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  • Saikku, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Industrial ecology is an important field of sustainability science. It can be applied to study environmental problems in a policy relevant manner. Industrial ecology uses ecosystem analogy; it aims at closing the loop of materials and substances and at the same time reducing resource consumption and environmental emissions. Emissions from human activities are related to human interference in material cycles. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements for all living organisms, but in excess have negative environmental impacts, such as climate change (CO2, CH4 N2O), acidification (NOx) and eutrophication (N, P). Several indirect macro-level drivers affect emissions change. Population and affluence (GDP/capita) often act as upward drivers for emissions. Technology, as emissions per service used, and consumption, as economic intensity of use, may act as drivers resulting in a reduction in emissions. In addition, the development of country-specific emissions is affected by international trade. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in emissions as affected by macro-level drivers in different European case studies. ImPACT decomposition analysis (IPAT identity) was applied as a method in papers I III. The macro-level perspective was applied to evaluate CO2 emission reduction targets (paper II) and the sharing of greenhouse gas emission reduction targets (paper IV) in the European Union (EU27) up to the year 2020. Data for the study were mainly gathered from official statistics. In all cases, the results were discussed from an environmental policy perspective. The development of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was analysed in the Finnish energy sector during a long time period, 1950 2003 (paper I). Finnish emissions of NOx began to decrease in the 1980s as the progress in technology in terms of NOx/energy curbed the impact of the growth in affluence and population. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to energy use during 1993 2004 (paper II) were analysed by country and region within the European Union. Considering energy-based CO2 emissions in the European Union, dematerialization and decarbonisation did occur, but not sufficiently to offset population growth and the rapidly increasing affluence during 1993 2004. The development of nitrogen and phosphorus load from aquaculture in relation to salmonid consumption in Finland during 1980 2007 was examined, including international trade in the analysis (paper III). A regional environmental issue, eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, and a marginal, yet locally important source of nutrients was used as a case. Nutrient emissions from Finnish aquaculture decreased from the 1990s onwards: although population, affluence and salmonid consumption steadily increased, aquaculture technology improved and the relative share of imported salmonids increased. According to the sustainability challenge in industrial ecology, the environmental impact of the growing population size and affluence should be compensated by improvements in technology (emissions/service used) and with dematerialisation. In the studied cases, the emission intensity of energy production could be lowered for NOx by cleaning the exhaust gases. Reorganization of the structure of energy production as well as technological innovations will be essential in lowering the emissions of both CO2 and NOx. Regarding the intensity of energy use, making the combustion of fuels more efficient and reducing energy use are essential. In reducing nutrient emissions from Finnish aquaculture to the Baltic Sea (paper III) through technology, limits of biological and physical properties of cultured fish, among others, will eventually be faced. Regarding consumption, salmonids are preferred to many other protein sources. Regarding trade, increasing the proportion of imports will outsource the impacts. Besides improving technology and dematerialization, other viewpoints may also be needed. Reducing the total amount of nutrients cycling in energy systems and eventually contributing to NOx emissions needs to be emphasized. Considering aquaculture emissions, nutrient cycles can be partly closed through using local fish as feed replacing imported feed. In particular, the reduction of CO2 emissions in the future is a very challenging task when considering the necessary rates of dematerialisation and decarbonisation (paper II). Climate change mitigation may have to focus on other greenhouse gases than CO2 and on the potential role of biomass as a carbon sink, among others. The global population is growing and scaling up the environmental impact. Population issues and growing affluence must be considered when discussing emission reductions. Climate policy has only very recently had an influence on emissions, and strong actions are now called for climate change mitigation. Environmental policies in general must cover all the regions related to production and impacts in order to avoid outsourcing of emissions and leakage effects. The macro-level drivers affecting changes in emissions can be identified with the ImPACT framework. Statistics for generally known macro-indicators are currently relatively well available for different countries, and the method is transparent. In the papers included in this study, a similar method was successfully applied in different types of case studies. Using transparent macro-level figures and a simple top-down approach are also appropriate in evaluating and setting international emission reduction targets, as demonstrated in papers II and IV. The projected rates of population and affluence growth are especially worth consideration in setting targets. However, sensitivities in calculations must be carefully acknowledged. In the basic form of the ImPACT model, the economic intensity of consumption and emission intensity of use are included. In seeking to examine consumption but also international trade in more detail, imports were included in paper III. This example demonstrates well how outsourcing of production influences domestic emissions. Country-specific production-based emissions have often been used in similar decomposition analyses. Nevertheless, trade-related issues must not be ignored.
  • Iija, Veera (2012)
    The thesis aims at analyzing concept of citizenship in political philosophy. The concept of citizenship is a complex one: it does not have a definitive explication, but it nevertheless is a very important category in contemporary world. Citizenship is a powerful ideal, and often the way a person is treated depends on whether he or she has the status of a citizen. Citizenship includes protection of a person’s rights both at home and abroad. It entails legal, political and social dimension: the legal status as a full member of society, the recognition of that status by fellow citizens and acting as a member of society. The thesis discusses these three dimensions. Its objective is to show how all of them, despite being insufficient in some aspects, reach something important about the concept. The main sources of the thesis are Civic Republicanism by Iseult Honohan (Routledge 2002), Republicanism by Philip Pettit (Clarendon Press 1997), and Taking Rights Seriously by Ronald Dworkin (1997). In addition, the historical part of the thesis relies mainly on the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith, Quentin Skinner, James Pocock and James Tully. The writings of Will Kymlicka, John Rawls, Chantal Mouffe, and Shane Phelan are referred to in the presentation and critique of the liberal tradition of thought. Hannah Arendt and Seyla Benhabib’s analysis of Arendt’s philosophy both address the problematic relations between human rights and nation-states as the main guarantors of rights. The chapter on group rights relies on Peter Jones’ account of corporate and collective rights, after which I continue to Seumas Miller’s essay on the (liberal) account of group rights and their relation to the concept of citizenship. Republicanism and Political Theory (2002) edited by Cécile Laborde and John Maynor is also references. David Miller and Maurizio Viroli represent the more “rooted” version of republicanism. The thesis argues that the full concept of citizenship should be seen as containing legal, political and social dimensions. The concept can be viewed from all of these three angles. The first means that citizenship is connected with certain rights, like the right to vote or stand for election, the right to property and so on. In most societies, the law guarantees these rights to every citizen. Then there is also the social dimension, which can be said to be as important as the legal one: the recognition of equality and identities of others. Finally, there is the political dimension, meaning the importance of citizens’ participation in the society, which is discussed in connection with the contemporary account of republicanism. All these issues are discussed from the point of view of groups demanding for group-specific rights and equal recognition. The challenge with these three aspects of citizenship is, however, that they are difficult to discuss under one heading. Different theories or discourses of citizenship each approach the subject from different starting points, which make reconciling them sometimes hard. The fundamental questions theories try to answer may differ radically depending on the theory. Nevertheless, in order to get the whole image of what the citizenship discourses are about all the aspects deserve to be taken into account.
  • Kuukka, Antti Oskari (2013)
    Työn päätavoitteena on todistaa eräs versio informaatioteorian kuuluisasta tuloksesta, Shannon- McMillan-Breiman -teoreemasta. Koska tämä lause liittyy ergodisiin stokastisiin prosesseihin ja sen todistuksessa tarvitaan ergoditeorian tuloksia, olen ottanut ergoditeorian toiseksi tasavertaiseksi pääaiheeksi Shannon-McMillan-Breiman -teoreeman rinnalle. Lukijalta ei oleteta esitietovaatimuksena ergoditeoriasta tai informaatioteorista mitään. Vaikka mittateoreettisen todennäköisyysteorian ja Markovin ketjujen perusteet oletetaan tunnetuiksi, kappaleessa 0 käydään läpi tiettyjä todennäköisyysteorian osa-alueita, jotka eivät alan peruskursseille mahdu. Näitä ovat esimerkiksi ääretönulotteisiin jonoavaruuksiin konstruoitavat sigma-algebrat, diskreettiaikainen martingaalikonvergenssiteoria, Radon-Nikodym - lauseeseen perustuva ehdollinen todennäköisyys, sekä tasainen integroituvuus. Kappale 1 käsittelee ergoditeoriaa. Koska ergoditeoria on hyvin laaja matematiikan osa-alue, tämä kappale on aiheeseen vain lyhyt johdatus. Eräs alan tärkeimmistä tuloksista, Birkhoffin ergodilause kuitenkin esitetään kappaleessa todistuksineen. Ergoditeorian voidaan ajatella olevan matematiikan osa-alue, joka tutkii ilmiöiden keskimääräistä käyttäytymistä. Birkhoffin ergodilauseesta esimerkiksi seuraa lähes välittömästi vahva suurten lukujen laki sekä se, että pelkistymättömän ja jaksottoman Markovin ketjun tietyssä tilassa viettämä suhteellinen aika on asymptoottisesti sama kuin tasapainojakauman kyseistä tilaa koskeva pistetodennäköisyys. Kappaleen lopuksi määritellään käsite ergodinen stokastinen prosessi, joita Shannon-McMillan-Breiman -lauseen väite koskee. Kappaleen 2 aiheena on informaatioteoria ja Shannon-McMillan-Breiman -lause. Koska lukijalta ei oleteta minkäänlaista etukäteistietoa informaatioteoriasta, kappale alkaa johdatuksella informaatioteoriaan. Johdatuksessa keskitytään ennen kaikkea diskreettien satunnaismuuttujien entropiaan, jota koskevia lauseita ja aputuloksia esitetään runsaasti. Tämän jälkeen satunnaismuuttujien entropiasta siirrytään stokastisten prosessien entropian tutkimiseen, jonka jälkeen on mahdollista esittää käsite asymptoottinen tasapartitiointiominaisuus. Karkeasti ottaen voidaan sanoa, että diskreetillä stokastisella prosessilla on asymptoottinen tasapartitiointiominaisuus, mikäli melkein kaikki sen realisaatiot kuuluvat alkioiden lukumäärältään pieneen, mutta todennäköisyysmassaltaan suureen tyypillisten jonojen joukkoon, joka käsitteenä määritellään kappaleessa tarkasti. Esimerkiksi tasapainoista kolikkoa heitettäessä tyypillisiä jonoja ovat sellaiset realisaatiot, joissa noin puolet heitoista on klaavoja. Paljastuu, että realisaatioiden jakamisella tyypillisiin ja ei-tyypillisiin jonoihin on mielenkiintoisia sovelluksia kuten tiedon tiivistäminen. Shannon-McMillan-Breiman -lause sanoo, että stationaarisella, ergodisella stokastisella prosessilla, jolla on äärellinen tila-avaruus, on asymptoottinen tasapartitiointiominaisuus. Kappaleen 2 pituudesta huomattava osuus liittyy tämän tuloksen todistamiseen. Todistus on monivaiheinen, ja se hyödyntää runsaasti erilaisia tuloksia informaatioteorian ulkopuolelta sekä punoo yhteen työssä aiemmin johdetut tulokset. Birkhoffin ergodilause ja kappaleessa 0 esitettävä Levyn martingaalikonvergenssilause ovat erityisen tärkeässsä roolissa.
  • Tang, Tiantian (2009)
    The objective of this thesis is to assess the recreational value (access value) provided by Yuelu Mountain Park in China applying travel cost method (TCM) which is commonly used to estimate non-market benefits. Also, a fee that would maximize the entrance fee income is tentatively calculated. The potential trips to be lost next year are estimated based on local respondents visiting intentions among different age groups. The travel cost demand function is estimated by using basic count data travel cost model-Poisson regression, and survey data collected on-site. Average access values per trip were estimated to be € 0.75 for local and € 64.52 for non-local individuals producing aggregate annual access value of € 20.43 million. Based on the travel cost demand function, an entrance fee of € 5.43 would maximize the revenue collected from the visitors. This would mean more than doubling of the present entrance fee. The result could potentially be utilized when deciding on the entrance fees. It is also suggested that the park management could further study visitors' intentions and reasons either to visit or not to visit the park in the future. Estimated consumer surpluses as well as suggested entrance fee must however, be considered with caution because truncation of the on-site survey data is not accounted for in the Poisson model estimations of this study.
  • Peltonen, Ella (2013)
    Cloud computing offers important resources, performance, and services nowadays when it has became popular to collect, store and analyze large data sets. This thesis builds on Berkeley Data Analysis Stack (BDAS) as a cloud computing environment designed for Big Data handling and analysis. Especially two parts of the BDAS, the cluster resource manager Mesos and the distribution manager Spark will be introduced. They offer important features, such as efficiency, multi-tenancy, and fault tolerance, for cloud computing. The Spark system expands MapReduce, the well-known cloud computing paradigm. Machine learning algorithms can predict trends and anomalies of large data sets. This thesis will present one of them, a distributed decision tree algorithm, implemented on the Spark system. As an example case, the decision tree will be used on the versatile energy consumption data from mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, of the Carat project. The data consists of information about the usage of the device, such as which applications have been running, network connections, battery temperatures, and screen brightness, for example. The decision tree aims to find chains of data features that might lead to energy consumption anomalies. Results of the analysis can be used to advise users on how to improve their battery life. This thesis will present selected analysis results together with advantages and disadvantages of the decision tree analysis.
  • Hutri, Kaisa-Leena (Säteilyturvakeskus (STUK), 2007)
    Olkiluoto Island is situated in the northern Baltic Sea, near the southwestern coast of Finland, and is the proposed location of a spent nuclear fuel repository. This study examined Holocene palaeoseismicity in the Olkiluoto area and in the surrounding sea areas by computer simulations together with acoustic-seismic, sedimentological and dating methods. The most abundant rock type on the island is migmatic mica gneiss, intruded by tonalites, granodiorites and granites. The surrounding Baltic Sea seabed consists of Palaeoproterozoic crystalline bedrock, which is to a great extent covered by younger Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks. The area contains several ancient deep-seated fracture zones that divide it into bedrock blocks. The response of bedrock at the Olkiluoto site was modelled considering four future ice-age scenarios. Each scenario produced shear displacements of fractures with different times of occurrence and varying recovery rates. Generally, the larger the maximum ice load, the larger were the permanent shear displacements. For a basic case, the maximum shear displacements were a few centimetres at the proposed nuclear waste repository level, at proximately 500 m b.s.l. High-resolution, low-frequency echo-sounding was used to examine the Holocene submarine sedimentary structures and possible direct and indirect indicators of palaeoseismic activity in the northern Baltic Sea. Echo-sounding profiles of Holocene submarine sediments revealed slides and slumps, normal faults, debris flows and turbidite-type structures. The profiles also showed pockmarks and other structures related to gas or groundwater seepages, which might be related to fracture zone activation. Evidence of postglacial reactivation in the study area was derived from the spatial occurrence of some of the structures, especial the faults and the seepages, in the vicinity of some old bedrock fracture zones. Palaeoseismic event(s) (a single or several events) in the Olkiluoto area were dated and the palaeoenvironment was characterized using palaeomagnetic, biostratigraphical and lithostratigraphical methods, enhancing the reliability of the chronology. Combined lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy revealed an age estimation of 10 650 to 10 200 cal. years BP for the palaeoseismic event(s). All Holocene sediment faults in the northern Baltic Sea occur at the same stratigraphical level, the age of which is estimated at 10 700 cal. years BP (9500 radiocarbon years BP). Their movement is suggested to have been triggered by palaeoseismic event(s) when the Late Weichselian ice sheet was retreating from the site and bedrock stresses were released along the bedrock fracture zones. Since no younger or repeated traces of seismic events were found, it corroborates the suggestion that the major seismic activity occurred within a short time during and after the last deglaciation. The origin of the gas/groundwater seepages remains unclear. Their reflections in the echo-sounding profiles imply that part of the gas is derived from the organic-bearing Litorina and modern gyttja clays. However, at least some of the gas is derived from the bedrock. Additional information could be gained by pore water analysis from the pockmarks. Information on postglacial fault activation and possible gas and/or fluid discharges under high hydraulic heads has relevance in evaluating the safety assessment of a planned spent nuclear fuel repository in the region.
  • Hermunen, Taneli (2010)
    Käyn Pro gradu –tutkielmassani läpi ongelmia, joita Robert Nozickin (1938–2002) Anarchy, State and Utopiassa (1974) kehittelemään valtionmuodostusteoriaan sisältyy. Työni tavoite on esittää Nozickin teoria nimenomaan libertaristisesta, ja Nozickin teorian sisäisiin epäjohdonmukaisuuksiin keskittyvästä, näkökulmasta. Esittelen työssäni ensiksi tämän hänen teoriansa pääpiirteet, sekä hänen ajatuksensa utopian kehyksestä (framework for utopia). Nozickin tavoitteena on muodostaa valtio, John Locken (1632¬–1704) määrittelemästä luonnontilasta, ilman kenenkään sitä yrittämättä ja ilman että kenenkään oikeuksia rikotaan sitä muodostettaessa. Valtio on tässä määritelty Max Weberin (1864– 1920) mukaan. Valtion kriteeri täyttyy, kun tietyllä maantieteellisellä alueella, vain yhdellä taholla on hallussaan väkivallan monopoli. Nozickin valtionmuodostusteoriassa valtio muodostuu kahdessa osassa. Ensin dominoivan turva-agentuurin saavuttaessa monopolin turvamarkkinoilla. Tätä kutsutaan ultraminimaaliseksi valtioksi. Sitten dominoiva turva-agentuuri saavuttaa valtion määritelmän liittämällä itsenäiset (independent) itseensä kompensaation periaatteen avulla. Tätä kutsutaan minimaaliseksi valtioksi. Työssäni ongelmalliseksi muodostuvat, niin ultaminimaalinen–, kuin minimaalinenkin valtion. Ultraminimaalisen valtion ongelma on sen kenekään tarkoittamattomuudella muodostuminen. Minimaalisen valtion ongelma on puolestaan sen oikeutus. Väitteeni on, ettei Nozickin valtionmuodostusteoria välttämättä johda valtioon. Hänen käyttämänsä näkymättömän käden (invisible hand) selitykset voivat johtaa myös toisiin lopputuloksiin. Väitän myös, ettei Nozickin valtionmuodostaminen ole moraalisesti hyväksyttävä, koska se ei kunnioita itsenäisten oikeuksia. Esittelen työni lopuksi Murray Rothbardin teksteihin perustuen vaihtoehtoisen loppu tuleman Locken luonnontilasta muodostuvasta yhteisöstä. Esitän myös, että tämä markkina-anarkistinen vaihtoehto voisi myös olla yhteensopiva Nozickin ajatukseen utopian kehyksestä.
  • Lyytinen, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Since national differences exist in genes, environment, diet and life habits and also in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT), the associations between different hormone therapies and the risk for breast cancer were studied among Finnish postmenopausal women. All Finnish women over 50 years of age who used HT were identified from the national medical reimbursement register, established in 1994, and followed up for breast cancer incidence (n= 8,382 cases) until 2005 with the aid of the Finnish Cancer Registry. The risk for breast cancer in HT users was compared to that in the general female population of the same age. Among women using oral or transdermal estradiol alone (ET) (n = 110,984) during the study period 1994-2002 the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for breast cancer in users for < 5 years was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–1.04), and in users for ≥ 5 years 1.44 (1.29–1.59). This therapy was associated with similar rises in ductal and lobular types of breast cancer. Both localized stage (1.45; 1.26–1.66) and cancers spread to regional nodes (1.35; 1.09–1.65) were associated with the use of systemic ET. Oral estriol or vaginal estrogens were not accompanied with a risk for breast cancer. The use of estrogen-progestagen therapy (EPT) in the study period 1994-2005 (n= 221,551) was accompanied with an increased incidence of breast cancer (1.31;1.20-1.42) among women using oral or transdermal EPT for 3-5 years, and the incidence increased along with the increasing duration of exposure (≥10 years, 2.07;1.84-2.30). Continuous EPT entailed a significantly higher (2.44; 2.17-2.72) breast cancer incidence compared to sequential EPT (1.78; 1.64-1.90) after 5 years of use. The use of norethisterone acetate (NETA) as a supplement to estradiol was accompanied with a higher incidence of breast cancer after 5 years of use (2.03; 1.88-2.18) than that of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (1.64; 1.49-1.79). The SIR for the lobular type of breast cancer was increased within 3 years of EPT exposure (1.35; 1.18-1.53), and the incidence of the lobular type of breast cancer (2.93; 2.33-3.64) was significantly higher than that of the ductal type (1.92; 1.67-2.18) after 10 years of exposure. To control for some confounding factors, two case control studies were performed. All Finnish women between the ages of 50-62 in 1995-2007 and diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer (n= 9,956) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry, and 3 controls of similar age (n=29,868) without breast cancer were retrieved from the Finnish national population registry. Subjects were linked to the medical reimbursement register for defining the HT use. The use of ET was not associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (1.00; 0.92-1.08). Neither was progestagen-only therapy used less than 3 years. However, the use of tibolone was associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer (1.39; 1.07-1.81). The case-control study confirmed the results of EPT regarding sequential vs. continuous use of progestagen, including progestagen released continuously by an intrauterine device; the increased risk was seen already within 3 years of use (1.65;1.32-2.07). The dose of NETA was not a determinant as regards the breast cancer risk. Both systemic ET, and EPT are associated with an elevation in the risk for breast cancer. These risks resemble to a large extent those seen in several other countries. The use of an intrauterine system alone or as a complement to systemic estradiol is also associated with a breast cancer risk. These data emphasize the need for detailed information to women who are considering starting the use of HT.
  • Nurminen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In the dissertation the post-Restauration English medicine and the closely related natural philosophical and theological questions are considered. Doctor Thomas Willis s (1621-75) life, research and clinical work was an excellent example of the medical and religious scene in the 17th century. Historians of medicine have noted his anatomical discoveries of the brain and nerves and established his position in the medical revolution of the era mainly in the context of modern biomedicine and neurology. He had been considered to be the rationalizer of the medicine and functions and dysfunctions of human mind. In this dissertation the above-mentioned view is expanded. Willis s theories about the nature and human soul as well as his ideas about the functional meaning of the nervous system were also suitable for the Anglican church. It was essential for the church to emphasize the importance of human capacity to reason in the politically and religiously unstable Restauration era. Willis s theories had a wider field of application than only the sphere of medicine. According to Willis, doctors would improve their professional skills by considering the human anatomy and physiology, and their relation with health and disease as comprehensively as possible in particular cases. In the 17th century medicine this idea was not self-evident. Willis s working methods marked a turning point in the nascent cooperation of theoretical and therapeutical sectors of medicine. Willis s theories about human physiology were used to explain the activities of Valentine Greatrakes (1628-83), the so-called miracle healer. Greatrakes caused a huge stir by touching the King s Evil (scrofula) and he seemed to be able to heal numerous other diseases as well. Doctors, theologians and natural philosophers followed with interest his ministrations because every possibly effective way of healing, including the workings of uneducated laymen, should be submitted to the assessment of the learned medical community and the Virtuosi of the Royal Society. In the previous studies Greatrakes had played only a supporting role in the middle of ideological and theological controversies. The background to the awakened interest in his workings according to earlier interpretation was the fear of social and religious disorder. In this dissertation it is demonstrated that the questions about the character of Protestant belief in miracles and the practical medical issues associated with miraculous healings were the most noticeable element. This case indicates that even though the relationship between theology and medicine was close, it was of primary importance to maintain the line of demarcation between religion and science.
  • Saarilehto, Ilmari (2006)
    This thesis examines the actors' power relations in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Support Programme (RWSSSP) in Nepal. I study the power relations in this case through analysing actors' conceptions about development, roles, motivations and conflicts related to the programme. I approach the programme as a case of Finnish aid and reflect it on the academic aid debate. With reflection and comparisons to the different views in the aid debate the case will be put into a wider theoretical context and by confronting the theories with the complex reality of the case some general conclusions may be drawn about the power and roles of different actors in development aid. The analysis is based on interviews, field observations, different types of literature and archival material. The most important sources of information are the interviews and observations made during my fieldwork in Nepal in September 2004. I performed the analysis of the actors' perceptions on the issues studied using some of the methods of grounded theory for categorizing and conceptualizing my interview data. I also analysed the discourses relevant in the case at hand, not by methods of detailed discourse analysis but rather as a part of the issues scrutinized, manifest in what people say about their actions, relations and motivations. My analysis of the context and project history of the case is based on critical review and textual analysis of archival material, project related documents, relevant academic studies. My main conclusions relate to the roles and power relations of different actors in the programme, their conceptions and the determinants of a successful programme. In RWSSSP, the practical power seemed to be largely concentrated in the hands of the programme consultant staff having a very central role in programme coordination, planning and implementation. The often criticised donor domination was less prominent, DIDC mainly directed the approaches and principles represented in documents, while the programme consultants controlled the day-to-day operation of the programme and also the picture transmitted about it to the donor. The local government agencies, much promoted in programme documents, had been largely bypassed in practice. Local non-governmental actors were, however, in an important position in the implementation of schemes at community level, but not above that. The central role of the implementing consultants can, in my opinion, be generalised to some extent as donor staff is often far removed from the field and depend on consultants for most information about field level activities. The different actors' conceptions of development seemed quite similar, which is largely explained by the fact that all actors benefit from representing their needs and conceptions in line with the dominant development discourses. There was, however, a clear difference between the stated and implicit meanings of development. All the actors emphasised the issues prominent in development discourses as development, but also seemed to see development as an immanent process in society through which it develops and "modernises". So, the actors' conceptions of development seemed more similar than many simplifying theories state. The RWSSSP has often been cited among the most prominent successes of Finnish development aid. This success seems to be based on representing the programme according to the trends of development discourses and on getting measurable results. Such determinants of project success can be largely generalised, as project success is finally judged in the donor countries where only the representation and some quantified results in project reports are seen. Coherent representation and tangible results are needed also to justify aid.
  • Saarilehto, Ilmari (2006)
    Tutkielmani tarkastelee toimijoiden valtasuhteita maaseudun vesihuollon ja sanitaation tukiohjelmassa (RWSSSP) Nepalissa. Tutkin toimijoiden käsityksiä ohjelmaan liittyvistä rooleista, motiiveista, valtataisteluista ja kehityksestä yleensä, sekä näiden kautta ilmeneviä valtasuhteita. Lähestyn ohjelmaa tapauksena suomalaisesta kehitysavusta ja heijastan sitä akateemiseen apukeskusteluun. Tämän apukeskustelun eri näkemyksiin reflektoinnin ja vertailun avulla tapaus sijoitetaan laajempaan teoreettiseen kontekstiin, ja asettamalla teoriat vastakkain tapauksen kompleksisen todellisuuden kanssa voidaan vetää joitain yleisiä johtopäätöksiä eri toimijoiden vallasta ja rooleista kehitysavussa. Analyysi perustuu haastatteluihin, kenttähavaintoihin, erityyppisiin kirjoihin, raportteihin ja arkistomateriaaliin. Tärkein informaation lähde ovat haastattelut ja kenttähavainnot, joita tein kenttätyöni aikana syyskuussa 2004. Suoritin analyysini toimijoiden käsityksistä tutkituissa asioissa käyttäen joitakin "grounded theory"- lähestymistavan metodeja haastattelu-datani kategorisoinnissa ja käsitteellistämisessä. Analysoin myös tapauksessa relevantteja diskursseja, en varsinaisilla diskurssianalyysin metodeilla, vaan pikemminkin osana tutkittuja asioita, joka ilmenee ihmisten sanomisissa toimistaan, suhteistaan ja motiiveistaan. Analyysini tapauksen kontekstista ja historiasta pohjautuu projektiin liittyvien dokumenttien, relevantin kirjallisuuden ja arkistolähteiden kriittiseen läpikäyntiin ja tekstianalyysiin. Tärkeimmät johtopäätökseni liittyvät toimijoiden rooleihin ja valtasuhteisiin, heidän käsityksiinsä ja onnistuneen kehitysohjelman määritelmiin. RWSSSPssä käytännön valta tuntui olevan vahvasti toteuttavien konsulttien käsissä. Heillä oli hyvin keskeinen rooli ohjelman koordinoinnissa, suunnittelussa ja toteutuksessa. Usein kritisoitu avunantajan ylivalta oli vähemmän ilmeistä, DIDC ohjasi lähinnä dokumenteissa esitettyjä lähtökohtia ja periaatteita, mutta ohjelman konsultit hallitsivat jokapäiväisiä asioita ja kuvaa joka siitä välittyi avunantajalle. Ohjelman dokumenteissa korostetut paikallishallinnon elimet oli pitkälti ohitettu käytännön toteutuksessa. Paikalliset hallinnon ulkopuoliset toimijat oli kuitenkin nostettu tärkeään asemaan paikallisten hankkeiden tasolla, mutta ei sen yläpuolella. Mielestäni projekteja toteuttavien konsulttien keskeinen asema on myös jossain määrin yleistettävissä, sillä avunantajien oma henkilökunta on usein kaukana kenttätasosta ja riippuvainen konsulttien antamasta informaatiosta käytännön toiminnasta. Eri toimijoiden käsitykset kehityksestä vaikuttivat varsin samankaltaisilta. Tämä on pitkälti selitettävissä sillä että kaikki toimijat hyötyvät tarpeidensa ja käsitystensä esittämisestä hallitsevien kehitysdiskurssien mukaisesti. Toimijoiden antamien selitysten ja implisiittisten kehityskäsitysten välillä oli kuitenkin selvä ero. Kaikki toimijat korostivat kehitysdiskursseissa tärkeitä asioita kehityksenä, mutta tuntuivat näkevän kehityksen myös immanenttina prosessina jonka kautta yhteiskunta kehittyy ja "modernisoituu". Toimijoiden kehityskäsitykset vaikuttivatkin paljon samankaltaisemmilta kuin monet yleistävät teoriat antavat ymmärtää. RWSSSPtä on usein kehuttu yhdeksi suomalaisen kehitysavun huomattavimmista onnistumisista. Tämä menestys tuntuu pohjautuvan ohjelman esittämiselle kehitysdiskurssien trendejä mukaillen ja mitattavien tulosten tuottamiselle. Tällaiset kehityksenavun onnistumisen kriteerit ovat myös pitkälti yleistettävissä. Projektien onnistuminen arvioidaan lopulta avunantajamaissa, missä vain projektidokumenttien antama representaatio ja mitattavat tulokset tunnetaan. Yhtenäistä esitystä ja kouriintuntuvia tuloksia tarvitaan myös kehitysavun oikeuttamiseksi.
  • Liivoja, Rain (Centre of Excellence in Global Governance Research, University of Helsinki, 2011)
    States regularly deploy elements of their armed forces abroad. When that happens, the military personnel concerned largely remain governed by the penal law of the State that they serve. This extraterritorial extension of national criminal law, which has been treated as axiomatic in domestic law and ignored by international law scholarship, is the subject of this dissertation. The first part of the study considers the ambit of national criminal law without any special regard to the armed forces. It explores the historical development of the currently prevailing system of territorial law and looks at the ambit that national legal systems claim today. Turning then to international law, the study debunks the oddly persistent belief that States enjoy a freedom to extend their laws to extraterritorial conduct as they please, and that they are in this respect constrained only by some specific prohibitions in international law. Six arguments historical, empirical, ideological, functional, doctrinal and systemic are advanced to support a contrary view: that States are prohibited from extending the reach of their legal systems abroad, unless they can rely on a permissive principle of international law for doing so. The second part of the study deals specifically with State jurisdiction in a military context, that is to say, as applied to military personnel in the strict sense (service members) and various civilians serving with or accompanying the forces (associated civilians). While the status of armed forces on foreign soil has transformed from one encapsulated in the customary concept of extraterritoriality to a modern regulation of immunities granted by treaties, elements of armed forces located abroad usually do enjoy some degree of insulation from the legal system of the host State. As a corollary, they should generally remain covered by the law of their own State. The extent of this extraterritorial extension of national law is revealed in a comparative review of national legislation, paying particular attention to recent legal reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom two states that have sought to extend the scope of their national law to cover the conduct of military contractor personnel. The principal argument of the dissertation is that applying national criminal law to service members and associated civilians abroad is distinct from other extraterritorial claims of jurisdiction (in particular, the nationality principle or the protective principle of jurisdiction). The service jurisdiction over the armed forces has a distinct aim: ensuring the coherence and indivisibility of the forces and maintaining discipline. Furthermore, the exercise of service jurisdiction seeks to reduce the chances of the State itself becoming internationally liable for the conduct of its service members and associated civilians. Critically, the legal system of the troop-deploying State, by extending its reach abroad, seeks to avoid accountability gaps that might result from immunities from host State law.
  • Ahonen, Marke (2008)
    This dissertation is about ancient philosophers notions of mental illness, from Plato onwards. Mental illness here means disorders that, in ancient medical thought, were believed to originate in the body but to manifest themselves predominantly through mental symptoms. These illnesses were treated by physical means, which were believed to address the bodily cause of the illness, conceived of as an elemental imbalance or a state of cephalic stricture , for example. Sometimes the mental symptoms were addressed directly by psychotherapeutic means. The first and most important question explored concerns how the ancient philosophers responded to the medical notion of mental illness, and how they explained such illnesses in their theories of physiology and psychology. Although the illnesses are seldom discussed extensively, the philosophers were well aware of their existence and regarded their occurrence an indication of the soul s close dependence on the body. This called for a philosophical account. The second question addressed has to do with the ancient philosophers role as experts in mental problems of a non-medical kind, such as unwanted emotions. These problems were dubbed diseases of the soul , and the philosophers thus claimed to be doctors of the soul. Although the distinction between mental illnesses and diseases of the soul was often presented as rather obvious, there was some vagueness and overlap. There is still a third question that is explored, concerning the status of both mental illnesses and diseases of the soul as unnatural conditions, the role of the human body in the philosophical aetiologies of evil, and the medico-philosophical theories of psycho-physiological temperaments. This work consists of an introduction and five main chapters, focusing on Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics and Galen, and the Sceptics, the Epicureans and later Platonists. The sources drawn on are the original Greek and Latin philosophical and medical texts. It appears that the philosophers accepted the medical notion of mental illness, but interpreted it in various ways. The differences in interpretation were mostly attributable to differences in their theories of the soul. Although the distinction between mental illness and diseases of the soul was important, marking the boundary between the fields of expertise of medicine and philosophy, and of the individual s moral responsibilities, the problematic aspects of establishing it are discussed rather little in ancient philosophy. There may have been various reasons for this. The medical descriptions of mental illness are often extreme, symptoms of the psychotic type excluding the possibility of the condition being of the non-medical kind. In addition, the rigid normativeness of ancient philosophical anthropologies and their rigorous notion of human happiness decreased the need to assess the acceptability of individual variation in their emotional and intellectual lives and external behaviour.
  • Holappa, Merja (2010)
    In my master’s thesis, I examine rational action and the possibility of irrationality. I begin by exploring how the question of unity of soul and action in raised first time in the Homeric discussion. In Socratic philosophy, the rationality and unity of soul and action is a necessary condition for achieving piece of mind and prosperity of life as a continuum. According to the prevalent interpretation, Socrates denies the possibility of akrasia, on the ground that he sees all the desires that can lead to action as rational. Akrasia, that is a Greek term for ‘weakness of will’ or ‘moral weakness’ is a form of irrationality, where an agent acts consciously, voluntarily, or intentionally against that which he considers the best option overall. Socrates argues that a person always according to his knowledge of the good and the desire for the good is an only motivational force for action. This Socratic view has also been interpreted as a denial of the possibility of akrasia. The Platonic philosophy of soul is seen diverging from the Socratic one in that he argues for the possibility of akrasia. According to this interpretation, Plato divides the soul into three elements, or parts as they as often called which each has its own objects of desires as well as reasoning ability, and therefore the parts can be causes of action without cooperating with the other parts. Akrasia, in this reading, would be possibly, when the less rational desires of the lower parts can outweigh the more rational considerations of the reasoning part. The different views on desires are most often argued as the greatest difference between the Socratic and Platonic accounts on akrasia. In my thesis, I argue against the prevalent readings of the theories of Plato and Socrates. As I see it, their views on akrasia do not differ to the extent that the common interpretation supposes.
  • Söderström, Sara (2015)
    Itämeren Ancylusjärveen kerrostuneissa sedimenteissä esiintyy rautamonosulfidiraitoja. Raitojen alkuperä on ollut tutkimuksen kohteena jo pitkään, sillä muodostuakseen rautamonosulfidi tarvitsee sulfaattia, jota on makeassa vedessä yleisesti hyvin vähän. Tällä hetkellä onkin kiistanalaista, missä vaiheessa nämä raidat ovat syntyneet. Syntytavasta on esitetty kaksi eri teoriaa, joista ensimmäisen mukaan raidat olisivat syntyneet vasta murtovesivaiheessa, jolloin sulfaattirikki olisi bakteerien toiminnan seurauksena muuttunut rikkivedyksi ja diffundoitunut alla olevaan rautapitoiseen järvisedimenttiin. Tämä olisi johtanut rautamonosulfidin muodostumiseen suunnilleen samalle syvyydelle järvisedimentissä laajalla alueella. Toisen teorian mukaan jokin, esimerkiksi suolapulssi, olisi käynnistänyt rikkiä metabolisoivien mikrobimattojen voimakkaan kasvun jo Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana. Orgaaninen aines olisi ylläpitänyt mikrobitoimintaa hautautuneissa matoissa, johtaen lopulta niiden korvautumiseen rautamonosulfidilla. Tämä syntytapa olisi johtanut Fe-monosulfidin laikuittaiseen esiintymiseen järvisedimentissä. Tämä tutkimus perustuu kolmeen läntiseltä Suomenlahdelta kairattuun sedimenttinäytesarjaan. Sarjoja tutkittiin sekä visuaalisesti että näytesarjoista otettujen röntgenkuvien avulla. Näytesarjat korreloitiin toisiinsa hehkutushäviö- ja suskeptibiliteettikäyrien avulla, jonka jälkeen Fe-monosulfidiraitojen jatkuvuutta näytesarjasta toiseen seurattiin. Näytteistä tehtiin myös pintahieet, joiden avulla tutkittiin rautasulfidimineraalien mineralogiaa sekä kiteytymisjärjestystä. Petrografisten tutkimusten perusteella rautamonosulfidiraidoissa esiintyy pääasiassa framboidista pyriittiä sekä euhedrisia pyriittikiteitä. Framboidinen pyriitti tarvitsee muodostuakseen rauta(II)sulfidista ja rikkivedystä voimakkaasti ylikylläisen liuoksen sekä avoimen huokostilan. Tästä johtuen on todennäköistä, että framboidinen pyriitti on kiteytynyt lähellä sedimentin pintaa, eli Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana ennen sedimentin tiivistymistä. Euhedrinen pyriitti puolestaan muodostui myöhemmässä vaiheessa diffuusion seurauksena. Myös näytesarjojen korrelointitulokset viittaavat tähän syntytapaan, sillä ainoastaan yksi rautamonosulfidiraita näyttäisi jatkuvan kaikissa kolmessa näytesarjassa.
  • Österholm, Nina (2010)
    Syftet med denna pro gradu-avhandling är dels att granska den nya morgonandaktsformen i Radio Vega där Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten kombinerats till ett och samma program, dels att beskriva andaktsproduktionen på kanalen även i övrigt. En viktig del av helheten består av den historiska bakgrunden till de andaktsprogram vi hör på Radio Vega i dag. Målet är således att se hur denna bakgrund, inklusive de senaste omställningarna på grund av ekonomiska orsaker, påverkat produkten radioandakt och var denna står i dag våren 2010. Forskningen är uppdelad i tre delar. Den första delen utgörs av en historisk översikt över den svenskspråkiga andaktsproduktionen vid Finlands Rundradio, den andra delen är en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av andaktsprogrammen och den tredje en enkätundersökning bland andaktstalarna. För att resultaten ska vara jämförbara med tidigare forskning har liknande analysmodeller gällande den kvantitativa analysen använts som i bland annat doktor Heikki-Tapio Nieminens forskning kring den finska radioandakten. Närläsning och intervjuer samt en enkätundersökning har också använts som metoder i denna avhandling. Den historiska genomgången visar att andaktsprogrammen genom tiderna har tvingats till grundlig rannsakan med jämna mellanrum. Även om kritiken tidvis varit hård både från Rundradio- och publikhåll så har debatten snarare fört produktens utveckling framåt än bakåt. Ständig debatt och rannsakan är åtminstone en av anledningarna till att vi fortfarande har andaktsprogram i public service-radion i Finland i dag. Speglat mot tidigare forskning visar resultaten att tidigare utvecklingstrender inom andaktsproduktionen håller i sig. Särskilt morgonandakterna går mot allt friare former med ett allt mer vardagsnära och lyssnarvänligt innehåll, även sedan sammanslagningen av Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten. Enligt resultaten i enkätundersökningen finns det andaktstalare som klart vill missionera medan majoriteten snarare ser som sin uppgift att komma med nya tankar och infallsvinklar på människolivet. Enkäten visar att målgruppstänkande finns bland talarna men att det är svårt eftersom lyssnarna upplevs som en splittrad skara. Sammantaget visar resultaten att den nya morgonandakten i Radio Vega verkar ha har hittat sin form som ett mellanting mellan det gamla Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten.
  • Savitsky, Stanislav (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The history of the Leningrad underground is one of the key themes of late socialism. Samizdat, "black humour", religious syncretism, dissidence, apolitical bohemianism, the pathos of freedom of individuality and the mechanics of literature are closely interlinked with the cultural mythology of this passed epoch. Describing conceptions that, when taken together, form the contemporary understanding of unofficial culture, the author creates a historical portrait of this environment. Amongst the central figures here, there are well-known writers (Bitov, Brodsky, Dovlatov, Khvostenko, Krivulin) and literary activists who still await recognition. The analysis of works, many of which were only distributed in typewritten publications in the 1960s-1980s, gives a preliminary definition of the key factors that united the authors of the unofficial community. The book begins with a critique of the identification of the Soviet underground with political dissidence or with a society living in autonomous independence with regard to the state. Describing the historical development of the various names for this environment (the underground, samizdat, unofficial culture, podpolie and others), the author follows the genesis of the community from its appearance, in the years of "the Thaw", through to perestroika, when it dissolved. Taking the history of the publication of Bitov's "The Pushkin House" as an example, the concept of the unofficial is interpreted as a risky interaction with the authorities. Unofficial culture is then viewed as a late Soviet reflection of the Western underground in the 1950s-1960s. Unlike the radical-utopian-anarchistic source, it proclaimed a liberalist and democratic ideology in the context of the destruction of the socialist utopia. The historical portrait of the community is built up from the perceptions of its members regarding literature practice and rhetorical approaches, with the aid of which these perceptions are expressed. Taking typewritten publications as source material, four main representations are given: privacy, deviancy, criticism and irrationality. An understanding of literature as a private affair, neo-avant-garde deviancy in social and literary behaviour and the pathos of the critical relationship with officialdom and irrational message of literary work, comprise the basis for the worldview of unofficial authors, as well as the poetic system, genre preferences and dictums. An analysis of irrationality, based on the texts of Khvostenko and Bogdanov, leads to a review of the cultural mythologies that were crucial to the unofficial conception of the absurd. Absurd is an homonym. It contains ideas that are important for the worldview of unofficial authors and the poetics of their works. The irrationality of the Soviet order is reflected in the documentary nature of the satirical prose of Dovlatov. The existential absurd of Camus is perceived here as the pointlessness of social realities and the ontological alienation of man, while existentialist practices for consciousness in the "atmosphere of absurd" remain bracketed off. The third homonym of absurd - the conception of reality as an illusion - is a clear demonstration of religious syncretism, where neo-Christian ideas are interweaved with a modernized version of Hinduism, as taken from Rolland s books on Ramakrishna and Vivekananda. The unofficial community was influenced by the ideology of westernization. Even "the East" arrived here via French retellings and accounts. As a whole, unofficial Leningrad culture can be understood as a neo-modernist phenomenon which, unlike the western neo-modernism of the 1940s and 1950s, arose in the years of the Thaw and ended its existence in the mid-1980s.
  • Katila, Jenny (1948)