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  • Forssell, Pia (2008)
    The Collected Works of J. L. Runeberg from the Viewpoint of Textual Scholarship The theoretical framework of this dissertation builds on textual scholarship. The dissertation explores the history of Runeberg’s publications and his relations with his publishers, from his debut and the first editions, through the editions of collected works published during the course of his life, to the later commercial editions, including the critical edition, published in 1933–2005 by the Svenska Vitterhetssamfundet (The Swedish Society for Belles Lettres) and The Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland (The Society of Swedish Literature in Finland). The various editions of Runeberg’s collected works are situated in their respective critical traditions, from the 19th century German Ausgabe letzter Hand, to the influence of Anglo-American bibliography on Swedish textual criticism in the late 20th century. By making use of primary material previously not used for research purposes, the author is able to present a new view on Runebergian publishing history, including Runeberg’s fees and his relations with the censor authorities. There are indications that his Finnish publishers could not bear the cost of his sizable fees, that were in proportion neither with the book market in Finland nor with the numbers of copies sold. Apart from a certain body of editions the primary material is comprised of correspondences, publishing contracts, printing house invoices, as well as censor authority records. One of the conclusions drawn is that the early and detailed biography, Biografiska anteckningar om Johan Ludvig Runeberg (Biographical Notes on …) by J. E. Strömborg is not reliable in matters concerning publishing history, and that this work has been used far too uncritically. The history of the critical edition gets a chapter of its own, based on primary material in Swedish and Finnish archives. Finally, the author analyses the critical choices, made primarily in the critical edition, and uses examples from the commercial editions to study the editors’ interventions over time, from the 1850s to the 1920s. The changes to the text are usually small and subtle, but cumulative – and in some cases, crucial for the interpretation of the work. One objective of textual scholarship should be to examine the publishing history of a single work or of an author’s œuvre, and another to pay attention both to changes in a work as such and to the shifts of meaning they might entail.
  • Joensuu, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Job control has been a key concept in research on the psychosocial work environment and employee health for decades. A general hypothesis is that the more job control employees have, the lower their risk of stress-related diseases. However, the evidence to date has been inconclusive. The two components of job control, skill discretion and decision authority, may be differentially associated with health, which is a possible explanation for previous mixed findings. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal associations of job control and its components separately, along with mental health and incident cardiovascular disease. The samples used were the Still Working study (N=13 868), the Finnish Public Sector Study (N=60 202) and the Individual-Participant Data Meta-analysis in the Working Populations consortium (N=197 473). Survey responses to job control scales were linked to information on sickness absences and hospitalizations due to psychiatric disorders and hospitalizations and mortality from cardiovascular diseases derived from national registers for initially healthy employees. The follow-up period ranged from one year for sickness absence to 20 years for mortality. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models, probit regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Employees from hospital wards were linked to information on hospital ward overcrowding in an instrumental variable regression analysis of an external measure for job control. Skill discretion and decision authority showed different, to some extent opposite and subgroup specific associations with mental and cardiovascular health. In several analyses a high decision authority was associated with an increased risk of future mental or cardiovascular ill health. In the Still Working cohort study, the adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality was 1.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.12, 1.93) for high decision authority and 1.01 (95% CI 0.76, 1.34) for high skill discretion. Job control as a combined construct was not associated with incident cardiovascular disease in the meta-analysis of prospective studies when adjusted for age, sex and socio-economic status (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75-1.19 for highest quartile vs. lowest quartile). In the instrumental variable regression hospital ward overcrowding did not function as an external indicator for job control. Job control appears to be an equivocal concept in terms of health risk as its components were differently associated with health outcomes. These findings suggest that decision authority and skill discretion need to be separated and different work contexts should be differentiated in studies on job control, mental health and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Nyholm, Seija (2008)
    Job satisfaction is one of the most widely studied topics in organisational research. Research on the antecedents of job satisfaction has been motivated by two reasons historically. Some have considered satisfied workers desirable because they were allegedly more productive and cooperative, while others have seen the well-being of the satisfied worker as an end in itself. The effect of social capital on job satisfaction is a less researched topic. Growing interest in the role that social capital plays in organisations, however, has also focused attention on social capital’s effect on the individual worker. This study examines the effect social capital has on an individual’s job satisfaction and begins with the basic assumption that social capital increases satisfaction with one’s job. Job satisfaction is treated as a multi-faceted phenomenon with intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. Social capital—the resources that exist in the social relations between actors—is examined first using Coleman’s (1988) theory and second using social network analysis. Social network analysis allows for a more detailed look at the different effects network structure and content have on an individual’s job satisfaction, and this part of the study draws on the findings of Flap and Völker (2001) that social capital is goal specific. The empirical data was collected in 2005 using a written questionnaire. Respondents were the 51 staff members at The English School in Helsinki, a semi-private bilingual school that was founded in 1945 to teach English and Anglo-Saxon culture to Finnish children. The methods employed are quantitative, including factor analysis, linear regression analysis, and social network analysis. Information on four types of social networks was collected: friendship, communication, influence, and advice. An outstanding result of the study is that social capital does increase job satisfaction in general. All aspects of social capital, especially trust, are positively related to the global measure of job satisfaction. When job satisfaction is divided into extrinsic and intrinsic facets, social capital continues to show a positive relationship with job satisfaction. The trust aspect of social capital increases instrumental job satisfaction, while the information aspect increases the social facet of job satisfaction. The norms aspect is also positively related to the job satisfaction facets. Only in the case of reciprocity is a negative relationship found between reciprocity and the social facet of job satisfaction. Furthermore, an examination of staff members’ social networks revealed that content is as important as structure, and that the relationship between social capital and job satisfaction is not always positive. Of the four networks, a staff member’s prominence in the school’s friendship network has an overwhelmingly positive effect on all facets of job satisfaction and on the global measure of job satisfaction. The results for the other three networks are not as clear-cut, but a prominent position in the influence network is mostly positively related to job satisfaction, while prominence in the communication and advice networks is mostly negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direction of the relationship matters. For the friendship network, having many others to turn to for emotional support increases job satisfaction, while the opposite—being someone others turn to—is the direction that affects satisfaction in the communication, advice, and influence networks. The results show that social network analysis proves to be a useful tool for refining our understanding of the effect of social capital on job satisfaction.
  • Radenkova, Stela (2005)
    The present research paper studies the nature of job satisfaction of foreign white-collar employees in Finland. First, it makes a review of the different classes of motivation theories: need, instrumentality, and balance theories, and thus spans a bridge to understanding job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is explained through its role in the theories of work motivation. It is generally one of emotion or feeling that an individual gets as a result of some job-related characteristic or event. Maslow, Herzberg and Locke"s theories as well as Hackman and Oldham"s model of the determinants of job satisfaction are presented. The results of recent studies are used to bring about a more contemporary perspective to the theoretical background. To understand the concept of job satisfaction in the perspective of foreign employees Berry"s model on acculturation is introduced and the different acculturation strategies are presented. The cultural dimensions model developed by Hofstede is adopted as an approach to the differences between countries and its findings are referred to in order to explicate the typical features of the Finnish culture and the cultures from which the interviewees come. The present study applies qualitative research methods. Data generation was accomplished by means of a tripartite semi-structured interview. The first part uncovered the employees" perceptions and experiences and was subsequently analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. In the second part the main postulations of the aforementioned theories were tested, and validated or disconfirmed through a continuous process of comparison to the employees" own statements. The culture-specific part of the interview revealed typical problems and challenges that foreigners face in Finland and pointed out areas in the social environment that call for improvement. The results of the study demonstrate that autonomy, learning and task variety are the most influential factors leading to job satisfaction. The theoretical postulations concerning intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction being caused by factors different in nature found substantial support, as did Hackman and Oldham"s model and Locke"s suggested relationship between needs and values. The cultural distance, language and social environment were found to exert considerable impact on the overall experience of foreigners in the country and in work life. The main sources I have used are: Landy, F., Trumbo, A. (1980) Psychology of work behaviour, pp.387-425, Homewood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press; Landy, F., Becker, W. (1987) Motivation theory reconsidered. In L.L Cummings and B.M. Staw (eds.) Research in organizational behaviour: vol. 9 ( pp. 1-38) Jai Press Inc.; Argyle, M. (1989) The social psychology of work, (pp. 235-237) 2nd edition. London: Penguin Books (1st edition 1972); Berry, J.W. (1997) Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46 (1), 5-68
  • Kosonen, Taija (2014)
    Tämän maisterin tutkielman tavoitteena oli kehittää menetelmä jodin määrittämiseksi elintarvikkeista. Menetelmä kehitettiin Elintarviketurvallisuusvirastossa ja validoitiin viraston käyttöä varten. Kirjallisuustutkimuksessa käsiteltiin jodin kemiaa, esiintymistä luonnossa ja elintarvikkeissa sekä sen fysiologista merkitystä ihmiselle. Lisäksi perehdyttiin jodin eri määritysmenetelmiin sekä tarkemmin vielä ICP-MS-tekniikkaan. Kokeellisessa tutkimuksessa näytematriiseina oli eri rasvapitoisuuksia sisältäviä maitoja, kananmuna, juusto sekä kala. Varmennettuina vertailumateriaaleina oli kaksi eri maitojauhetta (BCR®-150 ja BCR®-063R) ja kalajauhe (ERM BB®-422). Maidot ja kananmuna esikäsiteltiin liuottamalla näyte 0,5-prosenttiseen ammoniumhydroksidiin, seisottamalla yön yli ja ravistelemalla näytettä kaksi tuntia. Juusto ja silakka hajotettiin mikroaaltouunissa käyttäen reagenssina ammoniumhydroksidia. Molempien esikäsittelyiden jälkeen näytteet olivat 0,5-prosenttisessa ammoniumhydroksidiliuoksessa, joka toimi myös ICP-MS-laitteiston huuhteluliuoksena. Sisäisenä standardina käytettiin telluuria. Validoinnissa määritettiin menetelmän spesifisyys, selektiivisyys, toistettavuus, uusittavuus, oikeellisuus, mittausalue, lineaarisuus sekä havaitsemis- ja määritysraja. Menetelmälle laskettiin myös mittausepävarmuus. Menetelmä oli spesifinen ja selektiivinen jodille. Maito- ja kanamunanäytteiden menetelmän oikeellisuus oli 90,3 % ja lisätyn jodin takaisinsaanto 98,7 %. Vastaavat luvut kala- ja juustonäytteiden menetelmälle olivat 86,9 % ja 102,3 %. Molemmat esikäsittelymenetelmät antoivat toistettavia ja uusittavia tuloksia. Määritysraja maito- ja kananmunanäytteiden menetelmässä oli 0,02 mg kg-1 ja kala- ja juustonäytteiden menetelmässä 0,06 mg kg-1. Laajennetut mittausepävarmuudet kaikille matriiseille olivat 10–29 %. Validoinnin perusteella menetelmä voitiin todeta toimivaksi ja luotettavaksi. Menetelmää tullaan käyttämään varsinaisten elintarvikenäytteiden jodipitoisuuksien määrittämiseen.
  • Tyllinen, Irma (1943)
  • Soininen, Marjatta (1989)
  • Korhonen, Tuula (2001)
  • Helminen, Pirjo (2014)
    Tämän tutkielman kirjallisuusosiossa käsitellään lehmänmaidon koostumusta, jogurtin valmistusta, jogurtin rakenneominaisuuksiin vaikuttavia koostumus- ja valmistusprosessitekijöitä, sekä jogurtin rakenteen mittaamista. Tämän tutkimuksen maustamattomien jogurttien valmistukseen käytettiin Valio Oy:n Riihimäen ja Oulun meijereitä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää jogurtin laatuun vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tutkimuksen aluksi jogurtin perustekijästä eli jogurttimaidosta määritettiin koostumus, minkä jälkeen valmiista jogurtista määritettiin rakenneominaisuudet (viskositeetti, hiutaleisuus ja heran erottuminen) erilaisia tekniikoita käyttäen. Aineistosta tutkittiin jogurtin rakenneominaisuuksien ja valmistusprosessin välisiä riippuvuussuhteita laskemalla korrelaatiokertoimet sekä tilastollinen merkitsevyys. Lisäksi tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli määrittää jogurtin valmistusta ohjaavat rakenneominaisuuksien spesifikaatiorajat. Pearsonin korrelaatiokertoimien, tilastollisten merkitsevyyksien ja spesifikaatiorajojen määrittämiseen käytettiin MINITAB®16 tilasto-ohjelmaa. Hyvälaatuisessa jogurtissa rakenne on viskoosi, hiutaleita ei ole, eikä heran erottumista tapahdu. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan valmistuspaikka vaikutti merkitsevästi jogurtin rakenneominaisuuksiin. Tutkimustulosten mukaan jogurtin viskositeetissa oli yli 50%:n vaihtelu, hiutaleiden määrässä noin 25% ja heran erottumisessa eli synereesissä noin 30%. Tulosten mukaan jogurtin viskositeettia saattoi heikentää mm. jogurttimassan pitkä seisonta-aika ennen pakkaamista. Jogurtin hiutalemäärä lisääntyi kun valmistusprosessin haihdutuslämpötila ja jogurttimaidon haihdutusvirtausnopeus (l/h) nousivat. Jogurtista erottuvan heran määrän havaittiin vähenevän kun jogurtin perustekijän eli jogurttimaidon rasva- ja kuiva-ainepitoisuuksia nostettiin. Erottuneen heran määrää vähensi myös jogurtin valmistusprosessin haihdutuksen korkea syöttövirtausnopeus (l/h). Tutkimuksesta saatuja tuloksia voidaan käyttää jogurtin valmistusprosessien kehittämiseen.