Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 6243-6262 of 25284
  • Merjonen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Hostility is a multidimensional construct having wide effects on society. In its different forms, hostility is related to a large array of social and health problems, such as criminality, substance abuse, depression, and cardiovascular risks. Identifying and tackling early-life factors that contribute to hostility may have public health significance. Although the variance in hostility is estimated to be 18-50 percent heritable, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the molecular genetics of hostility. It is known that a cold and unsupportive home atmosphere in childhood predicts a child s later hostility. However, the long-term effects of care-giving quality on hostility in adulthood and the role of genes in this association are unclear. The present dissertation is part of the ongoing population-based prospective Young Finns study, which commenced in 1980 with 3596 3-18-year-old boys and girls who were followed for 27 years. The specific aims of the dissertation were first to study the antecedents of hostility by looking at 1) the genetic background, 2) the early environmental predictors, and 3) the gene environment interplay behind hostility. As a second aim, the thesis endeavored to examine 4) the association between hostility and cardiovascular risks, and 5) the moderating effect of demographic factors, such as gender and socioeconomic status, on this association. The study found potential gene polymorphisms from chromosomes 7, 14, 17, and 22 suggestively associated with hostility. Of early environmental influences, breastfeeding and early care-giving were found to predict hostility in adulthood. In addition, a serotonin receptor 2A polymorphism rs6313 moderated the effect of early care-giving on later hostile attitudes. Furthermore, hostility was shown to predict cardiovascular risks, such as metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Finally, parental socioeconomic status was found to moderate the association between anger and early atherosclerosis. The new genetic and early environmental antecedents of hostility identified in this research may help in understanding the development of hostility and its health risks, and in planning appropriate prevention. The significance of early influences on this development is stressed. Although the markers studied are individual- and family-related factors, these may be influenced at the societal level by giving accurate information to all individuals concerned and by improving the societal circumstances.
  • Bogdanov, Evgeny (2014)
    What main identities does Russia focus on in order to build a more positive national brand in the eyes of the international audience while getting ready to host 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi? This thesis focuses on this sporting event as a unique opportunity for Russia to boost its image internationally from a problematic to a more positive one (Ostapenko, 2010). An empirical study examines the representation of the country in press-releases and news materials published within the News section of the main website of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games from 2007 to 2014. The study builds its conclusions on the basis of 742 news items realized within seven years. The theoretical framework of the study is based on national branding theory and international events as its part. It aims to delineate some lineaments of the Russian national brand. The current study utilizes qualitative research (QR) methods, presenting regularities largely through their interpretation. Findings of the current work show that the approach to the Olympics has been deliberated in detail. The first glaring feature is that the main technique of building the Russian national brand is its culture, one of the things that is undoubtedly positively-received by people around the world, according to the National Brand Index (NBI, 2008-2012; Bertelsen, 2008). Conversely, it is worth noting that the part that usually causes critical or negative associations with Russia, politics, has been erased from the News section. If some high-ranking officials appeared in the limelight, most of them were linked with the national Olympic Committee. Even Vladimir Putin, the incumbent President of Russia, has appeared there 8 times in the headlines, while the previous Russian president and incumbent prime-minister Dmitri Medvedev has appeared only 9 times in the headlines. Problematic ecological and civil society-related topics, which are frequently the butt of criticism, have been covered painstakingly. The motives behind that, however, might be an intention to muffle criticism. Moreover, Russia has made an attempt in the Olympics to show people with different backgrounds (sport, cultural, show-business), with whom Russia may be associated. This goal was achieved through the ‘Olympic ambassador’-position and within the Cultural Olympiad’s events. The second hallmark of the Sochi 2014 Olympics was an inclination to demonstrate a ‘different’ Russia, varying from its stereotypical image (Dinnie, 2007). This arises even from the place hosting the Olympics, because the city of Sochi, bordering the Caucasian regions of the country, is less-known than its European part. In this respect, the news about the Olympics was mostly concentrated on the undiscovered (for foreigners) parts of the Russian Federation. Thus, some Olympic-related events, such as the torch relay, spanned the whole country, and numerous cultural events spotlighted the separate identities of the Russian indigenous groups. In addition, the Russian Olympic committee tried to highlight the positive changes taking place in Russia, ranging from the legislative amendments to the technological innovations using the Winter Olympics as a framework for these changes. The word “innovation” was among the catchwords of the news about the Olympics preparations in Sochi. This could be explained by the fact that the positive news about Russia is usually ignored by the media in other countries (Dinnie, 2007). The link with the solid Olympic brand was supposed to evoke positive feelings in people’s minds and make the foreign audience aware of positive changes in Russia (Giffard and Rivenbuvgh, 2000, p. 15; Dinnie, 2007).
  • Pakarinen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The relationship between hosts and parasites is one of the most studied interactions between living organisms, and it is both universal and common in nature. Parasitoids are special type of parasites whose offspring develop attached to or within a single host organism that it ultimately consumes and kills. Hosts are arthropods and most parasitoids belong to the insect order Hymenoptera. For almost two decades metapopulation research on the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) has been conducted in the Åland Islands, Finland. The studies have been concerned with the population dynamics, evolution, genetics, behavior, natural history and life history characteristics of M. cinxia, as well as with species interacting with the butterfly. The parasitoids of M. cinxia have been under long term studies and much has been learned about specific host-parasitoid interactions during the past decade. The research for this Master s thesis was done in the Åland Islands during summer 2010. I conducted a reciprocal transplant style experiment in order to compare the performance of host butterflies (M. cinxia) under attack by different parasitoid wasps (C. melitaearum). I used hosts and parasitoids from five origins around the Baltic Sea: Öland, Uppland, Åland, Saaremaa and Pikku-Tytärsaari. The host-parasitoid relationship was studied in terms of host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence, addressing specifically the possible effects of inbreeding and local adaptation of both parasitoids and their hosts. I compared various factors such as host defence ratio, parasitoid development rate, cocoon production rate etc. I also conducted a small scale C. melitaearum egg development experiment and C. melitaearum external morphology comparison between different parasitoid populations. The results show that host resistance and parasitoid virulence differ between both host and parasitoid populations. For example, Öland hosts were most susceptible to parasitoids and especially vulnerable to Pikku-Tytärsaari wasps. Pikku-Tytärsaari wasps were most successful in terms of parasitoids virulence and efficiency except in Saaremaa hosts, where the wasp did not succeed. Saaremaa hosts were resistant except towards Åland parasitoids. I did not find any simple pattern concerning host resistance and parasitoid virulence between inbred and outbred populations. Also, the effect of local adaptation was not detected, perhaps because metapopulation processes disturb local adaptation of the studied populations. Morphological comparisons showed differences between studied wasp populations and sexual dimorphism was obvious with females being bigger that males. There were also interesting differences among populations in male and female wing shapes. The results raise many further questions. Especially interesting were Pikku-Tytärsaari wasps that did well in terms of efficiency and virulence. Pikku-Tytärsaari is a small, isolated island in the Gulf of Finland and both the host and parasitoids are extremely inbred. For the host and parasitoid to persist in the island, the host has to have some mechanisms to escape the parasitoid. Further research will be done on the subject to discover the mechanisms of Pikku-Tytärsaari host s ability to escape parasitism. Also, genetic analyses will be conducted in the near future to determine the relatedness of used C. melitaearum populations.
  • Susi, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    At the very core of the evolution of living organisms lie interactions with other species. Between two coevolving species, a change in one species may generate selection for a change in the other species. In host-pathogen coevolution the central dilemma is to understand how infectivity and virulence evolve. Infectivity is the ability to infect a given host while virulence is the harm the pathogen causes to its host, and therefore they determine the outcome of the interaction between the host and the pathogen. The emergence of new highly virulent pathogen species (e.g. Ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus) and single pathogen strains (e.g. Ug99 of wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) underline the urgent need for a deeper understanding of how virulence evolves. The aim of my thesis is to understand how life-history trade-offs and coinfection where two or more strains of the same pathogen are infecting the same host - are driving host-pathogen coevolution, and how these evolutionary trajectories translate to ecological dynamics in a metapopulation context using the Plantago lanceolata Podosphaera plantaginis interaction as a model system. The study approach ranged from the molecular level to population and metapopulation levels. I studied natural populations of P. lanceolata and P. plantaginis in the Åland islands to measure prevalence of coinfection and its consequences for disease epidemics in the wild. I also investigated variation in resistance in the natural host populations as well as the efficiency and costs of different plant resistance strategies in a common garden setting. Context dependence of evolutionary trade-offs were investigated by accounting for some of the spatial and temporal complexity of the natural pathogen metapopulation. Pathogen life-history trade-offs were studied in the context of local adaptation and costs of resistance in the perennial host were measured across multiple seasons. The pathogen s host exploitation versus transmission strategies were examined on relevant epidemiological time scales to understand factors creating heterogeneity in transmission dynamics. Key findings of the thesis include detection of high, yet variable levels of coinfection across the pathogen metapopulation, with more devastating epidemics measured in populations with higher levels of coinfection. This suggests a major role for coinfection in driving disease dynamics in natural populations. In the dynamic pathogen metapopulation, local adaptation mediates pathogen life history trade-offs and resistance polymorphism can be maintained through costs of resistance and changes in resource allocation under infection. In conclusion, this work contributes to our understanding of the drivers of evolution and maintenance of variation in the host and pathogen populations by linking evolutionary theory with empirical findings.
  • Hagros, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    A new rock mass classification scheme, the Host Rock Classification system (HRC-system) has been developed for evaluating the suitability of volumes of rock mass for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in Precambrian crystalline bedrock. To support the development of the system, the requirements of host rock to be used for disposal have been studied in detail and the significance of the various rock mass properties have been examined. The HRC-system considers both the long-term safety of the repository and the constructability in the rock mass. The system is specific to the KBS-3V disposal concept and can be used only at sites that have been evaluated to be suitable at the site scale. By using the HRC-system, it is possible to identify potentially suitable volumes within the site at several different scales (repository, tunnel and canister scales). The selection of the classification parameters to be included in the HRC-system is based on an extensive study on the rock mass properties and their various influences on the long-term safety, the constructability and the layout and location of the repository. The parameters proposed for the classification at the repository scale include fracture zones, strength/stress ratio, hydraulic conductivity and the Groundwater Chemistry Index. The parameters proposed for the classification at the tunnel scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q´ and fracture zones and the parameters proposed for the classification at the canister scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q´, fracture zones, fracture width (aperture + filling) and fracture trace length. The parameter values will be used to determine the suitability classes for the volumes of rock to be classified. The HRC-system includes four suitability classes at the repository and tunnel scales and three suitability classes at the canister scale and the classification process is linked to several important decisions regarding the location and acceptability of many components of the repository at all three scales. The HRC-system is, thereby, one possible design tool that aids in locating the different repository components into volumes of host rock that are more suitable than others and that are considered to fulfil the fundamental requirements set for the repository host rock. The generic HRC-system, which is the main result of this work, is also adjusted to the site-specific properties of the Olkiluoto site in Finland and the classification procedure is demonstrated by a test classification using data from Olkiluoto. Keywords: host rock, classification, HRC-system, nuclear waste disposal, long-term safety, constructability, KBS-3V, crystalline bedrock, Olkiluoto
  • Paananen, Kaisa (2013)
    Tutkimuksessa keskitytään hotellien sijoittumiskysymyksiin. Sijainnilla on hotelliteollisuudessa suuri merkitys, koska hotellipalveluita kulutetaan myyntipaikalla. Kaupunkimatkailututkimuksessa hotellien sijoittumisen tutkiminen on loogista, koska hotellit ovat matkailuelementtejä, joita käyttävät suurimmaksi osaksi vain matkailijat. Tutkimusalueeksi valittiin pääkaupunkiseutu, koska alueelle on keskittynyt eniten hotelliyöpymisiä koko Suomessa. Alue on myös Suomen kaupungistunein. Pääkaupunkiseutua tarkastellaan tutkimuksessa yhtenäisenä matkailualueena. Tutkimus toteutettiin käyttämällä induktiivisen tutkimuksen periaatteita, ja tutkimusmenetelminä ovat paikkatietoanalyysit sekä haastattelut. Sijaintia tutkittiin paikkatietoanalyysien avulla käyttäen matkailumaantieteilijöiden Ashworth ja Tunbridgen kehittämää typologiaa hotellien sijainnista matkailukaupungissa. Typologiassa hotellit on jaettu kuuteen luokkaan; hotellit perinteisillä tori/kaupunginportin alueella, rautatieasemien yhteydessä, päätuloväylien varrella, viehättävällä ja käytännöllisellä alueella, liikekeskustan ja historiallisen keskustan välimaastossa sekä urbaanissa periferiassa. Lisäksi aineistoa analysoitiin kaupunkirakennemallien avulla sekä Vapaa-ajan tuote-mallin avulla. Karttojen teemoja muodostettiin toiminnan aloittamisvuodesta, koosta, ketjuuntumisesta sekä laadusta. Aineistona käytettiin SeutuCD10-paikkatietoaineistoa sekä manuaalisesti kerättyä aineistoa hotelleista. Käytetyn typologian tavoin myös pääkaupunkiseudulla liikennevälineiden kehityksellä on ollut suuri merkitys sijainnille. Rautatieasemien läheisyyteen on keskittynyt hotelliklusteri, ja se onkin ollut suosittu hotellien sijoittumisalue jo rautatien alkuvuosista alkaen. Lentoaseman läheisyyteen on sijoittunut hotelliklusteri, ja alueelle on keskittynyt myös kaupunkien postmoderniin kehitykseen liittyvä viihdekeskus. Suurimpana erona typologiaan on se, että pääkaupunkiseudun perinteisellä torialueella ei sijaitse enää nykyään hotelleja. Pääkaupunkiseudulla löytyy lisäksi hotelliluokkia, joita on hyvin vaikea sijoittaa mihinkään käytetyn typologian luokista, kuten kaukana keskustasta luonnon lähellä sijaitsevat hotellit ja matkustajasataman lähettyvillä sijaitsevat hotellit. Tulosten pohjalta pääkaupunkiseudun hotellit on jaettu yhdeksään eri luokkaan, joista neljä on täysin uutta luokkaa: kaukana keskustasta luonnon lähellä sijaitsevat hotellit, keskustan reuna-alueiden trendikkäillä asuinalueilla sijaitsevat hotellit, liikekeskustassa sijaitsevat hotellit sekä matkustajasataman läheisyydessä sijaitsevat hotellit.
  • Kanerva, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of my research is to understand work engagement and it s construction in the hospitality field. A central target of my interest is to observe how well employees in hotel and restaurant business feel and which factors generate work engagement and which factors prevent it s development among the employees in the field. Work engagement is a dimension of work well-being. It increases the well-being of employees and their coping at work. The meaning of work well-being emphasizes before anything in the work of front line employees, where the working conditions are challenging and working hours are varying. Work engagement s study is about what makes one enjoy his/her work and feel well. It can be seen as the antipode of burnout. The research data is formed of 24 scientific studies of work engagement and/or burnout in the context of hotel and restaurant field. As my research method I have used the systematic literature review. My research findings pointed out that previous research has been more concentrated in the antecedents and the consequences of work engagement rather than analyzing how engaged to work employees are. Main resources that influence on the construction of work engagement were personal traits and characteristics of work or workplace all together. These resources reduce the load of work related requirements and generate work engagement. Organizations need to invest into the work well-being of their employees by adding the supply and availability of resources. Although superiors can influence more on the characteristics of work and workplace they should not forget the personal traits of employees. It is important that superiors are aware of the factors relating to work engagement to be able to support these factors if possible.
  • Lehti, Isabella (2014)
    I denna undersökning betraktas gränsöverskridande bortförandena av barn i situationer där årets 1980 Haagkonvention blir tillämplig. Närmare betraktas det fördröjningsproblematiken i återlämnandeärendena enligt årets 1980 Haagkonvention som uppstår av möjligheten att få en ytterligare inhibition beviljats när ärendet efter ett slutligt nationellt beslut skickas till Europadomstolen. Syftet av årets 1980 Haagkonvention är att trygga börtförda barnets skyndsamt återförande till barnets hemvist där de nationella domstolarna har den allmänna behörigheten att behandla frågor rörande barnet, om vårdnad exempelvis. Återlämnandeprocessen börjar med en begäran om att få barnet återlämnats. Ifall ett frivilligt återlämnande inte kommer i fråga behandlas ärendet i nationella domstolar i barnets vistelseland. Efter ett slutligt beslut i återförandeärendet fattats borde inhibering inte längre vara möjligt. Europadomstolen har dock i tillväxande mån beviljat inhibering av det slutliga nationella beslutet i ärendena om återlämnande av barn enligt årets 1980 Haagkonvention och erbjudit således kaparen ett ytterligare sätt att fördröja återlämnandeprocessen. Europadomstolens agerande hotar således att omintetgöra samarbetet enligt årets 1980 Haagkonvention som bygger på ett skyndsamt återförande. Europeiska unionens synpunkter om skyndsamhet kommer också att presenteras.
  • Hokkanen, Ann-Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Disbudding entails destroying calves horn buds, and in dairy farming is most often done with a hot-iron. Disbudding is routinely carried out because hornless cattle are considered to be safer for themselves and for humans. Hot-iron disbudding is very painful and causes severe pain-related distress and behavioural changes in calves. Options for treating disbudding-related pain during the procedure, and for 24 hours subsequently, are well known, but continued pain and its management are not much studied in calves after disbudding. Pain can cause restlessness and thus affect calves lying time. Pain in humans and rats also changes sleeping behaviour. Pain connected with disbudding often remains untreated. Reasons for this are unclear. Therefore, more knowledge and research are needed on the recognition of calves pain after hot-iron disbudding, on the duration of pain and on options to treat it in an effective, safe and practical way. Research is also needed on producer knowledge and attitudes towards pain in calves and their decision-making in connection with pain alleviation. The objectives of the work reported in this thesis were all connected with gaining an improved understanding of producer perceptions about pain caused to young calves by hot-iron disbudding, and with options available to increase the use of pain alleviation for this common and painful procedure. Initially we asked dairy producers for their perceptions towards disbudding pain in calves. Then, in order to be able to study the duration of pain after disbudding in the future, we attempted to develop a new device to measure calves lying and sleeping time: a small, neck-based, wireless accelerometer system. Because new methods and various options for pain alleviation are needed, we investigated if sublingual detomidine provided sufficient sedation in calves to allow administration of local anaesthetics prior to disbudding. Because the use of pain alleviation is often a choice faced by producers, we wanted to study Finnish dairy producers interests and motivation regarding pain alleviation in connection with disbudding. We studied Finnish dairy producers perceptions on disbudding-related pain and the need for pain alleviation, and how such perceptions affect the actual practice of pain alleviation. Finnish dairy producers estimated disbudding pain to be severe and producer estimation of pain severity caused by disbudding was correlated with their sensitivity to pain caused by different cattle diseases in general. We were able to develop an accurate device for measuring calves lying and sleeping time. Detomidine oromucosal gel was an effective sedative for calves before infiltration of local anaesthetics and disbudding. Finnish dairy producers who estimated the disbudding-related pain and need for pain alleviation to be high had a veterinarian medicate calves before disbudding more often than producers who ranked disbudding pain and need for pain alleviation lower. Because more studies on duration and alleviation of disbudding pain are needed, our new device for measuring lying and sleeping time in calves could make these studies easier in the future. A non-invasive and user-friendly oromucosal sedation method for calves could enhance the use of local anaesthetics before disbudding by making sedation easier. Our findings among dairy producers support the idea that persons who have knowledge of pain and who think pain alleviation is beneficial and important are also more prone to administer pain alleviation. Education of producers on disbudding-related pain could increase the use of pain alleviation in the future. It could also increase pain alleviation for other cattle diseases because producer perceptions on disbudding-related pain are likely to be connected with pain in cattle in general.
  • Nurminen, Tuomas (2013)
    Perinteisissä tavoissa mallintaa dynaamista valintaa on merkittäviä puutteita; eksponentiaaliseen diskonttaukseen perustuvat mallit ovat huonosti sopusoinnussa empiiristen havaintojen kanssa, hyperbolisen diskonttauksen malleilta puolestaan puuttuu psykologinen pohja, ja ne soveltuvat dynaamisen epäjohdonmukaisuuden takia huonosti hyvinvointianalyysin perustaksi. Päätöksentekijän sisäisen konfliktin lähtökohdakseen ottavat monipersoonaiset mallit kärsivät puutteellisesta formalisoinnista, lievästä psykologisesta epätarkkuudesta sekä kyvyttömyydestä tuottaa testattavia ennusteita käyttäytymiselle. Faruk Gulin ja Wolfgang Pesendorferin kaksivaiheinen malli, jossa päätöksentekijä valitsee ensimmäisessä vaiheessa vaihtoehtojoukon ja toisessa vaiheessa tästä joukosta kulutusvaihtoehdon, mahdollistaa päätöksentekijän kokemien houkutusten eksplisiittisen mallintamisen. Tämä johtaa psykologisesti tarkempaan malliin, jossa päätöksentekijä pystyy paitsi sitoutumaan ennakolta myös kulutusajanhetkellä vastustamaan houkutuksia harjoittamalla itsekuria. Vaikka päätöksentekijä harjoittaisikin onnistuneesti itsekuria, hän saattaa silti haluta myös sitoutua suppeampaan valintajoukkoon, koska itsekurin harjoittamisesta aiheutuu kustannuksia. Niiden seurauksena päätöksentekijä valitsee vaihtoehdon, joka on kompromissi normatiivisesta hyvyydestä ja houkuttelevuudesta. Mallissa siis sitoutumisen halun syynä ovat preferenssien muuttumisen sijaan päätöksentekijän tulevaisuudessa kokemat houkutukset. Tarkastelemalla toisen vaiheen preferenssejä riittävän laajassa joukossa päätöksentekijä saadaan mallinnettua dynaamisesti johdonmukaisena, mikä mahdollistaa yksiselitteisen hyvinvointivaikutusten arvioinnin. Mallilla osoitetaan myös olevan peliteoriaan perustuva yhteys monipersoonaisiin malleihin. Gulin ja Pesendorferin malli on kuitenkin vain lähtökohta, jossa on useita yksinkertaistuksia. Eräs sellainen on, että päätöksentekijä kärsii vain yhdestä houkutuksesta kerrallaan, ja vaihtoehtojoukko vaikuttaaa hänen valintaansa vain houkuttelevimman vaihtoehdon kautta. Lisäksi päätöksentekijä tietää, minkä laatuisista ja kuinka voimakkaista houkutuksista tulee tulevaisuudessa kärsimään. Näiden ominaisuuksien seurauksena päätöksentekijän toisen vaiheen valintakäyttäytyminen on riittävän säännönmukaista toteuttaakseen paljastettujen preferenssien heikon aksiooman. Perusmallille esitetäänkin laajennuksia, jotka heikentävät oletuksia mahdollistaen vähemmän säännönmukaisen käyttäytymisen. Näihin laajennuksiin kuuluu vaihtoehtojoukosta riippuvan itsekurin malli, jossa kyky harjoittaa itsekuria heikkenee voimakkaampien houkutusten läsnäollessa. Tällä mallilla pystytään selittämään Allais'n paradoksin tyyppistä käyttäytymistä. Toinen laajennus käsittelee tilannetta, jossa päätöksentekijä ei tiedä, mitä houkutuksia tulevaisuudessa kokee tai kuinka voimakkaita nämä ovat. Malli mahdollistaa myös useamman samanaikaisen houkutuksen kokemisen. Lisäksi esitetään kaksivaiheisen mallin laajennus äärettömän monen periodin tilanteeseen, jolloin mallin sovellettavuus paranee. Esimerkki näiden sovellusten tuloksista on se, että houkutuksista kärsivien päätöksentekijöiden käyttäminen kilpailullisissa yleisen tasapainon malleissa saattaa tuottaa tasapainoja, jotka eivät ole Pareto-tehokkaita. Lopuksi kehotetaan jatkamaan tutkimussuunnan kehittämistä tarkastelemalla useita samanaikaisia psykologisia ilmiöitä yhdessä houkutusten kanssa sekä monipuolistamaan itsekurin harjoittamisen kyvyn riippuvuutta valintajoukosta. Näin voitaisiin mahdollisesti lisätä ymmärrystä muun muassa stressitilanteiden synnystä ja niiden hyvinvointivaikutuksista.
  • Karhunmaa, Kamilla (2015)
    This Master’s thesis has two sections. The first section is a methodological introduction that presents the data collection and analysis methods. The second part is an article ’Household energy technologies in voluntary carbon markets: storylines of co-benefits’ that has been sent to the international, peer-reviewed journal Global Environmental Change. The thesis examines how the co-benefits of voluntary carbon market offset projects are conceptualized in household energy technology projects. Carbon markets have been presented as one of the solutions for climate change mitigation. In carbon offsetting, emissions produced in one place are compensated through reducing emissions elsewhere. Offset projects have been financed especially in the global South. In addition to reducing emissions, carbon offset projects are justified on the basis of creating local co-benefits. The focus of this thesis is on the voluntary carbon markets, where the price of emission reduction credits is influenced by perceptions of created co-benefits. Household energy technologies are technologies that produce emissions reductions either through increasing energy efficiency or using renewable energy. Three technologies that have been popular project types in the voluntary carbon markets are examined, namely improved cookstoves, ceramic water purifiers and biodigesters. The popularity of the technologies is based on win-win assumptions where the technologies are seen to tackle multiple goals, such as climate mitigation and development. The research material consists of interviews with 18 experts. The interviewees consisted of representatives of NGOs, carbon offset project developers, donors, carbon standards and entrepreneurs. The interviewees were selected based on their familiarity with household energy technologies and voluntary carbon markets. The interviews were conducted in Cambodia in March 2013. In addition, publicity material, speeches and documents from an international seminar on clean cooking was reviewed. The concept of storylines is used to examine how the co-benefits of household energy technologies are conceptualized. Storylines are middle-range concepts that enable a discourse-analytical approach to research. What is viewed as a relevant problem, how it has been created, how it should be solved and by whom are all important elements of a storyline. The research presents three different storylines through which the co-benefits of household energy technology projects are conceptualized in voluntary carbon offset projects. The first storyline focuses on the impacts of the technologies on the users’ health. The storyline emphasizes the efficiency of the technologies as key to producing health impacts. The second storyline criticizes current ownership practices in carbon offset projects. The storyline claims that the greatest co-benefits would be realized if users would receive monetary compensation for the emissions reductions they produce. The third storyline emphasizes the role of developing local markets for the technologies. In the storyline, co-benefits are realized when local employment is improved and local markets developed. The first and third storyline were the most dominant ones in the analyzed material. Both storylines stressed the importance of scientific expertise and markets. The storylines differed in their views towards supporting local markets for producing the technologies versus importing more efficient technologies. The critical stance of the second storyline towards current practices in carbon credit revenue distribution was less present in the research material. Discursive forms, such as storylines, can influence what type of projects succeed in creating positive images and receiving better prices for the emissions reductions produced. How the co-benefits of household energy technologies are conceptualized carries material implications through influencing what type of projects are successful in the voluntary carbon markets.
  • Zschauer, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study focuses on households energy consumption in the Taita Hills of South-East Kenya, especially on the use of fuelwood. The wood use habits are approached through the local women and families who represent the grass root level actors. The Taita Hills are known for their rich biodiversity. Areas of indigenous mountain rainforests play a crucial role as the water towers as well as being home for many indigenous plants and animals. However, the high population pressure, lack of cultivated land, poverty and different socio-political factors has led to a degradation and loss of biodiversity. The main energy source of households in the Taita Hills is still firewood, the use of which has effects on the environment as well as on people s health and time management. This vulnerability caused by biofuels is examined in two case study areas. Both of these areas are located near an indigenous forest boarder but are situated on different agro-ecological zones. The present methods and circumstances of collecting firewood are also compared to the situation 30 years ago, when the legislation allowed more extensive use of forest resources. This research is a qualitative study. The primary data was gathered during two field trips in the Taita Hills, in 2009 and 2010, by using interviews and various participatory methods. All together 50 households as well as different district authorities, non- governmental organizations workers and private persons, were interviewed. The study concludes that the availability of firewood in The Taita Hills has diminished. People have to collect firewood from further away and from smaller areas. This has also increased the time used for collecting wood for fuel. Use of firewood increases households vulnerability by raising the work-load of women in particular, and also by its affect on the environment and health. In addition, this energy supply requires larger economical contributions, while people have to more often resort to purchasing. This weakens the economic situation of families and lessens their opportunities to plan their future or make other investments. Many people are not aware of the effects of the use of wood for fuel. For them it is difficult to understand that traditions passed down through many generations can have harmful consequences. Also poverty, lack of political interest and the lack of co-operation between local actors prevents implementation of new energy practices. Alternative methods should be introduced in order to change current unsustainable energy modes. However this should be done with respect and by taking into account the special features of the Taita Hills area.
  • Borch, Anita (2013)
    Problem-oriented studies of gambling have been dominated by psychological and increasingly neuroscientific approaches. Less attention has been paid to the social surroundings that influence and are influenced by problem gambling. To help fill this gap in research, this thesis focuses on what Sulkunen and Rantala (Rantala and Sulkunen, 2011, Sulkunen 2007, 2012) call cultural images of gambling and problem gambling. Cultural images refer to shared thoughts, which main function is to create a common reality of meanings, and hence enable people to orientate in the world and to communicate with others. Inspired by Sulkunen and Rantala s theories, it can be argued that problem gamblers undergo a process with three partially overlapping and mutually influencing stages of image-making: semiosis, de-semiosis and re-semiosis. In the process of semiosis, gambling is perceived, interpreted and given meaning. In the processes of de-semiosis and re-semiosis this meaning is changed and new images are born. So far the hypothesis of Sulkunen and Rantala has been analyzed in two particular settings: the fictional context of Western films dealing with different kinds of addiction, and the virtual context of a Finnish web forum discussing gambling and gambling problems. The aim of the thesis is to explore the hypothesis in the context of the household. Studying cultural images in the context of the household is an important supplement to dominant psychological and neuroscientific approaches on gambling, and hence contributes to preventing and reducing the harm of problem gambling in society. Based on qualitative studies of households with and without reported gambling problems, the analysis supports the hypothesis suggesting that problem gamblers undergo a process of semiosis, de-semiosis and re-semiosis. Interestingly, the research also indicates that other household members, in this case the spouse, seem to undergo a similar process. Consequently, significant members of the immediate family should to a larger extent be included in prevention and harm reduction work, both by virtue of being an affected part ( patient ), and in terms of representing a self-help resource ( therapist ).
  • Munsterhjelm, Camilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Commercial pig production presents the animals with a multitude of potentially stressful challenges. Distress is a threat to animal welfare and may impair productivity. This research aimed to investigate productivity of pigs in relation to some common practices of pig production known to be stressful, to estimate the amount of stress or the level of welfare of the animals, and to establish relationships between stress or animal welfare measures and productivity. To address these issues, four studies were carried out. Studies I and II investigated effects of moderate enrichment on behaviour, basal cortisol secretion, health and daily gain in growing pigs (0-21 weeks of age). Effects of both current and early environmental enrichment were investigated. Small groups with siblings were accommodated in pens either barren or enriched with a moderate amount of chopped straw and wood shavings. Six enrichment regimes were used involving a stable environment or changes in enrichment status at 5 and/or 9 weeks of age. Enriched as compared to barren housing increased average daily gain and decreased post-weaning diarrhoea in the nursery. Current housing, as well as the early environment (0-4 or 0-9 weeks of age), affected stress physiology as measured by behaviour and basal cortisol secretion. Barren housing or experience thereof caused signs suggestive of chronic stress. Stress indicators were not associated with productivity. These results support the use of enrichment for pigs in early life, especially if bedding is scarce later in life. Study III compared the fertility of sows housed either individually or in groups on deep litter from weaning to four weeks of pregnancy. Stall housing decreased the odds for early disruption of pregnancy and increased the odds for pregnancy at day 28 post-service. The causes remained undisclosed, but social stress during short periods of time around oestrus and early pregnancy was proposed. Behavioural indicators showed clear signs of stress in stalls, but behaviour was not associated with fertility. The level or type of stress in stalls may have been insufficient to affect reproduction. These results emphasize the need for a better understanding of factors impairing fertility in sow groups. In Study IV the welfare status of pigs on commercial farms was assessed using an environment-based index comprising several subscales. Welfare scores were regressed on fertility measures. Good-quality floors and stockmanship were the most influential predictors of good fertility, providing some evidence of an association between higher levels of animal welfare (i.e. low levels of distress) and good reproductive performance.
  • Eskelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Cities are striving to attract and retain talented workers in order to increase their competitiveness in the new economy, which is highly dependent on innovation and knowledge. Residential satisfaction has been identified as a key determinant of whether a person stays or moves to another location. However, given the tendency to focus on the housing of immigrant groups with a lower socio-economic status, the factors that affect the residential satisfaction of skilled migrants remain understudied. This article-based dissertation in the field of urban geography examines the determinants of residential satisfaction among skilled migrants living in the Helsinki metropolitan area (HMA), Finland. The research setting is intended to maximise the cultural and socio-economic as well as locational diversity within the limits of recognised skilled migrant groups. The analysis focuses on how the interplay between individuals norms and the situational conditions is manifested when immigrants assess a single housing market, the HMA. The study is qualitative in nature and draws on 70 semi-structured interviews with skilled migrants and with experts on migration and housing in the city region. Despite the cultural, socioeconomic and locational heterogeneity of the interviewees, their experiences of housing in the HMA were notably similar: the uppermost assessment was that it is expensive, cramped and uniform. On the other hand, they appreciated the overall safety and functionality of the city region, as well as the natural environment: the predominant influence, for them, is the family life cycle rather than the urban amenities that are often assumed to be highly important for the creative class . The results also show that homeownership is not a simple indicator of the intention to stay in or leave the region, which contradicts earlier findings on ethnic-minority housing. The study underlines the importance of the social environment in creating residential satisfaction among skilled migrants. Whereas earlier studies revealed the essential nature of social networks and personal trajectories in the location decisions of skilled workers, the results of this study indicate that the supply of local, neighbourhood-based social ties is particularly limited in the case of the HMA, and that this has a negative impact on the residential satisfaction of skilled migrants. Furthermore, the structural element of housing seemed to have an effect on local social ties: among international students the extent of such ties varied according to the housing form. Although many skilled migrants are in a good socio-economic position, they are not immune to problems related to finding suitable housing. Housing availability, quality and affordability are therefore significant factors in enhancing residential satisfaction among such groups. Furthermore, as local social ties serve a mediating role with regard to the residential area as well as to society, the formation of such ties would promote the integration of migrants. These aspects of housing should be acknowledged in the strategies of cities wishing to accommodate and retain global talent. Keywords: skilled migrants, housing, residential satisfaction, social ties, Helsinki metropolitan area
  • Eskelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine the skilled migrants’ satisfaction with the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The examination is executed on three scales: housing, neighbourhoods and the city region. Specific focus is on the built environment and how it meets the needs of the migrants. The empirical data is formed of 25 semi-structured interviews with skilled migrants and additionally 5 expert interviews. Skilled and educated workforce is an increasingly important resource in the new economy, and cities are competing globally for talented workers. With aging population and a need to develop its innovational structure, the Helsinki Metropolitan Area needs migrant workforce. It has been stated that quality of place is a central factor for skilled migrants when choosing where to settle, and from this perspective their satisfaction with the region is significant. In housing, the skilled migrants found the price-quality ratio and the general sizes of apartments inadequate. The housing market is difficult for the migrants to approach, since they often do not speak Finnish and there are prejudices towards foreigners. The general quality of housing was rated well. On the neighbourhood level, the skilled migrants had settled in residential areas which are also preferred by the Finnish skilled workers. While the migrants showed suburban orientation in their settlement patterns, they were not concentrated in the suburban areas which host large shares of traditional immigrant groups. Migrants were usually satisfied with their neighbourhoods; however, part of the suburban dwellers were unsatisfied with the services and social life in their neighbourhoods. Considering the level of the city region, the most challenging feature for the skilled migrants was the social life. The migrants felt that the social environment is homogeneous and difficult to approach. The physical environment was generally rated well, the most appreciated features being public transportation, human scale of the Metropolitan Helsinki, cleanliness, and the urban nature. Urban culture and services were seen good for the city region’s size, but lacking in international comparison.
  • von Kügelgen, Maria (2014)
    A significant number of people have problems with the batteries of their mobile devices. There are several energy saving applications available to tackle those problems. Most of them increase battery life mostly by automatically closing applications or operations. The user is for the most part unaware of what the energy saving application actually does. Therefore, even though the battery might last somewhat longer, the user may continue using behavioral patterns that drain the battery. There is little evidence to support the assumption that battery awareness applications lead to behavioral changes. Therefore, we decided to conduct a research on how a mobile awareness application called Carat is used, and how the behavior of its users changes over time. The study was carried out in two phases. In the first part of the study, we conducted a user survey, and studied the Carat log data of the devices represented in the survey. We found out that the behavior changes over time; there were significant differences between new Carat users, and the more experienced ones. The more experienced users had reduced their use of problematic applications more, were interested in different features of Carat, and opened it less often. In the second part of the study, we studied how new Carat users used Carat and what they thought of using it. They were interviewed twice, and they also wrote in a web diary about their experiences. We found out that the main difference in their thinking was the increase in overall awareness about applications as something that affects battery life. We also found out that inadequate, uninteresting and unclear information causes confusion and frustration, and decreases the likelihood of users sticking with Carat.
  • Khryashcheva, Vera (2015)
    Tutkielman tarkoituksena on tarkastella, miten ihmisen oleminen ja oppiminen liittyvät yhteen Martin Heideggerin filosofiassa. Tavoitteena on osoittaa, että oppiminen on sama kuin näkökulman ja mielialan muuttuminen. Tutkielman lähtökohta on Heideggerin kritiikki kartesiolaista maailmankatsomusta kohtaan. Kartesiolaisen maailmankuvan mukaan maailma koostuu subjekteista ja objekteista, ihmismielen sisäisestä ja sen ulkopuolisesta maailmasta. Heidegger väittää, että inhimillistä kokemusta ei voida erottaa sisäiseksi ja ulkoiseksi. Ihminen on jo valmiiksi erottamaton osa maailmaa eli sitä, mikä kartesiolaisessa maailmankuvassa mielletään ulkoiseksi maailmaksi. Näitä periaatteita käsitellään Heideggerin Oleminen ja aika -teokseen nojautuen mutta myös käyttäen sen kommentaareja, jotka ovat kirjoittaneet Richard Polt ja Hubert L. Dreyfus. Heideggerin käsite “aukio” (clearing) tarkoittaa tilaa, jossa maailma näyttäytyy ihmiselle tietynlaisena riippuen siitä, minkä mielialan kanssa ihminen on samalla taajuudella eli toisin sanottuna, mikä näkökulma hänellä on. Oppiminen on mielialan tai näkökulman muutos. Kun ihminen oppii, asiat näyttäytyvät hänelle eri tavalla. Tutkielmassa esitellään Heideggerin totuuskäsitys taideteosesimerkin kautta. Samalla tavalla kuin maalauksen katsominen kertoo ihmiselle totuuden maalauksen kohteen käytöstä tai tarkoituksesta, hänen näkökulmansa kertoo hänelle asioiden totuuden kunakin hetkenä. Tässä määritelmässä totuus tarkoittaa minkä tahansa asian merkitystä. Taideteosesimerkki on peräisin Heideggerin luentokokoelmasta Taideteoksen alkuperä. Oppimisprosessissa maailma näyttäytyy ihmiselle eri tavalla kuin ennen. Opettajan tehtävä on antaa oppilaan oppia eli sallia hänen näkökulmansa muuttua luonnolliseen tahtiin pakottamatta. Tylsyyden tunne on olennainen oppimisessa, koska se sallii näkökulman muutoksen helpommin kuin muut mielialat. Ajatusten perusteluun on käytetty esimerkiksi Jan-Erik Mansikan artikkelia vuodelta 2009. Inhimillisen kokemuksen kokonaisvaltaisuus ja Heideggerin käsitys ihmisen maailmassa-olemisesta tarkoittaa oppimisen kannalta, että kokemuksemme totuudesta muuttuu. Ajattelu on mielialan muutosta ja oppiminen on ajattelua ajassa. Tätä näkemystä voidaan hyödyntää kasvatustieteissä. Esimerkiksi ajan merkitystä oppimisessa ja piilo-opetussuunnitelman roolia voidaan tutkia näistä lähtökohdista käsin.
  • Talvio, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    By using their social interaction skills, teachers create an autonomous and supportive climate in the classroom. Research, however, is scarce on how teachers can develop these skills despite being emphasised as key tools in modern learning psychology. This intervention study explored the development of teachers social and emotional learning (SEL) skills during Gordon s Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET) (2003). The effects of the TET were examined at various levels of Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick (2006), including the effects on participants reactions, knowledge, the application of knowledge and overall well-being. In addition, a new case-based measurement instrument, the dealing with challenging interactions (DCI), was developed. Finally, the sustainability of the studied skills was examined nine months after completing TET. The intervention group consisted of 20 primary school classroom teachers and 23 secondary school subject-matter teachers in Finland. The comparison group comprised 26 subject-matter teachers who did not participate in TET. The data were collected before and after the four-day TET. In addition, data regarding the sustainability of the studied skills were collected and analysed nine months after completing the TET. In Study I, the DCI method was developed to measure the social interaction skills of teachers. The participants are presented with seven scenarios, after which they are asked what they would say or do in that situation. The answers are content analysed. DCI appeared to be a reliable and valid tool. The multi-phase quantitative analyses in Study II showed that teachers benefitted from TET. Among those who participated in TET, both knowledge and the application of knowledge improved significantly. In the comparison group, no differences between the pre- and post-test measurements were found. Study III showed that a qualitative change took place among those teachers participating in TET. Teachers learned to apply the TET skills in their responses to situations. By giving room to pupils, teachers were also more likely to support pupils autonomy and agency. In Study IV, it was found that the participants still remembered the central skills studied during TET and were able to reflect that knowledge in their own behaviour from the perspective of the TET skills. Almost all of the participants said that they would recommend TET to their colleagues. TET intervention appeared to achieve its goals since both classroom and subject-matter teachers seemed to benefit from the training on social interaction skills. While training on teachers social interaction skills is often recommended, little evidence regarding its effectiveness exists. This study adds to both the theoretical and practical development of continuing teacher education.