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  • Palola, Tuomas (Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistys ry, 2015)
    North American Laestadianism, also known as Apostolic Lutheranism, has been divided by schisms on several occasions, which in turn, have also had an effect on the development of schisms within the revivalist movement in Scandinavia. The revivalist movement s problematic history has been traditionally explained by members of the movement as being caused by the actions of individuals or different doctrines. No comprehensive, scientific study has examined the reasons behind the schisms. Those Laestadians who joined the revivalist movement in the original regions, from which they would later emigrate to North America, did not bring with them a monolithic dogmatic heritage. Into the doctrinal diversity of the Apostolic Lutheran melting pot were added the challenges brought forth by the movement s own independent free church status and Americanization. The revivalist movement s leadership in Fennoscandinavia attempted to guide the North American movement, without understanding the factors that were influencing its development. As a result, the leadership created additional conflicts, which precipitated a schism. The doctrinal views within this lay movement were not developed systematically, but rather situationally. The group formation was influenced by the fact that three different languages were spoken in the regions from which the immigrants departed: Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian. In addition to these languages, the immigrants adapted to English usage in North America. The assimilation process progressed at a different pace with different individuals and groups. Thus, they usually ended up having to respond to challenges without a vision, and as a result, the solutions were pragmatic. The chronologically uneven development of schisms in the revivalist movement s areas of influence in Scandinavia and North America also created a situation in which not all of the groups found a corresponding group on the other continent. This factor caused more tension within the movement. The aforementioned factors shaped from Apostolic Lutheranism, in terms of its identity, practices, organization, doctrinal emphases and group formation, a distinctive form of Laestadianism, which maintained contact with the Old Country . This slowed down the pace of Americanization in Apostolic Lutheranism, more so than in other Finnish American churches, and stoked divisions within Laestadianism in Fennoscandinavia. Thus, Apostolic Lutheranism diverged from the general developmental trends of other immigrant churches. Keywords: Finnish immigration to North America, assimilation, laestadianism,laestadian schisms, the third use of the Law, confession
  • Hukki, Rauni (Helsingin yliopisto, 1952)
  • Holma, Paula (2011)
    Tiivistelmä ReferatAbstract Metabolomics is a rapidly growing research field that studies the response of biological systems to environmental factors, disease states and genetic modifications. It aims at measuring the complete set of endogenous metabolites, i.e. the metabolome, in a biological sample such as plasma or cells. Because metabolites are the intermediates and end products of biochemical reactions, metabolite compositions and metabolite levels in biological samples can provide a wealth of information on on-going processes in a living system. Due to the complexity of the metabolome, metabolomic analysis poses a challenge to analytical chemistry. Adequate sample preparation is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis, and the analytical techniques must have high resolution and sensitivity to allow detection of as many metabolites as possible. Furthermore, as the information contained in the metabolome is immense, the data set collected from metabolomic studies is very large. In order to extract the relevant information from such large data sets, efficient data processing and multivariate data analysis methods are needed. In the research presented in this thesis, metabolomics was used to study mechanisms of polymeric gene delivery to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The aim of the study was to detect differences in metabolomic fingerprints between transfected cells and non-transfected controls, and thereafter to identify metabolites responsible for the discrimination. The plasmid pCMV-β was introduced into RPE cells using the vector polyethyleneimine (PEI). The samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometer (MS). The software MZmine was used for raw data processing and principal component analysis (PCA) was used in statistical data analysis. The results revealed differences in metabolomic fingerprints between transfected cells and non-transfected controls. However, reliable fingerprinting data could not be obtained because of low analysis repeatability. Therefore, no attempts were made to identify metabolites responsible for discrimination between sample groups. Repeatability and accuracy of analyses can be influenced by protocol optimization. However, in this study, optimization of analytical methods was hindered by the very small number of samples available for analysis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that obtaining reliable fingerprinting data is technically demanding, and the protocols need to be thoroughly optimized in order to approach the goals of gaining information on mechanisms of gene delivery.
  • Laine, Pauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Holi, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Marttinen, Piia (2000)
    Tuki- ja liikuntaelinten sairaudet muodostavat huomattavan osan hevosten sairauksista. Traumaattinen artriitti on tavallisin syy nivelperäiseen ontumiseen. Akuutista nivelkalvon ja –kapselin tulehduksesta voi seurata tulehduksen välittäjäaineiden pitkittynyt tuotanto, nivelruston hajoaminen ja edelleen degeneratiivinen nivelsairaus.Viime vuosina on tutkittu useita mahdollisia osteoartriitin kehittymiseen johtavia reittejä. Erityisesti on selvitetty matriksin metalloproteinaasien osuutta erilaisissa tulehduksellisissa tiloissa. Matriksin metalloproteinaasit (MMP) ovat ryhmä sinkistä riippuvaisia, proteolyyttisiä entsyymejä, jotka ovat olennaisesti mukana fysiologisessa ruston soluväliaineen metaboliassa. Tulehduksellisissa tiloissa entsyymien toimintaa säätelevät mekanismit saattavat kuitenkin pettää ja gelatinaasi-MMP:en (MMP-2 ja –9) aktivoitumista pidetäänkin nykyään keskeisenä tekijänä nivelsairauksien patogeneesissa.Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin MMP-2 ja –9 suhteellisia aktiivisuuksia amfoterisiini B:llä indusoidussa kokeellisessa niveltulehdusmallissa. Gelatiinizymografia on elektroforeesiajoon polyakryyliamidigeelissä perustuva entsyymien tutkimiseen soveltuva menetelmä, joka erottelee entsyymit toisistaan molekyylipainon perusteella. Gelatiinizymografiaa ja tietokoneavusteista kuva-analyysiä käyttäen määritettiin 22 hevosen nivelnestenäytteistä ennen ja jälkeen artriitin induktion MMP-2 ja –9:n suhteelliset aktiivisuudet. Artriitin induktio aiheutti sekä entsyymien tsymogeenimuodon että aktiivisen muodon tilastollisesti merkitsevän pitoisuuksien nousun.MMP-2 ja –9 ovat varmasti tulevaisuudessa farmakologisten hoitokokeilujen kohteina artriitissa, koska nykyisin käytössä olevilla intra-artikulaarisesti annosteltavilla lääkkeillä ei tutkimusten mukaan tuntuisi olevan merkittävää vaikutusta näiden entsyymien toimintaan. Humaanilääketieteessä kehitetyt valmisteet saattavat tulla aikanaan käytettäväksi myös hevosen nivelsairaudessa.
  • Paso, Mervi (1993)
  • Lagerstam, Sofia (2015)
    Tutkimuksessa arvioitiin AMH-määrityksen merkitystä lapsettomuuspotilaiden IVF-hoitoa suunniteltaessa. Selvitimme follikkeleiden, munasolujen, hyvälaatuisten ja pakastettujen alkioiden määrän sekä hoidon tuloksen. Näitä muuttujia verrattiin AMH- ja FSH-pitoisuuksiin eri ikä- ja diagnoosiryhmissä. AMH-pitoisuus korreloi hyvin yllä oleviin muuttujiin sekä käytettyyn gonadotropiinimäärään. Hoidon lopputulokseen, eli mahdollisesti hoitoalkuiseen raskauteen, määritys ei yhtä selvästi näytä vaikuttavan, poikkeuksena kuitenkin potilaat joiden AMH-pitoisuus on jäänyt kokonaan alle mitattavan arvon.
  • Kelloniemi, Leena (2003)
  • Kuja-Panula, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The purpose for this PhD research is to find a novel gene induced by neurite outgrowth on amphoterin substrate. The finding was a gene that codes type-I transmembrane protein with six leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs and one immunoglobulin domain followed by a short cytoplasmic tail. We named this gene as amphoterin-induced gene and ORF (Amigo). Further characterization of AMIGO protein revealed that AMIGO itself is a neurite outgrowth promoting factor and it is also required for the fasciculation of neurites both in vitro and in vivo. The mode of these functions was shown to be homophilic, which puts AMIGO in a group of homophilic cell adhesion molecules. We crystallized the extracellular domain of AMIGO to elucidate the mechanism for its functions. AMIGO crystallized as a homophilic dimer where the concave face of the LRR domain was the interface for dimerization. The isolation of Amigo allowed us to characterize two other homologous genes called Amigo2 and Amigo3 and together they form the novel Amigo gene family. AMIGO protein was found to be an auxiliary subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 in adult animals. AMIGO mediates the regulation of the voltage-gating properties of Kv2.1. This AMIGO/Kv2.1 interaction was also studied at the whole animal level by using Amigo knockout mice whereby the lack of Amigo changed voltage-gated potassium currents and resulted in behavioral problems related to human schizophrenia. All these findings suggest that AMIGO has two separate roles in the central nervous system (CNS). First, AMIGO is a homophilic adhesion molecule that supports neurite outgrowth and fasciculation of the neurites during development. Second, the AMIGO regulates the properties of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 in the mature CNS.
  • Polynczuk, Kinga Natalia (2013)
    This qualitative study adopts netnographic method to critically explore one of the social media, Pinterest, as a creative community for women. Creativity is not only a current buzzword, but also one of the most fundamental pillars of the modern world. Nowadays, creative industries are emerging as a one of the basic industries. In many instances, creativity becomes a professional currency and a foundation of identity. In addition, creativity becomes embedded into everyday life, also through the advancement and continuous use of social media and other digital platforms that lower the threshold for participation in creative activities. Thus, the meaning of creativity is constantly being altered. In this thesis, the concept of creativity describes in fact everyday creativity in its broadest delineation. This research focuses particularly on the act of providing media content to Pinterest, thereby creating unique collections of visual links. Community, in turn, translates into a group of people who participate in some online spaces, gathered primarily around some shared interest. Such an understanding of community does not imply the existence of any offline ties between its members. Within this framework, the research asks the major question about how creativity is mediated on Pinterest. The main question is followed by some more detailed sub-questions about affordances and constraints of Pinterest with regard to production, distribution and consumption of the content; the relations between creativity and consumption on Pinterest; and the ways in which the community of Pinterest is constructed. The research results in five major results: (1) on Pinterest, DIY and Crafts is an overarching category, embracing diverse and, at times, unconventional content; (2) Pinterest challenges and alters traditional understandings of creativity and creative activities in such a way that it does not call for any physical act of making; (3) creativity on Pinterest is intertwined with, and very often anchored in, consumption; (4) on Pinterest, crafts refer not only to creating external objects, but also to modelling bodies and forming skill sets of users; (5) creativity is a binder of the Pinterest community: it brought pinners together in the joint effort of pooling knowledge, and it was the ideal that each user seemed to connect with. The study is based on the volume of data obtained from Pinterest through participant observation. Participant observation, adapted to the circumstances of an online setting, is the core netnographic method of data collection. The data at hand were analysed through thematic analysis.
  • Berg, Mika (2014)
    Organokatalytisk asymmetrisk Friedel-Crafts-alkylering av olika aromatiska och heteroaromatiska nukleofiler med α,β-omättade aldehyder och ketoner har visat sig vara en effektiv metod för att syntetisera olika grundstrukturer för viktiga biologiskt aktiva föreningar. Under det senaste årtiondet har forskningen inom detta område gått framåt med stora steg. Det var David W. C. MacMillan som startade utvecklingen av organokatalytisk asymmetrisk F-C-alkylering då han presenterade den LUMO-sänkande iminaktiveringsmekanismen för första gången. Dessutom introducerade han första generationens imidazolidinon vilken visade hög katalytisk aktivitet i alkyleringsreaktioner av pyrroler med enaler. Trots detta fungerade katalysatorn inte vid indolalkylering p.g.a. steriska hinder vilket ledde till att en serie av förbättrade och nya katalysatorer har utvecklats. Andra generationens imidazolidinon och diarylprolinoletrar har alla visat sig vara bra och effektiva alternativ för asymmetriska F-C-alkyleringar av indoler med enaler. Förutom indoler har dessa använts för att katalysera också reaktioner med aniliner, naftoler och furanderivat. Resultaten har varit mycket bra både med avseende på utbyte och enantioselektivitet. En annan typ av katalysatorer som härstammar från de naturligt förekommande cinkona-alkaloiderna har också introducerats. Dessa primära aminer är speciellt användbara i reaktioner där mera sterisk hindrande α,β-omättade ketoner används istället för aldehyder. Resultaten var även i dessa reaktioner bra och riktgivande för vidare forskning. Andra mindre undersökta och använda organokatalysatorer är bl. a. imidazoltioner och (3-metylaziridin-2-yl)-difenylmetanoler. I framtiden kommer organokatalysatorer att användas allt mer i asymmetriska F-C-reaktioner. Resultaten som erhållits så här långt ger möjlighet att kombinera dessa nya billigare alternativ till de tidigare använda dyra instabila metallkomplexen. Detta minskar på användningen av de svårhanterliga toxiska metallföreningarna och gör synteserna miljövänligare. Organo-katalysatorerna är stabila och icke-toxiska vid rumsbetingelser och därmed lätt att använda i alkyleringsreaktioner. Detta är speciellt viktigt vid syntes av läkemedelsderivat och naturprodukter. Detta kommer att vara ett av de viktigaste tillämpningsområdena där organokatalytisk F-C-alkylering används.
  • Talja, Markku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Polyethylene is the most widely used synthetic polymer in the world. Most polyethylene is made with Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Polyethylenes for special applications are made with metallocenes, which are nowadays heavily patented. It is laborious therefore, to develop new metallocenes. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of replacing the cyclopentadienyl ligands of metallocenes by aminopyridinato ligands without losing the good properties of the metallocenes, such as high activity and formation of linear polymer. The subject was approached by studying what kind of catalysts the metallocenes are and how they catalyze polyethylene. The polymerization behavior of metallocenes was examined by synthesizing a piperazino substituted indenyl zirconocene catalyst and comparing its polymerization data with that of the indenyl zirconocene catalyst. On the basis of their isolobality, it was thought that aminopyridinato ligands might replace cyclopentadienyl ligands. It was presumed that the polymerization mechanism and the active center in ethylene polymerization would be similar for aminopyridinato and metallocene catalysts. Titanium aminopyridinato complexes were prepared and their structures determined to clarify the relationship between structure of the catalyst precursor and polymerization results. The ethylene polymerization results for titanium 2-phenylaminopyridinato catalysts and titanocene catalysts were compared.
  • Siljander, Anna Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The goal of my research was to describe how adult students perceive professional knowledge and know-how, and how these diffuse among a group of students during a continuing education program. The goal was also to research the meaning of shared working life experience in improving the professional know-how of the students. My research is positioned in the field of supporting environments for adult learning with an emphasis on interaction between students in social networks. The participants of my research were 31 adult students taking part in continuing education program at the time of my study. I gathered the research data using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative network enquiry led me to do 9 theme interviews. I analyzed the data using a network analyzing program and a content analyzing method. I examined the whole community of students, the home groups of four students and the main actors who were central for the community. The analysis focused on the distribution network of professional knowledge and know-how, the distribution network of social support and the network of reciprocal interaction. Professional knowledge and know-how that diffuse between adult students in continuing education, is mostly hands-on tips and occupational experience. The factors that promote the distribution of professional experience and know-how are structural ones and factors that emphasize co-operation relationships. The structural factors are participation in adult education and in home groups and also organizational arrangements of learning. The factors that emphasize co-operation relationships are encouragement and doing learning assignments together. The central distributors of professional know-how are adult students who have long working life experience. The meaning of the diffusion of professional experience and know-how for improving professional know-how of a single adult student is in developing his professional identity and adding his social capital. In the social interaction networks, which I studied, more relations exist inside the home groups than between them, which is congruent with earlier researches. My research can be utilized by using its research methods and emphasizing its results in adult education planning and guidance.
  • Alamäki, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Intention-based models have been one of the main theoretical orientations in the research on the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT). According to these models, actual behavior can be predicted from the intention towards the behavior. If the level of intention to use technology is high, the probability of actual usage of ICT increases. The purpose of this study was to find out which factors explain vocational teachers intention to use ICT in their teaching. In addition, teachers of media and information sciences and teachers of welfare and health were compared. The study also explored how regularly ICT was applied by teachers and how strong their intention to apply the technology was. This Master s thesis is a quantitative study and the data was collected using an Email survey and Eform. The instruments were based on a decomposed theory of planned behavior. The research group consisted of 22 schools of media and information sciences and 20 schools of welfare and health. The data consisted of 231 vocational teachers: 57 teachers worked with media and information sciences and 174 with welfare and health. The data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test, factor analysis and regression analysis. In addition, categorized results were compared with previous study. In this study, the intention to use ICT in teaching was explained by the teachers attitudes and skills and the attitudes of their work community. However, the environment in which ICT was used, i.e., the technical environment, economical resources and time, did not explain the intention. The results did not directly support any of the intention-based models, but they could be interpreted as congruent with the technology acceptance model. The majority of the teachers used ICT at least weekly. They had a strong intention to continue to do that in the future. The study also revealed that there were more teachers who had a critical attitude towards ICT among the teachers of welfare and health. According to the results of this study, it is not possible to state that ICT would not suit any one profession because in every group with teachers with a critical attitude towards ICT there were also teachers with a positive attitude.
  • Valldén, Maaret (2001)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, millä tavalla erilaiset muuttujat kuten yleistyneet tai ammatinvalintaan liittyvät kontrolliodotukset sekä mm. jatko-opintosuunnitelmien selkiintyneisyys ja todistuksen keskiarvo ovat yhteydessä abiturienttien ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen. Ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteella tarkoitettiin sitä, millaiseksi abiturientit arvioivat oman pystyvyytensä suoriutua erilaisista ammatinvalinnan tekemiseen liittyvistä tehtävistä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli myös selvittää, millä tavalla pelkästään sisäiseen kontrolliin uskominen tai samanaikaisesti sekä sisäiseen että ulkoiseen kontrolliin eli sattuman tai toisten vaikutusvaltaisten henkilöiden kontrolliin uskominen ovat yhteydessä ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen ja korreloivatko ammatinvalintaan liittyvät kontrolliodotukset yleistyneitä kontrolliodotuksia voimakkaammin ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteen kanssa. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin kvantitatiivisia metodeja ja tutkimusaineisto kerättiin kyselylomakkeella abiturienttien oppituntien aikana. Aineisto koostui 201 vantaalaisesta abiturientista. Hypoteeseina oli, että suurempi usko sisäiseen kontrolliin ja vähäisempi usko ulkoiseen kontrolliin eli sattuman tai toisten kontrolliin oli yhteydessä korkeampaan ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen ja että ulkoisen kontrollin eri muodot voivat olla eri tavalla yhteydessä ammatinvalintapystyvyyteen. Oletuksena oli myös, että korkeampi ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunne oli yhteydessä myös suurempaan jatko-opintosuunnitelmien selkiintyneisyyteen ja että ammatinvalintaan liittyvät kontrolliodotukset korreloivat yleistyneitä kontrolliodotuksia voimakkaammin ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteen kanssa. Tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan suurempi usko sekä yleistyneeseen että ammatinvalintaan liittyvään sisäiseen kontrolliin ja vähäisempi usko yleistyneeseen sattuman kontrolliin sekä ammatinvalintaan liittyvään sattuman tai toisten kontrolliin oli yhteydessä korkeampaan ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen. Toisten kontrolliin uskominen ei ollut yhteydessä ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen, kun tarkasteltiin yleistyneitä kontrolliodotuksia. Ulkoisen kontrollin eri muodot olivat eri tavalla yhteydessä ammatinvalintapystyvyyteen yleistyneiden kontrolliodotusten kohdalla: vain sattuma-kontrolliodotukset olivat yhteydessä ammatinvalintapystyvyyteen. Ammatinvalintaan liittyvien kontrolliodotusten kohdalla ulkoisen kontrollin eri muotojen yhteys ammatinvalintapystyvyyteen oli likimain samanlainen. Sekä yleistyneiden että ammatinvalintaan liittyvien kontrolliodotusten kohdalla unilokaalisuus eli usko pelkästään sisäiseen kontrolliin oli suuntaa-antavasti yhteydessä hieman korkeampaan ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteeseen kuin bilokaalisuus eli usko sisäisen kontrollin lisäksi myös toisten tai sattuman kontrolliin. Korkeampi ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunne oli yhteydessä myös suurempaan jatko-opintosuunnitelmien selkiintyneisyyteen ja todistuksen arvosanojen ja ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteen välillä oli havaittavissa vain heikko yhteys. Ammatinvalintaan liittyvät kontrolliodotukset korreloivat yleistyneitä kontrolliodotuksia voimakkaammin ammatinvalintapystyvyyden tunteen kanssa. Tärkeimmät lähteet: Bandura (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. Taylor & Betz (1983). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the understanding and treatment of career indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior 22. Taylor & Popma (1990). An examination of the ralationships among career decision-making self-efficacy, career salience, locus of control, and vocational indecision. Journal of Vocational Behavior 37.