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  • Muurinen, Mikko (2008)
    Tilastotietoja voidaan visualisoida graafisesti usealla tavalla. Maantieteellisen tiedon esittämiseen eräitä parhaita graafisia esityksiä ovat teemakartat. Tilastollisten teemakarttojen avulla ilmiöiden maantieteellisistä hahmoista ja trendeistä voidaan saada samaan aikaan sekä yleiskuva että syvällisempää tietämystä. Kelan laskeman kunnittaisen sairastavuusindeksin avulla voidaan tarkastella, millä alueilla sairastetaan eniten. Tutkielman tavoitteena on tehdä teoriaan perustuva yhteenveto koropleettikarttojen soveltuvuudesta sairastavuusindeksin tietojen esittämiseen. Koropleettikartoilla on tunnetut ongelmansa, joista osaan interaktiivisuus tuo uusia lähestymistapoja. Tutkielman toivotaan näyttävän, voidaanko karttasovelluksia hyödyntää terveystietojen visualisoinnissa. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osuudessa esitellään tilastollisten teemakarttojen teoriaa ja sitä, miten tilastotietoja esitetään koropleettikartalla. Tämän jälkeen tarkastellaan tarkemmin kartan tehtäviä ja kartan lukemisen teoriaa. Tutkielmassa käsitellään myös webkarttojen teoriaa ja tilastoaineiston luokittelua. Tutkielman empiirisessä osuudessa esitellään Kelan Terveyspuntari ja tarkastellaan sen tietojen visualisointia selainpohjaisella karttasovelluksella. Terveyspuntarin kartoissa havainnollistuvat koropleettikarttojen edut, kuten mielenkiinnon keskittymisen sisältöön ja havainnollisuus. Koropleettikarttojen perusongelmat tiedostamalla terveyspuntarin kartoista voi olla eri käyttäjäryhmille hyötyä tietyissä tilanteissa. Tärkeimpiä lähteitä työssä ovat seuraavat: Bertin, Jacques (1983b): Semiology of Graphics. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison Jenks, George F. (1963): Generalization in Statistical Mapping. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 53(1), s.15-26. Jenks, George F. & Caspall, Fred C. (1971): Error on Choroplethic Maps: Definition, Measurement, Reduction. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61(2), s.217-244. Kraak Menno-Jan & Ormeling, Ferjan J. (1996): Cartography: Visualization of spatial data. Addison Wesley Longman Ltd., Harlow Monmonier, Mark S. (1996): How to Lie with Maps. The University of Chicago Press, Chigaco Schmid, Calvin F. (1954): Handbook of Graphic Presentation. The Ronald Press Company, New York Tobler, Waldo R. (1973): Choropleth maps without class intervals?. Geographical Analysis, 5(3), s.262-265. Tufte, Edward R. (1983): The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, Cheshire
  • Castrén, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan reseptiivisesti monikielisiä suomi-ruotsi keskusteluja Suomessa. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää, minkälaisia yleispiirteitä keskusteluissa voidaan havaita olevan, minkälaisia kielellisiä resursseja keskustelijat käyttävät ja miten kommunikaatio onnistuu, kun osanottajat keskustelevat eri kielillä. Tutkimusmateriaalina on kaksi ryhmäkeskustelua, jotka on nauhoitettu ja videoitu Helsingin yliopistolla vuonna 2007 DYLAN-projektin yhteydessä. Ryhmissä on sekä suomen- että ruotsinkielisiä osanottajia ja keskustelujen moderaattori on rohkaissut heitä käyttämään keskustelussa omaa äidinkieltään. Reseptiivisellä monikielisyydellä tarkoitetaan sitä, että keskustelukumppanit käyttävät omia äidinkieliään, mutta omaavat tarpeeksi vähintään passiivisia taitoja keskustelukumppanin äidinkielessä pystyäkseen ymmärtämään sitä. Reseptiivisen monikielisyyden käyttö on tavallisempaa lähikielten välillä, jolloin ymmärrys perustuu usein omaan äidinkieleen. Kommunikointitapaa voidaan kuitenkin käyttää myös ei-lähikielten kanssa, kuten suomen ja ruotsin tapauksessa. Suomessa toisen kotimaisen kielen ymmärrystä ja osaamista voidaan kutsua opituksi reseptiiviseksi monikielisyydeksi, erona luontaiseen reseptiiviseen monikielisyyteen, jossa ymmärrys perustuu kielten samankaltaisuudelle. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan reseptiivisesti monikielisen keskustelun piirteitä keskusteluanalyysin työkalujen avulla, erityisesti vuorojen, dialogipartikkeleiden ja koodinvaihtelun kautta. Huomiota on kiinnitetty myös siihen, miten johdonmukaisesti osanottajat käyttävät omaa äidinkieltään ja miten tasapainossa keskustelun kaksi kieltä ovat sekä siihen, miten osanottajat kommentoivat kielten käyttöä keskustelussa. Yleisesti ottaen osallistujat käyttävät omaa äidinkieltään, mutta kielenvaihtoa keskustelun kahden kielen välillä esiintyy myös. Ruotsinkieliset osallistujat tekevät suomenkielisiä puheenvuoroja huomattavasti enemmän kuin suomenkieliset ruotsinkielisiä, mutta myös suomenkielisiltä kuullaan muutamia ruotsinkielisiä vuoroja. Suomen- ja ruotsinkielisten puheenvuorojen määrät keskusteluissa ovat suhteellisen tasaiset ja keskustelujen kaksi kieltä ovat hyvässä tasapainossa joitakin pidempiä yksikielisiä sekvenssejä lukuun ottamatta. Tutkielmassa havaitaan, että dialogipartikkelit, eli minimipalautteet, vaikuttavat suuresti keskustelun sujuvaan etenemiseen. Dialogipartikkeleiden avulla keskustelijat voivat osoittaa senhetkiselle puhujalle kuuntelevansa, olevansa samaa tai eri mieltä tai haluavansa puhujan jatkavan. Kaikki osanottajat käyttävät dialogipartikkeleita ahkerasti ja monipuolisesti: keskusteluissa esiintyy tasaisesti sekä suomen- että ruotsinkielisiä dialogipartikkeleita ja niitä käytetään sekä saman että erikielisten puheenvuorojen yhteydessä. Keskustelujen käytetyin dialogipartikkeli heti erilaisten hyminä-äänien jälkeen on joo [jå:], joka on hyvin yleinen sekä suomessa että suomenruotsissa ja toimii näin ollen hyvin neutraalina ja kieleen kantaa ottamattomana minimipalautteena. Myös koodinvaihtelua englantiin esiintyy sekä suomen- että ruotsinkielisten osanottajien puheenvuoroissa. Englanninkieliset osiot ovat usein lyhyitä, muutaman sanan lausahduksia. Ne liittyvät usein jotenkin kaikkia osanottajia yhdistävään yliopistomaailmaan ja toimivat näin ollen nk. avainsanoina, jotka edistävät yhteisymmärrystä. Tutkielma osoittaa, että reseptiivisesti monikielinen suomi-ruotsi -keskustelua on mahdollista käydä sujuvasti ja että muutamat seikat edesauttavat kommunikaation onnistumista. Näitä ovat mm. yksilöiden ja kieliyhteisön tietoisuus kuvaillun kaltaisesta kommunikaatiomuodosta sekä kaikkien olemassa olevien - niin kielellisten kuin ei-kielellistenkin - resurssien käyttäminen. Reseptiivinen monikielisyys vaatii myös käyttäjiltään epämukavien tilanteiden sietokykyä sekä päättäväisyyttä pysytellä äidinkielessään vaikka keskustelupari käyttää toista kieltä. Reseptiivisesti monikieliset keskustelut syntyvät harvoin spontaanisti ja usein niiden taustalla on keskustelijoiden välinen sopimus yhteisestä kommunikointitavasta. Tutkielma ei ota kantaa Suomen medioissa käytyyn keskusteluun kotimaisten kielten tärkeydestä tai asemasta vaan osoittaa, että on olemassa myös erilaisia ja joustavia kielenkäyttötapoja, joilla yhä useampi ei-ruotsinkielinen pääsee kielen vaikutuksen alaiseksi ja ruotsin kieli vastaavasti voi saada useampia käyttöalueita.
  • Björkas, Carolina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Fusion energy is a clean and safe solution for the intricate question of how to produce non-polluting and sustainable energy for the constantly growing population. The fusion process does not result in any harmful waste or green-house gases, since small amounts of helium is the only bi-product that is produced when using the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium as fuel. Moreover, deuterium is abundant in seawater and tritium can be bred from lithium, a common metal in the Earth's crust, rendering the fuel reservoirs practically bottomless. Due to its enormous mass, the Sun has been able to utilize fusion as its main energy source ever since it was born. But here on Earth, we must find other means to achieve the same. Inertial fusion involving powerful lasers and thermonuclear fusion employing extreme temperatures are examples of successful methods. However, these have yet to produce more energy than they consume. In thermonuclear fusion, the fuel is held inside a tokamak, which is a doughnut-shaped chamber with strong magnets wrapped around it. Once the fuel is heated up, it is controlled with the help of these magnets, since the required temperatures (over 100 million degrees C) will separate the electrons from the nuclei, forming a plasma. Once the fusion reactions occur, excess binding energy is released as energetic neutrons, which are absorbed in water in order to produce steam that runs turbines. Keeping the power losses from the plasma low, thus allowing for a high number of reactions, is a challenge. Another challenge is related to the reactor materials, since the confinement of the plasma particles is not perfect, resulting in particle bombardment of the reactor walls and structures. Material erosion and activation as well as plasma contamination are expected. Adding to this, the high energy neutrons will cause radiation damage in the materials, causing, for instance, swelling and embrittlement. In this thesis, the behaviour of a material situated in a fusion reactor was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of processes in the next generation fusion reactor ITER include the reactor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten as well as the plasma hydrogen isotopes. This means that interaction models, {\it i.e. interatomic potentials}, for this complicated quaternary system are needed. The task of finding such potentials is nonetheless nearly at its end, since models for the beryllium-carbon-hydrogen interactions were constructed in this thesis and as a continuation of that work, a beryllium-tungsten model is under development. These potentials are combinable with the earlier tungsten-carbon-hydrogen ones. The potentials were used to explain the chemical sputtering of beryllium due to deuterium plasma exposure. During experiments, a large fraction of the sputtered beryllium atoms were observed to be released as BeD molecules, and the simulations identified the swift chemical sputtering mechanism, previously not believed to be important in metals, as the underlying mechanism. Radiation damage in the reactor structural materials vanadium, iron and iron chromium, as well as in the wall material tungsten and the mixed alloy tungsten carbide, was also studied in this thesis. Interatomic potentials for vanadium, tungsten and iron were modified to be better suited for simulating collision cascades that are formed during particle irradiation, and the potential features affecting the resulting primary damage were identified. Including the often neglected electronic effects in the simulations was also shown to have an impact on the damage. With proper tuning of the electron-phonon interaction strength, experimentally measured quantities related to ion-beam mixing in iron could be reproduced. The damage in tungsten carbide alloys showed elemental asymmetry, as the major part of the damage consisted of carbon defects. On the other hand, modelling the damage in the iron chromium alloy, essentially representing steel, showed that small additions of chromium do not noticeably affect the primary damage in iron. Since a complete assessment of the response of a material in a future full-scale fusion reactor is not achievable using only experimental techniques, molecular dynamics simulations are of vital help. This thesis has not only provided insight into complicated reactor processes and improved current methods, but also offered tools for further simulations. It is therefore an important step towards making fusion energy more than a future goal.
  • Ekroos, Kajsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Tämän tutkielman aiheena on kulttuurienvälisyys kulttuurienvälisessä kaksikielisessä opetuksessa (Educación Intercultural Bilingüe, EIB) Boliviassa ja erityisesti kulttuurienvälisen kaksikielisen koulutuksen maisteriohjelmassa (Maestría en Educación Intercultural Bilingüe), jota koordinoi PROEIB Andes -järjestö yhteistyössä Cochabamban Universidad Mayor de San Simónin kanssa. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten kulttuurienvälisyys määritellään ja mitä se käytännössä merkitsee opetuksen eri osa-alueilla: sisällöissä, opetusmetodeissa ja -materiaaleissa sekä arvioinnissa. Koska kulttuurienvälisen kaksikielisen opetuksen toteutus ja tutkiminen eri Latinalaisen Amerikan maissa on tähän asti painottunut lähes yksinomaan perusopetukseen, pyrin työssäni keskittymään kulttuurienvälisyyden ilmentymiin nimenomaan bolivialaisessa korkeakoulukontekstissa. Tutkielman aineistona on käytetty kahdeksaa EIB -asiantuntijoiden teemahaastattelua, jotka FM Eila Isotalus on tehnyt Boliviassa vuonna 2004. Haastatteluaineisto analysoitiin teoriasidonnaista eli abduktiivista sisällönanalyysiä käyttäen. Tutkielman teoriatausta koostuu yhtäältä kulttuurienvälisyyteen ja monikulttuurisuuteen liittyvien käsitteiden määrittelystä, ja toisaalta kulttuurienväliseen opetukseen liittyvien mallien esittelystä. Aineiston analyysissä avuksi on ollut etenkin James A. Banksin teoria monikulttuurisen opetuksen viidestä ulottuvuudesta, joiden kautta on voitu pohtia kulttuurienvälisyyden toteutumista opetuksen eri osa-alueilla ja nostaa esille bolivialaisen kulttuurienvälisen opetuksen erityispiirteitä. Aineiston analyysissä ilmenee, että kulttuurienvälisyyden käsitteen määrittely on vahvasti kontekstisidonnainen ja jatkuva prosessi, johon vaikuttavat eri toimijoiden näkemykset ja vaatimukset. EIB -asiantuntijoiden esittämät määrittelyt voidaan jakaa makro- ja mikrososiaaliseen kategoriaan sen mukaan, nähdäänkö kulttuurienvälisyys ensisijaisesti yhteiskunnallisena vai yksilötason käsitteenä. Aineistossa korostuu ajatus latinalaisamerikkalaisesta kulttuurienvälisyydestä poliittisena käsitteenä, jonka keskiössä on vaatimus yhteiskunnallisten valtasuhteiden muutoksesta. Yksi suurimmista haasteista kulttuurienvälisyyden toteuttamisessa bolivialaisessa korkeakouluopetuksessa ovat akateemiseen kulttuuriin liittyvät perinteet, jotka vaikeuttavat uusien toimintatapojen omaksumista. Kulttuurienvälisyys opetuksessa on toistaiseksi tarkoittanut etupäässä sisältöjen monipuolistamista lisäämällä opetusohjelmiin elementtejä paikallisista kulttuureista. Tärkeänä askeleena EIB:n kehityksessä voidaan pitää painopisteen siirtymistä sisältökysymyksistä kulttuurienvälisten opetusmetodien luomiseen. Näiden opetusmenetelmien tulisi pohjautua ymmärrykseen oppimisesta kokonaisvaltaisena, yhteisöllisenä prosessina ja siten kuroa umpeen kuilua koulun ja yhteisöjen arkielämän välillä. Opetusmenetelmien ja -materiaalien suhteen keskeinen kulttuurienvälisyyteen liittyvä kysymys on intiaanikansojen suullisen kulttuurin ja tiedon jakamisen perinteiden hyödyntäminen opetuksessa. Maisteriohjelman opiskelijoiden arvioinnissa pyritään huomioimaan yksilön kokonaisvaltainen kehitys pelkkien opintosuoritusten sijasta, mutta arvosanoihin pohjautuvasta arvostelukäytännöstä ei ole toistaiseksi voitu luopua yliopiston vaatimusten vuoksi. Kaiken kaikkiaan kulttuurienvälisyyden toteuttaminen EIB:ssä ja maisteriohjelmassa on pitkän tähtäimen prosessi, joka vaatii perinteisten opetuskäytäntöjen kyseenalaistamista ja korkeakouluopetuksessa myös akateemisen kulttuurin haastamista. On oleellisen tärkeää, että prosessiin osallistuvat asiantuntijoiden ohella myös esimerkiksi opiskelijat, intiaaniyhteisöt ja -järjestöaktiivit.
  • Teräs, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The number of immigrant students in vocational education and training is steadily increasing in Finland. This poses challenges for teachers and schools. This research focuses on emerging questions of intercultural learning in the context of immigrant training, and on a method the Culture Laboratory that was developed in an attempt to respond to the challenges. The main methodological and theoretical framework lies in cultural-historical activity theory, developmental work research, and in the concepts of the intercultural and hybridity. The empirical material consists of videotaped recordings of discussions in the Culture Laboratory. The five main research questions focused on the strengths and limitations of the Culture Laboratory as a tool for intercultural learning, the significance of disturbances in it, the potential of suggestions for intercultural learning, paper as a mediating artifact , and the concept of intercultural space. The findings showed that the Culture Laboratory offered a solid background for developing intercultural learning. The disturbances manifested revealed a multitude of scripts and activities. It was also suggested that the structure of expansive learning could start from externalization instead of internalization. The suggestions the participants made opened up a hybrid learning space for intercultural development, and offered a good springboard for new ideas. Learning in Paperland posed both challenges and opportunities for immigrant students, and different paper trails emerged. Intercultural space in the Culture Laboratory was a developmental zone in which a hybrid process of observing, comparing, and creating took place. Key words: intercultural learning, immigrant training, cultural-historical activity theory, developmental work research,
  • Huutoniemi, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation investigates academic research evaluation from the novel perspective of interdisciplinary accountability. While the standard model of evaluation puts a premium on disciplinary expertise and professional control, increasing demands for both interdisciplinarity and accountability have brought about pressures to open scholarly knowledge production to scrutiny beyond disciplinary boundaries. This study is concerned with the socio-epistemic implications of these developments, and discusses interdisciplinary accountability as an essential yet underdeveloped mechanism of academic quality control. It asks what constitutes interdisciplinary accountability, and how it can be demonstrated, validated, and strengthened in the evaluation of research proposals. The empirical part of the study focuses on the evaluation of research proposals in a national research funder in Finland, the Academy of Finland. Drawing on analyses of research proposals and peer review deliberations, the study explores the various ways in which scholars coordinate, negotiate, and modify disciplinary regimes in pursuing high-quality scientific knowledge. In the light of the empirical findings and the literature on interdisciplinarity, social epistemology, and science policy, the study emphasizes context-sensitive, open-ended consideration of epistemic accountabilities in knowledge production and evaluation. The study makes both a theoretical and a pragmatic contribution. First, it provides a complementary perspective on the changing governance of science by articulating the notion of interdisciplinary accountability. While recent debates have emphasized problem solving and public accountability as important indicators of legitimate science today, this study argues that accountability between and across academic disciplines holds an equal promise of more relevant and reliable knowledge. Interdisciplinary accountability is thus a socio-epistemic mechanism for responsible science, and provides a counterforce to both disciplinary autonomy and the tyranny of political or market forces over epistemic values. Second, the study contributes to the pragmatic debate on how to evaluate interdisciplinary research. For this purpose, it articulates a framework for conceptualizing interdisciplinary accountability in research proposals, and considers options to facilitate interdisciplinary accountability through peer review. The framework helps defining the relevant epistemic stakeholders, the functions and benefits of proposed research, as well as the methodogical procedures for accomplishing the stated goals, which constitute the prerequisite for any evaluative act. As for the evaluative act itself, the study suggests using interdisciplinary dialog between reviewers as a type of epistemic standard. A reasonable strategy is to mix experts from different but not distant fields, and select generalist panel members whose expertise is characterized by broad knowledge beyond any one academic field.
  • Mikkonen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation empirically explored interest as a motivational force in university studies, including the role it currently plays and possible ways of enhancing this role as a student motivator. The general research questions were as follows: 1) What role does interest play in university studies? 2) What explains academic success if studying is not based on interest? 3) How do different learning environments support or impede interest-based studying? Four empirical studies addressed these questions. Study 1 (n=536) compared first-year students explanations of their disciplinary choices in three fields: veterinary medicine, humanities and law. Study 2 (n=28) focused on the role of individual interest in the humanities and veterinary medicine, fields which are very different from each other as regards their nature of studying. Study 3 (n=52) explored veterinary students motivation and study practices in relation to their study success. Study 4 (n=16) explored veterinary students interest experience in individual lectures on a daily basis. By comparing different fields and focusing on one study field in more detail, it was possible to obtain a many-sided picture of the role of interest in different learning environments. Questionnaires and quantitative methods have often been used to measure interest in academic learning. The present work is based mostly on qualitative data, and qualitative methods were applied to add to the previous research. Study 1 explored students open-ended answers, and these provided a basis for the interviews in Study 2. Study 3 explored veterinary students portfolios in a longitudinal setting. For Study 4, a diary including both qualitative and quantitative measures was designed to capture veterinary students interest experience. Qualitative content analysis was applied in all four studies, but quantitative analyses were also added. The thesis showed that university students often explain their disciplinary choices in terms of interest. Because interest is related to high-quality learning, the students seemed to have a good foundation for successful studies. However, the learning environments did not always support interest-based studying; Time-management and coping skills were found to be more important than interest in terms of study success. The results also indicated that interest is not the only motivational variable behind university studies. For example, future goals are needed in order to complete a degree. Even so, the results clearly indicated that it would be worth supporting interest-based studying both in professionally and generally oriented study fields. This support is important not only to promote high-quality learning but also meaningful studying, student well-being, and life-long learning.
  • Ehlers, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Powders are essential materials in the pharmaceutical industry, being involved in majority of all drug manufacturing. Powder flow and particle size are central particle properties addressed by means of particle engineering. The aim of the thesis was to gain knowledge on powder processing with restricted liquid addition, with a primary focus on particle coating and early granule growth. Furthermore, characterisation of this kind of processes was performed. A thin coating layer of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was applied on individual particles of ibuprofen in a fluidised bed top-spray process. The polymeric coating improved the flow properties of the powder. The improvement was strongly related to relative humidity, which can be seen as an indicator of a change in surface hydrophilicity caused by the coating. The ibuprofen used in the present study had a d50 of 40 μm and thus belongs to the Geldart group C powders, which can be considered as challenging materials in top-spray coating processes. Ibuprofen was similarly coated using a novel ultrasound-assisted coating method. The results were in line with those obtained from powders coated in the fluidised bed process mentioned above. It was found that the ultrasound-assisted method was capable of coating single particles with a simple and robust setup. Granule growth in a fluidised bed process was inhibited by feeding the liquid in pulses. The results showed that the length of the pulsing cycles is of importance, and can be used to adjust granule growth. Moreover, pulsed liquid feed was found to be of greater significance to granule growth in high inlet air relative humidity. Liquid feed pulsing can thus be used as a tool in particle size targeting in fluidised bed processes and in compensating for changes in relative humidity of the inlet air. The nozzle function of a two-fluid external mixing pneumatic nozzle, typical for small scale pharmaceutical fluidised bed processes, was studied in situ in an ongoing fluidised bed process with particle tracking velocimetry. It was found that the liquid droplets undergo coalescence as they proceed away from the nozzle head. The coalescence was expected to increase droplet speed, which was confirmed in the study. The spray turbulence was studied, and the results showed turbulence caused by the event of atomisation and by the oppositely directed fluidising air. It was concluded that particle tracking velocimetry is a suitable tool for in situ spray characterisation. The light transmission through dense particulate systems was found to carry information on particle size and packing density as expected based on the theory of light scattering by solids. It was possible to differentiate binary blends consisting of components with differences in optical properties. Light transmission showed potential as a rapid, simple and inexpensive tool in characterisation of particulate systems giving information on changes in particle systems, which could be utilised in basic process diagnostics.
  • Nguyen, Cuong Xuan (2012)
    Phytoene desaturase (PDS) plays a key role in the carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Knocked-down the expression of PDS gene by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) shows the photobleached phenotype in infected plants so that it has been used as a marker or a long time in VIGS systems with range of plant species. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based VIGS system, which uses PDS as the visual marker has been successfully applied and showed the white phenotype in Gerbera hybrida. However, 2-pyrone synthase (PS) gene, which encodes the first enzyme in gerebrin/parasorboside biosynthesis, is significantly reduced in these infected VIGS albino sectors. The transcription level of 2PS gene was also strongly suppressed in leaves treated with photobleaching herbicide, Norflurazon (NF), which inhibits the activity of PDS. Thus, down-regulation of 2PS gene in photobleaching sectors is caused by silencing PDS gene rather than by reacting of gerbera to TRV in VIGS treatment. Interestingly, expression of 2PS in transgenic tobacco (Nicotina tabacum SR1) causes photooxidative bleaching of the leaves. The reduction of 􀈕-carotene in white leaves which analyzed by thin layer chromatograph (TLC) is the main reason; however, the interference between gerberin/parasorboside and carotenoid biosynthesis in these transgenic plants is still unclear. To overcome the effect of overexpression 2PS gene, exogenous mevalonic acid lactone (MAL) could be applied to partially rescue this transgenic phenotype at the seedling stages.
  • Kuusisto, Arniika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
    This study examined religious home education in educational, psychological, and sociological context. Growing up within a religious denomination is a process of learning the rules, norms, opinions, and attitudes, which serve to make the individual an active member of the group. It is a process of transferring the cultural inheritance between generations. Sabbathkeeping can be regarded as a strong indicator of the Seventh-day Adventist value system, which is also why I have concentrated on this specific issue in my study. The purpose of the study was to find out, how the Sabbath is transferred from parents to children among Finnish Adventists. It was also examined how parents could make the day of rest positively exceptional for children, and how the parental authoritativeness affects the process of transference. According to Bull & Lockhart s (1989) theory, the amount of Adventist generations in family history influences the transfer of religious tradition. This study aimed to find out whether or not this theory would apply to the present-day Finland. The nature of religious development among Adventist young people was also one of the interests of the research. The methods used in the study were in-depth interviews (n = 10) and a survey (n = 106). The majority of the interviewees was young adults (age 15-30) grown up in Adventist families. The interviews were taped and transcribed for the study, and survey answers were analysed with SPSS-data analysis program. The amount of survey questionnaires evaluated was 106, whole population of 15-30 year-old Finnish Adventists being about one thousand. Democratic relationship between parents and children, parents' example, encouragement to own thinking, and positive experiences of Sabbath and the whole religion, including the social dimension of the Adventism, seem to be some of the most significant factors in transference of religious tradition. Both too severe and too permissive education were considered to lead to similar results: unsuccessful transfer of values, or even rebellion and adopting a totally opposite way of life than that of the parents. In this study the amount of Adventist generations in family history does not correlate significantly with the end results of value transference. Keywords: Sabbath, intergenerational, value transference, religious home education Avainsanat: sapatti, arvojen siirtyminen vanhemmilta lapsille, uskonnollinen kotikasvatus
  • Sallinen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Refugee problem became an international subject requiring measures after the First World War. The international community was forced to take the issue on the agenda which previously was labeled by political items concerning war and peace. The failure of the League of Nations in its central task, maintaining peace, has influenced the evaluation of other operations. The achievements and the importance of the refugee work undertaken during the 1920s and 1930s have been overshadowed by the mainstream of assessments. There was continuation throughout the entire Inter-war period in the efforts of international bodies. There was an international refugee regime consisting of various intergovernmental and non-governmental actors. The regime had to be directed by the League of Nations. The existence of a regime refers to a policy. This study is a description and analysis of the evolution of the policy during the Inter-war period. The 1920s was a time of ad hoc responses to the emerging crises. During the following decade there was more organized, proactive, and human rights based policy formulation. This project shows how the refugee work was justified, initiated, formulated, developed, implemented, and financed. There was enough continuation and consistency in the activities during the entire period in order to justify the use of the term policy. The refugee policy of the world organizations was formulated, planned and implemented by the Member States through the different Bodies of the League and the ILO. This was done in close cooperation with Non-governmental organizations, private sector and societies on the whole. The substance of the policy was guided by a number of prominent personalities who were able to draw the attention of the international community to the matters that otherwise would have been forgotten and left to be handled by national governments alone. Refugee agencies were able to play a successful leadership role for several reasons. Unlike private organizations, their association with the League of Nations gave them the authority to negotiate with governments directly. The most visible example of this was the achievement of creating a successful passport system. The substance of the policy was guided by the refugee situations. The refugee work faced various difficulties. The League was, however, able to respond and develop new solutions to the growing challenges. The organization was capable of showing creativeness in its reactions to the refugee situations. The principles of the policies remained somewhat unchanged. Nevertheless, new techniques were applied in combating the destitution of refugees. Although Fridtjof Nansen s personal prestige was sometimes considered higher than the appreciation of the League, it can be concluded that the refugee policy of the League and the ILO was consistent and a pertinent part of the essence of the Organizations despite seeming inconsistencies.
  • Seppälä, Jussi (2004)
    This licentiate thesis analyses the first Finnish intergovernmental conference (IGC), resulting in the Treaty of Amsterdam. The study covers Finnish policy regarding the development of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), and in particular the development of the Union as a foreign and security political actor. The theoretical assumption of the study is that the two basic elements of the Union, federalism and intergovernmentalism, offer a relevant point of departure for studying this question. This assumption is deemed to be valid both in general as well as in the empirical case study of Finnish policy. On the one hand, the direction of foreign policy and defence largely defines the development of the Union from the point of view of federalism and intergovernmentalism. On the other hand, foreign policy and defence are the core questions that test the willingness of countries to surrender their sovereignty to the EU, thereby defining the member states' orientation towards federalism and intergovernmentalism. The main empirical goal of the study was to ascertain how federal or intergovernmental the Finnish policy was, particularly in developing the CFSP. Using a four-scale classification (strictly intergovernmental, closer to intergovernmental, closer to federal, and purely federal) of Finnish general EU goals, general CFSP goals and IGC goals, clear results are found. Finnish policy shifted markedly from positions closer to intergovernmentalism to closer to federal, in some respects even further towards federalism. Firstly, concerning qualified majority voting, the dominance of the intergovernmental unanimity principle ceased to be the Finnish objective, but decisions by majority were seen as a necessity instead. Even more importantly, the acceptance of a potential defence core during 1996 indicated a new approach, which saw the interests of Finland as largely identical to those of a federalizing Union. It is shown that the role of Prime Minister Lipponen was pivotal in this development. The main empirical sources have been official public documents and an extensive press material. This manuscript should also be read as the first draft of a doctoral thesis covering Finnish CFSP policy more extensively towards the present day.
  • Ahava, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In this paper, I look into a grammatical phenomenon found among speakers of the Cambridgeshire dialect of English. According to my hypothesis, the phenomenon is a new entry into the past BE verb paradigm in the English language. In my paper, I claim that the structure I have found complements the existing two verb forms, was and were, with a third verb form that I have labelled ‘intermediate past BE’. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first section, I introduce the theoretical ground for the study of variation, which is founded on empiricist principles. In variationist linguistics, the main claim is that heterogeneous language use is structured and ordered. In the last 50 years of history in modern linguistics, this claim is controversial. In the 1960s, the generativist movement spearheaded by Noam Chomsky diverted attention away from grammatical theories that are based on empirical observations. The generativists steered away from language diversity, variation and change in favour of generalisations, abstractions and universalist claims. The theoretical part of my paper goes through the main points of the variationist agenda and concludes that abandoning the concept of language variation in linguistics is harmful for both theory and methodology. In the method part of the paper, I present the Helsinki Archive of Regional English Speech (HARES) corpus. It is an audio archive that contains interviews conducted in England in the 1970s and 1980s. The interviews were done in accordance to methods used generally in traditional dialectology. The informants are mostly elderly male people who have lived in the same region throughout their lives and who have left school at an early age. The interviews are actually conversations: the interviewer allowed the informant to pick the topic of conversation to induce a maximally relaxed and comfortable atmosphere and thus allow the most natural dialect variant to emerge in the informant’s speech. In the paper, the corpus chapter introduces some of the transcription and annotation problems associated with spoken language corpora (especially those containing dialectal speech). Questions surrounding the concept of variation are present in this part of the paper too, as especially transcription work is troubled by the fundamental problem of having to describe the fluctuations of everyday speech in text. In the empirical section of the paper, I use HARES to analyse the speech of four informants, with special focus on the emergence of the intermediate past BE variant. My observations and the subsequent analysis permit me to claim that my hypothesis seems to hold. The intermediate variant occupies almost all contexts where one would expect was or were in the informants’ speech. This means that the new variant is integrated into the speakers’ grammars and exemplifies the kind of variation that is at the heart of this paper.
  • Lignell, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The importance of intermolecular interactions to chemistry, physics, and biology is difficult to overestimate. Without intermolecular forces, condensed phase matter could not form. The simplest way to categorize different types of intermolecular interactions is to describe them using van der Waals and hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) interactions. In the H-bond, the intermolecular interaction appears between a positively charged hydrogen atom and electronegative fragments and it originates from strong electrostatic interactions. H-bonding is important when considering the properties of condensed phase water and in many biological systems including the structure of DNA and proteins. Vibrational spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying complexes and the solvation of molecules. Vibrational frequency shift has been used to characterize complex formation. In an H-bonded system A∙∙∙H-X (A and X are acceptor and donor species, respectively), the vibrational frequency of the H-X stretching vibration usually decreases from its value in free H-X (red-shift). This frequency shift has been used as evidence for H-bond formation and the magnitude of the shift has been used as an indicator of the H-bonding strength. In contrast to this normal behavior are the blue-shifting H-bonds, in which the H-X vibrational frequency increases upon complex formation. In the last decade, there has been active discussion regarding these blue-shifting H-bonds. Noble-gases have been considered inert due to their limited reactivity with other elements. In the early 1930 s, Pauling predicted the stable noble-gas compounds XeF6 and KrF6. It was not until three decades later Neil Bartlett synthesized the first noble-gas compound, XePtF6, in 1962. A renaissance of noble-gas chemistry began in 1995 with the discovery of noble-gas hydride molecules at the University of Helsinki. The first hydrides were HXeCl, HXeBr, HXeI, HKrCl, and HXeH. These molecules have the general formula of HNgY, where H is a hydrogen atom, Ng is a noble-gas atom (Ar, Kr, or Xe), and Y is an electronegative fragment. At present, this class of molecules comprises 23 members including both inorganic and organic compounds. The first and only argon-containing neutral chemical compound HArF was synthesized in 2000 and its properties have since been investigated in a number of studies. A helium-containing chemical compound, HHeF, was predicted computationally, but its lifetime has been predicted to be severely limited by hydrogen tunneling. Helium and neon are the only elements in the periodic table that do not form neutral, ground state molecules. A noble-gas matrix is a useful medium in which to study unstable and reactive species including ions. A solvated proton forms a centrosymmetric NgHNg+ (Ng = Ar, Kr, and Xe) structure in a noble-gas matrix and this is probably the simplest example of a solvated proton. Interestingly, the hypothetical NeHNe+ cation is isoelectronic with the water-solvated proton H5O2+ (Zundel-ion). In addition to the NgHNg+ cations, the isoelectronic YHY- (Y = halogen atom or pseudohalogen fragment) anions have been studied with the matrix-isolation technique. These species have been known to exist in alkali metal salts (YHY)-M+ (M = alkali metal e.g. K or Na) for more than 80 years. Hydrated HF forms the FHF- structure in aqueous solutions, and these ions participate in several important chemical processes. In this thesis, studies of the intermolecular interactions of HNgY molecules and centrosymmetric ions with various species are presented. The HNgY complexes show unusual spectral features, e.g. large blue-shifts of the H-Ng stretching vibration upon complexation. It is suggested that the blue-shift is a normal effect for these molecules, and that originates from the enhanced (HNg)+Y- ion-pair character upon complexation. It is also found that the HNgY molecules are energetically stabilized in the complexed form, and this effect is computationally demonstrated for the HHeF molecule. The NgHNg+ and YHY- ions also show blue-shifts in their asymmetric stretching vibration upon complexation with nitrogen. Additionally, the matrix site structure and hindered rotation (libration) of the HNgY molecules were studied. The librational motion is a much-discussed solid state phenomenon, and the HNgY molecules embedded in noble-gas matrices are good model systems to study this effect. The formation mechanisms of the HNgY molecules and the decay mechanism of NgHNg+ cations are discussed. A new electron tunneling model for the decay of NgHNg+ absorptions in noble-gas matrices is proposed. Studies of the NgHNg+∙∙∙N2 complexes support this electron tunneling mechanism.
  • Fager-Jokela, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) is a very efficient method of synthesising cyclopentenones. In the reaction, an alkene, an alkyne and carbon monoxide combine to form a cyclopentenone ring, mediated or catalysed by a transition metal complex in one pot. In the cyclisation, three new carbon-carbon bonds are created. This thesis concentrates on the intermolecular variant of a cobalt(0)-mediated Pauson-Khand reaction. The development of intermolecular cyclisation has been slow over the past decade, due to the lack of reactive alkenes and the lack of regioselectivity for substituted alkynes. Despite the publication of numerous studies, the electronic effects involved are not yet completely understood. In this study, our purpose was to gain a greater understanding of the interplay between steric and electronic factors in determining the regioselectivity of the Pauson-Khand reaction. The electronic guidance regarding the alkyne regioselectivity of the Pauson-Khand reaction was studied with both conjugated aromatic alkynes and non-conjugated propargylic alkynes. It was demonstrated that, in the absence of steric effects, alkyne polarisation dictates the regiochemical selectivity of PKR. In conjugated systems, like diarylalkynes, Hammett values can be utilised in estimation of the polarisation of the alkyne. With nonconjugated alkynes, on the other hand, electronegativity of the substituent group designates the major regioisomer, as the charge differences are created via inductive effect. In addition to investigating regioselectivity, additive-free methods for promotion of Pauson-Khand reaction were developed and utilised, and Pauson-Khand reaction was applied in the synthesis of estrone E-ring extension. With microwaves (MW) used in promotion, the heat was effectively transferred to the reaction, saving energy and time without affecting the selectivity of the reaction.
  • Aranko, A. Sesilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Inteins are selfish but harmless autocatalytic proteins that perform a post-translational modification, termed protein splicing. In protein splicing an intein excises itself off from the precursor protein and simultaneously ligates the flanking proteins together with a peptide bond. Inteins are found sporadically distributed in unicellular organisms, but their biological functions remain obscure. Importanly, inteins that are split into two can remain active and perform protein ligation by protein trans-splicing (PTS). In principle, PTS allows ligation of any two protein-sequences, with the only requirement being Ser, Thr, or Cys as the first residue downstream of the intein. This has inspired development of numerous biotechnological applications including protein semisynthesis, segmental isotopic labeling, and cyclization. Protein ligation by split inteins is, however, limited by the lengths, substrate specificity, orthogonality, and the reaction yields of the split inteins. The objective of this thesis was to advance the development of protein splicing as a protein-ligation tool. First, the split site of a natively split DnaE intein was shifted in order to engineer a split intein with shorter C-intein that could be easily chemically synthetized. The newly engineered split intein could perform protein ligation in high yields and was demonstrated to be in certain cases even better than the natively split intein. Encouraged by this, 21 more split inteins were engineered starting from four different inteins, guided by the three dimensional structures of these inteins. Split inteins were systematically tested for activity and orthogonality to evaluate their potential for biotechnological applications. Next, the scope was widened to bacterial intein-like (BIL) domains. BIL domains belong to the same superfamily with inteins but are distinct by their distribution and functions and have a wider variety of residues at the downstream junction. The first structure of a BIL domain was solved. It highlighted their homology to inteins as well as allowed engineering of split BIL domains. The split BIL domains could perform protein ligation also with Ala at the downstream splicing junction, although in minute yields, which could be the first step towards nucleophile-free protein ligation. Finally, discovery of a previously not reported intermolecular protein-splicing reaction, termed intein-mediated protein alternative splicing (iPAS), was described. Structural studies revealed that three-dimensional domain swapping is the underlying mechanisms of iPAS. iPAS makes it possible to increase diversity at protein level, without altering the genetic code, and could be used to control protein functions in concentration and expression-order dependent manner. Discovery of this new phenomenon could allow protein interference and is opening new insights into the possible biological functions of inteins.