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  • Holappa, Merja (2010)
    In my master’s thesis, I examine rational action and the possibility of irrationality. I begin by exploring how the question of unity of soul and action in raised first time in the Homeric discussion. In Socratic philosophy, the rationality and unity of soul and action is a necessary condition for achieving piece of mind and prosperity of life as a continuum. According to the prevalent interpretation, Socrates denies the possibility of akrasia, on the ground that he sees all the desires that can lead to action as rational. Akrasia, that is a Greek term for ‘weakness of will’ or ‘moral weakness’ is a form of irrationality, where an agent acts consciously, voluntarily, or intentionally against that which he considers the best option overall. Socrates argues that a person always according to his knowledge of the good and the desire for the good is an only motivational force for action. This Socratic view has also been interpreted as a denial of the possibility of akrasia. The Platonic philosophy of soul is seen diverging from the Socratic one in that he argues for the possibility of akrasia. According to this interpretation, Plato divides the soul into three elements, or parts as they as often called which each has its own objects of desires as well as reasoning ability, and therefore the parts can be causes of action without cooperating with the other parts. Akrasia, in this reading, would be possibly, when the less rational desires of the lower parts can outweigh the more rational considerations of the reasoning part. The different views on desires are most often argued as the greatest difference between the Socratic and Platonic accounts on akrasia. In my thesis, I argue against the prevalent readings of the theories of Plato and Socrates. As I see it, their views on akrasia do not differ to the extent that the common interpretation supposes.
  • Söderström, Sara (2015)
    Itämeren Ancylusjärveen kerrostuneissa sedimenteissä esiintyy rautamonosulfidiraitoja. Raitojen alkuperä on ollut tutkimuksen kohteena jo pitkään, sillä muodostuakseen rautamonosulfidi tarvitsee sulfaattia, jota on makeassa vedessä yleisesti hyvin vähän. Tällä hetkellä onkin kiistanalaista, missä vaiheessa nämä raidat ovat syntyneet. Syntytavasta on esitetty kaksi eri teoriaa, joista ensimmäisen mukaan raidat olisivat syntyneet vasta murtovesivaiheessa, jolloin sulfaattirikki olisi bakteerien toiminnan seurauksena muuttunut rikkivedyksi ja diffundoitunut alla olevaan rautapitoiseen järvisedimenttiin. Tämä olisi johtanut rautamonosulfidin muodostumiseen suunnilleen samalle syvyydelle järvisedimentissä laajalla alueella. Toisen teorian mukaan jokin, esimerkiksi suolapulssi, olisi käynnistänyt rikkiä metabolisoivien mikrobimattojen voimakkaan kasvun jo Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana. Orgaaninen aines olisi ylläpitänyt mikrobitoimintaa hautautuneissa matoissa, johtaen lopulta niiden korvautumiseen rautamonosulfidilla. Tämä syntytapa olisi johtanut Fe-monosulfidin laikuittaiseen esiintymiseen järvisedimentissä. Tämä tutkimus perustuu kolmeen läntiseltä Suomenlahdelta kairattuun sedimenttinäytesarjaan. Sarjoja tutkittiin sekä visuaalisesti että näytesarjoista otettujen röntgenkuvien avulla. Näytesarjat korreloitiin toisiinsa hehkutushäviö- ja suskeptibiliteettikäyrien avulla, jonka jälkeen Fe-monosulfidiraitojen jatkuvuutta näytesarjasta toiseen seurattiin. Näytteistä tehtiin myös pintahieet, joiden avulla tutkittiin rautasulfidimineraalien mineralogiaa sekä kiteytymisjärjestystä. Petrografisten tutkimusten perusteella rautamonosulfidiraidoissa esiintyy pääasiassa framboidista pyriittiä sekä euhedrisia pyriittikiteitä. Framboidinen pyriitti tarvitsee muodostuakseen rauta(II)sulfidista ja rikkivedystä voimakkaasti ylikylläisen liuoksen sekä avoimen huokostilan. Tästä johtuen on todennäköistä, että framboidinen pyriitti on kiteytynyt lähellä sedimentin pintaa, eli Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana ennen sedimentin tiivistymistä. Euhedrinen pyriitti puolestaan muodostui myöhemmässä vaiheessa diffuusion seurauksena. Myös näytesarjojen korrelointitulokset viittaavat tähän syntytapaan, sillä ainoastaan yksi rautamonosulfidiraita näyttäisi jatkuvan kaikissa kolmessa näytesarjassa.
  • Österholm, Nina (2010)
    Syftet med denna pro gradu-avhandling är dels att granska den nya morgonandaktsformen i Radio Vega där Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten kombinerats till ett och samma program, dels att beskriva andaktsproduktionen på kanalen även i övrigt. En viktig del av helheten består av den historiska bakgrunden till de andaktsprogram vi hör på Radio Vega i dag. Målet är således att se hur denna bakgrund, inklusive de senaste omställningarna på grund av ekonomiska orsaker, påverkat produkten radioandakt och var denna står i dag våren 2010. Forskningen är uppdelad i tre delar. Den första delen utgörs av en historisk översikt över den svenskspråkiga andaktsproduktionen vid Finlands Rundradio, den andra delen är en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av andaktsprogrammen och den tredje en enkätundersökning bland andaktstalarna. För att resultaten ska vara jämförbara med tidigare forskning har liknande analysmodeller gällande den kvantitativa analysen använts som i bland annat doktor Heikki-Tapio Nieminens forskning kring den finska radioandakten. Närläsning och intervjuer samt en enkätundersökning har också använts som metoder i denna avhandling. Den historiska genomgången visar att andaktsprogrammen genom tiderna har tvingats till grundlig rannsakan med jämna mellanrum. Även om kritiken tidvis varit hård både från Rundradio- och publikhåll så har debatten snarare fört produktens utveckling framåt än bakåt. Ständig debatt och rannsakan är åtminstone en av anledningarna till att vi fortfarande har andaktsprogram i public service-radion i Finland i dag. Speglat mot tidigare forskning visar resultaten att tidigare utvecklingstrender inom andaktsproduktionen håller i sig. Särskilt morgonandakterna går mot allt friare former med ett allt mer vardagsnära och lyssnarvänligt innehåll, även sedan sammanslagningen av Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten. Enligt resultaten i enkätundersökningen finns det andaktstalare som klart vill missionera medan majoriteten snarare ser som sin uppgift att komma med nya tankar och infallsvinklar på människolivet. Enkäten visar att målgruppstänkande finns bland talarna men att det är svårt eftersom lyssnarna upplevs som en splittrad skara. Sammantaget visar resultaten att den nya morgonandakten i Radio Vega verkar ha har hittat sin form som ett mellanting mellan det gamla Andrum och den traditionella morgonandakten.
  • Savitsky, Stanislav (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The history of the Leningrad underground is one of the key themes of late socialism. Samizdat, "black humour", religious syncretism, dissidence, apolitical bohemianism, the pathos of freedom of individuality and the mechanics of literature are closely interlinked with the cultural mythology of this passed epoch. Describing conceptions that, when taken together, form the contemporary understanding of unofficial culture, the author creates a historical portrait of this environment. Amongst the central figures here, there are well-known writers (Bitov, Brodsky, Dovlatov, Khvostenko, Krivulin) and literary activists who still await recognition. The analysis of works, many of which were only distributed in typewritten publications in the 1960s-1980s, gives a preliminary definition of the key factors that united the authors of the unofficial community. The book begins with a critique of the identification of the Soviet underground with political dissidence or with a society living in autonomous independence with regard to the state. Describing the historical development of the various names for this environment (the underground, samizdat, unofficial culture, podpolie and others), the author follows the genesis of the community from its appearance, in the years of "the Thaw", through to perestroika, when it dissolved. Taking the history of the publication of Bitov's "The Pushkin House" as an example, the concept of the unofficial is interpreted as a risky interaction with the authorities. Unofficial culture is then viewed as a late Soviet reflection of the Western underground in the 1950s-1960s. Unlike the radical-utopian-anarchistic source, it proclaimed a liberalist and democratic ideology in the context of the destruction of the socialist utopia. The historical portrait of the community is built up from the perceptions of its members regarding literature practice and rhetorical approaches, with the aid of which these perceptions are expressed. Taking typewritten publications as source material, four main representations are given: privacy, deviancy, criticism and irrationality. An understanding of literature as a private affair, neo-avant-garde deviancy in social and literary behaviour and the pathos of the critical relationship with officialdom and irrational message of literary work, comprise the basis for the worldview of unofficial authors, as well as the poetic system, genre preferences and dictums. An analysis of irrationality, based on the texts of Khvostenko and Bogdanov, leads to a review of the cultural mythologies that were crucial to the unofficial conception of the absurd. Absurd is an homonym. It contains ideas that are important for the worldview of unofficial authors and the poetics of their works. The irrationality of the Soviet order is reflected in the documentary nature of the satirical prose of Dovlatov. The existential absurd of Camus is perceived here as the pointlessness of social realities and the ontological alienation of man, while existentialist practices for consciousness in the "atmosphere of absurd" remain bracketed off. The third homonym of absurd - the conception of reality as an illusion - is a clear demonstration of religious syncretism, where neo-Christian ideas are interweaved with a modernized version of Hinduism, as taken from Rolland s books on Ramakrishna and Vivekananda. The unofficial community was influenced by the ideology of westernization. Even "the East" arrived here via French retellings and accounts. As a whole, unofficial Leningrad culture can be understood as a neo-modernist phenomenon which, unlike the western neo-modernism of the 1940s and 1950s, arose in the years of the Thaw and ended its existence in the mid-1980s.
  • Katila, Jenny (1948)
  • Jansson, Tuire Kristiina (2009)
    Pro gradu -työni käsittelee ihmisen ja ympäristön suhdetta, jota tutkin tarkastelemalla erityisesti andilaista kosmologiaa ja maanviljelyä Perun Andeilla. Andilaisen kosmologian, pienviljelijöiden peltojen ja viljelytapojen lisäksi kiinnitän opinnäytetyössäni huomiota alueella toimiviin lukuisiin kansalaisjärjestöihin ja siihen, miten ne asemoituvat perinteiseen andilaiseen yhteiskuntakäsitykseen. Työni taustalla olevat teemat liittyvät siihen miten ympäristö muodostetaan ja miten paikan ja maiseman merkitys luodaan andilaisessa kontekstissa. Yhdistän mikro- ja makrotason analyysin työssäni taustoittamalla pienviljelijöiden elämäntavan ensin luvussa yksi maailman maatalouden tilaan ja Perun asemaan siinä. Luvun kaksi tarkoitus on taustoittaa tutkimuskysymykseni nimenomaan antropologisessa keskustelussa. Luvut kolme, neljä ja viisi rakentuvat kenttätyöaineistolleni ja käsittelevät andilaista kosmologiaa, pienviljelijöiden peltoja ja kansalaisyhteiskuntaa suhteessa ympäristöön, maisemaan ja pienviljelijöiden ympäristöperspektiiviin alueella. Tämä pro gradu -työ on ekologisen antropologian ja poliittisen ekologian hengessä kirjoitettu kriittinen kannanotto Andahuaylaksen alueen paikallishallinnon ja kansalaisjärjestöjen kehitysajatteluun ja epäoikeudenmukaiseen uusliberalistiseen globaalin makrotalouden tilaan. Kenttätyöaineistoni osoittaa kuinka Pacuchan pienviljelijöiden elämäntapa, ympäristöperspektiivi ja kulttuuri huolimatta heidän rakenteellisesti epäedullisesta asemastaan maailman maataloudessa ovat muuntautumiskykyisiä ja toisaalta aktiivisten toimijoiden liikkeessä muokkautuvia.
  • Kolehmainen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This thesis focuses on the challenging of stereotypes in three of Nobel Prize winning writer, Toni Morrison's works: The Bluest Eye (1970), "Recitatif" (1983) and Tar Baby (1981). The two novels and one short story provide the best possible terrain to scrutinize the structures of discrimination, the occurrence of stereotypes in them being both widespread and diverse. The works are not discussed in their chronological order since the above mentioned order makes clearer a continuance, where stereotypes are constructed in The Bluest Eye, deconstructed in "Recitatif" , and where Tar Baby provides ways for perhaps getting beyond them. The background for the research is provided by the work of cornerstones of African American literary tradition as well as researchers focused on Morrison. Material discussing stereotypes and otherness is also used, the main theories being the polarity between self and other, as well as historical myths, as studied from a postcolonial perspective. The discussion section is in three parts, so that each work is discussed separately. The first part concentrates on the social and psychological construction of stereotypes in Morrison's first published novel. The argument lies in that the discriminative structures in the all-black community of the novel are actually a consequence of the internalization of white values that are in their part based on dualism and racial myths. This leads to the protagonist's turning into "Other" and eventually into a scapegoat-like figure. The second part discusses how Recitatif may be seen as deconstructing racial stereotypes and prejudices. The two protagonists racial identities are unclear, and the short story provides hints, encouraging the reader to use them in the production of meaning. The clues are then dismissed by new, ambiguous racial codes. In this way, racial stereotypes weaken and the reader may become aware of his or her own, unconscious prejudices. The third part examines opportunities of getting beyond stereotypes in literature, and ideally also in life, as the protagonist largely succeeds in freeing herself from the roles and values imposed on her by the black community. The central conclusion of the thesis is that challenging and deconstructing racist structures in language is still relevant and that these three works in their part prove that literature can have a role in assisting in this process.
  • Warius, Johanna (2011)
    Since begging East European Roma became a common view in the streets of larger Nordic cities, vivid discussions about their presence and activities have been carried out in the mass media. This thesis examines the public debates in Finland and Norway through a discursive analysis and comparison of press content from the two countries. The aim of the study is firstly to identify the prominent discourses which construct certain images of the beggars, as well as the elements and internal logics that these discourses are constructed around. But in addition to scrutinizing representations of the Roma, also an opposite perspective is applied. In accordance with the theoretical concept of ‘othering’, debates about ‘them’ are assumed to simultaneously reveal something significant about ‘us’. The second research question is thus what kind of images of the ideal Finnish and Norwegian societies are reflected in the data, and which societal values are salient in these images. The analysis comprises 79 texts printed in the main Finnish and Norwegian quality newspapers; Helsingin Sanomat and Aftenposten. The data consists of news articles, editorials, columns and letters to the editor from a three-month period in the summer of 2010. The analysis was carried out within the theoretical and methodological framework of critical discourse analysis as outlined by Norman Fairclough. A customized nine-step coding scheme was developed in order to reach the most central dimensions of the texts. Seven main discourses were identified; the Deprivation-solidarity, Human rights, Order, Crime, Space and majority reactions, Authority control, and Authority critique discourse. These were grouped into two competing normative stances on what an ideal society looks like; the exclusionary and the inclusionary stance. While the exclusionary stance places the begging Roma within a frame of crime, illegitimate use of public space and threat to the social order, the other advocates an attitude of solidarity and humanitarian values. The analysis points to a dominance of the former, although it is challenged by the latter. The Roma are “individualized” by quoting and/or presenting them by name in a fair part of the Finnish news articles. In Norway, the opposite is true; there the beggars are dominantly presented as anonymous and passive. Overall, the begging Roma are subjected to a double bind as they are faced with simultaneous expectations of activity and passivity. Theories relating to moral panics and ‘the good enemy’ provide for a deepened understanding of the intensity of the debates. Keywords: East European Roma, begging, media, newspapers, Helsingin Sanomat, Aftenposten, critical discourse analysis, Norman Fairclough, othering, ideal society, moral panics, good enemy, double bind, Finland, Norway
  • Domanskyi, Andrii (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Androgen receptor (AR) is necessary for normal male phenotype development and essential for spermatogenesis. AR is a classical steroid receptor mediating actions of male sex steroids testosterone and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Numerous coregulators interact with the receptor and regulate AR activity on target genes. This study deals with the characterization of androgen receptor-interacting protein 4 (ARIP4). ARIP4 binds DNA, interacts with AR in vitro and in cultured yeast and mammalian cells, and modulates AR-dependent transactivation. ARIP4 is an active DNA-dependent ATPase, and this enzymatic activity is essential for the ability of ARIP4 to modulate AR function. On the basis of sequence homology in its ATPase domain, ARIP4 belongs to the SNF2 family of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and homologous recombination. Similar to its closest homologs ATRX and Rad54, ARIP4 does not seem to be a classical chromatin remodeling protein in that it does not appear to form large protein complexes in vivo or remodel mononucleosomes in vitro. However, ARIP4 is able to generate superhelical torsion on linear DNA fragments. ARIP4 is covalently modified by SUMO-1, and mutation of six potential SUMO attachment sites abolishes the ability of ARIP4 to bind DNA, hydrolyze ATP, and activate AR function. ARIP4 expression starts in early embryonic development. In mouse embryo ARIP4 is present mainly in the neural tube and limb buds. In adult mouse tissues ARIP4 expression is virtually ubiquitous. In mouse testis ARIP4 is expressed in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in a stage-dependent manner. ARIP4 is also present in the nuclei of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, pachytene and diplotene spermatocytes. Testicular expression pattern of ARIP4 does not differ significantly in wild-type, FSHRKO, and LuRKO mice. In the testis of hpg mice, ARIP4 is found mainly in interstitial cells and has very low, if any, expression in Sertoli and germ cells. Heterozygous Arip4+/ mice are fertile and appear normal; however, they are haploinsufficient with regard to androgen action in Sertoli cells. In contrast, Arip4 / embryos are not viable. They have significantly reduced body size at E9.5 and die by E11.5. Compared to wild-type littermates, Arip4 / embryos possess a higher percentage of apoptotic cells at E9.5 and E10.5. Fibroblasts derived from Arip4 / embryos cease growing after 2-3 passages and exhibit a significantly increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation rate than cells from wild-type embryos. Our findings demonstrate that ARIP4 plays an essential role in mouse embryonic development. In addition, testicular expression and AR coregulatory activity of ARIP4 suggest a role of ARIP4-AR interaction in the somatic cells of the testis.
  • Kang , Zhigang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Androgens control a variety of developmental processes that create the male phenotype and are important for maintaining male fertility and normal functions of tissues and organs that are not directly involved in procreation. Androgen receptor (AR) that mediates the biological actions of androgens is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Although AR was cloned over 15 years ago, the mechanisms by which it regulates gene expression are not well understood. A growing body of in vitro experimental evidence suggests that a complex network of proteins is involved in the androgen-dependent transcriptional regulation. However, the process of AR-dependent transcriptional regulation under physiological conditions is largely elusive. In the present study, a series of experiments were performed, including quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, to investigate AR-mediated transcription process using living prostate cancer cells. Our results show that the loading of AR and recruitment of coactivators and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to both the promoter and enhancer of AR target genes are a transient and cyclic event that in addition to hyperacetylation, also involves dynamic changes in methylation, phosphorylation of core histone H3 in androgen-treated LNCaP cells. The dynamics of testosterone (T)-induced loading of AR onto the proximal promoters of the genes clearly differed from that loaded onto the distal enhancers. Significantly, more holo-AR was loaded onto the enhancers than the promoters, but the principal Pol II transcription complex was assembled on the promoters. By contrast, the pure antiandrogen bicalutamide (CDX) complexed to AR elicited occupancy of the PSA promoter, but was unable to load onto the PSA enhancer and was incapable of recruiting Pol II, coactivators and following changes of covalent histone modifications. The partial antagonist cyproterone acetate (CPA) and mifepristone (RU486) were capable of promoting AR loading onto both the PSA promoter and enhancer at a comparable efficiency with androgen in LNCaP cells expressing mutant AR. However, CPA- and RU486-bound AR not only recruited Pol II and coactivator p300 and GRIP1 onto the promoter and enhancer, but also recruited the corepressor NCoR onto the promoter as efficiently as CDX. In addition, we demonstrate that both proteasome and protein kinases are implicated in AR-mediated transcription. Even though proteasome inhibitor MG132 and protein kinase inhibitor DRB (5, 6-Dichlorobenzimidazole riboside) can block ligand-dependent accumulation of PSA mRNA with same efficiency, their use results in different molecular profiles in terms of the formation of AR-mediated transcriptional complex. Collectively, these results indicate that transcriptional activation by AR is a complicated process, which includes transient loading of holo-AR and recruitment of Pol II and coregulators accompanied by a cascade of distinct covalent histone modifications; This process involves both the promoter and enhancer elements, as well as other general components of the cell machineries e.g. proteasome and protein kinase; The pure antiandrogen CDX and the partial antagonist CPA and RU486 exhibit clearly different profiles in terms of their ability to induce the formation of AR-dependent transcriptional complexes and the histone modifications associated with the target genes in human prostate cancer cells. Finally, by using quantitative RT-PCR to compare the expression of sixteen AR co-regulators in prostate cancer cell lines, xenografts, and clinical prostate cancer specimens we suggest that AR co-regulators protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) and steroid receptor coactivator 1(SRC1) could be involved in the progression of prostate cancer.
  • Niemistö, Juho (2014)
    Googlen kehittämä Android on noussut viime vuosina markkinaosuudeltaan suurimmaksi mobiililaitteiden käyttöjärjestelmäksi. Kuka tahansa voi kehittää Androidille sovelluksia, joiden kehittämiseen tarvittavat välineet ovat ilmaiseksi saatavilla. Erilaisia sovelluksia onkin kehitetty jo yli miljoona. Sovellusten laatu on erityisen tärkeää Android-alustalla, jossa kilpailua on runsaasti ja sovellusten hinta niin alhainen, ettei se muodosta estettä sovelluksen vaihtamiselle toiseen. Sovelluskauppa on myös aina saatavilla suoraan laitteesta. Tämä asettaa sovellusten testaamisellekin haasteita. Toisaalta sovellukset tulisi saada nopeasti sovelluskauppaan, mutta myös sovellusten laadun pitäisi olla hyvä. Testityökalujen pitäisi siis olla helppokäyttöisiä, ja tehokkaita. Androidille onkin kehitetty lukuisia testaustyökaluja Googlen omien työkalujen lisäksi. Tässä tutkielmassa tutustutaan Android-sovellusten rakenteeseen, niiden testaamiseen ja Android-alustalla toimiviin automaattisen testauksen työkaluihin. Erityisesti keskitytään yksikkö- ja toiminnallisen testauksen työkaluihin. Yksikkötestityökaluista vertaillaan Androidin omaa yksikkötestikehystä Robolectriciin. Toiminnallisen testauksen työkaluista vertaillaan Uiautomatoria, Robotiumia ja Troydia.
  • Boström, Fredrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Portable music players have made it possible to listen to a personal collection of music in almost every situation, and they are often used during some activity to provide a stimulating audio environment. Studies have demonstrated the effects of music on the human body and mind, indicating that selecting music according to situation can, besides making the situation more enjoyable, also make humans perform better. For example, music can boost performance during physical exercises, alleviate stress and positively affect learning. We believe that people intuitively select different types of music for different situations. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a portable music player, AndroMedia, designed to provide personalised music recommendations using the user’s current context and listening habits together with other user’s situational listening patterns. We have developed a prototype that consists of a central server and a PDA client. The client uses Bluetooth sensors to acquire context information and logs user interaction to infer implicit user feedback. The user interface also allows the user to give explicit feedback. Large user interface elements facilitate touch-based usage in busy environments. The prototype provides the necessary framework for using the collected information together with other user’s listening history in a context- enhanced collaborative filtering algorithm to generate context-sensitive recommendations. The current implementation is limited to using traditional collaborative filtering algorithms. We outline the techniques required to create context-aware recommendations and present a survey on mobile context-aware music recommenders found in literature. As opposed to the explored systems, AndroMedia utilises other users’ listening habits when suggesting tunes, and does not require any laborious set up processes.
  • Asikainen, Anna-Leena (2000)
    This study concentrates on the interrelationship between voter and economy. Popularity functions are estimated on Finnish and Swedish data. This study examines the relationship between voters and politicians with the help of vote and popularity functions. Theoretical origin for economic voting is found in Anthony Downs' An Economic Theory of Democracy (1957). Political business cycle models (Nordhaus, 1975; Hibbs, 1977; Rogoff-Sibert, 1987; Alesina, 1987) are presented to connect the popularity and vote functions into a larger macroeconomic framework. The influence of inflation and unemployment on the popularity of the four biggest parties in Finland (Left Alliance, Social Democratic Party, Finnish Centre Party, National Coalition Party) and Sweden (Left Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Moderate Party) is examined. In Finland an increase in unemployment favors Social Democratic Party and the effect of inflation is not significant. Popularity of Centre Party is negatively affected by an increase in unemployment. In general, unemployment has significant effect only on the popularity rating of Left Alliance during the period 9/1989-9/1990. When unemployment has significant coefficient in the popularity functions of right-wing parties, then it has negative sign. The only one party which unemployment favors significantly is Social Democratic Party. In Sweden the economic variables do not significantly explain the popularity of either Left Party or Social Democratic Party. Right-wing parties are favored by an increase in inflation and popularities of left-wing parties are most of the time hurt by inflation. Unemployment has significant (positive) effect only on the popularity of Moderate Party. Vote functions for the four biggest parties are estimated on constituency-level data for years 1944-1999. Assumption of parties as interest group representatives seems to get support. Sectorial growth rates correlate strongly with sectorial employment so when the amount workers in secondary sector increases it affects positively to the vote share of Left Alliance. In case of Centre Party the same happens. When the growth (and employment) in the primary sector decreases, also the vote shares of Centre Party declines. The growth of tertiary sector has favored National Coalition.
  • Asikainen, Anna-Leena (2000)
    Tutkimuksessa keskitytään äänestäjien ja talousmuuttujien välisen suhteen empiriiseen todentamiseen suosio- ja äänestysfunktion estimoinnin avulla. Ensin tutkitaan vaikuttiko 1990-luvun lama äänestäjien käyttämiseen. Toiseksi tarkastellaan esiintyykö äänestyskäyttäytymisessä talousmuuttujien suhteen eroja eri vaalipiirien välillä. Äänestyskäyttäytymisen teoriaa taloustieteessä käsitellään Anthony Downsin teoksessaan 'An Economic Theory of Democracy' (1957) esittämällä tavalla. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan ensiksi poliittisten suhdannevaihteluiden teorioita (Nordhaus, 1975; Hibbs, 1977; Rogoff-Sibert, 1987; Alesina, 1987) ja niiden kautta äänestys- ja suosiofunktiot liitetään laajempaan makrotaloudelliseen kehikkoon. äänestys- ja suosiofunktion taustaa esiteltäessä huomiota kiinnitetään äänestäjien preferenssien muodostamiseen. Odotusten muodostamisen rationaalisuus ja taloudellisen kehityksen havainnoinin perusta ovat keskeisiä kysymyksiä alalla. Viime aikoina on herännyt tutkimus poliittisten aikasarjojen tilastollisista ominaisuuksista, erityisesti kysymykset yhteisintegroituneista sarjoista ovat olleet pinnalla. Tätä uutta tutkimussuuntaa on esitelty myös kappaleessa 3. Kappaleessa 4 aiemmat tutkimukset äänestys- ja suosiofunktioista on jaoteltu testihypoteesien mukaan, kotimaan aineistolla tehdyt tutkimukset esitellään kuitenkin yhtenä kokonaisuutena. Kappaleesta 5 alkaa tutkimuksen empiirinen osa. Suomen ja Ruotsin tulosten vertailukelpoisuutta perustellaan poliittis-taloudellisen järjestelmän samankaltaisuudella sekä korreloivalla talouskehityksellä. Suosiofunktion osalta kuukausittainen aineisto kattaa vuodet 1987-1999. Inflaation ja työttömyyden vaikutuksia kummankin maan neljän suurimman puolueen kannatukseen on tutkittu sekä Grangerin kausaalisuustestin että regressioanalyysin avulla. Äänestysfunktion testauksessa käytetty aineisto on ajalta 1944-1999. Sen osalta tarkastellaan neljän suurimman puolueen ääniosuuksia eduskuntavaaleissa. Regressioanalyysissä riippumattomina muuttujina ovat inflaatio, työttömyys sekä sektoreittainen kasvu. Lisäksi on koodattu puoluekohtaisia muuttujia. Sekä suosio- että äänestysfunktion tulosten osalta voidaan todeta, että hallituksessaolo sinällään syö puolueen kannatusta. Keskusta puolueen kannatus kärsii työttömyyden kasvusta, Sosialidemokraattisen puolueen osalta kehitys on päinvastainen. Kokoomuksen kannatus nousee inflaation myötä. Vasemmistoliiton kannatus ei selity laajasti talousmuuttujilla. Ruotsissa oikeistopuolueet hyötyvät inflaation kiihtymisestä ja vasemmistopuolueet kärsivät siitä. Työttömyys vaikuttaa merkitsevästi ja positiivisesti vain Moderate-puolueen kannatukseen. Suomessa puolueiden kannatus on paremmin selitettävissä talousmuuttujilla tänä ajankohtana kuin Ruotsissa, sillä lamalla oli syvemmät ja pitkäaikaisemmat vaikutukset Suomen talouteen. Vaalipiirittäisen äänestysfunktion estimoinnissa disaggregoidut talousindikaattorit voisivat olla parempia äänestyskäyttäytymistä selittäviä muuttujia kuin koko kansantalouden tasolla tallennetut muuttujat.
  • Pentikäinen, Marja (2005)
    This study concerns the journeys of refugees through their narratives about their personal experiences. The two groups of my study, the Vietnamese and the Somali, arrived in Finland on three different statuses: as quota refugees, as asylum seekers and via family reunification. The status of these refugees is scrutinied from an individual, juridical and cultural angle. My fieldwork, with personal interviews, was done at the end of the 1990´s, the time when the amount of refugees was greatly increased and, actual policy concerning refugees, was created in Finland. To study meaningful experiences requires a shared desire between the researcher and her field to be able to describe and analyze something that may be intensely personal and often hurtful. The individuals are studied both as representatives of themselves, as well as their status and the group. Both groups, the Vietnamese and Somalis, have a different culture, religion, language, ethnicity - their refugee experiences are different as well. The Vietnamese come as quota refugees, the Somalis as asylum seekers - their juridical position is different accordingly. After these groups have stayed in Finland their family reunification program becomes possible. The basic research material collected by myself through interviews contains life stories with a plot, the dynamic curve containing the beginning, middle and end phases. In adapting these narratives to Arnold van Gennep´s crisis of passage; a three-phase model of separation, marginality/liminality and incorporation, a fourth dimension: a settling down phase is created. By this theoretical framework I describe the refugee process with four phases they go through: 1) Separation means the moment of escaping the homeland and the beginning of the journey. 2) In the liminality phase the Vietnamese are in the refugee camps and the Somalis in the reception centres - neither group belonging to any society. 3) In the phase of incorporation the refugees become legalized, as members of Tampere city community in this case. 4) In the fourth phase new life in Finland begins after the refugees have received their new status and space. Ttransition from one state to another is not automatic. My study reveals that the meanings of the refugees´ own culture still continues in the new country. Having been used to an extended family system in their home country, in Finland they only have their nuclear family and a weak social network. They, however, try to live within a collective culture of home country, without being able to adapt to the new requirement of individualism. Although many of them have received Finnish citizenship they still feel being refugees. What feels positive to them, is, that they can combine their old familiar traditions with their newly achieved experiences in Finland. To be a refugee seems to be an endless journey as one looks for a place, a space, a self.
  • Holopainen, Elina (2005)
    Anestesian aiheuttama verenpaineen lasku heikentää verenkiertoa munuaisissa ja aiheuttaa niissä hapenpuutetta, mikä altistaa munuaisvaurioille. Leikattavat hevoset saavat myös kipulääkkeitä, jotka altistavat munuaisvaurion syntymiselle. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on vertailla anestesian mahdollisesti aiheuttamaa munuais- ja maksatoksisuutta kliinisesti terveiden, kastroitavien hevosten ja ähkyn vuoksi leikattavien, mahdollisesti endotokseemisten hevosten välillä. Työssä verrattiin anestesian aiheuttamia muutoksia virtsasta ja seerumista määritettävissä parametreissä näiden kahden ryhmän välillä. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää onko anestesia mahdollisesti suurempi riski sairaille ja mahdollisesti endotokseemisille hevosille laukaisemaan akuutin munuaisvaurion syntymisen sekä selvittää mitkä entsyymiaktiivisuudet olisivat mahdollisesti käyttökelpoisia jatkotutkimuksissa mittaamaan hevosilla anestesian munuaisvaikutuksia. Aineistona käytettiin Yliopistolliseen hevossairaalaan leikattavaksi tulleita hevospotilaita. Jokaiselta hevoselta otettiin virtsa- ja verinäytteet ennen anestesiaa sekä tunnin välein anestesian aikana. Virtsanäytteistä määritettiin kreatiniini, proteiini, AFOS ja GGT. Seerumista määritettiin edellä mainittujen lisäksi urea, albumiini, SDH ja ASAT. Tutkimuksessa saatiin tilastollisesti merkitsevä ero näiden kahden ryhmän välille vain seerumin kreatiniinipitoisuudessa, joka ähkyn vuoksi leikatuilla hevosilla oli korkeampi. Ähkyä sairastavat hevoset ovat usein dehydroituneita, mikä johtaa munuaisten verenkierron heikentymiseen ja tätä kautta kreatiniinin heikentyneeseen poistumiseen elimistöstä. Vertailtaessa eri parametreja ryhmien sisällä toisiinsa havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevä entsyymiaktiivisuuden nousu kastroitavien hevosten virtsan GGT/kreatiniini –suhteessa anestesian aikana. Tutkimuksemme ei pystynyt osoittamaan anestesian olevan suurempi riski ähkyn vuoksi leikattaville, mahdollisesti endotoksemiasta kärsiville hevosille munuais- tai maksavaurioiden syntymisen suhteen. Otoskoon pienuuden huomioon ottaen ei varmoja johtopäätöksiä ilman jatkotutkimuksia kuitenkaan voida tehdä.