strong opinion on the FTT, most Members vote according to group instructions. The analysis from the debate proves that no single definition of the FTT exists - instead the justifications and notions of the tax range from global solidarity to staunch defenders of national sovereignty. The themes arising from the plenary discourses can be divided under three politicisation frames: a normative one emphasising the role of the banking sector as the root of the financial crisis with suffering citizens, a functional frame with ‘rational’ economic arguments and an authoritarian frame over the power struggle between national and supranational level decision-making. In general, MEPs from the large groups adhere more to an economic normalisation narrative of regulated capitalism vs. neoliberalism, whereas the smaller political groups in the ends of the political spectrum are more ideologically orientated in their speeches. The merits of the thesis lie in depicting the different forms of narratives the MEPs use regarding their background while proving the enduring influence of national pressures in supranational decision-making.
  • Gronow, Antti (Peter Lang, 2011)
    Pragmatism has sometimes been taken as a catchphrase for epistemological stances in which anything goes. However, other authors argue that the real novelty and contribution of this tradition has to do with its view of action as the context in which all things human take place. Thus, it is action rather than, for example, discourses that should be our starting point in social theory. The introductory section of the book situates pragmatism (especially the ideas of G. H. Mead and John Dewey) within the field and tradition of social theory. This introductory also contextualizes the main core of the book which consists of four chapters. Two of these chapters have been published as articles in scientific journals and one in an edited book. All of them discuss the core problem of social theory: how is action related to social structures (and vice versa)? The argument is that habitual action is the explanation for the emergence of social structures from our action. Action produces structures and social reproduction takes place when action is habitualized; that is, when we develop social dispositions to act in a certain manner in familiar environments. This also means that even though the physical environment is the same for all of us, our habits structure it into different kinds of action possibilities. Each chapter highlights these general insights from different angles. Practice theory has gained momentum in recent years and it has many commonalities with pragmatism because both highlight the situated and corporeal character of human activity. One famous proponent of practice theory is Margaret Archer who has argued that the pragmatism of G. H. Mead leads to an oversocialized conception of selfhood. Mead does indeed present a socialized view of selfhood but this is a meta-sociological argument rather than a substantial sociological claim. Accordingly, one can argue that in this general sense intersubjectivity precedes subjectivity and not the other way around. Such a view does not indicate that our social relation would necessarily "colonize" individual action because there is a place for internal conversations (in Archer s terminology); it is especially in those phases of action where it meets obstacles due to the changes of the environment. The second issue discussed has the background assumption that social structures can fruitfully be conceptualized as institutions. A general classification of different institution theories is presented and it is argued that there is a need for a habitual theory of institutions due to the problems associated with these other theories. So-called habitual institutionalism accounts for institutions in terms of established and prevalent social dispositions that structure our social interactions. The germs of this institution theory can be found in the work of Thorstein Veblen. Since Veblen s times, these ideas have been discussed for example, by the economist Geoffrey M. Hodgson. His ideas on the evolution of institutions are presented but a critical stance is taken towards his tendency of defining institutions with the help of rules because rules are not always present in institutions. Accordingly, habitual action is the most basic but by no means the only aspect of institutional reproduction. The third chapter deals with theme of action and structures in the context of Pierre Bourdieu s thought. Bourdieu s term habitus refers to a system of dispositions which structure social fields. It is argued that habits come close to the concept of habitus in the sense that the latter consists of particular kinds of habits; those that are related to the reproduction of socioeconomic positions. Habits are thus constituents of a general theory of societal reproduction whereas habitus is a systematic combination of socioeconomic habits. The fourth theme relates to issues of social change and development. The capabilities approach has been associated with the name of Amartya Sen, for example, and it underscores problems inhering in economistic ways of evaluating social development. However, Sen s argument has some theoretical problems. For example, his theory cannot adequately confront the problem of relativism. In addition, Sen s discussion lacks also a theory of the role of the public. With the help of arguments derived from pragmatism, one gets an action-based, socially constituted view of freedom in which the role of the public is essential. In general, it is argued that a socially constituted view of agency does not necessarily to lead to pessimistic conclusions about the freedom of action.
  • Laisi, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The From Home To Operation (FHTO) process was developed to respond to the dilemma of increasing patient load but limited resources. In the FHTO process, the patients are admitted on the morning of operation through a specialised preoperative unit immediately adjacent to the operation rooms (OR) regardless of the type of anaesthesia and surgical procedure, and of the possible postoperative need for hospitalisation. To maintain the anaesthesia safety in the process, some of the patients need to be referred to an anaesthesia preoperative evaluation clinic (APEC) according to predefined criteria. The aims of the study were to investigate the FHTO process, focusing on cost-effectiveness, the effect of process transition on surgery outcome, the role of anaesthesia preoperative evaluation clinic, and the rates and reasons for surgery cancellation. The study was conducted in Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Hyvinkää Hospital, and it included 13 000 surgical patients. The FHTO process was cost-effective compared to traditional preoperative process in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. The process transition from the combination of the FHTO and the traditional process to only the FHTO process did not have any effect on surgical outcome. Over 90% of elective patients can be admitted straight to the OR on the morning of operation. Only 25% of patients were referred to the APEC evaluation. As expected, these patients suffered from more additional health issues and underwent more difficult operation than the patients who were not evaluated at the APEC. Other postoperative complication rates did not differ between these two patient groups. Not all patients require a preoperative APEC evaluation. The cancellation rate was 4.5% in the FHTO process. Over 70% of all cancelled operations were related to patient-related reasons, and the most common single reason was that the operation was no longer necessary. The highest rates were in hand surgery and orthopaedic surgery. The overall cancellation rate in the FHTO process was at a reasonable level, however, to improve OR usage it should still be decreased. The intention should be to admit elective patients on the morning of the operation without any preoperative visit to the surgical ward. The preoperative processes should be developed as a whole, and the traditional process allowed to pass into history.
  • Sneck, Timo (2002)
    The earlier futures studies have not focused on the continuous transformation of the future-oriented knowledge into practice. A clear market for transforming this knowledge has been discovered. The lack of a proper paradigm has hindered the futures researchers in building a proper relation between the accuracy of results and the corresponding decision-making situation. This has decreased the utilisation of futures research. Therefore, I created a new method to make accurate forecasts for the decision-making moment. The core idea is co-operation of many actors in creating and using the future-oriented knowledge. This joint forecasting and guidance system leads to a functional paradigm of futures research, which connects global responsibilities to joint short-term activities. Fourteen case studies leaded to a new method and paradigm. Firstly, I discovered a distinction between the creation of future-shaping innovations and external pressures of change. Secondly, I formulated change patterns in the phenomena being forecasted. These patterns gave a methodological base for individual studies needed in the system. Thirdly, I developed a systematic co-operation of the actors in the production and utilisation of the forecasts. The last step was the formulation of the platforms needed in guidance and execution of the forecasted actions. The stepwise lift model for labour qualifications and the open technology strategy are especially needed as platforms for the public sector and the private enterprises to combine their development efforts. The joint actors of the forecasting and guidance system can systematically co-operate in the production and usage of new future-oriented knowledge. Technically, the system includes procedures to increase the accuracy of anticipated knowledge during the time between the first forecast and the moment the decision has to be made. Accordingly, this study introduces methods with which one can evaluate proper investments that create sustainable growth. Thereafter, platforms to create successful product oriented employment in coherence with long term global responsibility are a vital part of the joint system. Isolated futures studies are outside of the core of the functional paradigm of futures studies. The new core consists of continuous, repeated and co-ordinated work between the joint producers and users of knowledge.
  • Tiippana, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Postoperative pain may persist for months and it is crucial to identify those patients at risk, treat their pain and to develop methods that decrease the incidence of persistent pain. This study investigated the intensity of acute postoperative pain, the incidence of chronic postsurgical pain, and the possibilities of influencing these by focusing on thoracotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCC) as examples. This research also assessed the efficacy of perioperative opioid-sparing drugs (gabapentinoids, dexamethasone, NSAIDs and paracetamol), and analyzed whether tropisetron abolishes the analgesic action of paracetamol. Acute and chronic pain after thoracic surgery was investigated in two clinical studies. Study I included 111 patients, and Study IV included 30 intervention patients + a control group of 111 standard care patients. Pain was treated with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) or intravenous patient controlled analgesia with morphine or oxycodone (IV-PCA) + NSAIDs. Study II included 160 day-case LCC patients who received pare/valdecoxib or paracetamol, with or without dexamethasone. Study III was a systematic review with a meta-analysis including 22 randomized, controlled trials on the perioperative administration of gabapentin (21) and pregabalin (1) for postoperative pain relief. Study V consisted of 2 randomized, double-blind, crossover studies with 18 healthy male volunteers in each. The cold pressor test, contact heat pain and electrical stimulation were used, and the volunteers received tropisetron or saline, followed by IV paracetamol. TEA was effective in alleviating movement-related pain and the duration of pain after coughing in thoracotomy patients. The extended protocol for pain management in hospital, which also covers the sub-acute phase at home, was found to be important in preventing acute and persistent post-thoracotomy pain. One week after discharge, 92-100% of the patients needed daily pain medication and 71-77% required weak opioids. In Study I, the incidence of disturbing chronic pain at 6 months was 12%, and in Study IV, these numbers were 3% in the intervention group versus 24% in the control group (p<0.01). Dexamethasone significantly reduced the need for oxycodone after LCC, and shoulder pain was long-lasting. Multimodal pain treatment enabled smooth outpatient LCC. The systematic review indicated that pain relief was significantly better in the gabapentin groups. The consumption of opioids 24 h after a single dose of preoperative gabapentin was reduced by 20-62%, and opioid-related adverse effects were also reduced. In Study V, paracetamol did not display a statistically significant analgesia on the thermal or electrical pain stimulation tests. In fact, tropisetron seemed to amplify the analgesic action of paracetamol.
  • Hellsten, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The dissertation comprises four articles which have as a leading theme the relationship between the economic and social factors in EU labour law. The first one, headed On Social and Economic Factors in the Developing European Labour Law discusses EU directives on collective redundancies and transfer of undertakings. The author also criticizes the theory of converse pyramids, according to which the social factors would be generally subordinated to economic factors in EU law. The second article, On the Social Dimension in Posting of Workers , discusses the Posted Workers Directive (96/71) and highlights how it applies within the legal framework set up by the EC Treaty, which also means that a proportionality assessment is applicable to the workers rights under the directive. In the context of the Laval case the author concludes that the ILO obligations of the EU Member States form a valid legal basis for such action in EU law, too, which is based on a combined effect of Article 307(1) EC and general international law. The third article, On the Social Dimension in the Context of EC Competition Law , deals with the interpretation of the relationship between collective labour agreements and competition rules on the basis of the Albany judgment. The immunity of collective labour agreements set up in that judgment is fundamental. The author concludes regarding Article 86(2) EC that it may also cover particular social tasks of general interest. At social security systems this may mean that, as the AOK Bundeskassen judgment shows, certain competition elements included in such systems do not necessarily lead to the application of competition rules. Accordingly, in the Finnish Earnings-Relates Pension Scheme TEL certain inherent restrictions of competition should be regarded as justified under Article 86(2) EC. In the fourth article, From Internal Market Regulation to ordre communautaire social , the author develops a proposal for a new collective labour law paradigm in the EU. It would comprise the leading premises and principles of EU and international labour law: labour is not a commodity (the ILO Constitution), improvement of working conditions (Article 136 EC), respect for EU and international fundamental rights, respect for the European social model (prominent role of collective agreements) and non-discrimination of grounds of nationality. An employer acting against these principles should not enjoy legal protection in EU law. As to the development of collective labour law in the EU, the author adheres to the thesis that in the long run Europeanisation of economy leads to the emergence of a European framework. However, at present it seems to develop essentially through case-law (the Laval and Viking cases).
  • Loponen, Mika (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The thesis concentrates on two questions: the translation of metaphors in literary texts, and the use of semiotic models and tools in translation studies. The aim of the thesis is to present a semiotic, text based model designed to ease the translation of metaphors and to analyze translated metaphors. In the translation of metaphors I will concentrate on the central problem of metaphor translations: in addition to its denotation and connotation, a single metaphor may contain numerous culture or genre specific meanings. How can a translator ensure the translation of all meanings relevant to the text as a whole? I will approach the question from two directions. Umberto Eco's holistic text analysis model provides an opportunity to concentrate on the problematic nature of metaphor translation from the level of a text as a specific entity, while George Lakoff's and Mark Johnson's metaphor research makes it possible to approach the question from the level of individual metaphors. On the semiotic side, the model utilizes Eero Tarasti's existential semiotics supported by Algirdas Greimas' actant model and Yuri Lotman's theory of cultural semiotics. In the model introduced in the thesis, individual texts are deconstructed through Eco's model into elements. The textual roles and features of these elements are distilled further through Tarasti's model into their coexistent meaning levels. The priorization and analysis of these meaning levels provide an opportunity to consider the contents and significance of specific metaphors in relation to the needs of the text as a whole. As example texts, I will use Motörhead's hard rock classic Iron Horse/Born to Lose and its translation into Rauta-airot by Viikate. I will use the introduced model to analyze the metaphors in the source and target texts, and to consider the transfer of culture specific elements between the languages and cultural borders. In addition, I will use the analysis process to examine the validity of the model introduced in the thesis.
  • Tuokko, Katja (2012)
    The accession to the European Union (EU) in 1995 has been one of the most important decisions made in the post-Cold War Finland. A decade after the end of the Cold War period, Finland had become a full member of both the EU and the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) entering the inner circle of European decision-making. Deepening European integration created a challenge for Finnish parties which had traditionally based their ideology on national default lines. For Vasemmistoliitto (VAS), the dimension of European integration created a challenge. In the 1990’s, VAS, established as a successor of Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto (SKDL), had to form its opinion on European integration. As other European radical left parties, VAS too, struggled to find its ideological basis on the post-Cold War Europe. This study discusses VAS position on European integration from the establishment of the party in 1990 until 1998. By means of qualitative content analysis, it seeks to answer what the VAS position on European integration was and why did it change. Party archives, two interviews of VAS party secretaries and newspaper material have been used as primary sources of the analysis. The main finding of this study is that VAS position on European integration was characterized by the party’s will to be seen as fit to govern. VAS leadership avoided taking an official position to the EU membership and finally in 1997, after a member referendum, the party adopted a pro-EMU line. As all major parties supported European integration, anti-EU and anti-EMU positions would have meant a role in opposition ranks for VAS for years to come. In the 1990’s, VAS was characterized by inner conflict and the rise of social populism inside the party. As the majority of VAS voters were against European integration, VAS position on Europe did not reflect the opinions of the voters of the party very well. VAS was traumatized by the deep inner split of its predecessor SKDL and isolation from the mainstream Finnish politics. The long path in opposition that SKDL had experienced was a frightening future scenario for VAS. In order to advance values and politics central to the party, VAS had the urge to be seen as fit to govern and as a reliable coalition partner. The Nordic sister parties’ decades long path in opposition only strengthened the will of VAS to be there where the decision were made. The accelerating pace of European integration in the 1990’s partly urged VAS to rethink in which direction it as a radical left-wing party was heading to. The questions on the EU and the EMU were a stimulus for VAS to define what kind of values it aimed to advance.
  • Portman, Anneli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study looked at the values expressed in rulers’ (Czars and Presidents) public speeches in Finland from 1809-2000. Society’s values are manifested and upheld also through rituals and ceremonies, e.g. recurring public speeches. These speeches are most often held by the head of state, acting as a spokesperson for the entire society. Three types of written collections of speeches (N=355) directed to the entire population were used: Parliament Opening Speeches (1809-2000), Prayer Day Declarations (1812-1999) and New Year’s Speeches (1935-2000). The texts were analyzed using qualitative theory-driven content analysis. For the analysis a coding manual was created, which was based on Schwartz’ Theory of Basic Human Values and on previous Finnish value research. The results show that rulers present themselves as promoters of the society’s goals; they also act as creators and protectors of societal cohesion, which results in the emphasis on Self-transcendence and Conservation values. Towards the end of the time included in this study there is a marked rise in Universalism values, as questions of nature conservation and maintenance of global peace come to the forefront of the larger political agenda. Overall changes of values in the data follow the predicted pattern of societal pluralization, but not of secularization. The findings confirm the applicability of the survey-based Schwartz Value Theory also for archival value research. However, the findings also demonstrate that the two value types found in previous Finnish studies (Spirituality, Work-related values) are also necessary to depict the promoted values. Contrary to the theory-based expectations, Self-enhancement values and Self-direction values are only presented as values for the collective, not the individual. The Czars and Presidents mostly differ on the scope of their value emphasis. In their speeches the Czars emphasize values relating to spirituality, and to the in-group and its welfare. The Presidents, appeal to a wider variety of values, reflecting more the contemporary political situations, e.g. Work-related values are accentuated especially in the times of crisis (e.g. war, recession). The results of this study underline the importance of the context in value research, and contribute to the widening of value research into political and archival data. This study adds to the research of how societal cohesion is rhetorically maintained. This thesis bridges social psychology and political history, thus also adding to historical research, but results can also be applied in larger societal context to better understand the links between leaders and their followers, be they democratic rulers or not.
  • Miroshnyk, Inna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Organic crystalline materials, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipients, can be considered as supermolecules. This implies that crystals are not merely collections of individual molecules but they have structural features and properties that are characteristic not of the molecules themselves but of larger, more extended assemblies hold together by non-covalent interactions. Until recently, the solid-state and supramolecular chemistry of the API were often overlooked within the drug research and development programs. Consequently, there are a number of gaps in our understanding of solid-state structure properties relationships of pharmaceutical solids. More integrated approaches to investigating pharmaceutical materials are therefore required to link the scattered knowledge within the multidisciplinary pharmaceutical industry. In this thesis, pharmaceutical solid materials were viewed as supramolecular entities in attempt to understand their macroscopic properties at fundamental molecular level. Within this research framework, new insights into structure properties relationships among the 14- and 15-membered macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin A and B, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin) was obtained. Specifically, the proximity of the monosaccharide moieties to each other and the type of molecular aggregates in the solid state were related to the properties of biopharmaceutical importance, such as polar surface area, molecular flexibility, dissolution rate and hydration processes. Furthermore, thermally-induced phase transformations of structurally diverse pharmaceutical hydrates (erythromycin A dihydrate, nitrofurantoin monohydrate, and alpha-lactose monohydrate) were reported, with the impact of crystal packing and the mode of host-guest interactions on the dehydration pathways being emphasized. Finally, crystal morphology modulation proved to be an effective tool for enhancing tabletting performance of APIs with poor compaction characteristics. Overall, the knowledge derived from this thesis advances an understanding of the links between molecular and crystal structure, properties, and performance of pharmaceutical solid materials, thus creating a scientific basis for drug, dosage form and manufacturing process design.
  • Sepp, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study represents comparative educational research focusing on music syllabi in the National Curricula for basic schools and the pedagogical thinking of music teachers in those schools in Estonia and Finland. The thesis consists of six articles and a summary explaining the background of the research, the research methods, as well as the conclusions and further discussions about the results. The aim of the research was to study and compare the music syllabi and their influence on general music education and actual music practices in the two countries. The study also aimed at specification and comparison of pedagogical thinking of teachers teaching music in basic schools as well as tried to identify what objectives, content, practices and methods they used. The data came from three different sources: the current music syllabi in the National Core curricula in both countries, answers to a web-based questionnaire (N = 157) and semi-structured interviews (N = 10) for teachers teaching music in basic schools. The data were analysed using a mixed method, which became intertwined: the aim was to compare and obtain an overall idea about the role and meaning of the music syllabi on the music practices and to find out about the pedagogical thinking of the teachers music teaching. In the first stage, the music syllabi of both countries were compared using content analysis by themes and categories; next, the answers to the closed questions of the questionnaire were quantitatively analysed and the answers to the open questions were studied and qualitatively compared using content analysis. In the third stage, the data from the interviews were qualitatively analysed using directed content analysis. Finally, the entire data set was reviewed to obtain a more reliable overall picture, and the results of the analyses allowed to draw some conclusions. The results of the neighbouring countries of Estonia and Finland revealed several similarities as well as differences in their music syllabi and in the music teachers pedagogical thinking. The major differences were related to the level of prescription of the music syllabi, the optional status of the subject and the number of lessons. The music syllabus in the National Curriculum in Estonia provides more detailed explanations, and music is a compulsory subject throughout basic schooling. The music syllabus in Finland is more like a framework according to which teachers are expected to design the local curricula, and the subject is optional from grade 8 onwards. The number of music lessons per week also differs. The main objectives of the music syllabi in both countries confirm the idea of musicing: engaging pupils in the real world of music by singing, playing instruments, listening to various styles and genres of music, and expressing their own ideas through improvisation, composition and movement. The pedagogical thinking and use of music practices in the two countries also revealed similar tendencies. Thus, the use of Riho Päts approach to music teaching is naturally more widespread in Estonia, but as several Estonian music teachers also work in Finland, this approach has also become more popular here.