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  • Kanerva, Jari (omakustanne, 2010)
    The object of study in this thesis is Finnish skiing culture and Alpine skiing in particular from the point of view of ethnology. The objective is to clarify how, when, why and by what routes Alpine skiing found its way to Finland. What other phenomena did it bring forth? The objective is essentially linked to the diffusion of modern sports culture to Finland. The introduction of Alpine skiing to Finland took place at a time when skiing culture was changing: flat terrain skiing was abandoned in favour of cross-country skiing in the early decades of the 20th century, and new techniques and equipment made skiing a much more versatile sport. The time span of the study starts from the late 19th century and ends in the mid-20th century. The spatial focus is in Finland. People and communities formed through their actions are core elements in the study of sports and physical activity. Organizations tend to raise themselves into influential actors in the field of physical culture even if active individuals work in their background. Original archive documents and publications of sports organizations are central source material for this thesis, complemented by newspapers and sports magazines as well as photographs and films on early Alpine skiing in Finland. Ever since their beginning in the late 19th century skiing races in Finland had mostly taken place on flat terrain or sea ice. Skiing in broken cross-country terrain made its breakthrough in the 1920 s, at a time when modern skiing techniques were introduced in instruction manuals. In the late 1920 s the Finnish Women s Physical Education Association (SNLL) developed unconventional forms of pedagogical skiing instruction. They abandoned traditional Finnish flat terrain skiing and boldly looked for influences abroad, which caused friction between the leaders of the women s sports movement and the (male) leaders of the central skiing organization. SNLL was instrumental in launching winter tourism in Finnish Lapland in 1933. The Finnish Tourism Society, the State Railways and sports organizations worked in close co-operation to instigate a boom in tourism, which culminated in the inauguration of a tourist hotel at Pallastunturi hill in the winter of 1938. Following a Swedish model, fell-skiing was developed as a domestic counterpart to Alpine skiing as practiced in Central Europe. The first Finnish skiing resorts were built at sites of major cross-country skiing races. Inspired by the slope at Bad Grankulla health spa, the first slalom skiing races and fell-skiing, slalom enthusiasts began to look for purpose-built sites to practice turn technique. At first they would train in natural slopes but in the late 1930 s new slopes were cleared for slalom races and recreational skiing. The building of slopes and ski lifts and the emergence of organized slalom racing competitions gradually separated Alpine skiing from the old fell-skiing. After the Second World War fell-skiing was transformed into ski trekking on marked courses. At the same time Alpine skiing also parted ways with cross-country skiing to become a sport of its own. In the 1940 s and 1950 s Finnish Alpine skiing was almost exclusively a competitive sport. The specificity of Alpine skiing was enhanced by rapid development of equipment: the new skis, bindings and shoes could only be used going downhill.
  • Kassinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder, most likely with multiple interacting factors contributing to its aetiology. The intestinal microbiota has been proposed as one of these factors. The human intestinal microbiota is a rich and dynamic microbial community inhabited by 1014 microbial cells, most of which are uncultivable. Therefore, the use of molecular methods capable of detecting the uncultivable microbes is essential. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) technology was assessed for the quantification of bacteria from faecal samples, and 43 assays were designed for quantifying resident, pathogenic, probiotic or IBS-related bacteria or bacterial phylotypes. With real-time PCR, a 0.01% subpopulation could be quantified from mixed faecal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, with a linear range of five orders of magnitude. The method proved to be sensitive and accurate also with intact bacterial cells spiked to faecal samples. The intestinal microbiota of subjects suffering from IBS was then compared with that of healthy controls. For comparing the microbiotas on a scale covering the entire community, genomic microbial DNA extracted from faecal samples was pooled according to symptom subtype and percent guanine plus cytosine (G+C) profiled. The three most diverging %G+C fractions were analysed by cloning and partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. The clone libraries on the whole diverged from each other, and several differences were detected in the abundances of certain phylotypes. The genera Coriobacterium and Collinsella within the phylum Actinobacteria were considerably more abundant in the pooled healthy control sample. To analyse the quantities of putatively IBS-associated phylotypes within individual samples, real-time PCR was applied. Several significant differences were detected, including a novel clostridial 16S rRNA gene phylotype associated with mixed-subtype IBS and healthy controls and a Ruminococcus torques resembling phylotype associated with diarrhoea-predominant IBS. Diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients diverged from constipation-predominant and mixed-subtype IBS patients and the healthy controls, in a multivariate analysis of 14 phylotypes. It should be noted, however, that these results give no indication as to whether the observed alterations are a causative agent in IBS aetiology or merely a result of the altered environment in the disturbed gut. These results support the hypothesis of intestinal bacteria having a role in IBS, and the specific phylotype-level differences detected warrant further studies for their potential use in IBS diagnostics, therapeutic trial follow-up and host-microbe interactions.
  • Komulainen, Anne (2013)
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating disease with poorly understood pathogenesis. It is characterized by abnormal remodelling of pulmonary vasculature due to uncontrolled apoptosis and proliferation of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vascular wall. In severe PAH pulmonary ECs exhibit hyperproliferative and apoptosis resistant phenotype contributing to the formation of neointima and development of plexiformic lesions. Structural changes promote occlusion of vascular lumen, and thus, increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. To date we lack efficient therapy to prevent vascular remodelling and restore normal vascular function in PAH. Purinergic signalling is potential modulator of pulmonary vascular homeostasis. It comprises of extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, which signal through their receptors on cell membrane. Ectoenzymes with nucleotide hydrolyzing activity have an essential part in controlling homeostasis and physiologic concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Ectoenzyme CD39 plays a crucial role in dephosphorylating ATP, which is a known mediator of inflammation, angiogenesis, thrombosis and vasoconstriction according to previous research. Aims of this project were to study the role of extracellular ATP in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction during PAH pathogenesis. The goal was to evaluate the significance of ATPases, such as CD39, in the disease process and to identify significant ATP receptors on pulmonary ECs. We utilized a previously unused strategy to monitor ATPase activity in vivo in pulmonary endothelium of rats with PAH. With this strategy we could identify changes in a time-line manner. Our results indicate that ATPase activity is significantly attenuated in ECs during disease process. Similar finding was also observed in human pulmonary EC isolated from PAH patients suggesting that loss of ATPase activity mediated increase of extracellular ATP could play a role in disease pathogenesis. Our in vitro experiments reveal that loss-of CD39 in human pulmonary ECs leads to an apoptosis resistant and hyperproliferative phenotype. We also identify that purinergic receptor P2Y11 is a critical mediator of ATP responses in these ECs. Suppression of ATP mediated P2Y11 response in apoptosis resistant PAH patient ECs restores normal EC phenotype and thus, suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary occlusive vasculopathy.
  • Suntio, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The diversity of functions of eukaryotic cells is preserved by enclosing different enzymatic activities into membrane-bound organelles. Separation of exocytic proteins from those which remain in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) casts the foundation for correct compartmentalization. The secretory pathway, starting from the ER membrane, operates by the aid of cytosolic coat proteins (COPs). In anterograde transport, polymerization of the COPII coat on the ER membrane is essential for the ER exit of proteins. Polymerization of the COPI coatomer on the cis-Golgi membrane functions for the retrieval of proteins from the Golgi for repeated use in the ER. The COPII coat is formed by essential proteins; Sec13/31p and Sec23/24p have been thought to be indispensable for the ER exit of all exocytic proteins. However, we found that functional Sec13p was not required for the ER exit of yeast endogenous glycoprotein Hsp150 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hsp150 turned out to be an ATP phosphatase. ATP hydrolysis by a Walker motif located in the C-terminal domain of Hsp150 was an active mediator for the Sec13p and Sec24p independent ER exit. Our results suggest that in yeast cells a fast track transport route operates in parallel with the previously described cisternal maturation route of the Golgi. The fast track is used by Hsp150 with the aid of its C-terminal ATPase activity at the ER-exit. Hsp150 is matured with a half time of less than one minute. The cisternal maturation track is several-fold slower and used by other exocytic proteins studied so far. Operative COPI coat is needed for ER exit by a subset of proteins but not by Hsp150. We located a second active determinant to the Hsp150 polypeptide s N-terminal portion that guided also heterologous fusion proteins out of the ER in COPII coated vesicles under non-functional COPI conditions for several hours. Our data indicate that ER exit is a selective, receptor-mediated event, not a bulk flow. Furthermore, it suggests the existence of another retrieval pathway for essential reusable components, besides the COPI-operated retrotransport route. Additional experiments suggest that activation of the COPI primer, ADP ribosylation factor (ARF), is essential also for Hsp150 transport. Moreover, it seemed that a subset of proteins directly needed activated ARF in the anterograde transport to complete the ER exit. Our results indicate that coat structures and transport routes are more variable than it has been imagined.
  • Roa Grisales, Hernan Mauricio (2011)
    The new paradigm of connectedness and empowerment brought by the interactivity feature of the Web 2.0 has been challenging the traditional centralized performance of mainstream media. The corporation has been able to survive the strong winds by transforming itself into a global multimedia business network embedded in the network society. By establishing networks, e.g. networks of production and distribution, the global multimedia business network has been able to sight potential solutions by opening the doors to innovation in a decentralized and flexible manner. Under this emerging context of re-organization, traditional practices like sourcing need to be re- explained and that is precisely what this thesis attempts to tackle. Based on ICT and on the network society, the study seeks to explain within the Finnish context the particular case of Helsingin Sanomat (HS) and its relations with the youth news agency, Youth Voice Editorial Board (NÄT). In that sense, the study can be regarded as an explanatory embedded single case study, where HS is the principal unit of analysis and NÄT its embedded unit of analysis. The thesis was able to reach explanations through interrelated steps. First, it determined the role of ICT in HS’s sourcing practices. Then it mapped an overview of the HS’s sourcing relations and provided a context in which NÄT was located. And finally, it established conceptualized institutional relational data between HS and NÄT for their posterior measurement through social network analysis. The data set was collected via qualitative interviews addressed to online and offline editors of HS as well as interviews addressed to NÄT’s personnel. The study concluded that ICT’s interactivity and User Generated Content (UGC) are not sourcing tools as such but mechanism used by HS for getting ideas that could turn into potential news stories. However, when it comes to visual communication, some exemptions were found. The lack of official sources amidst the immediacy leads HS to rely on ICT’s interaction and UGC. More than meets the eye, ICT’s input into the sourcing practice may be more noticeable if the interaction and UGC is well organized and coordinated into proper and innovative networks of alternative content collaboration. Currently, HS performs this sourcing practice via two projects that differ, precisely, by the mode they are coordinated. The first project found, Omakaupunki, is coordinated internally by Sanoma Group’s owned media houses HS, Vartti and Metro. The second project found is coordinated externally. The external alternative sourcing network, as it was labeled, consists of three actors, namely HS, NÄT (professionals in charge) and the youth. This network is a balanced and complete triad in which the actors connect themselves in relations of feedback, recognition, creativity and filtering. However, as innovation is approached very reluctantly, this content collaboration is a laboratory of experiments; a ‘COLLABORATORY’.
  • Kirk, David (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Clostridium botulinum presents a risk to food safety through the production of endospores. These spores are highly heat-resistant and may withstand temperatures used in food processing. Despite this, the process of spore formation is poorly understood in C. botulinum. This study aimed to analyse in Group I C. botulinum ATCC 3502 the role of sigma (σ) factors σF, σE, σG, and σK. The role of these σ factors is well known in other spore formers, activating in an ordered cascade to regulate gene transcription during sporulation. To study gene expression during sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, we identified a suitable normalisation reference gene for reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Mutants of sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK were examined on the transcriptional level during sporulation, and each strain was characterised for growth and spore formation. Furthermore, the role of σK in stress tolerance was investigated under cold, NaCl, and pH stresses. Transcriptional analysis, from exponential to stationary phases of growth, of eight candidate reference genes was performed. The candidate genes were 16S ribosomal RNA (rrn), the ATP metabolism enzymes adenosine kinase (adK) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gluD), the DNA-binding protein gyrase (gyrA), and ribosome-related proteins alanyl-tRNA synthetase (alaS), GTP-binding Era (era), RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoC) and 30S ribosomal protein S10 (rpsJ). Of these candidates, only 16S rrn was stable during the study period. 16S rrn was used as the normalisation reference gene for RT-qPCR analysis of spo0A, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK expression during the same growth period. Expression of spo0A was highest during exponential growth, suggesting a role in early sporulation. Induction of sigF, sigE, and sigG expression occurred on entry into stationary growth, indicating a role in sporulation. Expression of sigK appeared biphasic, being expressed in both exponential and stationary phases, suggesting σK may play a dual role in sporulation. The genes of σF, σE, σG, and σK were mutated using the ClosTron tool. RT-qPCR analysis of the sigF and sigE sense mutants suggested that the sporulation pathway was disrupted in the early stages. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, which showed that all sigF and sigE mutants were unable to form spores. They halted sporulation after asymmetric cell division, stage II of the seven-stage sporulation cycle. The sigG sense mutant showed delayed transcription of the sporulation pathway and both sigG mutants possessed a thin spore coat but no cortex. This indicated that σG may be responsible for cortex, but not coat, formation in C. botulinum. The sigK sense mutant did not express the early-sporulation genes spo0A and sigF. Both sigK mutants appeared to halt sporulation early. Sporulation was restored by complementing the sigK mutation in trans. These results suggested that σK plays an essential role in early sporulation of C. botulinum ATCC 3502, and adds further weight to the possibility of a dual role in sporulation overall in this strain. Expression of sigK was assessed in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 after cold, osmotic (NaCl), and acidic shock. After cold and osmotic shock, expression of sigK was induced. Both sense and antisense sigK mutants were then grown under stress conditions of low temperature, high NaCl, and low pH. Under low temperature and high NaCl conditions, but not in low pH, growth of the mutant strains was negatively affected compared to parent strain growth, suggesting that σK may play a role in tolerance to low temperature and high salinity stress conditions.
  • Luhtavaara, Antto (2008)
    Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani altistuneen kenialaisen nuoren aikuisen sisäisen semioosin ja kenialaisen yhteiskunnan moninaisten sosiosemioosien suhdetta. Altistunut (“exposed”) tarkoittaa paikallisessa slangissa, shengissä, henkilöä, joka on päässyt kokemaan muunkinlaisia konteksteja kuin vain oman heimonsa ja kotikylänsä. Tarkoitus on selvittää, minkälaiseksi 1980-luvulla syntynyt altistunut kenialainen kokee oman tavoitteellisen toimintansa yhteiskunnassa. Tarkoitus on myös pohtia, miksi nuoret aikuiset haluavat niin kovasti altistua yhä laajempaan kontekstiin ja miten altistuminen vaikuttaa heidän tapaansa hahmottaa maailmaa, muita ihmisiä ja muita tavoitteita. Tein kenttätyöni syys-lokakuussa 2007 Keniassa, Kisumun kaupungissa ja sen lähialueilla. Pääaineistoni koostuu 41:stä keskimäärin tunnin kestäneestä kahdenkeskisestä haastattelusta, jotka kävimme englanniksi. Lisäksi tein lukuisia muita haastatteluja, kävin keskusteluja ja havainnoin yhteiskuntaa. Sain noin puolet haastateltavistani Suomen Luterilaisen Evankeliumiyhdistyksen kautta. Toisen puolen sain paikallisen Masenon yliopiston luennoitsijoiden avustuksella. Lähestyn sisäistä semioosia teoreettisesti kolmen teoreettisen käsitteen kautta: tavoitteiden, keinojen ja arvojen kudelmana. Margaret S. Archer (2003) kuvaa tavoitteiden merkitystä sisäisessä keskustelussa: kuinka tavoitteet suhtautuvat toisiinsa ja kuinka ne ohjaavat toimijaa? Mikael Leiman (1992, 1994, 2003) ja hänen kollegansa kuvaavat semioottisesti sitä toimijan keinojen repertuaaria, joka muodostuu vuorovaikutuksessa makrotason yhteiskunnan, toisten toimijoiden ja itsensä kanssa. Eero Tarasti (2000, 2004) erottelee analyyttisesti kolmenlaisia arvoja, jotka ovat erottamaton osa koettavien merkkien merkityksiä sisäisessä semioosissa. Hahmotin kentältä kolme analyyttisesti eroteltavaa sosiosemioottista kieltä: heimotradition, paikallisen kristillisyyden ja lokaalin länsimaalaisuuden kielen. Kielet erottuvat toisistaan arvomaailmaltaan, auktoriteeteiltaan ja maantieteellisiltä konteksteiltaan. Kielet eivät juurikaan sekoitu keskenään, vaan toimija joutuu sitoutumaan eri konteksteissa erilaisiin toimintatapoihin, arvoihin ja uskomuksiin. Kielet eivät myöskään pääse kehittymään avoimesti, koska sisäinen merkitysten avaaminen ja niistä keskusteleminen on mahdotonta. Traditioiden ja kristillisyyden kielissä auktoriteetti on merkitsijä, joka sulkee merkitykset ehdottomiksi. Lokaalissa länsimaalaisuudessa merkitsijää ei ole, mutta myöskään merkityksiä avaavaa keskustelua ei ole olemassa. Paikallinen altistumiseen tähtäävä toimija joutuu suhtautumaan ympäröiviin sosiosemiooseihin strategisesti tai välttelevästi. Kyseenalaistamiseen tai merkityksistä neuvottelemiseen ei ole varaa. Altistuminen on jatkuvaa kilpailua aineellisistä ja informatiivisista resursseista, joita koetaan olevan niukasti. Yhteiskunnan läpäissyt kilpailuajattelu tekee kahden toimijan välisestä luottamuksesta ja avautuvasta läheisyydestä mahdotonta. Altistuminen alistaa kaikki muut tavoitteet odottamaan altistumisen riittävää toteutumista. Se on tavoite, joka merkitsee mielenkiintoisten uusien kokemusten lisäksi valtavaa elintasomuutosta. Tavoitteelliselle toimijalle ei jää vaihtoehtoja.
  • Tala, Kirsti (2005)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa on haastateltu seitsemää vapaaehtoistyöntekijää, jotka kaikki ovat olleet saman, kunnallisen organisaation järjestämän vapaaehtoistoiminnan vapaaehtoisia. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on ollut selvittää vapaaehtoistyön merkitystä heidän elämänsä sisältönä. Tutkimuksen näkökulmana on vapaaehtoistyöntekijöiden näkemys toiminnastaan. Tutkimus on toteutettu teemahaastatteluna. Haastattelussa vapaaehtoisilta kysyttiin heidän elämäntilannettaan, sitä miksi he olivat hakeutuneet vapaaehtoistoimintaan, millaiseen toimintaan he osallistuvat, ja mitä toiminta heille merkitsee. Lisäksi kysyttiin toiminnan kehittämisideoita. Tutkimustulokset vahvistavat aikaisempaa tutkimustietoa siitä, että motiivit hakeutua vapaaehtoistoimintaan ovat vaihtelevia ja yksilöllisiä ja omaan elämäntilanteeseen liittyviä. Motiiveille on yhteistä yksilöllinen altruismi ja toiminnan vastavuoroisuuden korostuminen. Kaikki tutkimuksen haastateltavat olivat hakeutuneet vapaaehtoistoimintaan elämäntilanteen muutoksen yhteydessä. Haastateltavat olivat keski-ikäisiä naisia, mikä vahvistaa aikaisempaa tutkimustietoa vapaaehtoistyöntekijöiden sukupuolesta ja ikäjakaumasta. Suurin osa haastatelluista ei ollut enää työelämässä mukana. Vapaaehtoistoimintaan he olivat tulleet mukaan jäätyään työelämästä pois eläkkeelle jäämisen tai työttömyyden vuoksi. Työelämästä poisjäänti oli jättänyt heidän elämäänsä tyhjää aikaa, johon pyrittiin löytämään mielekästä sisältöä vapaaehtoistoiminnasta. Vapaaehtoistyön merkitystä haastateltavien elämässä korosti se, että siihen käytetään melko paljon aikaa elämässä, toiminta koetaan mielekkäänä, ja siihen on hakeuduttu elämänmuutoksen yhteydessä. Kysyttäessä ideoita toiminnan kehittämiseen vapaaehtoiset toivoivat, että vapaaehtoistoiminnan organisointia voitaisiin kehittää yhtenäisemmäksi, jolloin avun tarjonta ja kysyntä kohtaisivat paremmin.
  • Pöysti, Virve (2008)
    Postsosialistiset kaupungit ovat Neuvostoliiton hajottua olleet jatkuvassa muutoksen tilassa. Siirtyminen suunnitelmataloudesta markkinatalouteen on vaikuttanut myös kaupunkien sosiospatiaaliseen rakenteeseen. Tutkimuksessani tarkastelen laajemmin näitä muutoksia tutustumalla ensin sosialistisiin kaupunkeihin ja niiden kehitykseen vaikuttaneisiin prosesseihin sekä yhteiskunnalliseen tilanteeseen. Tämän jälkeen keskityn post-sosialistisiin kaupunkeihin sekä lähemmin tilanteeseen Pietarin kaupungissa. Sosialismin aika vaikutti kaupunkien kehitykseen huomattavan paljon. Pietarin tilanne poikkesi kuitenkin monista muista sosialistisista kaupungeista. Tsaarinaikaiselta Venäjältä perityn asuntokantansa takia Neuvostoliitolle ominaisia yhteisasuntoja, kommunalkoja, oli Pietarissa enemmän kuin missään muussa sosialistisessa kaupungissa. 1960-luvulta lähtien valtava lähiörakentaminen muutti kaupunkien rakennuskantaa. Tavoitteeksi tuli yhteisöllisyyden sijaan tarjota jokaiselle perheelle oma asunto. Erillisasuntojen rakentaminen voidaan kuitenkin nähdä asuintason parantamisen ohella myös osoituksena yhteiskunnan porvarillistumisesta. Asunto-oloissa olikin jo Neuvostoliiton aikana huomattavaa eriarvoisuutta. Eriarvoisuuden määrästä ei kuitenkaan voida olla varmoja, sillä Neuvostoliiton ajalta ei ole luotettavaa tilastotietoa tai luotettavia tutkimuksia. Neuvostoliiton hajottua alueellinen eriytyminen on ollut kasvussa. Etenkin asuntokannan yksityistämisen myötä sijainnin merkitys on korostunut. Uusi asuntotuotanto on myös lähinnä suunnattu varakkaille, mikä lisää alueellisia eroja. Vertaamalla keskimääräisiä tulotasoja Pietarin kahdeksallatoista alueella olen pyrkinyt selvittämään, mille alueille hyväosaisuus ja huono-osaisuus ovat keskittyneett. Tutustumalla tarkemmin Pietarin kaupungin historiaan selviää, miten kaupunki on rakentunut kerroksittain, ja miten nämä kerrokset vaikuttavat edelleen kaupungin rakenteeseen. Kaupungin historiallista keskustaa ympäröi teollisuusvyöhyke, jota puolestaan kiertää laaja Neuvostoliiton aikana rakennettu lähiövyöhyke. Lähiövyöhykkeen ulkopuolella alkavat kaupungin perifeerisemmät alueet. Olenkin perustellut Pietarista löytämääni alueellista mallia sijainnilla sekä rakennuskannalla. Vaikka sosialistisia ja post-sosialistisia kaupunkeja pidetään yleensä lännestä poikkeavina ja läntisiä kaupunkiteorioita näihin kaupunkeihin sopimattomina, olen verrannut Pietarin kaupunkia myös länteen, ja löytänyt huomattavia yhtäläisyyksiä.
  • Zimmerbauer, Kaj (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Regions are considered to be in competition for investments, industries, inhabitants and skilled labour nationally as well as internationally. In the context of tightening competition, more and more attention has been paid to regional attractors. A positive image is an important attractor in regional competition. In Finland, many towns and regions have either implemented or are planning to implement various image-enhancing campaigns or other measures aimed at improving their image. The role of identity is very important in developing a regional image. Good regional image should be based on a strong regional identity and awareness. Related to this is the perception of one's own region as separate from others and the familiarity of the region. If a region has no place in the awareness of its residents or if the inhabitants do not identify with it, its very existence as a social construct can be questioned. This means that building the regional image, which in this context is seen as social constructivism, is extremely difficult if the degree of regional awareness and identification is low. On the other hand, regional identity is being built also by developing the regional image. In a way, regional discourses have become more marketing-oriented in that instead of trying to create a regional esprit de corps there is now more image-oriented speech aimed at striving to improve the attractivity to outsiders of the region. Even though the goal is to bring the region to the attention of non-residents, a measure of construction of regional identity for the local population is automatically effected at the same time. Regional image and identity are consequences of linguistic producing and understanding of a region. It means that both image and identity are seen as language-created social constructions. The regional image is created through various discourses, but also the construction of a regional identity as regional consciousness and identification is largely a linguistic process. Essential in this context is perceiving the region as a discursive project characterized by its representation as texts, images and symbols. The linguistic production of a region is not a neutral description of "reality", but a representation based on interpretations, experiences and different motivations. Production and perceiving vary in time, so regional image and identity are on the move. This research is driven by the ongoing change of the regional system. The municipal and service structure reform is in progress and the number of municipalities seems to be on the decrease. At the same time, European Union s regional policy and regionalism on the whole are changing the status of sub-regions. At municipal level the crucial question is how the municipal structure reform will affect regional identity. This study points out that strong sense of municipal identity is a source of opposition to changes in municipal structure, but on the other hand the deinstitutionalization of the old municipality in municipal merger does not in itself mean the weakening of municipal identity.
  • Kapanen, Heini (2002)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten alueiden tarpeet kanavoituivat päätöksentekoprosessissa rakennerahastovaroin tuetuiksi hankkeiksi. Tutkimuksen kohteena olivat Suomen tavoite 2-ohjelmat ja niiden pohjalta rahoitetut hankkeet vuosina 1995-1999 eli Suomen EU-jäsenyyden ensimmäisenä ohjelmakautena. Tavoite 2-alueet ovat taantuvia teollisuusalueita, joiden suurimpana ongelmana on yksipuolistunut teollisuusrakenne ja työttömyys. Vuosina 1995-1999 tavoite 2 -ohjelmia oli Suomessa kahdeksan maakunnan alueella. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin kansallista ja alueiden tavoite 2 -ohjelmia ja aluekehitysohjelmia ajalta 1995-1999, Fimos-tietokannan, TEKESin ja KTM:n hankelistauksia sekä tavoiteohjelmien arviointiraportteja. Tavoite 2 -ohjelmista vastanneet henkilöt vastasivat kyselytutkimukseen ohjelmatyön valmisteluprosessista, alueiden painotuksista ja kansalaisten osallistumisesta ohjelmien valmisteluun. Kahta toteutunutta hanketta (Haminan bastioni ja Lahden satama) tutkittiin haastattelemalla rahoitukseen liittyneet keskeiset toimijat. Haastatteluja analysoitiin Hoppen (1993) poliittisen arvioinnin mallia mukaellen. Kansallinen lainsäädäntö ja EU:n periaatteet normittavat alueiden tarpeita. Tarpeet nousevat rahoitetuiksi hankkeiksi kahden prosessin yhteisvaikutuksena: Tarpeet muokkaavat strategiaohjelmia ja hankkeiden valintakriteereitä. Toisaalta tarpeiden pohjalta syntyy hankeanomuksia. Rahoitettuja hankkeita syntyy, jos strategiaohjelmien tavoitteet, hankkeen toteuttajan tarpeet ja hanketta rahoittavan viranomaisen tärkeinä pitämät kriteerit sopivat yhteen. Prosessissa vaikuttaa erityisesti se, kanavoituuko alueen todellinen tarve strategiaohjelmaksi. Alueella voi olla myös puute- eli tarvetiloja, jotka eivät pääse rahoitettaviksi hankkeiksi eivätkä edes hankeanomuksiksi. Tavoite 2 -ohjelmat olivat keskenään samankaltaisia ja yhteensopivia EU-tasolta saatujen yleisten tavoitteiden kanssa. Päätavoitteena oli työllistäminen. Alueiden vahvoja aloja tuettiin, jolloin elinkeinorakenteen monipuolistaminen jäi vähälle huomiolle. Strategian valmisteluprosessin luonne vaikuttaa strategiaan, joka puolestaan ohjaa hankekriteerien kautta hankerahoitusta. Yritysten strategioita ei huomioitu ohjelmatyössä, vaikka hankkeet kohdistuivat yleensä yrityksiin. Poliittisilla luottamushenkilöillä oli vähäinen vaikutusvalta ohjelmien valmisteluprosessiin. Olennaista oli hankkeista päättävien viranomaisten tulkinta ohjelmien ja EU:n periaatteiden toteutumisesta alueellaan. Tavoiteohjelmilla saatettiin toteuttaa ministeriöiden sektorikohtaisia tavoitteita, ei aina alueiden tarpeista lähteviä ongelmia. Ennestään aktiiviset hakijat olivat ensisijaisia rahoituksen saajia. Tarpeet muuttuvat tavoitteiksi ohjelmien valmisteluprosessissa, rahoitettavien hankkeiden valinnassa, hankkeita toteutettaessa ja ohjelmaa arvioitaessa. Alueen tarpeiden nostaminen agendalle riippuu kansallisesta ohjelmatyön osaamisesta. Ohjelmallisuus realisoituu alueiden tavoitteiden mukaisesti, kun hankkeet syntyvät alueelta omaehtoisesti eivätkä ole vain asiantuntijatahojen kokoamia hankkeita. Hankkeiden eteenpäin vieminen vaatii intressien yhteensovittamista EU:n tavoiteasettelun, kansallisen aluepolitiikan päämäärien ja alueellisten tarpeiden kesken sekä vertikaalisesti että näiden tasojen sisällä horisontaalisesti. Tapaustutkimushankkeiden tarpeista sopiminen perustui praktiselle mallille, jossa alueiden omat tarpeet yhdistettiin kansallisen tason tavoitteiden kanssa. Tarpeista sopiminen tapahtui kansallisen ja alueen, paikallistason päätöksentekoprossessin sekoittumisena.
  • Roininen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The research problem deals with the increasing fragmentation of the practical evaluation activities and academic evaluation research in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The fragmentation infiltrates all levels of evaluation theory, methodology, methods, processes and practices, as well as its sub-disciplines. The fragmentation is closely connected to the recent evolution of the modern Finnish society towards the so called project society. The hypothesis of the study is that the fragmentation can both challenge and profit evaluation and evaluation research. It can be a challenge, because fragmentation might increase the lack of common basic evaluation research. On the other hand, the profit implies that the fragmentation generates a diversification of evaluation research methods. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the fragmented characteristics of evaluation in regional and urban studies and to investigate potential means to reintegrate them. A multidisciplinary theoretical framework of the study was built from the perspectives of evaluation research and urban and regional studies. The two research questions in the study are: what are the characteristics of evaluation research under the conditions of the modern project society, and what are the potential means to reintegrate evaluation research? The empirical part of the study consists of ten practical evaluation projects which provide material for a holistic picture of the state of the art of evaluation in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The empirical material covers the various regional levels and thematic fields of regional and urban planning. The empirical study comprises an analysis of the epistemology, ontology, aims, objects, procedures, orientations, applied fields, as well as of the practical processes and methodological tools of the ten evaluation projects. The methodology of the empirical part of the study also consists of a meta-evaluation in the form of a content analysis and a comparative analysis of the projects. The results of the study disclose that current evaluation practices have, on the one hand, expanded outwards to new fields and substance areas. On the other hand evaluations have fragmented inwards. The fragmentation means that the basic research on evaluation has been underdeveloped. The development of evaluation expertise has been strongly influenced by the main features of the project society, such as competition between project proposals and consultants. This has put an emphasis on applied studies instead of basic research. Thus, the development of evaluation practices has meant general adaptation to the needs of the operational environment and the project society. The results also indicate that evaluation activities are divided into three forms; academic evaluation research (basic research on evaluation), investigative evaluation (research in evaluation) and practical evaluation. The first type of evaluation has been underdeveloped and the last one widely diffused. The strengthening of basic research on evaluation would improve the methods, processes and practices of evaluation. However, the reintegration of evaluation demands, besides stronger basic research, three kinds of approaches; an evolutionary view of development, applied systems methodology and the application of utilization-focused evaluation. The study provides a systematic analysis and a comprehensive understanding of evaluation practices in regional and urban planning under the conditions of the modern project society, as well as new ways to develop integrated evaluation practices. It also offers a transdisciplinary methodology of evaluation research that can be applied in holistic and thematic evaluations. Thus, it contributes to the substance theory of evaluation. The results can be applied in the practice of planning and evaluation authorities, as well as in academic education at the universities.
  • Granqvist, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The Finnish regional development system has gone through structural reforms from state centered governed system to multi-actor governance, based on negotiation and cooperation. One of the reforms has been the regional cohesion and competitiveness program (COCO) established in 2010. The aim of the program is to increase competitiveness through all the regions and balance the regional development by supporting networking. The main focus of the program is to improve the methods and tools for regional development. In the program there are seven thematic networks founded around topics seen important national wide. This thesis explores regional development networks and their evaluation COCO:s two thematic networks, Wellbeing and Land use, housing and transportation as examples. The aim of the thesis is to explore the network actors understanding of thematic networks as tools for regional development. In particular, the study focuses on how the actors see the possible network level outcomes and wider effects of the networking activity. In addition, the central themes of the study are the prerequisite for successful network processes and improvement of the network process effectiveness by evaluation. The research material in this study consist the interviews of the network coordinators and national and regional actors participating in the network activities. The interviews were conducted in spring 2011. Based on the research results, the networks act on national regional and network level and across them. The cooperation is based on official and unofficial relations. The structure of the networks seemed to be self-organizing and controlled at the same time. The structural elements were found to set the framework for the network process and evaluation. According to the results, the networks enabled the more effective operation of the national development system, support of the regions and political lobbying. For the regions the networks offered support for areal development, new resources and possibility to influence national discourse. As conclusion, the role of the network was to disseminate information, create possibilities for collaboration and execute projects and studies and to effect on national policy making. These factors determined the effectiveness of the networks. However, because different regions were satisfied with different network level outcomes, the utilization of the networks in the regions should be evaluated by their own objectives. Resources, motivation, competence and perceptions of the effects were found to affect the successful implementation of the network process and cooperation in networks. Some network level obstacles could be overcome with coordination, but the challenge was the ability and motivation of the areas to utilize the networks as resources and see them as part of the comprehensive development agenda. Thus, the development should focus on how to increase awareness on how to improve regional cooperation processes and how multiple regional actors could enhance their working by utilizing the networks.
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In this Ph.D. thesis I have studied how the objectives of sustainable development have been integrated into Northwest Russian urban and regional planning, and how the Russian planning discourse has changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By analysing the planning discussion, processes, and strategic documents I have also investigated the use of power and governmentality in urban and regional planning. As a methodological foundation I have used an approach that I call geographical constructivism . It was possible to answer in a relevant manner the question of how sustainable development has become a part of planning in Northwest Russia through a discourse analysis of the planning discussion. During the last decades, the aim of sustainable development has become globally one of the most central societal challenges. Urban and regional planning has a central role to play in promoting this process, since many meta-level objectives actually take shape within its sphere. An ever more actual challenge brought by sustainable development is to plan regions and places while balancing the conflicts of the pressures of safeguarding a good environment and of taking into consideration social and economic needs. I have given these unavoidable conflicts of sustainable development a central place in my work. In my view, complementing instrumental and communicative rationality with conflict rationality gives environmental planning a well-equipped toolbox. Sustainable development can be enhanced in urban and regional planning by seeking open, and especially hidden, potential conflicts. Thus, the expressed thinking (mentality) and actions taken by power regimes in and around conflicts open an interesting viewpoint into Northwest Russian governmentality. I examine the significance of sustainable development in planning through Northwest Russian geography, and also through recent planning legislation and four case studies. In addition, I project my analysis of empirical material onto the latest discussion of planning theory. My four case studies, which are based on independent and separate empirical material (42 thematic interviews and planning documents), consider the republics of Karelia and Komi, Leningrad oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg. In the dissertation I argue how sustainable development is, in the local governmentalities of Northwest Russia, understood as a concept where solving environmental problems is central, and that they can be solved through planning carried out by the planning professionals. Despite this idealism, environmental improvements have been overlooked by appealing to difficult economic factors. This is what I consider environmental racism, which I think is the most central barrier to sustainable development in Northwest Russia. The situation concerning the social dimension of sustainable development is even more difficult, since, for example, the development of local democracy is not highly valued. In the planning discourse this democracy racism is explained by a short history of democracy in Russia. However, precisely through planning conflicts, for example in St. Petersburg, planning has become socially more sustainable: protests by local inhabitants have bypassed the poorly functioning representational democracy, when the governmentality has changed from a mute use of power to one that adopts a stand on a conflicting issue. Keywords: Russia, urban and regional planning, sustainable development, environmental planning, power and conflicts in planning, governmentality, rationalities.
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.