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  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In this Ph.D. thesis I have studied how the objectives of sustainable development have been integrated into Northwest Russian urban and regional planning, and how the Russian planning discourse has changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By analysing the planning discussion, processes, and strategic documents I have also investigated the use of power and governmentality in urban and regional planning. As a methodological foundation I have used an approach that I call geographical constructivism . It was possible to answer in a relevant manner the question of how sustainable development has become a part of planning in Northwest Russia through a discourse analysis of the planning discussion. During the last decades, the aim of sustainable development has become globally one of the most central societal challenges. Urban and regional planning has a central role to play in promoting this process, since many meta-level objectives actually take shape within its sphere. An ever more actual challenge brought by sustainable development is to plan regions and places while balancing the conflicts of the pressures of safeguarding a good environment and of taking into consideration social and economic needs. I have given these unavoidable conflicts of sustainable development a central place in my work. In my view, complementing instrumental and communicative rationality with conflict rationality gives environmental planning a well-equipped toolbox. Sustainable development can be enhanced in urban and regional planning by seeking open, and especially hidden, potential conflicts. Thus, the expressed thinking (mentality) and actions taken by power regimes in and around conflicts open an interesting viewpoint into Northwest Russian governmentality. I examine the significance of sustainable development in planning through Northwest Russian geography, and also through recent planning legislation and four case studies. In addition, I project my analysis of empirical material onto the latest discussion of planning theory. My four case studies, which are based on independent and separate empirical material (42 thematic interviews and planning documents), consider the republics of Karelia and Komi, Leningrad oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg. In the dissertation I argue how sustainable development is, in the local governmentalities of Northwest Russia, understood as a concept where solving environmental problems is central, and that they can be solved through planning carried out by the planning professionals. Despite this idealism, environmental improvements have been overlooked by appealing to difficult economic factors. This is what I consider environmental racism, which I think is the most central barrier to sustainable development in Northwest Russia. The situation concerning the social dimension of sustainable development is even more difficult, since, for example, the development of local democracy is not highly valued. In the planning discourse this democracy racism is explained by a short history of democracy in Russia. However, precisely through planning conflicts, for example in St. Petersburg, planning has become socially more sustainable: protests by local inhabitants have bypassed the poorly functioning representational democracy, when the governmentality has changed from a mute use of power to one that adopts a stand on a conflicting issue. Keywords: Russia, urban and regional planning, sustainable development, environmental planning, power and conflicts in planning, governmentality, rationalities.
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Huttunen, Suvi (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    Työssä tarkasteltiin sedimentin alumiini- ja rautaoksidien osallistumista fosforin sitomiseen kolmella eri alueella pohjoisella Itämerellä ja sitä kuinka sedimentin metallioksideihin sitoutuneet fosforifraktiot voidaan erotella peräkkäisten uuttojen avulla. Tutkitut näytteet oli otettu estuaarityyppisistä sedimenteistä Ahvenkoskenlahdelta, Perämereltä ja Saaristomereltä. Näytteitä uutettiin peräkkäin ammoniumfluoridilla, natriumditioniitilla ja natriumhydroksidilla. Käytetyt uuttoliuokset valittiin kirjallisuuden ja aiempien tutkimusten perusteella. Uutteista mitattiin fosforin, raudan, alumiinin ja mangaanin pitoisuudet ICP-OES-laitteistolla. Työn ensimmäisessä vaiheessa uuttoliuoksia lisättiin eri järjestyksissä ja tulosten perusteella uuttojärjestykseksi valittiin: 1) natriumditioniitti, 2) ammoniumfluoridi ja 3) natriumhydroksidi, koska näin pystyttiin parhaiten erottamaan alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitoma fosfori toisistaan. Työn toisessa vaiheessa uutettiin kolmen eri alueen estuaarisedimenttejä valitulla uuttojärjestyksellä. Kirjallisuudessa on usein esitetty, että alumiinioksidit eivät olisi merkittävässä roolissa merisedimenttien fosforin sitomisessa vaan että alumiinioksidien sitomaksi määritetty fosfori voisi olla rautaoksidien sitomaa, mutta menetelmän epäspesifisyyden vuoksi tutkittu alumiinioksidien sitomaksi. Työn toisen vaiheen tulokset osoittivat, että alumiinioksidit osallistuvat fosforin sitomiseen estuaareissa. Estuaareihin hautautuneista sedimenttinäytteistä erottui alumiinioksidille spesifisellä uutolla oma fosforijakeensa, joka ei tulosten mukaan voinut olla peräisin rautaoksidien sitomasta jakeesta. Ahvenkoskenlahden näytteessä oli Saaristomeren ja Perämeren näytteisiin verrattuna suhteessa eniten alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitomaa fosforia. Alumiinioksideilla havaittiin olevan enemmän merkitystä fosforin sitomisessa lähempänä rannikkoa, kun taas rautaoksideilla on enemmän merkitystä kauempana rannikosta.
  • Konttila, Aila (1998)
  • Lapinsuo, Touko (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Alveolaarinen ostiitti on kivulias hampaan poiston jälkeinen komplikaatio, jonka syntymekanismi on edelleen epäselvä. Tämän lisäksi sen ennaltaehkäisyyn ja hoitoon ei löydy täysin yhtenevää mielipidettä. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena on perehtyä ajankohtaisiin artikkeleihin ja tehdä niistä yhteenveto. Tutkielmassa käsitellään alveoliitin riskitekijöitä, ennaltaehkäisyä ja hoitoa. Huolimatta monista tutkimuksista näyttäisi siltä, että edelleen ollaan epävarmoja alveoliitin oikeanlaisesta hoidosta. Useimmat tutkimukset kuitenkin tukevat väitettä, jonka mukaan tupakointi, naissukupuoli, suun kautta otettavat ehkäisypillerit ja korkea ikä lisäävät alveoliitin todennäköisyyttä. Ennaltaehkäisynä voidaan käyttää antibioottia ennen operaatiota ja jatkaa sitä post-operatiivisesti. Myös klooriheksidiinin käytöstä on hyviä tuloksia. Alveoliitin hoitoon käytetään kivunlievitykseen tarkoitettuja särkylääkkeitä. Huuhtelu keittosuolaliuoksella ja tamponin asettaminen poistokuoppaan auttavat paranemisessa. Tamponiin annosteltaviksi lääkeaineiksi suositellaan antiseptistä jodoformia sekä kivun lievittämiseen eugenolia sekä bentsokaiinia. Johtopäätöksenä totean, että nykyisen tiedon mukaan alveoliitti johtuu huonosti paranevasta poistokuopasta. Vaikka alveoliitin selkeää syytä ei tiedetä, on kuitenkin saatu selvyys sen riskitekijöistä, ennaltaehkäisystä ja hoidosta.
  • Kangas-Lumme, Jertta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    There is very little research on the effects of memory illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on the linguistic performance of congenitally deaf sign language users. With spoken language users the effects of AD are often first found in semantics and pragmatics. Deteriorated naming skills are often an early symptom of AD. As the disease progresses the linguistic skills are widely affected and communicating becomes difficult. When studying sign language users results have shown that people with AD have corresponding difficulties of comprehending and producing signed language as spoken language users with Dementia have with spoken language. The aim of this research was to study how two Finnish Sign Language (FSL) users with AD perform in object and action naming tests. The participants were evaluated with the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT) in two consecutive years. Of each performance, the researcher recorded the total score, the number of immediate answers, the time the participant spent on the task and how the answers were given. An analysis of naming errors was made. As a result it was noted that both object and action naming skills of the participants deteriorated as Dementia progressed. Action naming skill were less affected than object naming skill. The participants made more errors and gave less immediate responses in the BNT than in the ANT. Both the signed responses and the method of answering varied with the FSL users with a memory illness: the answers were given either in varying signs, by speaking only or by both speaking and signing simultaneously, or with signs created spontaneously in test situation. Most of the errors were Other errors, especially “I don’t know” –answers in both tests. As a result of this study it is clear that there is a need for assessment tests which have been translated into sign language, since the existing naming tests are not necessarily suitable for testing signed language users without a culturally-sensitive translation. This study is the first longitudinal study in Finland focusing on evaluating Finnish Sign Language users with Dementia and the changes in their linguistic skills. It is also one of the first studies internationally on the linguistic changes of sign language users with a memory illness.
  • Kääriäinen, Seppo (2002)
    The study applies to the strategic choices and aims of the Agrarian Union/Centre Party between years 1964-2001. In particular, the study examines the strategies of the Centre Party to defend its position in the Finnish politics amidst an ungovernable structural change of the society and a period of political transition. The aim is to analyze the strategic choices of the Party and their origin, basically from the point of view of the Party leadership. A strategic choice of a party is composed of a political-ideological core, which is supported by several activities. The study aims also to analyze the internal reforms of the Centre party by comparing them to party theories Duverger, Kirchheimer, Panebianco, Katz & Mair). Also the role of the leaders of the Centre Party in generating the strategies has been examined. The study is a qualitative one by nature. The method used in the study can be compared to "observing participation". The study contains also components of the grounded theory, due to a wide and many-sided material and the background of the author. The strategies are approached with a chronological disposition by analyzing them in the light of questions that are based on party theories. The background for the increased election support is the development towards a catch-all party that was accelerated by the change of the name of the Party in 1965 (from the Agrarian Union to the Centre Party). In 2001, the proportional support of the Party was at the same level as in 1962 (23-24 %). The development towards a catch-all party - a long-term strategic choice - was strengthened in 1962-1999 when also the support of the Party increased tenfold in the cities and the share of the Party of votes that were cast in the cities increased fivefold. In 2000, approximately 90 per cent of the supporters were others than farmers, whereas in the beginning of 1960s the situation was the opposite. The main conclusion is that, although the Centre Party has to a large extent become a catch-all party, consistent with the party theories, it has always contained strategic elements of difference and originality, arising from the core identity of the Party. The Party leadership has not only developed strategies based on the concept of a catch-all party, but also utilized the originality of the party both in the political-ideological and the organizational work. The strategy to reform the Agrarian Union as a Centre Party (1964-1970) pushed the Party to become a catch-all party. The catastrophe in the 1970 general election drove the Party to re-establish its identity in the 1970s. As a result of this process, the Party changed from a class party to a catch-all party of the regions. After these strategies that were implemented under the leadership of Dr Johannes Virolainen, the Party chose in the 1980s, under the leadership of Mr Paavo Väyrynen, a strategy of a high profile. This strategy, with which the Party challenged the leading position of the social-democrats, transformed the Party into an ideologically conscious party of masses. After the 1991 general election the Centre Party became the leading governmental party. Under the leadership of Mr Esko Aho (Prime Minister 1991-95) the Party pursued the politics of necessity, characteristic of a governmental party. It also adapted characters of an election party that had amended its ideology more pragmatic. The opposition strategy of the late 1990s, characterised by the "labour reform", strengthened the Party as a party of different projects with the aim to gain electoral support. The Agrarian Union was in 1964 in a turning point, the Centre Party was in a same kind of situation in 2001. The only thing that had remained of the components of the previous pivotal position, was the support. The basic source material of the study are the minutes (including the annexes) from all official meetings of all party organs from 1964 to 2001. Also the archives of Dr Urho Kekkonen, Dr Johannes Virolainen and Dr Ahti Karjalainen as well as material produced by the Party Headquarters have been used. Several contemporaries have been interviewed.
  • Quéléver, Lauriane Lucie Josette (2016)
    Recent studies proved the existence of Extremely Low-Volatility Organic Compounds (ELVOCs) in the atmosphere as result from oxidation of biogenic vapors released by terrestrial vegetation. Such species are believed to significantly contribute to the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) which play a role in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) process and thus affect climate. Thus, it is of interest to better understand and characterize the behavior of these novel molecules. The literature part provides an overview of the background knowledge that found this work by presenting the influence of aerosols and emissions from biosphere on climate. Moreover, the chemical pathways involved in the formation of ELVOCs are presented as well as the factors that could possibly influence their production. In the experimental part is presented an investigation of the thermal stability of ELVOCs formed by oxidation of both α-pinene and benzene using flow tube reactor setup and mass spectrometry analysis. After development and characterization of the experimental installation, it was possible to analyze the thermal response of highly oxidized compounds with a nitrate-based Chemical Ionization (CI) Atmospheric Pressure interface (APi) Time Of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer which provided a unique characterization of such species with high precision. In this study, the establishment of temperature ranges for the decomposition of ELVOCs was done by collecting the data for several identified highly oxidized species. Furthermore, some differences in the obtained ‘temperature series’ (evolution of the signal as a function of temperature) were observed from one experiment to another confirming the high variability in the behavior of such compounds. In a more comprehensive sense, this work allowed to develop a more complete view on the behavior of ELVOCs toward a change of temperature.
  • Keskitalo, Kaisu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Diet is a major player in the maintenance of health and onset of many diseases of public health importance. The food choice is known to be largely influenced by sensory preferences. However, in many cases it is unclear whether these preferences and dietary behaviors are innate or acquired. The aim of this thesis work was to study the extent to which the individual differences in dietary responses, especially in liking for sweet taste, are influenced by genetic factors. Several traits measuring the responses to sweetness and other dietary variables were applied in four studies: in British (TwinsUK) and Finnish (FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16) twin studies and in a Finnish migraine family study. All the subjects were adults and they participated in chemosensory measurements (taste and smell tests) and filled in food behavior questionnaires. Further, it was studied, whether the correlations among the variables are mediated by genetic or environmental factors and where in the genome the genes influencing the heritable traits are located. A study of young adult Finnish twins (FinnTwin16, n=4388) revealed that around 40% of the food use is attributable to genetic factors and that the common, childhood environment does not affect the food use even shortly after moving from the parents home. Both the family study (n=146) and the twin studies (British twins, n=663) showed that around half of the variation in the liking for sweetness is inherited. The same result was obtained both by the chemosensory measurements (heritability 41-49%) and the questionnaire variables (heritability 31-54%). By contrast, the intensity perception of sweetness or the responses to saltiness were not influenced by genetic factors. Further, a locus influencing the use-frequency of sweet foods was identified on chromosome 16p. A closer examination of the relationships among the variables based on 663 British twins revealed that several genetic and environmental correlations exist among the different measures of liking for sweetness. However, these correlations were not very strong (range 0.06-0.55) implying that the instruments used measure slightly different aspects of the phenomenon. In addition, the assessment of the associations among responses to fatty foods, dieting behaviors, and body mass index in twin populations (TwinsUK n=1027 and FinnTwin12 n=299) showed that the dieting behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) mediate the relationship between obesity and diet. In conclusion, the work increased the understanding of the background variables of human eating behavior. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the variation of many dietary traits, such as liking for sweet taste, use of sweet foods, and dieting behaviors. However, the responses to salty taste were shown to be mainly determined by environmental factors and thus should more easily be modifiable by dietary education, exposure, and learning than sweet taste preferences. Although additional studies are needed to characterize the genetic element located on chromosome 16 that influences the use-frequency of sweet foods, the results underline the importance of inherited factors on human eating behavior.
  • Kemppainen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This thesis is concerned with the area of vector-valued Harmonic Analysis, where the central theme is to determine how results from classical Harmonic Analysis generalize to functions with values in an infinite dimensional Banach space. The work consists of three articles and an introduction. The first article studies the Rademacher maximal function that was originally defined by T. Hytönen, A. McIntosh and P. Portal in 2008 in order to prove a vector-valued version of Carleson's embedding theorem. The boundedness of the corresponding maximal operator on Lebesgue-(Bochner) -spaces defines the RMF-property of the range space. It is shown that the RMF-property is equivalent to a weak type inequality, which does not depend for instance on the integrability exponent, hence providing more flexibility for the RMF-property. The second article, which is written in collaboration with T. Hytönen, studies a vector-valued Carleson's embedding theorem with respect to filtrations. An earlier proof of the dyadic version assumed that the range space satisfies a certain geometric type condition, which this article shows to be also necessary. The third article deals with a vector-valued generalizations of tent spaces, originally defined by R. R. Coifman, Y. Meyer and E. M. Stein in the 80's, and concerns especially the ones related to square functions. A natural assumption on the range space is then the UMD-property. The main result is an atomic decomposition for tent spaces with integrability exponent one. In order to suit the stochastic integrals appearing in the vector-valued formulation, the proof is based on a geometric lemma for cones and differs essentially from the classical proof. Vector-valued tent spaces have also found applications in functional calculi for bisectorial operators. In the introduction these three themes come together when studying paraproduct operators for vector-valued functions. The Rademacher maximal function and Carleson's embedding theorem were applied already by Hytönen, McIntosh and Portal in order to prove boundedness for the dyadic paraproduct operator on Lebesgue-Bochner -spaces assuming that the range space satisfies both UMD- and RMF-properties. Whether UMD implies RMF is thus an interesting question. Tent spaces, on the other hand, provide a method to study continuous time paraproduct operators, although the RMF-property is not yet understood in the framework of tent spaces.
  • Xu, Yaya (2015)
    We show that the embedding of a matrix game in a mechanistic population dynamical model can have important consequences for the evolution of how the game is played. In particular, we show that because of this embedding evolutionary branching and multiple evolutionary singular strategies can occur, which is not possible in the conventional theory of matrix games. We show that by means of the example of the hawk-dove game.
  • Koivisto, Juhani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation Amenability of metric measure spaces and fixed point properties of groups consists of three articles revolving around amenability and property (T) in different contexts, and a summary. In the first article, (non-)amenability of hyperbolic metric spaces is considered. In it, we prove that a uniformly coarsely proper hyperbolic cone of a connected bounded metric space containing at least two points is non-amenable. In particular, this implies that any uniformly coarsely proper visual Gromov hyperbolic space with connected boundary containing at least two points is non-amenable. In the second article, the degree of amenability of metric measure spaces is considered in general. Here, we prove a homological characterisation of global weighted Sobolev inequalities for quasiconvex uniform metric measure spaces that support a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality using methods from large scale algebraic topology. Returning to the topic of the first article, we show that a quasiconvex visual Gromov hyperbolic uniform metric measure space that supports a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality with a connected boundary containing at least two points satisfies a global Sobolev inequality. In the third article, fixed point conditions for uniformly bounded group actions on Hilbert spaces are considered. In the article, we establish a spectral condition for the vanishing of the first cohomology group of the complex of square integrable cochains twisted by a uniformly bounded representation of an automorphism group of a 2-dimensional simplicial complex. In particular, if the automorphism group acts properly discontinuously and cocompactly on the complex this implies that every affine action of the automorphism group on the Hilbert space with linear part given by the representation has a fixed point. In the summary, the results of the articles are further explained and placed in a larger context: mathematically as well as historically.
  • Wirzenius, Henrik (2012)
    Amenabilitet är ett begrepp som förekommer inom teorin för både lokalt kompakta grupper och Banach algebror. Forskningen kring translations-invarianta mått under första halvan av 1900-talet ledde till definitionen av amenabla lokalt kompakta grupper. En lokalt kompakt grupp $G$ kallas för amenabel om det finns en positiv linjär funktional med normen 1 i $L^\infty(G)^*$ som är vänster-invariant i förhållandet till den givna gruppoperationen. Under samma tidsperiod utvecklades teorin för Hochschild kohomologi för Banach algebror. En Banach algebra $A$ kallas för amenabel om den första Hochschild kohomologigruppen $H^1(A,X^*)=\{0\}$ för varje dual Banach $A$-bimodule $X^*$, d.v.s. om varje kontinuerlig derivation $D:A\rightarrow X^*$ är en inre derivation. År 1972 bevisade B. E. Johnson att gruppalgebran $L^1(G)$ för en lokalt kompakt grupp $G$ är amenabel om och endast om $G$ är amenabel. Detta resultat rättfärdigar terminologin amenabel Banach algebra. I denna pro gradu-avhandling presenterar vi grundteorin för amenabla Banach algebror och ger ett bevis till Johnsons teorem. ************************ Amenability is a notion that occurs in the theory of both locally compact groups and Banach algebras. The research on translation-invariant measures during the first half of the 20th century led to the definition of amenable locally compact groups. A locally compact group $G$ is called amenable if there is a positive linear functional of norm 1 in $L^\infty(G)^*$ that is left-invariant with respect to the given group operation. During the same time the theory of Hochschild cohomology for Banach algebras was developed. A Banach algebra $A$ is called amenable if the first Hochschild cohomology group $H^1(A,X^*)=\{0\}$ for all dual Banach $A$-bimodules $X^*$, that is, if every continuous derivation $D:A\rightarrow X^*$ is inner. In 1972 B. E. Johnson proved that the group algebra $L^1(G)$ for a locally compact group $G$ is amenable if and only if $G$ is amenable. This result justifies the terminology amenable Banach algebra. In this Master's thesis we present the basic theory of amenable Banach algebras and give a proof of Johnson's theorem.
  • Salojärvi, Juhana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation examines the history of critical legal scholarship of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, Scandinavia, and Finland. The purposes are to reconstruct the development of critical scholarship, analyze its substance and motives, and compare the critical scholarship of these countries. The United States and Finland are investigated in more detail, whereas the three Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, are examined collectively and more generally. The time frame of the study covers from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s. The research was done by reviewing the published legal literature of the time, from which the critical legal literature was sifted. In this study, the word critical means fundamental criticism of the law and traditional legal scholarship, whereas the term alternative refers to scholarship that is less fundamental in its criticism, but which nevertheless endorses alternative methods of scholarship. The method of the study was based on the perspective of legal history, in which a change in jurisprudence is related to changes in society, culture, and scholarship in general. The study consists of three main chapters which discuss the development of critical legal scholarship in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, Scandinavia, and Finland. Before the main focus, a general introduction to the history of jurisprudence, scholarship, and society is given in chapter two. After the general introduction, chapter three analyzes the development of critical legal scholarship in the United States. A tradition of alternative and cross-disciplinary legal scholarship had already been established by the beginning of the 1960s, but during that decade more scholars became interested in the relationship between law and society as well as between legal scholarship and the social sciences. A more critical movement emerged in the 1970s, which related problems of law to problems in the deep structures of society. This critical movement evolved into the critical legal studies movement in the late 1970s, adopting a broad philosophical basis for its scholarship. The development of critical legal scholarship in Scandinavia and Finland, examined in chapters four and five, was relatively similar to that of the United States. A tradition of sociology of law emerged in the 1960s, which encouraged legal scholars to investigate the relationship between law and society, as well as between legal scholarship and the social sciences. This trend developed into critical legal scholarship when Marxist elements were brought into it in the 1970s. In Finland, legal scholarship was rather conservative at the beginning of the 1960s, during which, however, alternative elements became more popular. By the end of the 1960s, an attack against traditional legal scholarship emerged. A variety of social science elements as well as Marxism were introduced into critical legal scholarship in the 1970s. Legal scholarship transformed in the countries under examination during the 1960s, adopting more elements from the social sciences. As the 1960s turned to the 1970s, sociological jurisprudence turned more towards criticism of law and legal scholarship. The critical movements acquired a more sophisticated philosophical basis and a more radical tone during the 1970s, and eventually they organized into movements of critical jurisprudence. The fundamental characteristics of the critical movements were the same in each of the countries. The most marked difference was that whereas American critical legal scholarship was mostly comprised of philosophical criticism of doctrine and legal consciousness, Nordic critical legal scholarship had more Marxist and politically oriented elements. Finnish critical legal scholarship was the most radical and political because of the conservative tradition of Finnish jurisprudence and the polarized nature of Finnish society. When seen from a comprehensive perspective, critical legal scholarship of the 1960s and 1970s can best be understood as academic counter-cultures which sought to change the scholarship and academic tradition on the one hand and to have an impact on society on the other.
  • Sauli, Hanna (2007)
    Tutkimus tarkastelee Yhdysvaltojen vastustamien päätöslauselmien määrän kasvua YK:n yleiskokouksessa vuosina 1995–2006. Yhdysvallat kuuluu harvalukuiseen oppositioon valtaosassa äänestyksistä, ja usein se äänestää ainoana maana kaikkia muita YK:n jäsenvaltioita vastaan. Yhdysvaltojen kielteisten äänien määrä on kasvanut selvästi vuoden 2001 jälkeen, ja sen yksinäisten ei-äänten määrä on lisääntynyt erityisesti kahtena viime vuotena. Yhdysvaltojen erimielisyys on huomattavaa lähes kaikilla yleiskokouksen käsittelemillä aihealueilla, mutta ilmenee näkyvimmin aseistariisunta-, Lähi-itä- ja ihmisoikeuskysymyksissä. Havaintoja selittää Yhdysvaltojen sotilaallinen, taloudellinen ja poliittinen hegemonia, joka on mahdollistanut ehdotonta kansallista suvereniteettia ja vapautta kansainvälisistä rajoitteista painottavan aatesuuntauksen synnyn Yhdysvalloissa. Ideologia ilmenee aiempaa selvemmin nykyisen hallituksen politiikassa yleiskokouksessa ja johtaa monien kansainvälisten sitoumusten hylkäämiseen. Soft balancing -teorian mukaan muut maat koettavat todennäköisesti tasapainottaa Yhdysvaltojen hegemonista valta-asemaa ei-sotilaallisella yhteistyöllä, koska supervallan viime aikoina harjoittama politiikka uhkaa enemmistön etuja ja turvallisuutta. Pyrkimys vallan tasapainoon voisi ilmetä yleiskokouksessa yhteistyönä, joka on Yhdysvaltojen intressien vastaista, ja siten selittää osan Yhdysvaltojen kasvavasta erimielisyydestä. Kuitenkin yleiskokouksen agendaan sekä aseidenriisuntasektorin muihin kuin ydinaseisiin liittyviin päätöslauselmiin perustuva analyysi osoittaa, että tasapainopolitiikka on ollut vähäistä, eikä riitä selittämään Yhdysvaltojen ei-äänien lisääntymistä. Yhdysvallat on viime vuosina muuttanut kantaansa moniin päätöslauselmiin, joita ei ole suunnattu Yhdysvaltoja vastaan tai jotka se on aiemmin hyväksynyt. Analyysi pohjautuu YK:n äänestysrekisteriin, vuosittaisiin agendoihin ja päätöslauselmien sisältöön. Yhdysvaltojen poikkeavuus enemmistöstä, sitä toisinaan tukevien koalitioiden koko, ei-äänien määrä eri aihealueilla sekä muutokset agendan painopisteissä osoitetaan määrällisesti. Yksityiskohtaisempi aseidenriisuntasektorin tarkastelu arvioi tapaus tapaukselta, ovatko päätöslauselmat entistä suuremmassa ristiriidassa Yhdysvaltojen intresseihin nähden, tai onko muiden maiden kantojen muuttuminen voinut osittain aiheuttaa sen, että Yhdysvallat hylkää yhä useampia päätöslauselmia yksin tai pienenevissä koalitioissa.
  • Sauli, Hanna (2007)
    This study shows that rejections of resolutions by the United States have become increasingly common in the UN General Assembly between 1995 and 2006. The US finds itself in a small opposition in the majority of roll call votes, and often it is the sole country to vote no against the entire membership of the United Nations. The number of American rejections has grown considerably after 2001, and solitary negative votes have multiplied especially during the last two years. American dissidence is pervasive in most policy fields of the General Assembly, but much of the discord concerns disarmament, the Middle East and human rights. This study argues that American hegemony in the military, economic and political spheres has enabled the US leadership to embrace a doctrine that emphasizes unconditioned American sovereignty and freedom from international constraints. The ideology is conducive to the rejection of international commitments. It has boosted American dissidence in the General Assembly and is particularly manifest in the policy of the current government. The theory of soft balancing expects other states to engage in counteraction against the US, since the policy of the hegemonic power threatens their interests and security. Soft balancing could entail cooperation in the General Assembly that goes against American interests, and it could explain part of the American dissidence. Nevertheless, evidence concerning the agenda of the General Assembly and specifically resolutions in the non-nuclear disarmament sector suggests that soft balancing has taken place only on a small scale and does not explain the rapid growth of negative American votes. The US has recently adopted a negative stand towards many resolutions that are not directed against it or have previously received American approval. The analysis draws on the UN voting records, the yearly agendas and the content of the resolutions. The US deviance from the majority, the size of the coalitions that sometimes support American positions, the amount of negative votes in different issue areas, and changes in the composition of the agenda are presented numerically. A more detailed case-by-case dissection of changes in the disarmament sector evaluates whether the resolutions have grown more negative to American policy goals and whether position shifts by other states have partly caused the increasing loneliness of US stances.
  • Lehtinen, Vilja (Helsingfors universitet, 2002)
    Vuosien 1830 ja 1924 välillä Yhdysvaltoihin muutti noin 35 miljoonaa eurooppalaista. Tämä niinkutsuttu "maahanmuuton vuosisata" päättyi varsin äkillisesti kun Yhdysvallat päätti rajoittaa maahanmuuttoa 1920-luvulla. Vuosina 1921 ja 1924 säädetyt lait asettivat kansallisuuteen perustuvat kiintiöt kaikille eurooppalaisille maahanmuuttajille; vuoden 1924 laki myös lopetti kokonaan japanilaisten maahanmuuton. Tämä työ tutkii näihin kiintiölakeihin johtanutta maahanmuuttajavastaisuuden kasvua sekä etenkin lakien ympärillä käytyä keskustelua. Pääpaino on kongressissa esitetyissä maahanmuuton vastaisissa argumenteissa. Nämä jakautuivat karkeasti ottaen kolmeen kategoriaan: maahanmuuton vastustajat sanoivat, että siirtolaisten vaikutus taloudelliseen tilanteeseen oli epäsuotuisa, siirtolaisten rodullinen ja kulttuurinen "laatu" oli huonontunut, ja siirtolaiset olivat radikaaleja ja bolshevismiin taipuvaisia. Erityistä huolta herätti maahanmuuttajien vaikutus Amerikan kulttuuriseen, rodulliseen ja poliittiseen yhtenäisyyteen. Huoli kansakunnan yhtenäisyydestä oli tulosta paitsi siirtolaisten määrästä myös amerikkalaisessa yhteiskunnassa tapahtuneista muutoksista. Erityisen tärkeitä olivat työväenliikkeen vaikutusvallan kasvu ja teollisuusjohtajien pyrkimys pysäyttää se. Maahanmuuttajien "bolshevismi" olikin käyttökelpoinen argumentti paitsi maahanmuuttajia myös amerikkalaisia työläisiä vastaan: teollisuusjohtajat painottivat että lakot ja työväenliike olivat tulosta siirtolaisten mukanaan tuomista "epäamerikkalaisista" ajatusmalleista, eivät yhteiskunnan epäoikeudenmukaisuudesta. Kongressin keskustelun lisäksi työssä käsitellään myös eri yhteiskunnallisten ryhmien ja vaikuttajien kantaa siirtolaisuuteen. Keskusteluun maahanmuutosta vaikuttivat etenkin eugenistit ja muut sosiaalitieteilijät, jotka väittivät itä- ja eteläeurooppalaisten olevan rodullisesti anglosakseja huonompia. Tämän väitteen vaikutusvaltaa lisäsivät yhteiskunnassa vallalla olleet ennakkoluulot, ja monet yhdistykset ja liikkeet (mm. Ku Klux Klan ja erilaiset isänmaalliset järjestöt) olivatkin tärkeitä rajoittamisen kannattajia. Keskustelu maahanmuutosta painottui ideologisiin ja tunteellisiin kysymyksiin, mutta rajoitusten taustalla oli myös konkreettisempia tekijöitä. Yhteiskunnan teollistuminen ja kaupungistuminen olivat pienentäneet siirtolaisista koituvaa taloudellista hyötyä: siirtolaisia ei enää tarvittu raivaamaan uusia viljelysmaita, kun taas tuotannon koneistuminen vähensi työvoiman tarvetta huomattavasti. Pitkän aikavälin taloudellisten tekijöiden roolin merkitys käy ilmeiseksi kun otetaan huomioon, että muut maahanmuuttomaat (esim. Kanada ja Australia) eivät juuri rajoittaneet siirtolaisuutta tänä aikana vaikka niissäkin esiintyi runsaasti rodullista ja kulttuurista maahanmuuttajavastaisuutta. Pääsyy rajoitusten vähäisyyteen näissä maissa oli juuri maahanmuuttajien tuoma taloudellinen hyöty, sekä teollisena työvoimana että maanviljelijöinä. Vaikka kiintiölakiehdotusten ympärillä käytiin kiivasta väittelyä, kongressi kuitenkin hyväksyi lait varsin suurella enemmistöllä. Siirtolaisia itseään lukuunottamatta varsin harvat näkivät lait haitallisina, kun taas useat erilaiset ryhmät katsoivat hyötyvänsä maahanmuuton rajoittamisesta. Avainsanat: siirtolaisuus, maahanmuutto, Yhdysvallat, 1920-luku, kiintiölait, maahanmuuton rajoittaminen