Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 662-681 of 24408
  • Imperato, Ciro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Analisi contrastiva delle modalità di traduzione in finnico dei Tempi verbali e delle perifrasi aspettuali dell italiano (Italian Philology) The topic of this research is a contrastive study of tenses and aspect in Italian and in Finnish. The study aims to develop a research method for analyzing translations and comparable texts (non-translation) written in a target language. Thus, the analysis is based on empirical data consisting of translations of novels from Italian to Finnish and vice versa. In addition to this, for the section devoted to solutions adopted in Finnish for translating the Italian tenses Perfetto Semplice and Perfetto Composto, 39 Finnish native speakers were asked to answer questions concerning the choice of Perfekti and Imperfekti in Finnish. The responses given by the Finnish informants were compared to the choices made by translators in the target language, and in this way it was possible both to benefit from the motivation provided by native speakers to explain the selection of a tense (Imperfekti/Perfekti) in a specific context compared with the Italian formal equivalents (Perfetto Composto/Perfetto Semplice), and to define the specific features of the Finnish verb tenses. The research aims to develop a qualitative method for the analysis of formal equivalents and translational changes ( shifts ). Although, as the choice of Italian and Finnish progressive forms is optional and related to speaker preferences, besides the qualitative analysis, I also considered it necessary to operate a quantitative one in order to find out whether the two items share the same degree of correspondence in frequency of use. In this study I explain translation choices in light of cognitive grammar, suggesting that particular translation relationships derive from so-called construal operations. I use the concepts of cognitive linguistics not only to analyze the convergences and divergences of the two aspectual systems, but also to redefine some general procedures related to the phenomenon of translation. For the practical analysis of the corpus were for the most part employed theoretical categories developed in a framework proposed by Pier Marco Bertinetto. Following this approach, the notions of aspect (the morphologic or morphosyntactic, subjective level) and actionality (the lexical aspect or objective level, traditionally Aktionsart) are carefully distinguished. This also allowed me to test the applicability of these distinctions to two languages typologically different from each other. The data allowed both the analysis of the semantic and pragmatic features that determine tense and aspect choices in these two languages, and to discover the correspondences between the two language systems and the strategies that translators are forced to resort to in particular situations. The research provides not only a detailed and analytically argued inventory about possible solutions for translating Italian tenses and aspectual devices in Finnish that could be of pedagogical relevance, but also new contributions about the specific uses of time-aspectual devices in the two languages in question.
  • Maldovan, Ignacio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Title of the Master's thesis: Análisis de la preposición hacia y establecimiento de sus equivalentes en finés (trans. Analysis of the Spanish preposition hacia and the finding of its equivalents in Finnish) Abstracts: The aim of this Master thesis is to provide a detailed analysis of the Spanish preposition hacia from a cognitive perspective and to establish its equivalents in Finnish language. In this sense, my purpose is to demonstrate the suitability of both cognitive perspectives and Contrastive Linguistics for semantic analysis. This thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter includes a presentation and a critical review of the monolingual lexical processing and semantic analysis of the Spanish preposition hacia in major reference works. Through this chapter it is possible to see both the inadequacies and omissions that are present in all the given definitions. In this sense, this chapter shows that these problems are not but the upper stage of an ontological (and therefore methodological) problem in the treatment of prepositions. The second chapter covers the presentation of the methodological and theoretical perspective adopted for this thesis for the monolingual analysis and definition of the Spanish preposition hacia, following mainly the guidelines established by G. Lakoff (1987) and R. Langacker (2008) in his Cognitive grammar. Taken together, and within the same paradigm, recent analytical and methodological contributions are discussed critically for the treatment of polysemy in language (cf. Tyler ja Evans 2003). In the third chapter, and in accordance with the requirements regarding the use of empirical data from corpora, is my aim to set out a monolingual original analysis of the Spanish preposition hacia in observance of the principles and the methodology spelled out in the second chapter. The main objective of this chapter is to build a full fledged semantic representation of the polysemy of this preposition in order to understand and articulate its meanings with Finnish language (and other possible languages). The fourth chapter, in accordance with the results of chapter 3, examines and describes and establishes the corresponding equivalents in Finnish for this preposition. The results obtained in this chapter are also contrasted with the current bilingual lexicographical definitions found in the most important dictionaries and grammars. Finally, in the fifth chapter of this thesis, the results of this work are discussed critically. In this way, some observations are given regarding both the ontological and theoretical assumptions as well regarding the methodological perspective adopted. I also present some notes for the construction of a general methodology for the semantic analysis of Spanish prepositions to be carried out in further investigations. El objetivo de este trabajo, que caracterizamos como una tarea de carácter comparativo-analítico, es brindar un análisis detallado de la preposición castellana hacia desde una perspectiva cognitiva en tanto y a través del establecimiento de sus equivalentes en finés. Se procura, de esta forma, demostrar la adecuación de una perspectiva cognitiva tanto para el examen como para el establecimiento y articulación de la serie de equivalentes que una partícula, en nuestro caso una preposición, encuentra en otra lengua. De esta forma, y frente a definiciones canónicas que advierten sobre la imposibilidad de una caracterización acabada del conjunto de usos de una preposición, se observa como posible, a través de la aplicación de una metodología teórica-analítica adecuada, la construcción de una definición viable tanto en un nivel jerárquico como descriptivo. La presente tesis se encuentra dividida en cinco capítulos. El primer capítulo comprende una exposición y revisión critica del tratamiento monolingüe lexicográfico y analítico que la preposición hacia ha recibido en las principales obras de referencia, donde se observa que las inadecuaciones y omisiones presentes en la totalidad de las definiciones analizadas representan tan sólo el estadio superior de una problemática de carácter ontológico y, por tanto, metodológico, en el tratamiento de las preposiciones. El capítulo segundo comprende la presentación de la perspectiva teórica metodológica adoptada en esta tesis para el análisis y definición monolingüe de la preposición hacia, teniendo por líneas directrices las propuestas realizadas por G. Lakoff , así como a los fundamentos establecidos por R. Langacker en su propuesta cognitiva para una nueva gramática. En forma conjunta y complementaria, y dentro del mismo paradigma, empleamos, discutimos críticamente y desarrollamos diferentes aportes analítico-metodológicos para el tratamiento de la polisemia en unidades lingüísticas locativas. En el capítulo tercero, y en acuerdo con las exigencias respecto a la utilización de datos empíricos obtenidos a partir de corpus textuales, se expone un análisis original monolingüe de la preposición hacia en observancia de los principios y la metodología explicitada en el capítulo segundo, teniendo por principal objetivo la construcción de una representación semántica de la polisemia de la preposición que comprenda y articule los sentidos prototípicos para ésta especificados. El capítulo cuarto, y en acuerdo con los resultados de nuestro análisis monolingual de la preposición, se examinan, describen y establecen los equivalentes correspondientes en finés para hacia; asimismo, se contrastan en este capítulo los resultados obtenidos con las definiciones lexicográficas bilingües vigentes. Se recogen en el último y quinto capítulo de esta tesis algunas observaciones tanto respecto a los postulados ontológicos y teórico-metodológicos de la perspectiva adoptada, así como algunas notas para la construcción de una metodología general para el análisis semántico preposicional.
  • Palomäki, Anni-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tutkia Venäjällä ilmestyvän ”Krest’janka”-lehden välittämää naiskuvaa. Tutkimukseen on valittu lehden vuosikerrat 1985, 1995 ja 2005, koska suuret muutokset Venäjällä ajoittuvat tälle aikavälille. Haluamme selvittää, miten naiskuva on muuttunut tänä aikana ja miten se välittyy lehden sivuilta. Tutkimukseemme olemme käyttäneet A.V. Kirilinan työssään käyttämiä metodeja. Keräsimme lehdistä kaikki verbilausekkeet, joiden subjektina on naista tarkoittava sana ja jaoimme ne luokkiin merkityksen mukaan. Jaottelun jälkeen analysoimme kerättyä aineistoa ja pyrimme löytämään kullekin vuosikerralle tyypillisiä verbilausekkeita. Tämän lisäksi keräsimme lehdistä kaikki naista kuvaavat adjektiivit ja vertailimme niiden käyttöä eri vuosina. Tulosten perusteella voidaan sanoa, että vuoden 1985 lehdissä vaikuttaa vielä voimakkaasti sosialismin ihanteet. Nainen kuvataan työnsä kautta aktiivisena ja tavoitteensa ylittävänä kansalaisena. Yksityiselämään ei juuri kiinnitetä huomiota. Vuoden 1995 ja 2005 lehtien naiset ovat keskenään hyvinkin samanlaisia. Naisen elämästä puhutaan nyt jo laajemmin. Työn lisäksi yksityiselämä ja tunteet ovat keskeisiä aiheita. Kun 1985 lehdissä ei puhuttu naisesta negatiiviseen sävyyn, niin 1995 ja 2005 vuosien lehdissä naista kuvataan myös negatiivisessa valossa. Myös yhteiskunnan epäkohtiin kiinnitetään huomiota naisen näkökulmasta.
  • Paasonen, Pauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Aerosol particles have various effects on our life. They affect the visibility and have diverse health effects, but are also applied in various applications, from drug inhalators to pesticides. Additionally, aerosol particles have manifold effects on the Earths radiation budget and thus on the climate. The strength of the aerosol climate effect is one of the factors causing major uncertainties in the global climate models predicting the future climate change. Aerosol particles are emitted to atmosphere from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources, but they are also formed from precursor vapours in many parts of the world in a process called atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). The uncertainties in aerosol climate effect are partly due to the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms governing the atmospheric NPF. It is known that gas phase sulphuric acid most certainly plays an important role in atmospheric NPF. However, also other vapours are needed in NPF, but the exact roles or even identities of these vapours are currently not exactly known. In this thesis I present some of the recent advancements in understanding of the atmospheric NPF in terms of the roles of the participating vapours and the meteorological conditions. Since direct measurements of new particle formation rate in the initial size scale of the formed particles (below 2 nm) are so far infrequent in both spatial and temporal scales, indirect methods are needed. The work presented on the following pages approaches the NPF from two directions: by analysing the observed formation rates of particles after they have grown to sizes measurable with widely applied instruments (2 nm or larger), and by measuring and modelling the initial sulphuric acid cluster formation. The obtained results can be summarized as follows. i) The observed atmospheric new particle formation rates are typically connected with sulphuric acid concentration to the power close to two. ii) Also other compounds, most probably strong bases such as amines and oxidized organic vapours, influence the NPF. In some locations their impact even dictates the observed particle formation rate. iii) Air temperature has an explicit effect on the formation of stable sulphuric acid clusters, in which also the relative humidity seems to play a role. These impacts of meteorological quantities on the initial cluster formation seem to influence also the observed particle formation rate.
  • Grönfors, Markus (2014)
    In this thesis the main idea is analyse bacterial data obtained with specific technology called phenotype microarrays. The goal is to implement statistical methods and model cell respiration over period of 48 hours. The data are a bacterium called yersinia enterocolitica, which is a pathogen mainly carried by animals. Data was originally published in a scientific journal called Proceedings of the National Acedemy of Sciences of the United States of America and a small part of strain was chosen for thesis. Data consists about 110 000 rows of observations and it is divided to two experimental setups that are tested in two different temperatures. Data analysis consists three steps: cluster analysis, data normalization and comparing experimental setups. Statistical methods used are k-means clustering, Michaelis-Menten kinetics for growth curves, linear mixed effects models, restricted maximum likelihood estimation, random walk Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and highest posterior density intervals. Main results are there is a recognizable cluster for substrates implying grow and there are no differences between experimental setups. In conclusion statistical methods used in thesis are satisfactory for modelling data and while there are noticeable clusters, there lies no differences between experimental setups. In further analyses it should be better to include more experimental setups in one analysis.
  • Salonen, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Accessibility plays a key role in shaping the patterns of human activity on all spatial scales. Accessibility questions are particularly topical now that cities around the word strive for more sustainable urban mobility and information on human influence on natural systems is needed in order to better understand processes of global environmental change. Following these lines of development, supporting different spatial planning processes with quantitative accessibility information has become increasingly important, and different accessibility analysis methods are actively being developed for this purpose. Furthermore, availability of new types of data and increasing computational power enable novel approaches and a level of detail in analysis that were unfeasible in the past. This thesis addresses accessibility questions through five case studies in two different contexts. Two case studies take place in the rural Peruvian Amazonia (Loreto region) where the extensive river network forms the backbone of regional transportation and people s daily mobility. The other three case studies are conducted in the capital region in Finland (Greater Helsinki), and the focus of these studies is on urban environments. The contribution of my work is both methodological and contextual; I aim at finding novel data sources for spatial accessibility analyses and further developing methods for quantifying accessibility as distances and travel times. On the other hand, I aim at (visually) describing and understanding the spatial patterns of accessibility in my study areas and at analysing and discussing the implications of accessibility for the spatial organisation of land-use and people s daily mobility. My results show that realistic accessibility analyses require a consideration of different travel modes and regionally specific transport network properties. In fluvial transport networks, travel time analysis is particularly sensitive to river channel types, direction of movement and seasonality. In urban settings the door-to-door approach for multimodal travel time calculations gives more realistic results than in-vehicle travel time only, and it also makes the different travel modes mutually comparable. The value of the more advanced quantification methods becomes particularly visible when the results obtained from the accessibility calculations are further applied in new analyses. The use of simple Euclidean distances may, however, be justified in situations where appropriate data for more advanced analysis is lacking, but knowing the limitations and simplifying assumptions of these measures is important when applying them. The key contextual findings of this thesis are based on quantitative descriptions and visualisations of the spatial patterns of accessibility in the case study areas. Quantitative data on accessibility also serve as an input for analyses of human livelihoods (such as modelling of potential production zones for different agricultural produce in Loreto) and land-use pressure (such as Amazonian deforestation modelling). My results furthermore show how accessibility to services and other daily activities is an important factor influencing urban residents travel behaviour and its environmental sustainability in Greater Helsinki. Finally, this thesis provides examples of how different types of data sources and their innovative combinations can be used in accessibility analyses. In the case studies I utilize and thus also introduce freely available computational tools for detailed multimodal travel time analysis.
  • Vuorela, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Dal Maso, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Atmospheric aerosol particle formation events can be a significant source for tropospheric aerosols and thus influence the radiative properties and cloud cover of the atmosphere. This thesis investigates the analysis of aerosol size distribution data containing particle formation events, describes the methodology of the analysis and presents time series data measured inside the Boreal forest. This thesis presents a methodology to identify regional-scale particle formation, and to derive the basic characteristics such as growth and formation rates. The methodology can also be used to estimate concentration and source rates of the vapour causing particle growth. Particle formation was found to occur frequently in the boreal forest area over areas covering up to hundreds of kilometers. Particle formation rates of boreal events were found to be of the order of 0.01-5 cm^-3 s^-1, while the nucleation rates of 1 nm particles can be a few orders of magnitude higher. The growth rates of over 3 nm sized particles were of the order of a few nanometers per hour. The vapor concentration needed to sustain such growth is of the order of 10^7--10^8 cm^-3, approximately one order of magnitude higher than sulphuric acid concentrations found in the atmosphere. Therefore, one has to assume that other vapours, such as organics, have a key role in growing newborn particles to sizes where they can become climatically active. Formation event occurrence shows a clear annual variation with peaks in summer and autumns. This variation is similar to the variation exhibited the obtained formation rates of particles. The growth rate, on the other hand, reaches its highest values during summer. This difference in the annual behavior, and the fact that no coupling between the growth and formation process could be identified, suggest that these processes might be different ones, and that both are needed for a particle formation burst to be observed.
  • Wan, Minli (2009)
    China's primary wood processing industry and wood consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Industries like sawnwood and plywood have developed very quickly. The purpose of this study is to: 1) provide an overview of the demand, supply, imports and exports of raw wood and primary wood products in the China market between 1993 and 2007, 2) present quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors influencing the demand, supply and exports of Chinese plywood, 3) draw conclusions about China's potentials and challenges for foreign enterprises, including Finnish companies. The information, analyses and findings presented in this study can give a reference for wood processing companies, especially for sawnwood and plywood firms, and governmental agencies in China. In addition, the study provides a basis for further study and research. Even though much information has been published in China, academic research in the Chinese woodworking market is scarce, and especially, time-series data is missing and unreliable. This study tries to fill this gap. It is based on secondary data collected from various sources, including literatures, journals, magazines, consulting reports, industry analysis, news, and so on. The annual time-series data obtained for variables in models are mainly gathered from original official Chinese sources. The study increases the information and understanding on the Chinese wood products markets by using descriptive and explanatory methods to analyze the data for background information, markets and empirical modeling. By employing econometric models, based on the elasticity estimates, Chinese plywood demand seems to be income elastic but price inelastic, Chinese plywood supply would be highly elastic with raw material price but scale inelastic, and Chinese plywood exports appear to be highly income elastic.
  • Dinku, Zerihun Megersa (2014)
    Coronal magnetic field governs most of the coronal activities. Despite of its importance in solar atmosphere, there is no accurate method of measuring the coronal magnetic field. The current measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields depend on extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. There are different models to study the global structure of coronal magnetic field. The most commonly used models are PFSS model and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. In this thesis, we study the coronal magnetic field condition during major solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 23rd solar cycle by using the PFSS model. We use 114 SEP events observed by the SOHO/ERNE experiment in 1996-2010. In the beginning we identified 43 events that are relatively free from the disturbance caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). We examined these SEP events using IDL software developed by Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab (LMSAL). We produced plots of open coronal magnetic field of each events using SolarSoft. We also classified SEP events according to their number of connection points as events with; single connection point, double connection points and multiple connection points. Events with multiple connection points make up almost one third of the total events. These events show that the coronal magnetic connection are typically complicated and neighboring magnetic field lines in the solar wind can be magnetically connected to regions that are well separated in the low corona. We also found that the actual connection longitude (a longitude that takes in to account the coronal magnetic field) is most of the time is closer to the flare site associated with the event than the Parker spiral connection longitude. The Parker spiral longitudes, connection longitudes and flare longitudes are analyzed in detail by histograms. Finally, we chose two example events and analyzed them by using intensity-time profile of particles, plots of from LASCO CME catalog and plots produce by the SolarSoft. Based on our analysis we classified the example events into gradual and hybrid SEP events.
  • Brilhante, Virginia (2013)
    This thesis presents a workflow for analysis of exome sequencing data aiming at identification of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) causing recessively inherited mitochondrial disease in children. Several variant selection criteria that are consistent with such group of genetic disorders are applied along the workflow in relation to mode of inheritance, allele frequency and the Finnish ancestry of the patients. These are combined with knowledge of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and prediction of pathogenic variants, narrowing down the total set of SNVs found in a patient to those most likely to be causative. Patient exomes are analysed individually (n=1 studies). The bioinformatic resources used for implementation include public and in-house databases of mitochondrial nuclear genes, human genetic variation and exome controls, as well as software tools for prediction of pathogenic SNVs and mitochondria-targeting proteins. Exome variant data from a cohort of 49 molecularly undiagnosed children were analysed through the workflow, leading to the identification of mitochondrial disease-causing SNVs located in nuclear genes for 10 of the patients. Therefore, a success rate of 20% was achieved. The workflow has been an important element in the use of exome sequencing as a new research tool at the Wartiovaara group of the Research Program for Molecular Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki.
  • Brilhante, Virginia (2013)
    This thesis presents a workflow for analysis of exome sequencing data aiming at identification of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) causing recessively inherited mitochondrial disease in children. Several variant selection criteria that are consistent with such group of genetic disorders are applied along the workflow in relation to mode of inheritance, allele frequency and the Finnish ancestry of the patients. These are combined with knowledge of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and prediction of pathogenic variants, narrowing down the total set of SNVs found in a patient to those most likely to be causative. Patient exomes are analysed individually (n=1 studies). The bioinformatic resources used for implementation include public and in-house databases of mitochondrial nuclear genes, human genetic variation and exome controls, as well as software tools for prediction of pathogenic SNVs and mitochondria-targeting proteins. Exome variant data from a cohort of 49 molecularly undiagnosed children were analysed through the workflow, leading to the identification of mitochondrial disease-causing SNVs located in nuclear genes for 10 of the patients. Therefore, a success rate of 20% was achieved. The workflow has been an important element in the use of exome sequencing as a new research tool at the Wartiovaara group of the Research Program for Molecular Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki.
  • Brilhante, Virginia (2013)
    This thesis presents a workflow for analysis of exome sequencing data aiming at identification of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) causing recessively inherited mitochondrial disease in children. Several variant selection criteria that are consistent with such group of genetic disorders are applied along the workflow in relation to mode of inheritance, allele frequency and the Finnish ancestry of the patients. These are combined with knowledge of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and prediction of pathogenic variants, narrowing down the total set of SNVs found in a patient to those most likely to be causative. Patient exomes are analysed individually (n=1 studies). The bioinformatic resources used for implementation include public and in-house databases of mitochondrial nuclear genes, human genetic variation and exome controls, as well as software tools for prediction of pathogenic SNVs and mitochondria-targeting proteins. Exome variant data from a cohort of 49 molecularly undiagnosed children were analysed through the workflow, leading to the identification of mitochondrial disease-causing SNVs located in nuclear genes for 10 of the patients. Therefore, a success rate of 20% was achieved. The workflow has been an important element in the use of exome sequencing as a new research tool at the Wartiovaara group of the Research Program for Molecular Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki.
  • Xu, Yuan (2013)
    The increasing recognition of eco-friendly packaging in the packaging industry makes paperboard one of the most promising green packaging materials. The global demand for paperboard has increased rapidly in the past two decades. The purposes of the study are: firstly, to provide an overview of the consumption, production, imports and exports of paperboard products in different regions worldwide between 1992 and 2010. Secondly, as the Finnish paperboard industry has been highly export-oriented, the study also aims to provide quantitative analysis of the main determinants influencing the demand for Finnish paperboard exports in its main destinations-Germany and Russia by applying economic models from the first quarter of 1995 to the third quarter of 2011. Finally, trends projection for the future development of Finnish paperboard is presented based on results of analysis. The research is both descriptive and explanatory based on secondary data collected from various databases. The regional analysis of paperboard market from 1992 to 2010 revealed that North America and Western Europe’s paperboard production exceeded the consumption, where Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America’s consumption exceeded the production. The consumption and production growth was extremely fast in Asia and it has been the largest consumer and producer of paperboard products since 2000s. Western Europe has been the largest exporter and importer throughout the years. The empirical modeling of Finnish paperboard export demand showed that the export demand for Finnish paperboard in Germany was highly affected by the total paperboard imports of Germany and its GDP. It also has high sensitivity to the income changes of Germany in long term, but the price effect was not significant. The export demand for Finnish paperboard in Russia has low income elasticity and the price effect was statistically significant. Oil price has also significant influence on Finnish paperboard export demand to Russia. According to the linear trends projection for Finnish paperboard market to 2020, the consumption and imports will grow very slowly or even stagnate, but the production and exports will continuously increase at a faster pace.