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  • Pöysti, Virve (2008)
    Postsosialistiset kaupungit ovat Neuvostoliiton hajottua olleet jatkuvassa muutoksen tilassa. Siirtyminen suunnitelmataloudesta markkinatalouteen on vaikuttanut myös kaupunkien sosiospatiaaliseen rakenteeseen. Tutkimuksessani tarkastelen laajemmin näitä muutoksia tutustumalla ensin sosialistisiin kaupunkeihin ja niiden kehitykseen vaikuttaneisiin prosesseihin sekä yhteiskunnalliseen tilanteeseen. Tämän jälkeen keskityn post-sosialistisiin kaupunkeihin sekä lähemmin tilanteeseen Pietarin kaupungissa. Sosialismin aika vaikutti kaupunkien kehitykseen huomattavan paljon. Pietarin tilanne poikkesi kuitenkin monista muista sosialistisista kaupungeista. Tsaarinaikaiselta Venäjältä perityn asuntokantansa takia Neuvostoliitolle ominaisia yhteisasuntoja, kommunalkoja, oli Pietarissa enemmän kuin missään muussa sosialistisessa kaupungissa. 1960-luvulta lähtien valtava lähiörakentaminen muutti kaupunkien rakennuskantaa. Tavoitteeksi tuli yhteisöllisyyden sijaan tarjota jokaiselle perheelle oma asunto. Erillisasuntojen rakentaminen voidaan kuitenkin nähdä asuintason parantamisen ohella myös osoituksena yhteiskunnan porvarillistumisesta. Asunto-oloissa olikin jo Neuvostoliiton aikana huomattavaa eriarvoisuutta. Eriarvoisuuden määrästä ei kuitenkaan voida olla varmoja, sillä Neuvostoliiton ajalta ei ole luotettavaa tilastotietoa tai luotettavia tutkimuksia. Neuvostoliiton hajottua alueellinen eriytyminen on ollut kasvussa. Etenkin asuntokannan yksityistämisen myötä sijainnin merkitys on korostunut. Uusi asuntotuotanto on myös lähinnä suunnattu varakkaille, mikä lisää alueellisia eroja. Vertaamalla keskimääräisiä tulotasoja Pietarin kahdeksallatoista alueella olen pyrkinyt selvittämään, mille alueille hyväosaisuus ja huono-osaisuus ovat keskittyneett. Tutustumalla tarkemmin Pietarin kaupungin historiaan selviää, miten kaupunki on rakentunut kerroksittain, ja miten nämä kerrokset vaikuttavat edelleen kaupungin rakenteeseen. Kaupungin historiallista keskustaa ympäröi teollisuusvyöhyke, jota puolestaan kiertää laaja Neuvostoliiton aikana rakennettu lähiövyöhyke. Lähiövyöhykkeen ulkopuolella alkavat kaupungin perifeerisemmät alueet. Olenkin perustellut Pietarista löytämääni alueellista mallia sijainnilla sekä rakennuskannalla. Vaikka sosialistisia ja post-sosialistisia kaupunkeja pidetään yleensä lännestä poikkeavina ja läntisiä kaupunkiteorioita näihin kaupunkeihin sopimattomina, olen verrannut Pietarin kaupunkia myös länteen, ja löytänyt huomattavia yhtäläisyyksiä.
  • Zimmerbauer, Kaj (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Regions are considered to be in competition for investments, industries, inhabitants and skilled labour nationally as well as internationally. In the context of tightening competition, more and more attention has been paid to regional attractors. A positive image is an important attractor in regional competition. In Finland, many towns and regions have either implemented or are planning to implement various image-enhancing campaigns or other measures aimed at improving their image. The role of identity is very important in developing a regional image. Good regional image should be based on a strong regional identity and awareness. Related to this is the perception of one's own region as separate from others and the familiarity of the region. If a region has no place in the awareness of its residents or if the inhabitants do not identify with it, its very existence as a social construct can be questioned. This means that building the regional image, which in this context is seen as social constructivism, is extremely difficult if the degree of regional awareness and identification is low. On the other hand, regional identity is being built also by developing the regional image. In a way, regional discourses have become more marketing-oriented in that instead of trying to create a regional esprit de corps there is now more image-oriented speech aimed at striving to improve the attractivity to outsiders of the region. Even though the goal is to bring the region to the attention of non-residents, a measure of construction of regional identity for the local population is automatically effected at the same time. Regional image and identity are consequences of linguistic producing and understanding of a region. It means that both image and identity are seen as language-created social constructions. The regional image is created through various discourses, but also the construction of a regional identity as regional consciousness and identification is largely a linguistic process. Essential in this context is perceiving the region as a discursive project characterized by its representation as texts, images and symbols. The linguistic production of a region is not a neutral description of "reality", but a representation based on interpretations, experiences and different motivations. Production and perceiving vary in time, so regional image and identity are on the move. This research is driven by the ongoing change of the regional system. The municipal and service structure reform is in progress and the number of municipalities seems to be on the decrease. At the same time, European Union s regional policy and regionalism on the whole are changing the status of sub-regions. At municipal level the crucial question is how the municipal structure reform will affect regional identity. This study points out that strong sense of municipal identity is a source of opposition to changes in municipal structure, but on the other hand the deinstitutionalization of the old municipality in municipal merger does not in itself mean the weakening of municipal identity.
  • Laukkanen, Henri (2015)
    Tutkimuksen taustana toimivat havainnot pääkaupunkiseudun väestön alueellisessa sosioekonomisessa eriytymisessä. Yleisesti ottaen erot alueiden välillä ovat maltillisia, mutta paikoitellen eräiden huono-osaisuuden indikaattorien, kuten työttömyysasteen, tunnusluvut nousevat suhteellisen korkealle tasolle. Tilanne herättää kysymyksen huono-osaisuuden keskittymisen mahdollisista seurauksista. Kansainvälisessä tutkimuskeskustelussa on esitetty, että kärjistyessään alueellinen huono-osaisuus saattaa alkaa itsessään tuottaa huono-osaisuutta. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään, onko alueellinen työttömyysaste yhteydessä työttömien myöhempään työmarkkinamenestykseen. Teoreettisesti tutkimus pohjautuu keskustelulle naapurustovaikutuksista, jossa oletetaan, että yksilön sosiaalisella ympäristöllä saattaa olla vaikutusta yksilön elämänkulkuun. Analyysimenetelminä tutkimuksessa käytettiin lineaarista ja logistista monitasoista regressioanalyysia. Selitettävänä muuttujana toimi yksilön viiden vuoden ansiotulojen aritmeettinen keskiarvo työttömyyden kohtaamista seuranneilta kalenterivuosilta. Pääasiallisena selittävänä muuttujana käytettiin alueellista työttömyysastetta. Yksilön ansiotulojen ja alueen työttömyysasteen yhteyttä selvitettiin vakioimalla sellaisia yksilötason taustatekijöitä, jotka ovat oletettavasti yhteydessä sekä yksilön työmarkkinamenestykseen että alueelle valikoitumiseen. Tutkimuksen aineisto perustuu alun perin Nodes-tutkimushanketta varten kerättyyn Tilastokeskuksen toimittamaan rekisteripohjaiseen pitkittäisaineistoon. Rajauksien jälkeen aineisto kuvasi vuosina 1999–2003 vähintään kuudentoista päivän mittaisen työttömyysjakson 25–54 vuoden iässä kohtaamia Suomessa syntyneitä yksilöitä sekä niitä pääkaupunkiseudun osa-alueita, joilla kyseiset yksilöt asuivat työttömyyden kohdatessaan. Rajatussa aineistossa oli 3800 henkilöhavaintoa. Analyysien perusteella alueellisen työttömyysasteen mukaan ilmenevät erot työttömien myöhemmässä työmarkkinamenestyksessä selittyvät hyvin pitkälle yksilötason taustatekijöillä. Sen sijaan alueellisen työttömyysasteen vaikutuksille tulokset antoivat vain hyvin vähäistä näyttöä. Ainoa selkeästi työttömyysasteeseen liittyvä mahdollinen viite naapurustovaikutuksista oli interaktiovaikutus yksilön koulutustason ja alueen työttömyysasteen välillä. Jos koulutustasoltaan enintään perusasteen tutkinnon suorittanut yksilö asui naapurustossa, jossa työttömyysaste oli 2,4–5,6 prosenttia, hänen ansiotulojensa ennuste oli korkeampi kuin yksilöllä, jolla oli sama koulutustaso mutta joka asui naapurustossa, jossa työttömyysaste vaihteli 5,7–11,3 prosentin välillä. Tutkimusasetelman rajoituksista johtuen ei ollut mahdollista varmistaa, onko havaituissa työttömyysasteen ja työttömän myöhemmän työmarkkinamenestyksen välisessä yhteydessä kyse alueen vaikutuksesta vai jostakin muusta. Se olisi edellyttänyt mahdollisten naapurustovaikutusmekanismien empiiristä tutkimista. Ongelma on hyvin tyypillinen kvantitatiivisille naapurustovaikutustutkimuksille. Jatkotutkimuksissa tuleekin kiinnittää enemmän huomiota naapurustovaikutuksia mahdollisesti tuottavien mekanismien empiiriseen identifioimiseen. Mielenkiintoinen seikka tutkimuksen tuloksissa on se, että ne poikkeavat selvästi aikaisemmista tutkimuksista, jotka ovat selvittäneet työttömyysasteen ja työttömän myöhemmän työmarkkinamenestyksen yhteyttä pääkaupunkiseudulla. Kyseisissä tutkimuksissa tarkasteltiin 90-luvun laman aikana työttömyyttä kohdanneiden yksilöiden myöhempää työmarkkinamenestystä ja löydettiin suhteellisen selkeitä viitteitä mahdollisista naapurustovaikutuksista. Erot tutkimustuloksissa viittaavat mahdollisuuteen, että pääkaupunkiseudulla on tapahtunut tutkimusten aineistojen kattaman ajan välillä muutoksia naapurustovaikutuksia tuottavissa prosesseissa.
  • Kapanen, Heini (2002)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten alueiden tarpeet kanavoituivat päätöksentekoprosessissa rakennerahastovaroin tuetuiksi hankkeiksi. Tutkimuksen kohteena olivat Suomen tavoite 2-ohjelmat ja niiden pohjalta rahoitetut hankkeet vuosina 1995-1999 eli Suomen EU-jäsenyyden ensimmäisenä ohjelmakautena. Tavoite 2-alueet ovat taantuvia teollisuusalueita, joiden suurimpana ongelmana on yksipuolistunut teollisuusrakenne ja työttömyys. Vuosina 1995-1999 tavoite 2 -ohjelmia oli Suomessa kahdeksan maakunnan alueella. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin kansallista ja alueiden tavoite 2 -ohjelmia ja aluekehitysohjelmia ajalta 1995-1999, Fimos-tietokannan, TEKESin ja KTM:n hankelistauksia sekä tavoiteohjelmien arviointiraportteja. Tavoite 2 -ohjelmista vastanneet henkilöt vastasivat kyselytutkimukseen ohjelmatyön valmisteluprosessista, alueiden painotuksista ja kansalaisten osallistumisesta ohjelmien valmisteluun. Kahta toteutunutta hanketta (Haminan bastioni ja Lahden satama) tutkittiin haastattelemalla rahoitukseen liittyneet keskeiset toimijat. Haastatteluja analysoitiin Hoppen (1993) poliittisen arvioinnin mallia mukaellen. Kansallinen lainsäädäntö ja EU:n periaatteet normittavat alueiden tarpeita. Tarpeet nousevat rahoitetuiksi hankkeiksi kahden prosessin yhteisvaikutuksena: Tarpeet muokkaavat strategiaohjelmia ja hankkeiden valintakriteereitä. Toisaalta tarpeiden pohjalta syntyy hankeanomuksia. Rahoitettuja hankkeita syntyy, jos strategiaohjelmien tavoitteet, hankkeen toteuttajan tarpeet ja hanketta rahoittavan viranomaisen tärkeinä pitämät kriteerit sopivat yhteen. Prosessissa vaikuttaa erityisesti se, kanavoituuko alueen todellinen tarve strategiaohjelmaksi. Alueella voi olla myös puute- eli tarvetiloja, jotka eivät pääse rahoitettaviksi hankkeiksi eivätkä edes hankeanomuksiksi. Tavoite 2 -ohjelmat olivat keskenään samankaltaisia ja yhteensopivia EU-tasolta saatujen yleisten tavoitteiden kanssa. Päätavoitteena oli työllistäminen. Alueiden vahvoja aloja tuettiin, jolloin elinkeinorakenteen monipuolistaminen jäi vähälle huomiolle. Strategian valmisteluprosessin luonne vaikuttaa strategiaan, joka puolestaan ohjaa hankekriteerien kautta hankerahoitusta. Yritysten strategioita ei huomioitu ohjelmatyössä, vaikka hankkeet kohdistuivat yleensä yrityksiin. Poliittisilla luottamushenkilöillä oli vähäinen vaikutusvalta ohjelmien valmisteluprosessiin. Olennaista oli hankkeista päättävien viranomaisten tulkinta ohjelmien ja EU:n periaatteiden toteutumisesta alueellaan. Tavoiteohjelmilla saatettiin toteuttaa ministeriöiden sektorikohtaisia tavoitteita, ei aina alueiden tarpeista lähteviä ongelmia. Ennestään aktiiviset hakijat olivat ensisijaisia rahoituksen saajia. Tarpeet muuttuvat tavoitteiksi ohjelmien valmisteluprosessissa, rahoitettavien hankkeiden valinnassa, hankkeita toteutettaessa ja ohjelmaa arvioitaessa. Alueen tarpeiden nostaminen agendalle riippuu kansallisesta ohjelmatyön osaamisesta. Ohjelmallisuus realisoituu alueiden tavoitteiden mukaisesti, kun hankkeet syntyvät alueelta omaehtoisesti eivätkä ole vain asiantuntijatahojen kokoamia hankkeita. Hankkeiden eteenpäin vieminen vaatii intressien yhteensovittamista EU:n tavoiteasettelun, kansallisen aluepolitiikan päämäärien ja alueellisten tarpeiden kesken sekä vertikaalisesti että näiden tasojen sisällä horisontaalisesti. Tapaustutkimushankkeiden tarpeista sopiminen perustui praktiselle mallille, jossa alueiden omat tarpeet yhdistettiin kansallisen tason tavoitteiden kanssa. Tarpeista sopiminen tapahtui kansallisen ja alueen, paikallistason päätöksentekoprossessin sekoittumisena.
  • Roininen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The research problem deals with the increasing fragmentation of the practical evaluation activities and academic evaluation research in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The fragmentation infiltrates all levels of evaluation theory, methodology, methods, processes and practices, as well as its sub-disciplines. The fragmentation is closely connected to the recent evolution of the modern Finnish society towards the so called project society. The hypothesis of the study is that the fragmentation can both challenge and profit evaluation and evaluation research. It can be a challenge, because fragmentation might increase the lack of common basic evaluation research. On the other hand, the profit implies that the fragmentation generates a diversification of evaluation research methods. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the fragmented characteristics of evaluation in regional and urban studies and to investigate potential means to reintegrate them. A multidisciplinary theoretical framework of the study was built from the perspectives of evaluation research and urban and regional studies. The two research questions in the study are: what are the characteristics of evaluation research under the conditions of the modern project society, and what are the potential means to reintegrate evaluation research? The empirical part of the study consists of ten practical evaluation projects which provide material for a holistic picture of the state of the art of evaluation in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The empirical material covers the various regional levels and thematic fields of regional and urban planning. The empirical study comprises an analysis of the epistemology, ontology, aims, objects, procedures, orientations, applied fields, as well as of the practical processes and methodological tools of the ten evaluation projects. The methodology of the empirical part of the study also consists of a meta-evaluation in the form of a content analysis and a comparative analysis of the projects. The results of the study disclose that current evaluation practices have, on the one hand, expanded outwards to new fields and substance areas. On the other hand evaluations have fragmented inwards. The fragmentation means that the basic research on evaluation has been underdeveloped. The development of evaluation expertise has been strongly influenced by the main features of the project society, such as competition between project proposals and consultants. This has put an emphasis on applied studies instead of basic research. Thus, the development of evaluation practices has meant general adaptation to the needs of the operational environment and the project society. The results also indicate that evaluation activities are divided into three forms; academic evaluation research (basic research on evaluation), investigative evaluation (research in evaluation) and practical evaluation. The first type of evaluation has been underdeveloped and the last one widely diffused. The strengthening of basic research on evaluation would improve the methods, processes and practices of evaluation. However, the reintegration of evaluation demands, besides stronger basic research, three kinds of approaches; an evolutionary view of development, applied systems methodology and the application of utilization-focused evaluation. The study provides a systematic analysis and a comprehensive understanding of evaluation practices in regional and urban planning under the conditions of the modern project society, as well as new ways to develop integrated evaluation practices. It also offers a transdisciplinary methodology of evaluation research that can be applied in holistic and thematic evaluations. Thus, it contributes to the substance theory of evaluation. The results can be applied in the practice of planning and evaluation authorities, as well as in academic education at the universities.
  • Granqvist, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The Finnish regional development system has gone through structural reforms from state centered governed system to multi-actor governance, based on negotiation and cooperation. One of the reforms has been the regional cohesion and competitiveness program (COCO) established in 2010. The aim of the program is to increase competitiveness through all the regions and balance the regional development by supporting networking. The main focus of the program is to improve the methods and tools for regional development. In the program there are seven thematic networks founded around topics seen important national wide. This thesis explores regional development networks and their evaluation COCO:s two thematic networks, Wellbeing and Land use, housing and transportation as examples. The aim of the thesis is to explore the network actors understanding of thematic networks as tools for regional development. In particular, the study focuses on how the actors see the possible network level outcomes and wider effects of the networking activity. In addition, the central themes of the study are the prerequisite for successful network processes and improvement of the network process effectiveness by evaluation. The research material in this study consist the interviews of the network coordinators and national and regional actors participating in the network activities. The interviews were conducted in spring 2011. Based on the research results, the networks act on national regional and network level and across them. The cooperation is based on official and unofficial relations. The structure of the networks seemed to be self-organizing and controlled at the same time. The structural elements were found to set the framework for the network process and evaluation. According to the results, the networks enabled the more effective operation of the national development system, support of the regions and political lobbying. For the regions the networks offered support for areal development, new resources and possibility to influence national discourse. As conclusion, the role of the network was to disseminate information, create possibilities for collaboration and execute projects and studies and to effect on national policy making. These factors determined the effectiveness of the networks. However, because different regions were satisfied with different network level outcomes, the utilization of the networks in the regions should be evaluated by their own objectives. Resources, motivation, competence and perceptions of the effects were found to affect the successful implementation of the network process and cooperation in networks. Some network level obstacles could be overcome with coordination, but the challenge was the ability and motivation of the areas to utilize the networks as resources and see them as part of the comprehensive development agenda. Thus, the development should focus on how to increase awareness on how to improve regional cooperation processes and how multiple regional actors could enhance their working by utilizing the networks.
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In this Ph.D. thesis I have studied how the objectives of sustainable development have been integrated into Northwest Russian urban and regional planning, and how the Russian planning discourse has changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By analysing the planning discussion, processes, and strategic documents I have also investigated the use of power and governmentality in urban and regional planning. As a methodological foundation I have used an approach that I call geographical constructivism . It was possible to answer in a relevant manner the question of how sustainable development has become a part of planning in Northwest Russia through a discourse analysis of the planning discussion. During the last decades, the aim of sustainable development has become globally one of the most central societal challenges. Urban and regional planning has a central role to play in promoting this process, since many meta-level objectives actually take shape within its sphere. An ever more actual challenge brought by sustainable development is to plan regions and places while balancing the conflicts of the pressures of safeguarding a good environment and of taking into consideration social and economic needs. I have given these unavoidable conflicts of sustainable development a central place in my work. In my view, complementing instrumental and communicative rationality with conflict rationality gives environmental planning a well-equipped toolbox. Sustainable development can be enhanced in urban and regional planning by seeking open, and especially hidden, potential conflicts. Thus, the expressed thinking (mentality) and actions taken by power regimes in and around conflicts open an interesting viewpoint into Northwest Russian governmentality. I examine the significance of sustainable development in planning through Northwest Russian geography, and also through recent planning legislation and four case studies. In addition, I project my analysis of empirical material onto the latest discussion of planning theory. My four case studies, which are based on independent and separate empirical material (42 thematic interviews and planning documents), consider the republics of Karelia and Komi, Leningrad oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg. In the dissertation I argue how sustainable development is, in the local governmentalities of Northwest Russia, understood as a concept where solving environmental problems is central, and that they can be solved through planning carried out by the planning professionals. Despite this idealism, environmental improvements have been overlooked by appealing to difficult economic factors. This is what I consider environmental racism, which I think is the most central barrier to sustainable development in Northwest Russia. The situation concerning the social dimension of sustainable development is even more difficult, since, for example, the development of local democracy is not highly valued. In the planning discourse this democracy racism is explained by a short history of democracy in Russia. However, precisely through planning conflicts, for example in St. Petersburg, planning has become socially more sustainable: protests by local inhabitants have bypassed the poorly functioning representational democracy, when the governmentality has changed from a mute use of power to one that adopts a stand on a conflicting issue. Keywords: Russia, urban and regional planning, sustainable development, environmental planning, power and conflicts in planning, governmentality, rationalities.
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Huttunen, Suvi (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    Työssä tarkasteltiin sedimentin alumiini- ja rautaoksidien osallistumista fosforin sitomiseen kolmella eri alueella pohjoisella Itämerellä ja sitä kuinka sedimentin metallioksideihin sitoutuneet fosforifraktiot voidaan erotella peräkkäisten uuttojen avulla. Tutkitut näytteet oli otettu estuaarityyppisistä sedimenteistä Ahvenkoskenlahdelta, Perämereltä ja Saaristomereltä. Näytteitä uutettiin peräkkäin ammoniumfluoridilla, natriumditioniitilla ja natriumhydroksidilla. Käytetyt uuttoliuokset valittiin kirjallisuuden ja aiempien tutkimusten perusteella. Uutteista mitattiin fosforin, raudan, alumiinin ja mangaanin pitoisuudet ICP-OES-laitteistolla. Työn ensimmäisessä vaiheessa uuttoliuoksia lisättiin eri järjestyksissä ja tulosten perusteella uuttojärjestykseksi valittiin: 1) natriumditioniitti, 2) ammoniumfluoridi ja 3) natriumhydroksidi, koska näin pystyttiin parhaiten erottamaan alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitoma fosfori toisistaan. Työn toisessa vaiheessa uutettiin kolmen eri alueen estuaarisedimenttejä valitulla uuttojärjestyksellä. Kirjallisuudessa on usein esitetty, että alumiinioksidit eivät olisi merkittävässä roolissa merisedimenttien fosforin sitomisessa vaan että alumiinioksidien sitomaksi määritetty fosfori voisi olla rautaoksidien sitomaa, mutta menetelmän epäspesifisyyden vuoksi tutkittu alumiinioksidien sitomaksi. Työn toisen vaiheen tulokset osoittivat, että alumiinioksidit osallistuvat fosforin sitomiseen estuaareissa. Estuaareihin hautautuneista sedimenttinäytteistä erottui alumiinioksidille spesifisellä uutolla oma fosforijakeensa, joka ei tulosten mukaan voinut olla peräisin rautaoksidien sitomasta jakeesta. Ahvenkoskenlahden näytteessä oli Saaristomeren ja Perämeren näytteisiin verrattuna suhteessa eniten alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitomaa fosforia. Alumiinioksideilla havaittiin olevan enemmän merkitystä fosforin sitomisessa lähempänä rannikkoa, kun taas rautaoksideilla on enemmän merkitystä kauempana rannikosta.
  • Konttila, Aila (1998)
  • Lapinsuo, Touko (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Alveolaarinen ostiitti on kivulias hampaan poiston jälkeinen komplikaatio, jonka syntymekanismi on edelleen epäselvä. Tämän lisäksi sen ennaltaehkäisyyn ja hoitoon ei löydy täysin yhtenevää mielipidettä. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena on perehtyä ajankohtaisiin artikkeleihin ja tehdä niistä yhteenveto. Tutkielmassa käsitellään alveoliitin riskitekijöitä, ennaltaehkäisyä ja hoitoa. Huolimatta monista tutkimuksista näyttäisi siltä, että edelleen ollaan epävarmoja alveoliitin oikeanlaisesta hoidosta. Useimmat tutkimukset kuitenkin tukevat väitettä, jonka mukaan tupakointi, naissukupuoli, suun kautta otettavat ehkäisypillerit ja korkea ikä lisäävät alveoliitin todennäköisyyttä. Ennaltaehkäisynä voidaan käyttää antibioottia ennen operaatiota ja jatkaa sitä post-operatiivisesti. Myös klooriheksidiinin käytöstä on hyviä tuloksia. Alveoliitin hoitoon käytetään kivunlievitykseen tarkoitettuja särkylääkkeitä. Huuhtelu keittosuolaliuoksella ja tamponin asettaminen poistokuoppaan auttavat paranemisessa. Tamponiin annosteltaviksi lääkeaineiksi suositellaan antiseptistä jodoformia sekä kivun lievittämiseen eugenolia sekä bentsokaiinia. Johtopäätöksenä totean, että nykyisen tiedon mukaan alveoliitti johtuu huonosti paranevasta poistokuopasta. Vaikka alveoliitin selkeää syytä ei tiedetä, on kuitenkin saatu selvyys sen riskitekijöistä, ennaltaehkäisystä ja hoidosta.
  • Kangas-Lumme, Jertta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    There is very little research on the effects of memory illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on the linguistic performance of congenitally deaf sign language users. With spoken language users the effects of AD are often first found in semantics and pragmatics. Deteriorated naming skills are often an early symptom of AD. As the disease progresses the linguistic skills are widely affected and communicating becomes difficult. When studying sign language users results have shown that people with AD have corresponding difficulties of comprehending and producing signed language as spoken language users with Dementia have with spoken language. The aim of this research was to study how two Finnish Sign Language (FSL) users with AD perform in object and action naming tests. The participants were evaluated with the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT) in two consecutive years. Of each performance, the researcher recorded the total score, the number of immediate answers, the time the participant spent on the task and how the answers were given. An analysis of naming errors was made. As a result it was noted that both object and action naming skills of the participants deteriorated as Dementia progressed. Action naming skill were less affected than object naming skill. The participants made more errors and gave less immediate responses in the BNT than in the ANT. Both the signed responses and the method of answering varied with the FSL users with a memory illness: the answers were given either in varying signs, by speaking only or by both speaking and signing simultaneously, or with signs created spontaneously in test situation. Most of the errors were Other errors, especially “I don’t know” –answers in both tests. As a result of this study it is clear that there is a need for assessment tests which have been translated into sign language, since the existing naming tests are not necessarily suitable for testing signed language users without a culturally-sensitive translation. This study is the first longitudinal study in Finland focusing on evaluating Finnish Sign Language users with Dementia and the changes in their linguistic skills. It is also one of the first studies internationally on the linguistic changes of sign language users with a memory illness.
  • Kääriäinen, Seppo (2002)
    The study applies to the strategic choices and aims of the Agrarian Union/Centre Party between years 1964-2001. In particular, the study examines the strategies of the Centre Party to defend its position in the Finnish politics amidst an ungovernable structural change of the society and a period of political transition. The aim is to analyze the strategic choices of the Party and their origin, basically from the point of view of the Party leadership. A strategic choice of a party is composed of a political-ideological core, which is supported by several activities. The study aims also to analyze the internal reforms of the Centre party by comparing them to party theories Duverger, Kirchheimer, Panebianco, Katz & Mair). Also the role of the leaders of the Centre Party in generating the strategies has been examined. The study is a qualitative one by nature. The method used in the study can be compared to "observing participation". The study contains also components of the grounded theory, due to a wide and many-sided material and the background of the author. The strategies are approached with a chronological disposition by analyzing them in the light of questions that are based on party theories. The background for the increased election support is the development towards a catch-all party that was accelerated by the change of the name of the Party in 1965 (from the Agrarian Union to the Centre Party). In 2001, the proportional support of the Party was at the same level as in 1962 (23-24 %). The development towards a catch-all party - a long-term strategic choice - was strengthened in 1962-1999 when also the support of the Party increased tenfold in the cities and the share of the Party of votes that were cast in the cities increased fivefold. In 2000, approximately 90 per cent of the supporters were others than farmers, whereas in the beginning of 1960s the situation was the opposite. The main conclusion is that, although the Centre Party has to a large extent become a catch-all party, consistent with the party theories, it has always contained strategic elements of difference and originality, arising from the core identity of the Party. The Party leadership has not only developed strategies based on the concept of a catch-all party, but also utilized the originality of the party both in the political-ideological and the organizational work. The strategy to reform the Agrarian Union as a Centre Party (1964-1970) pushed the Party to become a catch-all party. The catastrophe in the 1970 general election drove the Party to re-establish its identity in the 1970s. As a result of this process, the Party changed from a class party to a catch-all party of the regions. After these strategies that were implemented under the leadership of Dr Johannes Virolainen, the Party chose in the 1980s, under the leadership of Mr Paavo Väyrynen, a strategy of a high profile. This strategy, with which the Party challenged the leading position of the social-democrats, transformed the Party into an ideologically conscious party of masses. After the 1991 general election the Centre Party became the leading governmental party. Under the leadership of Mr Esko Aho (Prime Minister 1991-95) the Party pursued the politics of necessity, characteristic of a governmental party. It also adapted characters of an election party that had amended its ideology more pragmatic. The opposition strategy of the late 1990s, characterised by the "labour reform", strengthened the Party as a party of different projects with the aim to gain electoral support. The Agrarian Union was in 1964 in a turning point, the Centre Party was in a same kind of situation in 2001. The only thing that had remained of the components of the previous pivotal position, was the support. The basic source material of the study are the minutes (including the annexes) from all official meetings of all party organs from 1964 to 2001. Also the archives of Dr Urho Kekkonen, Dr Johannes Virolainen and Dr Ahti Karjalainen as well as material produced by the Party Headquarters have been used. Several contemporaries have been interviewed.
  • Quéléver, Lauriane Lucie Josette (2016)
    Recent studies proved the existence of Extremely Low-Volatility Organic Compounds (ELVOCs) in the atmosphere as result from oxidation of biogenic vapors released by terrestrial vegetation. Such species are believed to significantly contribute to the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) which play a role in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) process and thus affect climate. Thus, it is of interest to better understand and characterize the behavior of these novel molecules. The literature part provides an overview of the background knowledge that found this work by presenting the influence of aerosols and emissions from biosphere on climate. Moreover, the chemical pathways involved in the formation of ELVOCs are presented as well as the factors that could possibly influence their production. In the experimental part is presented an investigation of the thermal stability of ELVOCs formed by oxidation of both α-pinene and benzene using flow tube reactor setup and mass spectrometry analysis. After development and characterization of the experimental installation, it was possible to analyze the thermal response of highly oxidized compounds with a nitrate-based Chemical Ionization (CI) Atmospheric Pressure interface (APi) Time Of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer which provided a unique characterization of such species with high precision. In this study, the establishment of temperature ranges for the decomposition of ELVOCs was done by collecting the data for several identified highly oxidized species. Furthermore, some differences in the obtained ‘temperature series’ (evolution of the signal as a function of temperature) were observed from one experiment to another confirming the high variability in the behavior of such compounds. In a more comprehensive sense, this work allowed to develop a more complete view on the behavior of ELVOCs toward a change of temperature.
  • Keskitalo, Kaisu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Diet is a major player in the maintenance of health and onset of many diseases of public health importance. The food choice is known to be largely influenced by sensory preferences. However, in many cases it is unclear whether these preferences and dietary behaviors are innate or acquired. The aim of this thesis work was to study the extent to which the individual differences in dietary responses, especially in liking for sweet taste, are influenced by genetic factors. Several traits measuring the responses to sweetness and other dietary variables were applied in four studies: in British (TwinsUK) and Finnish (FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16) twin studies and in a Finnish migraine family study. All the subjects were adults and they participated in chemosensory measurements (taste and smell tests) and filled in food behavior questionnaires. Further, it was studied, whether the correlations among the variables are mediated by genetic or environmental factors and where in the genome the genes influencing the heritable traits are located. A study of young adult Finnish twins (FinnTwin16, n=4388) revealed that around 40% of the food use is attributable to genetic factors and that the common, childhood environment does not affect the food use even shortly after moving from the parents home. Both the family study (n=146) and the twin studies (British twins, n=663) showed that around half of the variation in the liking for sweetness is inherited. The same result was obtained both by the chemosensory measurements (heritability 41-49%) and the questionnaire variables (heritability 31-54%). By contrast, the intensity perception of sweetness or the responses to saltiness were not influenced by genetic factors. Further, a locus influencing the use-frequency of sweet foods was identified on chromosome 16p. A closer examination of the relationships among the variables based on 663 British twins revealed that several genetic and environmental correlations exist among the different measures of liking for sweetness. However, these correlations were not very strong (range 0.06-0.55) implying that the instruments used measure slightly different aspects of the phenomenon. In addition, the assessment of the associations among responses to fatty foods, dieting behaviors, and body mass index in twin populations (TwinsUK n=1027 and FinnTwin12 n=299) showed that the dieting behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) mediate the relationship between obesity and diet. In conclusion, the work increased the understanding of the background variables of human eating behavior. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the variation of many dietary traits, such as liking for sweet taste, use of sweet foods, and dieting behaviors. However, the responses to salty taste were shown to be mainly determined by environmental factors and thus should more easily be modifiable by dietary education, exposure, and learning than sweet taste preferences. Although additional studies are needed to characterize the genetic element located on chromosome 16 that influences the use-frequency of sweet foods, the results underline the importance of inherited factors on human eating behavior.