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• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
In this Ph.D. thesis I have studied how the objectives of sustainable development have been integrated into Northwest Russian urban and regional planning, and how the Russian planning discourse has changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By analysing the planning discussion, processes, and strategic documents I have also investigated the use of power and governmentality in urban and regional planning. As a methodological foundation I have used an approach that I call geographical constructivism . It was possible to answer in a relevant manner the question of how sustainable development has become a part of planning in Northwest Russia through a discourse analysis of the planning discussion. During the last decades, the aim of sustainable development has become globally one of the most central societal challenges. Urban and regional planning has a central role to play in promoting this process, since many meta-level objectives actually take shape within its sphere. An ever more actual challenge brought by sustainable development is to plan regions and places while balancing the conflicts of the pressures of safeguarding a good environment and of taking into consideration social and economic needs. I have given these unavoidable conflicts of sustainable development a central place in my work. In my view, complementing instrumental and communicative rationality with conflict rationality gives environmental planning a well-equipped toolbox. Sustainable development can be enhanced in urban and regional planning by seeking open, and especially hidden, potential conflicts. Thus, the expressed thinking (mentality) and actions taken by power regimes in and around conflicts open an interesting viewpoint into Northwest Russian governmentality. I examine the significance of sustainable development in planning through Northwest Russian geography, and also through recent planning legislation and four case studies. In addition, I project my analysis of empirical material onto the latest discussion of planning theory. My four case studies, which are based on independent and separate empirical material (42 thematic interviews and planning documents), consider the republics of Karelia and Komi, Leningrad oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg. In the dissertation I argue how sustainable development is, in the local governmentalities of Northwest Russia, understood as a concept where solving environmental problems is central, and that they can be solved through planning carried out by the planning professionals. Despite this idealism, environmental improvements have been overlooked by appealing to difficult economic factors. This is what I consider environmental racism, which I think is the most central barrier to sustainable development in Northwest Russia. The situation concerning the social dimension of sustainable development is even more difficult, since, for example, the development of local democracy is not highly valued. In the planning discourse this democracy racism is explained by a short history of democracy in Russia. However, precisely through planning conflicts, for example in St. Petersburg, planning has become socially more sustainable: protests by local inhabitants have bypassed the poorly functioning representational democracy, when the governmentality has changed from a mute use of power to one that adopts a stand on a conflicting issue. Keywords: Russia, urban and regional planning, sustainable development, environmental planning, power and conflicts in planning, governmentality, rationalities.
• (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
• (University of Helsinki, 2015)
Työssä tarkasteltiin sedimentin alumiini- ja rautaoksidien osallistumista fosforin sitomiseen kolmella eri alueella pohjoisella Itämerellä ja sitä kuinka sedimentin metallioksideihin sitoutuneet fosforifraktiot voidaan erotella peräkkäisten uuttojen avulla. Tutkitut näytteet oli otettu estuaarityyppisistä sedimenteistä Ahvenkoskenlahdelta, Perämereltä ja Saaristomereltä. Näytteitä uutettiin peräkkäin ammoniumfluoridilla, natriumditioniitilla ja natriumhydroksidilla. Käytetyt uuttoliuokset valittiin kirjallisuuden ja aiempien tutkimusten perusteella. Uutteista mitattiin fosforin, raudan, alumiinin ja mangaanin pitoisuudet ICP-OES-laitteistolla. Työn ensimmäisessä vaiheessa uuttoliuoksia lisättiin eri järjestyksissä ja tulosten perusteella uuttojärjestykseksi valittiin: 1) natriumditioniitti, 2) ammoniumfluoridi ja 3) natriumhydroksidi, koska näin pystyttiin parhaiten erottamaan alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitoma fosfori toisistaan. Työn toisessa vaiheessa uutettiin kolmen eri alueen estuaarisedimenttejä valitulla uuttojärjestyksellä. Kirjallisuudessa on usein esitetty, että alumiinioksidit eivät olisi merkittävässä roolissa merisedimenttien fosforin sitomisessa vaan että alumiinioksidien sitomaksi määritetty fosfori voisi olla rautaoksidien sitomaa, mutta menetelmän epäspesifisyyden vuoksi tutkittu alumiinioksidien sitomaksi. Työn toisen vaiheen tulokset osoittivat, että alumiinioksidit osallistuvat fosforin sitomiseen estuaareissa. Estuaareihin hautautuneista sedimenttinäytteistä erottui alumiinioksidille spesifisellä uutolla oma fosforijakeensa, joka ei tulosten mukaan voinut olla peräisin rautaoksidien sitomasta jakeesta. Ahvenkoskenlahden näytteessä oli Saaristomeren ja Perämeren näytteisiin verrattuna suhteessa eniten alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitomaa fosforia. Alumiinioksideilla havaittiin olevan enemmän merkitystä fosforin sitomisessa lähempänä rannikkoa, kun taas rautaoksideilla on enemmän merkitystä kauempana rannikosta.
• (1980)
• (1998)
• (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
Alveolaarinen ostiitti on kivulias hampaan poiston jälkeinen komplikaatio, jonka syntymekanismi on edelleen epäselvä. Tämän lisäksi sen ennaltaehkäisyyn ja hoitoon ei löydy täysin yhtenevää mielipidettä. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena on perehtyä ajankohtaisiin artikkeleihin ja tehdä niistä yhteenveto. Tutkielmassa käsitellään alveoliitin riskitekijöitä, ennaltaehkäisyä ja hoitoa. Huolimatta monista tutkimuksista näyttäisi siltä, että edelleen ollaan epävarmoja alveoliitin oikeanlaisesta hoidosta. Useimmat tutkimukset kuitenkin tukevat väitettä, jonka mukaan tupakointi, naissukupuoli, suun kautta otettavat ehkäisypillerit ja korkea ikä lisäävät alveoliitin todennäköisyyttä. Ennaltaehkäisynä voidaan käyttää antibioottia ennen operaatiota ja jatkaa sitä post-operatiivisesti. Myös klooriheksidiinin käytöstä on hyviä tuloksia. Alveoliitin hoitoon käytetään kivunlievitykseen tarkoitettuja särkylääkkeitä. Huuhtelu keittosuolaliuoksella ja tamponin asettaminen poistokuoppaan auttavat paranemisessa. Tamponiin annosteltaviksi lääkeaineiksi suositellaan antiseptistä jodoformia sekä kivun lievittämiseen eugenolia sekä bentsokaiinia. Johtopäätöksenä totean, että nykyisen tiedon mukaan alveoliitti johtuu huonosti paranevasta poistokuopasta. Vaikka alveoliitin selkeää syytä ei tiedetä, on kuitenkin saatu selvyys sen riskitekijöistä, ennaltaehkäisystä ja hoidosta.
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
• (2002)
• (2016)
Recent studies proved the existence of Extremely Low-Volatility Organic Compounds (ELVOCs) in the atmosphere as result from oxidation of biogenic vapors released by terrestrial vegetation. Such species are believed to significantly contribute to the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) which play a role in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) process and thus affect climate. Thus, it is of interest to better understand and characterize the behavior of these novel molecules. The literature part provides an overview of the background knowledge that found this work by presenting the influence of aerosols and emissions from biosphere on climate. Moreover, the chemical pathways involved in the formation of ELVOCs are presented as well as the factors that could possibly influence their production. In the experimental part is presented an investigation of the thermal stability of ELVOCs formed by oxidation of both α-pinene and benzene using flow tube reactor setup and mass spectrometry analysis. After development and characterization of the experimental installation, it was possible to analyze the thermal response of highly oxidized compounds with a nitrate-based Chemical Ionization (CI) Atmospheric Pressure interface (APi) Time Of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer which provided a unique characterization of such species with high precision. In this study, the establishment of temperature ranges for the decomposition of ELVOCs was done by collecting the data for several identified highly oxidized species. Furthermore, some differences in the obtained ‘temperature series’ (evolution of the signal as a function of temperature) were observed from one experiment to another confirming the high variability in the behavior of such compounds. In a more comprehensive sense, this work allowed to develop a more complete view on the behavior of ELVOCs toward a change of temperature.
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
Diet is a major player in the maintenance of health and onset of many diseases of public health importance. The food choice is known to be largely influenced by sensory preferences. However, in many cases it is unclear whether these preferences and dietary behaviors are innate or acquired. The aim of this thesis work was to study the extent to which the individual differences in dietary responses, especially in liking for sweet taste, are influenced by genetic factors. Several traits measuring the responses to sweetness and other dietary variables were applied in four studies: in British (TwinsUK) and Finnish (FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16) twin studies and in a Finnish migraine family study. All the subjects were adults and they participated in chemosensory measurements (taste and smell tests) and filled in food behavior questionnaires. Further, it was studied, whether the correlations among the variables are mediated by genetic or environmental factors and where in the genome the genes influencing the heritable traits are located. A study of young adult Finnish twins (FinnTwin16, n=4388) revealed that around 40% of the food use is attributable to genetic factors and that the common, childhood environment does not affect the food use even shortly after moving from the parents home. Both the family study (n=146) and the twin studies (British twins, n=663) showed that around half of the variation in the liking for sweetness is inherited. The same result was obtained both by the chemosensory measurements (heritability 41-49%) and the questionnaire variables (heritability 31-54%). By contrast, the intensity perception of sweetness or the responses to saltiness were not influenced by genetic factors. Further, a locus influencing the use-frequency of sweet foods was identified on chromosome 16p. A closer examination of the relationships among the variables based on 663 British twins revealed that several genetic and environmental correlations exist among the different measures of liking for sweetness. However, these correlations were not very strong (range 0.06-0.55) implying that the instruments used measure slightly different aspects of the phenomenon. In addition, the assessment of the associations among responses to fatty foods, dieting behaviors, and body mass index in twin populations (TwinsUK n=1027 and FinnTwin12 n=299) showed that the dieting behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) mediate the relationship between obesity and diet. In conclusion, the work increased the understanding of the background variables of human eating behavior. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the variation of many dietary traits, such as liking for sweet taste, use of sweet foods, and dieting behaviors. However, the responses to salty taste were shown to be mainly determined by environmental factors and thus should more easily be modifiable by dietary education, exposure, and learning than sweet taste preferences. Although additional studies are needed to characterize the genetic element located on chromosome 16 that influences the use-frequency of sweet foods, the results underline the importance of inherited factors on human eating behavior.
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
This thesis is concerned with the area of vector-valued Harmonic Analysis, where the central theme is to determine how results from classical Harmonic Analysis generalize to functions with values in an infinite dimensional Banach space. The work consists of three articles and an introduction. The first article studies the Rademacher maximal function that was originally defined by T. Hytönen, A. McIntosh and P. Portal in 2008 in order to prove a vector-valued version of Carleson's embedding theorem. The boundedness of the corresponding maximal operator on Lebesgue-(Bochner) -spaces defines the RMF-property of the range space. It is shown that the RMF-property is equivalent to a weak type inequality, which does not depend for instance on the integrability exponent, hence providing more flexibility for the RMF-property. The second article, which is written in collaboration with T. Hytönen, studies a vector-valued Carleson's embedding theorem with respect to filtrations. An earlier proof of the dyadic version assumed that the range space satisfies a certain geometric type condition, which this article shows to be also necessary. The third article deals with a vector-valued generalizations of tent spaces, originally defined by R. R. Coifman, Y. Meyer and E. M. Stein in the 80's, and concerns especially the ones related to square functions. A natural assumption on the range space is then the UMD-property. The main result is an atomic decomposition for tent spaces with integrability exponent one. In order to suit the stochastic integrals appearing in the vector-valued formulation, the proof is based on a geometric lemma for cones and differs essentially from the classical proof. Vector-valued tent spaces have also found applications in functional calculi for bisectorial operators. In the introduction these three themes come together when studying paraproduct operators for vector-valued functions. The Rademacher maximal function and Carleson's embedding theorem were applied already by Hytönen, McIntosh and Portal in order to prove boundedness for the dyadic paraproduct operator on Lebesgue-Bochner -spaces assuming that the range space satisfies both UMD- and RMF-properties. Whether UMD implies RMF is thus an interesting question. Tent spaces, on the other hand, provide a method to study continuous time paraproduct operators, although the RMF-property is not yet understood in the framework of tent spaces.
• (2015)
We show that the embedding of a matrix game in a mechanistic population dynamical model can have important consequences for the evolution of how the game is played. In particular, we show that because of this embedding evolutionary branching and multiple evolutionary singular strategies can occur, which is not possible in the conventional theory of matrix games. We show that by means of the example of the hawk-dove game.
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
The dissertation Amenability of metric measure spaces and fixed point properties of groups consists of three articles revolving around amenability and property (T) in different contexts, and a summary. In the first article, (non-)amenability of hyperbolic metric spaces is considered. In it, we prove that a uniformly coarsely proper hyperbolic cone of a connected bounded metric space containing at least two points is non-amenable. In particular, this implies that any uniformly coarsely proper visual Gromov hyperbolic space with connected boundary containing at least two points is non-amenable. In the second article, the degree of amenability of metric measure spaces is considered in general. Here, we prove a homological characterisation of global weighted Sobolev inequalities for quasiconvex uniform metric measure spaces that support a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality using methods from large scale algebraic topology. Returning to the topic of the first article, we show that a quasiconvex visual Gromov hyperbolic uniform metric measure space that supports a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality with a connected boundary containing at least two points satisfies a global Sobolev inequality. In the third article, fixed point conditions for uniformly bounded group actions on Hilbert spaces are considered. In the article, we establish a spectral condition for the vanishing of the first cohomology group of the complex of square integrable cochains twisted by a uniformly bounded representation of an automorphism group of a 2-dimensional simplicial complex. In particular, if the automorphism group acts properly discontinuously and cocompactly on the complex this implies that every affine action of the automorphism group on the Hilbert space with linear part given by the representation has a fixed point. In the summary, the results of the articles are further explained and placed in a larger context: mathematically as well as historically.
• (2012)
Amenabilitet är ett begrepp som förekommer inom teorin för både lokalt kompakta grupper och Banach algebror. Forskningen kring translations-invarianta mått under första halvan av 1900-talet ledde till definitionen av amenabla lokalt kompakta grupper. En lokalt kompakt grupp $G$ kallas för amenabel om det finns en positiv linjär funktional med normen 1 i $L^\infty(G)^*$ som är vänster-invariant i förhållandet till den givna gruppoperationen. Under samma tidsperiod utvecklades teorin för Hochschild kohomologi för Banach algebror. En Banach algebra $A$ kallas för amenabel om den första Hochschild kohomologigruppen $H^1(A,X^*)=\{0\}$ för varje dual Banach $A$-bimodule $X^*$, d.v.s. om varje kontinuerlig derivation $D:A\rightarrow X^*$ är en inre derivation. År 1972 bevisade B. E. Johnson att gruppalgebran $L^1(G)$ för en lokalt kompakt grupp $G$ är amenabel om och endast om $G$ är amenabel. Detta resultat rättfärdigar terminologin amenabel Banach algebra. I denna pro gradu-avhandling presenterar vi grundteorin för amenabla Banach algebror och ger ett bevis till Johnsons teorem. ************************ Amenability is a notion that occurs in the theory of both locally compact groups and Banach algebras. The research on translation-invariant measures during the first half of the 20th century led to the definition of amenable locally compact groups. A locally compact group $G$ is called amenable if there is a positive linear functional of norm 1 in $L^\infty(G)^*$ that is left-invariant with respect to the given group operation. During the same time the theory of Hochschild cohomology for Banach algebras was developed. A Banach algebra $A$ is called amenable if the first Hochschild cohomology group $H^1(A,X^*)=\{0\}$ for all dual Banach $A$-bimodules $X^*$, that is, if every continuous derivation $D:A\rightarrow X^*$ is inner. In 1972 B. E. Johnson proved that the group algebra $L^1(G)$ for a locally compact group $G$ is amenable if and only if $G$ is amenable. This result justifies the terminology amenable Banach algebra. In this Master's thesis we present the basic theory of amenable Banach algebras and give a proof of Johnson's theorem.
• (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)