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  • Ugbah, Natalja (2009)
    The research focuses on the experiences of 5th -9th-grade Russian-speaking pupils in Helsinki municipal schools. The aim of the research is to examine relation between children s subjective psychological well-being and their acculturation type and to investigate other factors, first and foremost social network and duration of stay in Finland, that influence psychological well-being of children. The study also aims to describe main problems Russian-speaking children face in schools, and the sources, from which children get help. It is a quantitative study, based on the data collected by questionnaire survey and analyzed by computer statistical program SPSS 14.0. The questionnaire survey was carried out by the researcher in autumn 2006 and the data was analyzed in 2007. The research was conducted with the permission of Helsinki Educational Board. Theoretical foundation for the research is provided by John Berry s two-dimensional acculturation model. According to the results of the research Russian-speaking children are satisfied with life in Finland and report to have high level of subjective well-being. Duration of staying in Finland has positive effect on the subjective well-being as well as good relations within family, especially with the mother. Subjective well-being is also influenced by the acculturation strategy that child selects: it is connected to the host culture national identity, like in assimilation and integration strategies, while marginalization strategy results in the high level of stress. Although Russians belong to the immigrant group, which is not physically visible in the society, the respondents do perceive national discrimination from peer pupils in schools. The survey shows that some of the teachers also contribute to this problem by not intervening into bullying or making themselves insulting comments about Russians. The national discrimination appears more often in schools with higher number of Russian-speaking pupils and it is perceived more by those children, who had lived longer in Finland. The research revealed one risk-group among Russian-speaking children a group of children, that has no-one in their surrounding, with whom they could share own problems. This group consists of one tenth of the respondents, mostly represented by boys, who select marginalization acculturation strategy. Their situation can lead to a high level of stress and depression as well as other psychological and mental problems.
  • Salokoski, Märta (2006)
    Tutkimuksen teemana on poliittisen vallan luonne ja muutokset varhaisissa Afrikan kuningaskunnissa, esimerkkinä Pohjois-Namibian entiset Owambokuningaskunnat. Väitöskirjassa analysoidaan miten ns. sakraalikuninkuus rakentui ja miten se muuttui. Lähtökohtana on Luc de Heuschin teesi, jonka mukaan Afrikan varhaisissa yhteiskunnissa poliittinen valta legitimoidaan pyhyydellä. Myytit ja kuningaslistat ovat osa Owambojen pyhän kuninkuuden luomista, mutta varsinaisesti virkaanastujaisriitit luovat pyhyyden kuninkuuteen. Kun kuninkaat vahvistivat määräysvaltansa sade- ja initiatioriittien avulla pyhyyden aspekti heidän kuninkuusroolissaan vahvistui edelleen. James Frazer esitti aikanaan kuninkaiden pyhyyden merkitsevän sitä, että kuninkaalla katsottiin oleven kyky vaikuttaa maan, kansan ja luomakunnan hedelmällisyyteen ja hyvinvointiin. Kuningas oli yhteiskunnan ruumiillistuma ja sen kasvuvoiman tyyssija, mutta samalla sen uhri, koska vanhetessaan kuningas tiesi tulevansa rituaalisesti murhatuksi jotta hänen pyhyytensä voima voisi siirtyyä hänen seuraajansa. Luc de Heusch esittää, että kuninkaan pyhyyden voima syntyy siitä, että kuninkaasta tehdään "pyhä hirviö", mm. virkaanastujaisriittien avulla. Hänen mukaansa vaarallinen ja järjestystä rikkova luonnonvoima on kuninkaiden sakraalisuuden ydin ja että juuri se antoi kuninkaalle kyvyn vaikuttaa hedelmällisyyteen. Owambokuninkaiden virkaanastujaisriiteissä ilmenee pyhän hirviön luomisen piirteitä, mutta tarkemmin niitä analysoitaessa ilmenee, että niiden avulla luodaan suhde maan entisten haltijoiden henkiin ja otetaan riittien ja valtaesineiden avulla käyttöön muitakin henkivoimia. Näin kuningas saa kyvyn vaikuttaa hedelmällisyyteen ja vallan hallita. Tutkimuksessa päädytään siihen, että pyhien kuninkaiden normit rikkova rooli on vain osa pyhyyden rakentumista ja että pyhyys koostuu voimista joita kuningas saa monista lähteistä. Näistä kenties tärkein on voima jonka kuninkaat saavat entisten 'maan omistajien' hengiltä. Tämä voima on luonteeltaan hoivaava ja symbolisesti feminiininen. Ambomaan Ondongan kuningaskunnassa maan entisiä omistajia olivat bushmannit ja vallasta syösty vanha kuningasklaani, jotka suullinen perinne kumpikin usein on vaieten sivuttanut. Ajan myötä Ambomaalla luovuttiin rituaaliessta kuningasmurhasta vallanvaihdon keinona. Tilalle tuli poliittinen vallan anastaminen, joka yleistyi 1800-luvun puolivälin jälkeen kun ampuma-aseet otettiin käyttöön ja eurooppalaisten kauppiaiden toiminta muutti kuningasvallan luonteen. Tällöin vallan vastavuoroinen luonne muuttui väkivaltaisemmaksi, vaikka kuninkaita edelleenkin pidettiin pyhinä.
  • Salokoski, Märta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This study discusses the legitimacy basis of political power and its changes in historical African societies. It starts from Luc de Heusch s tenet that political power required a legitimacy basis of a spiritual kind, often formulated as sacred kingship. In ancient and pre-literate societies such kings were held to be responsible for the fertility of man, land and cattle. The king was a paradoxical figure, symbolising society, but standing above it, while simultaneously being its victim by being ritually killed at old age. This was also how Owambo sacred kings were conceived. De Heusch suggested that African kings derived their power over fertility from having been made sacred monsters in the rituals of installation. With the example of Owambo kingship, this study argues that the transgressive and monstrous aspect is only one of several dimension of a king s sacredness and brings out the nurturing and symbolically female aspect, identified but not analysed further by de Heusch. In the Owambo kingly installation a king-elect was made sacred, and part of it was that a link was ritually created to the early owners of the land. Their consent made it possible for the king to promote fertility and to appropriate power emblems needed for ruling. In the kingdom of Ondonga the early owners of the land were the spirits of early Bushman inhabitants and those of an early kingly clan, both neglected in public memory. The sacred dimension of kingship was further augmented when kings manipulated and appropriated rain rituals and initiation rituals, both of which were related to fertility. The study argues that even though there were aspects of the sacred monster in Owambo kingship, its manifestation was, in part, a distortion of the reciprocal aspect of kingship that was expressed in the homage paid to various ancestor spirits. A change in succession practices from ritual regicide to political assassination took place concomitant with the introduction of firearms, and this broke the sacrificial aspect of sacred kingship paving the way for a more predatory form of kingship while the sacred status of the king was retained.
  • Cajanus, Kristiina (2015)
    Most clinically used opioids are mu-opioid receptor agonists. Therefore, genetic variation of the OPRM1 gene that encodes the mu-opioid receptor is of interest. An amino acid changing polymorphism 118A>G (rs1799971) within the OPRM1 gene affects the function of the receptor. We studied the association between the 118A>G polymorphism and oxycodone analgesia and pain sensitivity in 1,000 women undergoing breast cancer surgery. Preoperatively, experimental cold and heat pain sensitivity was tested. Postoperative pain was assessed at rest and during motion. I.v. oxycodone analgesia was titrated first by a research nurse and on the ward using a patient controlled analgesia device. The primary endpoint was the amount of oxycodone needed for the first state of adequate analgesia. The 118A>G polymorphism was genotyped using Sequenom MassArray. The association between this variant and the pain phenotypes was tested using linear regression. The 118A>G variant was significantly associated with the amount of oxycodone requested for adequate analgesia (P=0.001, β=0.016). Oxycodone consumption was highest in the individuals having the GG genotype (0.16 mgkg-1) , lowest in the AA-group (0.12 mg kg-¹) while the AG-group was in between (0.13 mg kg-¹). The G allele was also associated with higher postoperative baseline pain ratings (P=0.001, β=0.44). No evidence of association with the other examined pain phenotypes was seen.
  • Sa, Haoxuan (2013)
    Chinese online nationalism is an intensively discussed issue in academia, and Chinese microblogging (Weibo) has now become the third most important information resources for Chinese netizens. However, little research has been done on the performance of Chinese online nationalism, especially on the Sino-Japanese relationship. In this thesis, an empirical study has been done to analyze online nationalism on the Sina microblogging platform. A case that has been chosen for analysis is a heavy earthquake that hit Japan on March 2011, when the Chinese government sent rescue teams to Japan to take part in the rescue activities. A lot of discussion on microblogging was related to this issue. This case is used to analyze how the discussion reflected online nationalism among the users of microblogging. Using “Japanese earthquake” and “ China sent rescue team” as key words during 12 March 2011 to 21 March 2011, a random selection method is applied to get a sample for this study, and 584 postings are selected as a sample to analyze. The findings in this study indicate that microblogging provides a flexible platform for ordinary people to express their emotions on nationalist issues, but most of the discussions are not rational. Chinese Online nationalism is not only limited in a bottom-up model, but in this case, elite class supplies the views and arguments to masses, and masses spread them. The shared national identity of China as a victim in the past and a superpower in the world today in microbloggers’ minds helps to sustain Chinese nationalism on microblogging. What is more, national pride is another important element that constitutes Chinese online nationalism. However, several microbloggers clearly distinct the Chinese government from the Chinese nation. The findings also show that Internet plays a positive role in formulating public spheres. However, online platforms like microblogging cannot be easily regarded as public spheres.
  • Malkki, Leena (2010)
    This study explores the decline of terrorism by conducting source-based case studies on two left-wing terrorist campaigns in the 1970s, those of the Rode Jeugd in the Netherlands and the Symbionese Liberation Army in the United States. The purpose of the case studies is to bring more light into the interplay of different external and internal factors in the development of terrorist campaigns. This is done by presenting the history of the two chosen campaigns as narratives from the participants’ points of view, based on interviews with participants and extensive archival material. Organizational resources and dynamics clearly influenced the course of the two campaigns, but in different ways. This divergence derives at least partly from dissimilarities in organizational design and the incentive structure. Comparison of even these two cases shows that organizations using terrorism as a strategy can differ significantly, even when they share ideological orientation, are of the same size and operate in the same time period. Theories on the dynamics of terrorist campaigns would benefit from being more sensitive to this. The study also highlights that the demise of a terrorist organization does not necessarily lead to the decline of the terrorist campaign. Therefore, research should look at the development of terrorist activity beyond the lifespan of a single organization. The collective ideological beliefs and goals functioned primarily as a sustaining force, a lens through which the participants interpreted all developments. On the other hand, it appears that the role of ideology should not be overstated. Namely, not all participants in the campaigns under study fully internalized the radical ideology. Rather, their participation was mainly based on their friendship with other participants. Instead of ideology per se, it is more instructive to look at how those involved described their organization, themselves and their role in the revolutionary struggle. In both cases under study, the choice of the terrorist strategy was not merely a result of a cost-benefit calculation, but an important part of the participants’ self-image. Indeed, the way the groups portrayed themselves corresponded closely with the forms of action that they got involved in. Countermeasures and the lack of support were major reasons for the decline of the campaigns. However, what is noteworthy is that the countermeasures would not have had the same kind of impact had it not been for certain weaknesses of the groups themselves. Moreover, besides the direct impact the countermeasures had on the campaign, equally important was how they affected the attitudes of the larger left-wing community and the public in general. In this context, both the attitudes towards the terrorist campaign and the authorities were relevant to the outcome of the campaigns.
  • Lehtipalo, Katrianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Aerosol particles deteriorate air quality, atmospheric visibility and our health. They affect the Earth s climate by absorbing and scattering sunlight, forming clouds, and also via several feed-back mechanisms. The net effect on the radiative balance is negative, i.e. cooling, which means that particles counteract the effect of greenhouse gases. However, particles are one of the poorly known pieces in the climate puzzle. Some of the airborne particles are natural, some anthropogenic; some enter the atmosphere in particle form, while others form by gas-to-particle conversion. Unless the sources and dynamical processes shaping the particle population are quantified, they cannot be incorporated into climate models. The molecular level understanding of new particle formation is still inadequate, mainly due to the lack of suitable measurement techniques to detect the smallest particles and their precursors. This thesis has contributed to our ability to measure newly formed particles. Three new condensation particle counter applications for measuring the concentration of nano-particles were developed. The suitability of the methods for detecting both charged and electrically neutral particles and molecular clusters as small as 1 nm in diameter was thoroughly tested both in laboratory and field conditions. It was shown that condensation particle counting has reached the size scale of individual molecules, and besides measuring the concentration they can be used for getting size information. In addition to atmospheric research, the particle counters could have various applications in other fields, especially in nanotechnology. Using the new instruments, the first continuous time series of neutral sub-3 nm particle concentrations were measured at two field sites, which represent two different kinds of environments: the boreal forest and the Atlantic coastline, both of which are known to be hot-spots for new particle formation. The contribution of ions to the total concentrations in this size range was estimated, and it could be concluded that the fraction of ions was usually minor, especially in boreal forest conditions. Since the ionization rate is connected to the amount of cosmic rays entering the atmosphere, the relative contribution of neutral to charged nucleation mechanisms extends beyond academic interest, and links the research directly to current climate debate.
  • Lakkala, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Strategies of scientific, question-driven inquiry are stated to be important cultural practices that should be educated in schools and universities. The present study focuses on investigating multiple efforts to implement a model of Progressive Inquiry and related Web-based tools in primary, secondary and university level education, to develop guidelines for educators in promoting students collaborative inquiry practices with technology. The research consists of four studies. In Study I, the aims were to investigate how a human tutor contributed to the university students collaborative inquiry process through virtual forums, and how the influence of the tutoring activities is demonstrated in the students inquiry discourse. Study II examined an effort to implement technology-enhanced progressive inquiry as a distance working project in a middle school context. Study III examined multiple teachers' methods of organizing progressive inquiry projects in primary and secondary classrooms through a generic analysis framework. In Study IV, a design-based research effort consisting of four consecutive university courses, applying progressive inquiry pedagogy, was retrospectively re-analyzed in order to develop the generic design framework. The results indicate that appropriate teacher support for students collaborative inquiry efforts appears to include interplay between spontaneity and structure. Careful consideration should be given to content mastery, critical working strategies or essential knowledge practices that the inquiry approach is intended to promote. In particular, those elements in students activities should be structured and directed, which are central to the aim of Progressive Inquiry, but which the students do not recognize or demonstrate spontaneously, and which are usually not taken into account in existing pedagogical methods or educational conventions. Such elements are, e.g., productive co-construction activities; sustained engagement in improving produced ideas and explanations; critical reflection of the adopted inquiry practices, and sophisticated use of modern technology for knowledge work. Concerning the scaling-up of inquiry pedagogy, it was concluded that one individual teacher can also apply the principles of Progressive Inquiry in his or her own teaching in many innovative ways, even under various institutional constraints. The developed Pedagogical Infrastructure Framework enabled recognizing and examining some central features and their interplay in the designs of examined inquiry units. The framework may help to recognize and critically evaluate the invisible learning-cultural conventions in various educational settings and can mediate discussions about how to overcome or change them.
  • Vironen, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Liu, Jian (2014)
    Online social networks have brought along much convenience to our daily lives. On the other hand, they also provide platforms for the rapid propagation of unsafe content. Providing easy-to-use ways for ordinary users to avoid unsafe content online is an open issue. In this thesis, we mainly study two schemes that are based on social navigation to identify unsafe content. The first one is crowdsourcing, which has two main drawbacks: (a) a time lag before unsafe content is flagged as such, and (b) the difficulty of dealing with subjective perceptions of ``inappropriateness''. We propose a machine learning approach to address the time lag problem and get a promising result. This approach could be used to complement crowdsourcing. We also study the notion of ``groupsourcing'': taking advantage of information from people in a user's social circles about potentially unsafe content. Groupsourcing can both address the time lag problem and identify inappropriate content. To test its effectiveness, we have implemented FAR, which allows savvy Facebook users to warn their friends about potentially unsafe content, and conducted a controlled laboratory study. The results show that groupsourced signals can complement other types of signals and compensate for their weaknesses by countering viral spreading of unsafe content in a more timely fashion. The current version of FAR, consisting of a Facebook application and a Firefox browser extension is publicly available for use.
  • Lesyk, Olena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    The current study of Scandinavian multinational corporate subsidiaries in the rapidly growing Eastern European market, due to their particular organizational structure, attempts to gain some new insights into processes and potential benefits of knowledge and technology transfer. This study explores how to succeed in knowledge transfer and to become more competitive, driven by the need to improve transfer of systematic knowledge for the manufacture of product and service provisions in newly entered market. The scope of current research is exactly limited to multinational corporations, which are defined as enterprises comprising entities in two or more countries, regardless of legal forms and field of activity of those entities, and which operate under a system of decision-making permitting coherent policies and a common strategy through one or more decision-making centers. The entities are linked, by ownership, and able to exercise influence over the activities of the others; and, in particular, to share the knowledge, resources, and responsibilities with others. The research question is "How and to which extent can knowledge-transfer influence a company's technological competence and economic competitiveness?" and try to find out what particular forces and factors affect the development of subsidiary competencies; what factors influence the corporate integration and use of the subsidiary's competencies; and what may increase competitiveness of MNC pursuing leading position in entered market. The empirical part of the research was based on qualitative analyses of twenty interviews conducted among employees in Scandinavian MNC subsidiary units situated in Ukraine, using structured sequence of questions with open-ended answers. The data was investigated by comparison case analyses to literature framework. Findings indicate that a technological competence developed in one subsidiary will lead to an integration of that competence with other corporate units within the MNC. Success increasingly depends upon people's learning. The local economic area is crucial for understanding competition and industrial performance, as there seems to be a clear link between the performance of subsidiaries and the conditions prevailing in their environment. The linkage between competitive advantage and company's success is mutually dependent. Observation suggests that companies can be characterized as clusters of complementary activities such as R&D, administration, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Study identifies barriers and obstacles in technology and knowledge transfer that is relevant for the subsidiaries' competence development. The accumulated experience can be implemented in new entered market with simple procedures, and at a low cost under specific circumstances, by cloning. The main goal is focused to support company prosperity, making more profits and sustaining an increased market share by improved product quality and/or reduced production cost of the subsidiaries through cloning approach. Keywords: multinational corporation; technology transfer; knowledge transfer; subsidiary competence; barriers and obstacles; competitive advantage; Eastern European market
  • Orengo, Johanan (2013)
    Sun Zi’s Art of War is the oldest military treatise in the world and still the most relevant. It can be applied to any area of human experience that involves conflict of some sort and has been applied to a variety of problems by everyday practitioners and academic scholars alike. Despite its importance, it is mostly ignored by the social scientific community at large. In an attempt to rectify this situation, I examine the Art of War as data from a sociological perspective, namely, that of Cultural Theory, which is used to comprehend sociocultural reality. Furthermore, I invert what might be an ‘intellectually imperialist’ relationship and examine Cultural Theory from the perspective of the Sun Zi. The overall goal is to discover how their mutual interaction might be utilized by scholars in studies of the Sun Zi, Cultural Theory, and related topics as well as how it might allow people to view how they live differently. The results of these close readings demonstrate that the Art of War is rooted in two intertwining cultures, the hierarchic and the individualist—the better for a general to manipulate his enemy and emerge victorious in battle. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, can be fruitfully applied to the issues that concern the Art of War such as knowing one’s enemy and deception, and, thus, used to win.
  • Tapani, Annukka (2007)
    The polytechnics have been a part of the Finnish education for about 10 years. During these years they have tried to find an own profile as educational institutions. The community of teachers has also changed. It has become more pluralistic. The purpose of this research is to bring up the theme of collective identity: how the personnel in one polytechnic have succeeded in finding a feeling of belonging together. The research data is collected by a qualitative e-mail interview sent to a sample of 60 members of the personnel, a sample chosen by using the critical incident strategy. They represent all of the personnel. The data was analysed by argumentative and rhetoric analyses. After that the answers were combined to narrative stories. Then eight other persons were asked to member-check the stories by using the terms of rhetoric analysis. There are different ways to have a collective identity. Units play a big role. There are situations when one must or one wants to be the representative of the whole polytechnic. The use of the word ‘us’ is dependent on the situation. It is also dependent on the person with whom one is speaking. For most of the personnel to become `us` is something worth struggling for. The matters preventing one of becoming us are felt to be far from oneself and one cannot do anything to change them. In spite of the will of the polytechnic leaders to empower them, the personnel feel that they have no power and they have become alienated. There seems to be a need for a deeper discussion about the concepts “empowerment” and “alienation”. The possibilities and reasons for these two things are also worth careful consideration. The main sorurces used: Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic Interactionism. Pespective and Method. Berkeley: University of California Press. Berkley and Los Angeles, California. Kalliola, S. (2001). Herbert Blumer. Symbolinen interaktionismi. Teoksessa V. Hänninen, J. Partanen & O-H. Ylijoki (toim.) Sosiaalipsykologian suunnannäyttäjiä. Tampere: Osuuskunta Vastapaino. Kaunismaa, P. (1997) Keitä me olemme? Kollektiivisen identiteetin käsitteellisistä lähtökohdista. Sosiologia 34, (3), 220-229. Kakkuri-Knuutila, M-L. ja Halonen, I. (2002). Argumentaatioanalyysi ja hyvän argumentin ehdot. Teoksessa M-L. Kakkuri-Knuutila (toim.) Argumentti ja kritiikki. Helsinki: Gaudeamus Kuusela P. (2001) George Herbert Mead. Pragmatismi ja sosiaalipsykologia. Teoksessa V. Hänninen, J. Partanen & O-H. Ylijoki (toim.) Sosiaalipsykologian suunnannäyttäjiä. Tampere: Osuuskunta Vastapaino. Mead, G. H. (1962) Mind, Self, & Society. From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Edited and with an Introduction by C. W. Morris. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Varto, J. (1996) Laadullisen tutkimuksen metodologia. Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä.
  • Kemmo, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Increased interest in the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols has led to development of plant sterol-enriched foods. When products are enriched, the safety of the added components must be evaluated. In the case of plant sterols, oxidation is the reaction of main concern. In vitro studies have indicated that cholesterol oxides may have harmful effects. Due their structural similarity, plant sterol oxidation products may have similar health implications. This study concentrated on developing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods that enable the investigation of formation of both primary and secondary oxidation products and thus can be used for oxidation mechanism studies of plant sterols. The applicability of the methods for following the oxidation reactions of plant sterols was evaluated by using oxidized stigmasterol and sterol mixture as model samples. An HPLC method with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection (HPLC-UV-FL) was developed. It allowed the specific detection of hydroperoxides with FL detection after post-column reagent addition. The formation of primary and secondary oxidation products and amount of unoxidized sterol could be followed by using UV detection. With the HPLC-UV-FL method, separation between oxides was essential and oxides of only one plant sterol could be quantified in one run. Quantification with UV can lead to inaccuracy of the results since the number of double bonds had effect on the UV absorbance. In the case of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), separation of oxides with different functionalities was important because some oxides of the same sterol have similar molecular weight and moreover epimers have similar fragmentation behaviour. On the other hand, coelution of different plant sterol oxides with the same functional group was acceptable since they differ in molecular weights. Results revealed that all studied plant sterols and cholesterol seem to have similar fragmentation behaviour, with only relative ion abundances being slightly different. The major advantage of MS detection coupled with LC separation is the capability to analyse totally or partly coeluting analytes if these have different molecular weights. The HPLC-UV-FL and LC-MS methods were demonstrated to be suitable for studying the photo-oxidation and thermo-oxidation reactions of plant sterols. The HPLC-UV-FL method was able to show different formation rates of hydroperoxides during photo-oxidation. The method also confirmed that plant sterols have similar photo-oxidation behaviour to cholesterol. When thermo-oxidation of plant sterols was investigated by HPLC-UV-FL and LC-MS, the results revealed that the formation and decomposition of individual hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products could be studied. The methods used revealed that all of the plant sterols had similar thermo-oxidation behaviour when compared with each other, and the predominant reactions and oxidation rates were temperature dependent. Overall, these findings showed that with these LC methods the oxidation mechanisms of plant sterols can be examined in detail, including the formation and degradation of individual hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products, with less sample pretreatment and without derivatization.
  • Piironen, Heidi (2007)
  • Mielonen, Mika (2013)
    Mobiililaitteiden suosion kasvun myötä Web ja erilaiset sovellukset ovat yhä tärkeämpi osa ihmisten jokapäiväistä elämää. Samalla verkkosivujen ja sovellusten suunnittelulta ja toteutukselta edellytetään yhä monipuolisemmaksi kasvavan laitekannan huomioimista, sillä informaation odotetaan olevan saavutettavissa laitteesta riippumatta. Jatkuvasti kehittyvät avoimet Web-tekniikat ja niiden keskiössä oleva HTML5 voidaan yleisesti nähdä kustannustehokkaana ratkaisuna eri näyttökokojen ja sovellusalustojen kattamiseen, koska yhteisenä tekijänä eri laitteissa on selain. Erilaisten Web-sovellusten yleistyessä niiden toteutukset pohjaavat yhä enemmän sovelluslogiikan siirtämiseen palvelimelta selaimeen, ja yksisivuinen sovellusmalli (SPA-malli) on muodostumassa merkittäväksi. Tässä pro gradu –tutkielmassa tarkastellaan HTML5:n nykytilaa ja tulevaisuuden mahdollisuuksia erityisesti Web-sovelluksille hyödyllisten piirteiden ja sovellusliittymien kautta, kun vertailukohtana ovat alustakohtaiset (iOS, Android jne.) tekniikat. Tutkielman empiriaosassa näkökulmaa tarkennetaan laajan laitekannan tuen mahdollistaviin HTML5:n osiin, SPA-malliin, sekä sovellusarkkitehtuurin erityispiirteisiin, joihin perehdytään SAK:n responsiivisen verkkosivuston, sekä sen taustajärjestelmän tarjoaman esimerkin avulla. Johtopäätöksinä todetaan, että avoimien Web-tekniikoiden tarjoamat edut tulevat jatkossa yhä korostumaan alustakohtaisiin tekniikoihin nähden. SPA-mallin huomattiin parantavan käyttökokemusta tavallisiin verkkosivustoihin verrattuna, vaikka tarkastelun kohteessa mallia ei hyödynnetty parhaalla mahdollisella tavalla. Laajalle laitekannalle suunnatun toteutuksen todettiin edellyttävän huomiota latausaikoihin, käyttökokemukseen, laitetukeen ja sovellusarkkitehtuuriin, jonka sopivana lähtökohtana voidaan pitää Web-käyttöön suunniteltuja MVC-sovelluskehyksiä niiden tarjoaman selkeän rakenteen ansiosta, sekä JavaScriptin käyttöä taustajärjestelmästä alkaen erityisesti esimerkin kaltaisilla sisältörikkailla verkkosivustoilla. Mobiilioptimointi todettiin hyödylliseksi ja mahdolliseksi toteuttaa ilman erityistä sovelluksen kompleksisuuden lisääntymistä.
  • Leskinen, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This dissertation examines linguistic deconstructions in literary data constituted by selected tropes and metaphors in four novels of the Chilean writer, Diamela Eltit (1949–): Lumpérica (1983), Vaca sagrada (1991), El infarto del alma (1994), and Los trabajadores de la muerte (1998). The research focuses on a linguistic change carried out by Eltit in her narrative project from its experimental peak in 1983, when her first novel Lumpérica was published, through the 1980s and 90s. We regard Eltit’s narrative as historically important and try to clarify the process by which literature might transform linguistic structures and be connected to a theoretical change in cultural discourses. The time period we study includes Eltit’s progress as a writer during the rule of General Augusto Pinochet’s military regime, from the coup in 1973 through expansion and empowerment of civil society in 1973-1990 and the first years of democracy until 1998. The selected data of corporal tropes and metaphors is analyzed within a multidisciplinary framework of linguistics, literature, history, and gender studies. Therefore this dissertation is related to the disciplines of Spanish philology, Comparative Literature, Latin American Studies, and Gender Studies. Our three major research strategies are linguistic structuralism, deconstruction, and feminist literary theories. Subjects relevant to deconstruction include the philosophy of meaning and the ways in which meaning is constructed by writers, texts, and readers. The methodology is constituted by a semantic and deconstructionist analysis of literary data and a literary analysis of this data through the structuralist model created by the Danish linguist Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965). We emphasize, that instead of using Hjelmslev’s structuralist model directly as such, the methodological model of this research is an application of that model to the literary texts. Concerning the epistemological framework this dissertation is placed in the rupture of structuralism and post-structuralism. It highlights the radicalization of representation and theatricality in Eltit’s narrative, the prominence of visuality in her language, and the density of erotic corporal metaphors, like the phallic gaze in Lumpérica. Old Greek myths, particularly those of Éros and Thánatos, arise from western arthistory in new images. They establish a constant topic in Eltit’s narrative, turning her writing gloomy and desolate and filled with dark and erotic tones. This study shows that Diamela Eltit deconstructs the Spanish language in her writing, but this linguistic deconstruction is not continuous or equivalent in all of her works. Her linguistic deconstructions are highly variable in her texts and the syntactical and morphological deconstructions are not carried out in every novel. Therefore, we challenge the various critics who use the term deconstruction in an undefined manner or argue that deconstruction appears as a rule in Eltit´s whole narrative project. As a matter of fact, linguistic deconstructions constitute a multiformal writing strategy, which is manifested in a different manner in every novel.
  • Karvinen, Simo (2012)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on tarkastella uintiseurojen valmennusorganisaatioita liikunta- ja urheilupolitiikan toimeenpanijoina. Taustalla on liikunnan ja urheilun kansainvälisessä yhteiskunnallisessa teoreettisessa keskustelussa esiin noussut vastakkainasettelu kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun kehittämisen ja mahdollisimman monille kansalaisille liikunta- ja urheilumahdollisuuksien tarjoamisen välillä. Jälkiperustahakuisen tutkimusotteen avulla on tarkoituksena analysoida tämän vastakkainasettelun tuottamisprosessia liikunnan ja urheilun keskusjärjestötason rakenneuudistuksesta (1993) tähän päivään. Toinen keskeinen taustatekijä on tällä hetkellä käynnissä oleva Suomen Olympiakomitean koordinoima huippu-urheilun muutostyö. Tämän tarkoituksena on tuottaa huippu-urheilun suomalainen malli, joka on eettisiltä periaatteiltaan kestävä ja mahdollistaa suomalaisten urheilijoiden menestymisen kansainvälisissä arvokilpailuissa. Valmennusorganisaatioiden diskursiivista toimintaympäristöä tarkastellaan Ernesto Laclaun kehittämän ideologia- ja diskurssianalyysin avulla. Tätä käytetään myös tutkielman analyysimenetelmänä, tarkasteltaessa kelluvien merkitsijöiden kiinnittymistä diskursseihin. Diskursiivista toimintaympäristöä analysoidaan liikunnan ja urheilun yhteiskunnallisella toimintakentällä tuotetun liikuntaa ja urheilua kaikille -diskurssin ja kilpa- ja huippu-urheiludiskurssin vastakkain asettelun avulla. Liikuntaa ja urheilua -diskurssin vaikutusta valmennusorganisaatioihin tutkitaan kulttuuris-kognitiivisen institutionalismin mukaisen institutionalisaation avulla, jossa keskeistä on jaettujen uskomusten objektifikaation kasvu. Huippu-urheilun muutostyön toimeenpanoa analysoidaan alhaalta ylöspäin suuntautuvan John Campbellin translation -toimeenpanomallin avulla. Tässä mallissa keskeistä on, että politiikan toimeenpanossa olemassa olevilla rakenteilla, käytännöillä ja merkityksillä on aina väliä.Tutkimuksessa hahmotetaan huippu-urheilun muutostyön toimeenpanoa uinnissa tämän prosessin kannalta keskeisen Huipulle tähtäävän uimarin urapolun avulla. Vertaan valmennusorganisaatioiden paikallista kiinnittymistä diskursseihin urapolun kriteereihin ja analysoin tämän vaikutusta toimeenpanoon. Tutkielman keskeisiä tuloksia olivat, että kahtiajaottelun takia valmennusorganisaatioissa on käynnissä jatkuva kamppailu merkityksenannoista. Jatkuva kamppailu on johtanut siihen, että kummankaan diskurssin merkityksenannot eivät ole täysin institutionalisoituneet valmennusorganisaatioiden toimijoiden asenteisiin, eikä toimintatapojen merkityksenantoihin. Ne näyttäytyvät limittäisinä diskursseina paikallisesti valmennusorganisaatioissa. Tällä tutkimuksessa nähdään olevan väliä huippu-urheilun toimeenpanon kannalta, joissain valmennusorganisaatioissa mahdollistavasti ja joissain tuoden toimeenpanolle merkittäviä haasteita.