Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 7343-7362 of 25619
  • Sallinen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Refugee problem became an international subject requiring measures after the First World War. The international community was forced to take the issue on the agenda which previously was labeled by political items concerning war and peace. The failure of the League of Nations in its central task, maintaining peace, has influenced the evaluation of other operations. The achievements and the importance of the refugee work undertaken during the 1920s and 1930s have been overshadowed by the mainstream of assessments. There was continuation throughout the entire Inter-war period in the efforts of international bodies. There was an international refugee regime consisting of various intergovernmental and non-governmental actors. The regime had to be directed by the League of Nations. The existence of a regime refers to a policy. This study is a description and analysis of the evolution of the policy during the Inter-war period. The 1920s was a time of ad hoc responses to the emerging crises. During the following decade there was more organized, proactive, and human rights based policy formulation. This project shows how the refugee work was justified, initiated, formulated, developed, implemented, and financed. There was enough continuation and consistency in the activities during the entire period in order to justify the use of the term policy. The refugee policy of the world organizations was formulated, planned and implemented by the Member States through the different Bodies of the League and the ILO. This was done in close cooperation with Non-governmental organizations, private sector and societies on the whole. The substance of the policy was guided by a number of prominent personalities who were able to draw the attention of the international community to the matters that otherwise would have been forgotten and left to be handled by national governments alone. Refugee agencies were able to play a successful leadership role for several reasons. Unlike private organizations, their association with the League of Nations gave them the authority to negotiate with governments directly. The most visible example of this was the achievement of creating a successful passport system. The substance of the policy was guided by the refugee situations. The refugee work faced various difficulties. The League was, however, able to respond and develop new solutions to the growing challenges. The organization was capable of showing creativeness in its reactions to the refugee situations. The principles of the policies remained somewhat unchanged. Nevertheless, new techniques were applied in combating the destitution of refugees. Although Fridtjof Nansen s personal prestige was sometimes considered higher than the appreciation of the League, it can be concluded that the refugee policy of the League and the ILO was consistent and a pertinent part of the essence of the Organizations despite seeming inconsistencies.
  • Seppälä, Jussi (2004)
    This licentiate thesis analyses the first Finnish intergovernmental conference (IGC), resulting in the Treaty of Amsterdam. The study covers Finnish policy regarding the development of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), and in particular the development of the Union as a foreign and security political actor. The theoretical assumption of the study is that the two basic elements of the Union, federalism and intergovernmentalism, offer a relevant point of departure for studying this question. This assumption is deemed to be valid both in general as well as in the empirical case study of Finnish policy. On the one hand, the direction of foreign policy and defence largely defines the development of the Union from the point of view of federalism and intergovernmentalism. On the other hand, foreign policy and defence are the core questions that test the willingness of countries to surrender their sovereignty to the EU, thereby defining the member states' orientation towards federalism and intergovernmentalism. The main empirical goal of the study was to ascertain how federal or intergovernmental the Finnish policy was, particularly in developing the CFSP. Using a four-scale classification (strictly intergovernmental, closer to intergovernmental, closer to federal, and purely federal) of Finnish general EU goals, general CFSP goals and IGC goals, clear results are found. Finnish policy shifted markedly from positions closer to intergovernmentalism to closer to federal, in some respects even further towards federalism. Firstly, concerning qualified majority voting, the dominance of the intergovernmental unanimity principle ceased to be the Finnish objective, but decisions by majority were seen as a necessity instead. Even more importantly, the acceptance of a potential defence core during 1996 indicated a new approach, which saw the interests of Finland as largely identical to those of a federalizing Union. It is shown that the role of Prime Minister Lipponen was pivotal in this development. The main empirical sources have been official public documents and an extensive press material. This manuscript should also be read as the first draft of a doctoral thesis covering Finnish CFSP policy more extensively towards the present day.
  • Ahava, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In this paper, I look into a grammatical phenomenon found among speakers of the Cambridgeshire dialect of English. According to my hypothesis, the phenomenon is a new entry into the past BE verb paradigm in the English language. In my paper, I claim that the structure I have found complements the existing two verb forms, was and were, with a third verb form that I have labelled ‘intermediate past BE’. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first section, I introduce the theoretical ground for the study of variation, which is founded on empiricist principles. In variationist linguistics, the main claim is that heterogeneous language use is structured and ordered. In the last 50 years of history in modern linguistics, this claim is controversial. In the 1960s, the generativist movement spearheaded by Noam Chomsky diverted attention away from grammatical theories that are based on empirical observations. The generativists steered away from language diversity, variation and change in favour of generalisations, abstractions and universalist claims. The theoretical part of my paper goes through the main points of the variationist agenda and concludes that abandoning the concept of language variation in linguistics is harmful for both theory and methodology. In the method part of the paper, I present the Helsinki Archive of Regional English Speech (HARES) corpus. It is an audio archive that contains interviews conducted in England in the 1970s and 1980s. The interviews were done in accordance to methods used generally in traditional dialectology. The informants are mostly elderly male people who have lived in the same region throughout their lives and who have left school at an early age. The interviews are actually conversations: the interviewer allowed the informant to pick the topic of conversation to induce a maximally relaxed and comfortable atmosphere and thus allow the most natural dialect variant to emerge in the informant’s speech. In the paper, the corpus chapter introduces some of the transcription and annotation problems associated with spoken language corpora (especially those containing dialectal speech). Questions surrounding the concept of variation are present in this part of the paper too, as especially transcription work is troubled by the fundamental problem of having to describe the fluctuations of everyday speech in text. In the empirical section of the paper, I use HARES to analyse the speech of four informants, with special focus on the emergence of the intermediate past BE variant. My observations and the subsequent analysis permit me to claim that my hypothesis seems to hold. The intermediate variant occupies almost all contexts where one would expect was or were in the informants’ speech. This means that the new variant is integrated into the speakers’ grammars and exemplifies the kind of variation that is at the heart of this paper.
  • Lignell, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The importance of intermolecular interactions to chemistry, physics, and biology is difficult to overestimate. Without intermolecular forces, condensed phase matter could not form. The simplest way to categorize different types of intermolecular interactions is to describe them using van der Waals and hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) interactions. In the H-bond, the intermolecular interaction appears between a positively charged hydrogen atom and electronegative fragments and it originates from strong electrostatic interactions. H-bonding is important when considering the properties of condensed phase water and in many biological systems including the structure of DNA and proteins. Vibrational spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying complexes and the solvation of molecules. Vibrational frequency shift has been used to characterize complex formation. In an H-bonded system A∙∙∙H-X (A and X are acceptor and donor species, respectively), the vibrational frequency of the H-X stretching vibration usually decreases from its value in free H-X (red-shift). This frequency shift has been used as evidence for H-bond formation and the magnitude of the shift has been used as an indicator of the H-bonding strength. In contrast to this normal behavior are the blue-shifting H-bonds, in which the H-X vibrational frequency increases upon complex formation. In the last decade, there has been active discussion regarding these blue-shifting H-bonds. Noble-gases have been considered inert due to their limited reactivity with other elements. In the early 1930 s, Pauling predicted the stable noble-gas compounds XeF6 and KrF6. It was not until three decades later Neil Bartlett synthesized the first noble-gas compound, XePtF6, in 1962. A renaissance of noble-gas chemistry began in 1995 with the discovery of noble-gas hydride molecules at the University of Helsinki. The first hydrides were HXeCl, HXeBr, HXeI, HKrCl, and HXeH. These molecules have the general formula of HNgY, where H is a hydrogen atom, Ng is a noble-gas atom (Ar, Kr, or Xe), and Y is an electronegative fragment. At present, this class of molecules comprises 23 members including both inorganic and organic compounds. The first and only argon-containing neutral chemical compound HArF was synthesized in 2000 and its properties have since been investigated in a number of studies. A helium-containing chemical compound, HHeF, was predicted computationally, but its lifetime has been predicted to be severely limited by hydrogen tunneling. Helium and neon are the only elements in the periodic table that do not form neutral, ground state molecules. A noble-gas matrix is a useful medium in which to study unstable and reactive species including ions. A solvated proton forms a centrosymmetric NgHNg+ (Ng = Ar, Kr, and Xe) structure in a noble-gas matrix and this is probably the simplest example of a solvated proton. Interestingly, the hypothetical NeHNe+ cation is isoelectronic with the water-solvated proton H5O2+ (Zundel-ion). In addition to the NgHNg+ cations, the isoelectronic YHY- (Y = halogen atom or pseudohalogen fragment) anions have been studied with the matrix-isolation technique. These species have been known to exist in alkali metal salts (YHY)-M+ (M = alkali metal e.g. K or Na) for more than 80 years. Hydrated HF forms the FHF- structure in aqueous solutions, and these ions participate in several important chemical processes. In this thesis, studies of the intermolecular interactions of HNgY molecules and centrosymmetric ions with various species are presented. The HNgY complexes show unusual spectral features, e.g. large blue-shifts of the H-Ng stretching vibration upon complexation. It is suggested that the blue-shift is a normal effect for these molecules, and that originates from the enhanced (HNg)+Y- ion-pair character upon complexation. It is also found that the HNgY molecules are energetically stabilized in the complexed form, and this effect is computationally demonstrated for the HHeF molecule. The NgHNg+ and YHY- ions also show blue-shifts in their asymmetric stretching vibration upon complexation with nitrogen. Additionally, the matrix site structure and hindered rotation (libration) of the HNgY molecules were studied. The librational motion is a much-discussed solid state phenomenon, and the HNgY molecules embedded in noble-gas matrices are good model systems to study this effect. The formation mechanisms of the HNgY molecules and the decay mechanism of NgHNg+ cations are discussed. A new electron tunneling model for the decay of NgHNg+ absorptions in noble-gas matrices is proposed. Studies of the NgHNg+∙∙∙N2 complexes support this electron tunneling mechanism.
  • Fager-Jokela, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) is a very efficient method of synthesising cyclopentenones. In the reaction, an alkene, an alkyne and carbon monoxide combine to form a cyclopentenone ring, mediated or catalysed by a transition metal complex in one pot. In the cyclisation, three new carbon-carbon bonds are created. This thesis concentrates on the intermolecular variant of a cobalt(0)-mediated Pauson-Khand reaction. The development of intermolecular cyclisation has been slow over the past decade, due to the lack of reactive alkenes and the lack of regioselectivity for substituted alkynes. Despite the publication of numerous studies, the electronic effects involved are not yet completely understood. In this study, our purpose was to gain a greater understanding of the interplay between steric and electronic factors in determining the regioselectivity of the Pauson-Khand reaction. The electronic guidance regarding the alkyne regioselectivity of the Pauson-Khand reaction was studied with both conjugated aromatic alkynes and non-conjugated propargylic alkynes. It was demonstrated that, in the absence of steric effects, alkyne polarisation dictates the regiochemical selectivity of PKR. In conjugated systems, like diarylalkynes, Hammett values can be utilised in estimation of the polarisation of the alkyne. With nonconjugated alkynes, on the other hand, electronegativity of the substituent group designates the major regioisomer, as the charge differences are created via inductive effect. In addition to investigating regioselectivity, additive-free methods for promotion of Pauson-Khand reaction were developed and utilised, and Pauson-Khand reaction was applied in the synthesis of estrone E-ring extension. With microwaves (MW) used in promotion, the heat was effectively transferred to the reaction, saving energy and time without affecting the selectivity of the reaction.
  • Aranko, A. Sesilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Inteins are selfish but harmless autocatalytic proteins that perform a post-translational modification, termed protein splicing. In protein splicing an intein excises itself off from the precursor protein and simultaneously ligates the flanking proteins together with a peptide bond. Inteins are found sporadically distributed in unicellular organisms, but their biological functions remain obscure. Importanly, inteins that are split into two can remain active and perform protein ligation by protein trans-splicing (PTS). In principle, PTS allows ligation of any two protein-sequences, with the only requirement being Ser, Thr, or Cys as the first residue downstream of the intein. This has inspired development of numerous biotechnological applications including protein semisynthesis, segmental isotopic labeling, and cyclization. Protein ligation by split inteins is, however, limited by the lengths, substrate specificity, orthogonality, and the reaction yields of the split inteins. The objective of this thesis was to advance the development of protein splicing as a protein-ligation tool. First, the split site of a natively split DnaE intein was shifted in order to engineer a split intein with shorter C-intein that could be easily chemically synthetized. The newly engineered split intein could perform protein ligation in high yields and was demonstrated to be in certain cases even better than the natively split intein. Encouraged by this, 21 more split inteins were engineered starting from four different inteins, guided by the three dimensional structures of these inteins. Split inteins were systematically tested for activity and orthogonality to evaluate their potential for biotechnological applications. Next, the scope was widened to bacterial intein-like (BIL) domains. BIL domains belong to the same superfamily with inteins but are distinct by their distribution and functions and have a wider variety of residues at the downstream junction. The first structure of a BIL domain was solved. It highlighted their homology to inteins as well as allowed engineering of split BIL domains. The split BIL domains could perform protein ligation also with Ala at the downstream splicing junction, although in minute yields, which could be the first step towards nucleophile-free protein ligation. Finally, discovery of a previously not reported intermolecular protein-splicing reaction, termed intein-mediated protein alternative splicing (iPAS), was described. Structural studies revealed that three-dimensional domain swapping is the underlying mechanisms of iPAS. iPAS makes it possible to increase diversity at protein level, without altering the genetic code, and could be used to control protein functions in concentration and expression-order dependent manner. Discovery of this new phenomenon could allow protein interference and is opening new insights into the possible biological functions of inteins.
  • Poelman, Delphine (2009)
    Tämän työn tarkoituksena on tarkastella operatiivisen tason henkilökunnan näkemyksiä organisaationsa sisäisestä viestinnästä sekä saman organisaation esimiehistä ja selvittää, ovatko näkemykset sisäisestä viestinnästä yhteydessä näkemyksiin esimiehistä. Tutkimuskysymystä lähestytään kuvailemalla ja vertailemalla operatiivisen tason henkilökunnan näkemyksiä sisäisestä viestinnästä sekä heidän näkemyksiään esimiehistä organisaation hierarkian eri tasoilla belgialaisessa julkisessa liikelaitoksessa nimeltään Société des Transports Intercommunaux de Bruxelles (STIB). Lisäksi tarkastelen henkilökunnan näkemyksiä organisaation sisäisestä viestinnästä sekä esimiehistä tukeutuen Clampitin ja Downsin (1993) määrittelemiin Communication Satisfaction -kategorioihin. Tutkimusmenetelmäni on kvalitatiivinen tutkimushaastattelu. Keräsin tutkimusaineistoni syksyllä 2004 yllä mainitussa yrityksessä, joka vastaa Brysselin alueen joukkoliikenteestä ja jonka henkilöstö koostuu 6000 työntekijästä. Empiiristä tutkimustani varten haastattelin yhteensä kuutta operatiivisen tason työntekijää sekä lisäksi organisaation sisäisen viestinnän johtajaa. Haastattelut tehtiin ranskan kielellä. Tutkimukseni tuloksista ilmenee, että STIB -organisaatiossa operatiivisen tason henkilökunnan yrityksen sisäistä viestintää koskevat näkemykset ovat samansuuntaisia heidän esimiehiään koskevien näkemystensä kanssa. Kerätyn aineiston perusteella voidaan todeta, että tutkimukseni kohteena olevassa yrityksessä positiivisesti arvioitu sisäisen viestinnän prosessi yhdistyy positiiviseen suhtautumiseen sitä esimiestä kohtaan, jonka arvioidaan olevan kyseisessä viestintäprosessissa osallisena. Sitä vastoin negatiivinen arviointi sisäisen viestinnän prosessin suhteen yhdistetään negatiiviseen arviointiin siitä esimiehestä, jonka katsotaan olevan osallisena kyseisessä viestintäprosessissa. Lisäksi tutkimustulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että mitä yksilöllisempää ja spesifisempää asiaa sisäinen viestintä koskee, sitä enemmän näkemys kyseisestä viestinnästä samaistuu näkemykseen lähimmästä esimiehestä. Näin ollen tutkimukseni kohteena olevassa yrityksessä operatiivisen tason henkilökunta arvioi työn toteuttamiseen liittyvän sisäisen operatiivisen viestinnän myönteisesti ja samalla suhtautuu myös positiivisesti lähimpään esimieheen, joka on suoraan vastuussa työn toteutuksesta. Sen sijaan operatiivisen tason henkilökunta arvioi negatiivisemmin heille kaukaisempia keskitason ja ylätason esimiehiä, ja samaten arvioi myös negatiivisesti työyhteisön ylemmiltä hierarkkisilta tasoilta tulevan yrityksen yleisiä asioita käsittelevän sisäisen viestinnän.
  • Poelman, Delphine (2009)
    The main purpose of this Master's Thesis is to discover if operative-level staff members perceptions of internal communication in a company are associated with their perceptions of the company s managers. The empirical data has been collected through qualitative research interviews with six operative-level staff members and the manager of the Internal Communication Department in a company named Société des Transports Intercommunaux de Bruxelles (STIB) in Belgium for the purpose of writing my Bachelor thesis in 2004. STIB is a public service organization that runs public transportation (metro, tramway, and bus) in the area of Brussels, in Belgium and employs about 6000 individuals. The interviews were made in French in autumn 2004. This study explores the following research question: "Are there associations between operative-level staff members perceptions of internal communication at STIB and their perceptions of the company s managers?" In order to answer the above mentioned research question, this study describes and compares how operative-level staff members perceive internal communication at STIB and how they perceive managers at STIB. Moreover, these perceptions are analysed through Clampitt and Downs (1993) Communication Satisfaction Categories. When considering the results of this research, it can be concluded that there are similarities between the way operative-level staff members perceive internal communication at STIB and the way they assess managers. It seems that when communication is assessed in a positive way, managers who are considered to be involved in the communication process are assessed in a positive way as well. Negative assessment of communication is associated with negative assessment of those managers who are perceived as being involved in the specific communication process evaluated. It could be added that the more specific the information transmitted is, the more it is associated with the perception of closer managers. Consequently, the positive assessment of information concerning specific job requirements as well as specific rules is similar with the positive assessment of direct-line managers. The negative assessment of transmission of downward communication and information that is more general and relates to more general decisions and rules is associated with the negative perception of middle-level managers. Finally, the perceived lack of horizontal and overall communication in the organization seems to be associated with negative perception of the upper-level managers and the CEO of the company.
  • Greatrex, Katherine (2000)
    The focus of this paper is upon state-led international cultural co-operation and policy-making. To this end it is asking: What is the shape of the arena of state-led, international cultural relations, how is it connected to the broader context of ‘international relations’ and under what sorts of policies is it controlled? More specifically, the aims of this study are: 1. To develop an initial theory of this relatively unexamined subject area and, on a more specific level, 2. To observe recent trends in state-led international cultural activity and policy-making in Europe and, in particular, in Canada. A qualitative approach is used in discussing a variety of theoretical texts, internet sources and in analysing a survey of European cultural experts. The theoretical analysis suggests, most importantly, that states do not and cannot act as cohesive actors in determining their international cultural policies. This is in no small part due to the wide variety of pressures which affect and influence the formation of these policies: cultural idealism, foreign policy and security issues, trade concerns, domestic politics and so on. In addition to these constant pressures, each varying in significance over time, the survey of cultural experts also suggests that state-led international cultural policies and co-operation across Europe and Canada are being affected by a common set of ‘d-trends’: desétatisation, de-institutionalisation, de-diplomatisation, and de-nationalisation (due to globalisation and European integration/NAFTA). The bulk of the theory for this paper is drawn from, among others, the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu. Data has been drawn from a wide variety of sources, most significantly from the CIRCLE survey of cultural experts and from Canadian government websites.
  • Narva, Laura (2012)
    This Master's thesis examines the way in which a government creates and manages the international image of a national leader. In this study, the term national leader refers to those heads of government and heads of state that actively exercise executive power and are the main representatives of the country abroad. Two streams of theory are merged in this study: public relations and public diplomacy. Public diplomacy refers to the way a government communicates with foreign publics in an attempt to cultivate and manage its international reputation. Scholars have studied public diplomacy extensively and argued that it could benefit from public relations techniques. This study is a qualitative case study of German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The empirical part of this study investigates the kind of communication strategy the German government has for creating and managing an international image for the Chancellor. The primary research data of this study is based on responses obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine communication practitioners working in the German government. In addition, the official website of the Chancellor serves as supplementary research material. Both the interviews and the Chancellor's website were analyzed with thematic analysis. The findings of the study show that a national leader can be presented internationally without any strategic planning. While German government communication officials concurred with the fact that the Chancellor affects the overall reputation of Germany, the officials did not have an explicit communication strategy for presenting Chancellor Merkel abroad. Rather than strategically creating a certain image for Chancellor Merkel, the focus of their international communication is on government policies and presenting the country as a whole. Despite this, an implicit code of conduct for the presentation of the Chancellor was visible from the research data. In other words, key messages, publics and communication activities were identifiable. Thus this thesis is a situation analysis of the way Chancellor Merkel is presented internationally. Perhaps this study will encourage future communication practitioners and researchers to discover new ways to create and manage the image of a national leader abroad. The most important references are the works of Ostrowski, D. (2010) Die Public Diplomacy der deutschen Auslandsvertretungen weltweit. Theorie und Praxis der deutschen Auslandsöffentlichkeitsarbeit; Nye, J. S. (2008) Public Diplomacy and Soft Power; Signitzer, B. & Coombs, T. (1992) Public Relations and Public Diplomacy: Conceptual Convergences; Heath, R. (ed.) (2001) Handbook of Public Relations, and Weintraub-Austin, E. & Pinkleton, B. (2001) Strategic Public Relations Management.
  • Pohjanpalo, Maria (Unigrafia, 2015)
    This research investigates the interrelation of international investments and the environment. It is a study on fragmentation and how to potentially overcome it in practice through what is called a spectrum approach, in the field of international investment law and international environmental law. In particular the focus is on foreign direct investments. Three research questions are posed. First, why is there an increasing amount of investor-state disputes involving an environmental aspect? Second, is it possible to identify common elements, particular problems and specific rules regarding foreign direct investments which have an environmental aspect, from different sources of law, while also taking into account the element of liability? Finally, how could the risk of conflicts, disputes and any resulting liability be minimized? After the introductory Part I, Part II focuses first on the detailed substance of the research topic, placing it then in the theoretical framework, followed by systemizing the growing and changing regulatory and quasi-regulatory framework of it. In Part III on implementation, relevant existing cases are examined. A practical implementation exercise of the identified rules and elements to a foreign investment in the forest sector is included, to investigate if and how the identified rules and elements would apply. Finally in Part IV discussion on future developments and concluding remarks on the findings are presented. The end product of the research is a compact and practical indicative checklist for states and investors that could serve as a tool in order to minimize as far as possible the risk of disputes and liability. The study demonstrates that due to the fragmented nature of international law, in order to facilitate the functioning of the system there is not one, single solution available. This is particularly the case in relation to the third and final research question. Instead, actions by different actors, in different contexts, levels and temporal phases are required, while ensuring a sufficient dialogue and information flow between these actors.
  • Lumperoinen, Maria (2013)
    Aim of this thesis is to find out about internationalising service companies and possible new market entry modes. This is a case study for UK based Turquoise Holiday Company, which is a luxury tour operator. Research problem is to find out if the case company has prerequisites for internationalising to Finnish, Swedish, and /or Norwegian markets. Internal, external and strategic factors are taken into consideration. Introduction defines service and clarifies the difference from manufactured product. Theory chapter presents different foreign market entry modes and internationalising strategies for service companies. Also internal, external and strategic factors affecting internationalisation are presented, and they are base for theoretical framework. This study is a qualitative case study. Evaluation is based on publicly available information both externally from the market and internally from the case company. Thesis shows that many things are to be taken into consideration when a service company is thinking about international expansion. Travel industry in general is growing constantly but also going through changes that might change the business significantly. At the moment financial resources and language skills of the personnel of the case company are the internal factors that are limiting internationalising. Scandinavian countries are relatively wealthy though, which is encouraging external factor. Although Finland, Sweden and Norway are doing quite well in economic circumstances in Europe the markets are small in size compared to the UK. The most interesting internationalisation target could be Norway due to its high level of economy. Population of the country is not very big but also competition seems to be low. As this study does not include any practical market research it is suggested to conduct one if the company is willing to deepen its knowledge of consumer attitudes and market potential of the countries. Also the Turquoise Holiday Company should find out its possibilities of financial resources and educating personnel for foreign markets.
  • Zhang, Yijing (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    With far-reaching impacts of economic globalization, the internationalization process of the forest industry has been accelerated. Particularly since the 1990s, internationalization has progressed intensively through industry consolidation and production relocation. Within the wood and wood products sector, for example, world inward foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks increased from 20 billion US dollars in 1990 to more than 120 billion US dollars in 2011. Forest industry firms have geographically shifted their operations from traditional production bases in developed countries to emerging Asian and Latin American countries. The share of FDI flows into developing and transition economies has grown from 18.8% in 1990 - 1992 to 73% in 2009 - 2011. The internationalization process of the forest industry has induced multifaceted concerns from economic, strategic, and environmental perspectives at both country and corporate level. However, the actual consequences of such expansion are still largely unknown. It is therefore important to study the current status of the forest industry s internationalization process and to explore drivers and goals of this process. The theoretical background of this thesis is mainly based on the internationalization and FDI theories portrayed in international business literature. A systematic literature review, a qualitative case study and cross-sectional regression analysis have been applied methodologically. China is used as an example in two of the empirical studies, as it is the most attractive FDI destination in the global forest sector. This thesis conceptually depicts a framework of the systematic internationalization process of the forest industry. Empirically, three themes are identified as focal topics; namely corporate financial performance, corporate sustainability, and corporate entry mode choice. Managerial implications derived from this thesis indicate that (1) firms could aim for either internationalized or domestic-oriented operational strategies to pursue higher financial performance; (2) firms should implement social and environmental assessment to maintain sustainable overseas operations; and (3) firms ought to accumulate operational experience and familiarity with local culture before investing in a wholly owned subsidiary. In general, this thesis concludes that internationalization is a dynamic process of pursuing sustainable development to tackle physical forest resource constraints, socio-economic challenges, and corporate operational risks at the global operations scale. Topics related to the analysis of new innovative products, collaboration with supporting industries, and the consideration of sustainability as corporate core competitive advantages are worthy of future research aiming to analyze the further internationalization process of the forest industry.
  • Mohammad Hossein Zadeh Hashemi, Hoora (2014)
    The first migration due to severe changes in climate date back to centuries ago. However, in the past, climatic factors have not been as significant as the climate change we are currently experiencing. Sea level rise, frequency of the extreme weather, and drought and water scarcity are main impacts of climate change on humans’ lives. In most vulnerable places, these effects lead to disasters which may force millions of inhabitants to leave their usual homelands. Some studies estimate that over the course of this century, more than 200 million people will be displaced, temporarily or permanently, as a result of climate change. This thesis primarily aims to demonstrate that whether the existing refugee protection system is able to provide protection for climate change refugees. Given the specific requirements of the protection of this emerging group of refugees, this thesis demonstrates that the current refugee protection instruments, both in a regional or international level, seem incapable to cover climate change-induced displaced persons. Therefore, a number of different academic proposals have been drafted to provide protection for climate change refugees. Amendment to the existing instruments, adaptation of a protocol, or creation of an independent framework are common categories of these protective proposals. As the second question of this thesis, a few numbers of proposed frameworks are examined to point out their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Rakocevic, Nina (2008)
    The new open economy macroeconomics (NOEM) represents the leading development in international economics. Its development began in the early 1990s. The objective of NOEM models is to overcome the limitations of the Mundell-Fleming model and in the same time preserve the empirical wisdom and close connection to policy debates of the traditional literature. The framework of NOEM models consists of general equilibrium framework featuring nominal rigidities in imperfect competition in the markets for goods or labour, in order to reconsider the conventional views on the transmission of monetary and exchange rate shocks. In my master thesis I will research two NOEM models. Redux model is developed by Obstfeld and Rogoff (1995) and the PTM model by Betts and Devereux (2000). The thesis is based purely on theoretical models and the methods applied are of mathematical nature. No mathematical programme was used. The results are presented in Appendices. The most important methods used are log-linear approximation as well utility function maximization. In addition, numerous derivations and substitutions were used in order to derive the results of the research. In this thesis researched two issues. The first issue concerns the transmission effects of monetary policies in two different environments. One is set in the open economy of two countries where the law of one price (LOP) and purchasing power parity (PPP) holds. The other is set in the environment where the pricing-to-market (PTM) is present. The flexible exchange rate dynamics in these two settings makes the results strikingly different and sheds light on the exchange rate pass-through. My first research question is how the transmission mechanisms of monetary policies operate in open economies with flexible exchange rates. I analysed how the monetary disturbances affect the movements of major macroeconomic variables in the economic system: consumption, output, current account, and terms of trade, real and nominal interest rate. The second issue touches the welfare analysis which can be performed as a result the established groundwork for credible policy evaluation. My second research question is what the welfare effects of monetary policies are. I will analyse the social welfare which is constructed as a sum of consumer surplus and producers' profit. This will be done in two environments already explained above. The idea behind this analysis is to assess the international spill over of monetary policy. The results of the analysed models yield different conclusions. The presence of pricing-to-market produces in many aspects opposing results to the ones where the law of one prices holds. Exchange rate volatility is higher, which implies that it reduces the expenditure switching effects as oppose to increasing them with LOP and PPP. International transmission of macroeconomic shocks with PTM has reversing ordering: deviations from PPP make consumption co-movements fall and the elimination of expenditure switching of the exchange rate makes the co-movements of output between countries higher too. In terms of welfare, PPP raises welfare for both countries while with PTM, monetary policy is a beggar-thy-neighbour instrument (i.e. benefits of Home country at the expense of the Foreign.
  • Pawli, Johan (2005)
    Utgångspunkten för en rationalistisk planeringsteori har varit att lokala enheter som förverkligar planering i enlighet med teorin borde uppvisa bättre resultat än enheter som inte gör det. Tidigare forskning har påvisat flera orsaker till att den rationalistiska planeringen på lokal nivå inte uppvisar förväntade resultat. Kritik har speciellt riktats mot bristande beaktning av verksamhetsmiljön. Polisförvaltningen är organisatoriskt hierarkisk och målsättningarna för verksamheten koordineras av högsta ledningen. I dagsläge förverkligas planeringen inom polisförvaltningen genom resultatstyrning och resultatplanering. Balanced Scorecard används som kompletterande instrument. Resultatstyrningen följer ett rationalistiskt planeringsideal varför även en del av polisförvaltningens lokala enheter, häraderna kan förväntas kämpa med besvär att inom planeringsprocessen tillräckligt beakta den lokala verksamhetsmiljön. Då kriminaliteten i dagsläge överskrider nationella gränser torde även behov av att beakta internationell verksamhetsmiljö uppstå. I avhandlingen försöker jag finna lösningar på hur häraderna bättre kan söka efter lösningar som klarar av att handskas med förändringstakten i verksamhetsmiljön samt finna nödvändig information för att förbättra sin verksamhet i förhållande till den styva resultatstyrningen. För att kunna göra detta lyfter jag fram polisinrättningen i Helsingfors härad som exempel och ser på hur häradens strategiska planering kompletterar resultatstyrningen. Avhandlingen syftar till att lyfta fram olika instrument som kan bidra häraderna till att faktiskt finna lösningar som möjliggör en framåtriktad inställning till planering. Argumenten som lyfts fram är anpassningsbara gällande härader överlag. Sammanfattningsvis kommer jag fram till att det existerande systemet med resultatstyrning och resultatplanering uppfyller kraven för en rationalistisk planering och på det stora hela tillfredställer de flesta häraders informationsbehov gällande förändringar inom internationell verksamhetsmiljö. För sådana härader som avviker mycket från en "genomsnitts härad" p.g.a. sin geografiska placering eller speciella särdrag existerar det ett behov av metoder eller instrument som bättre och snabbare påvisar hur förändringarna inom internationell verksamhetsmiljö kan tänkas påverka verksamheten. Genom att själva beakta förändringar inom internationell verksamhetsmiljö kan häraden bättre uppfylla det rationalistiska planeringsidealet. Centrala källor för avhandlingen är Göran Djupsunds "Illusioner om planering" och Krister Ståhlbergs "Beslut och politik".
  • Rouhiainen, Juha (2002)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan pörssiyritysten www-sivujen sijoittajaviestintää Internet-olosuhteissa. Työn alussa rakennetaan malli, jolla sijoittajaviestintää www-sivuilla voitaisiin hahmottaa Internet-olosuhteissa. Empiirisessä osassa tutkitaan laadullista sisällön erittelyä soveltamalla, miten kymmenen Helsingin Pörssiin listautuneen teknologiayrityksen www-sijoittajapalvelut vastaavat mallin vaatimuksia. Sijoittajaviestintä Internetissä käsitetään tässä työssä kohtaamisen kautta, jolloin se vaikuttaa yrityksen maineeseen sijoittajayhteisössä. Työssä rakennettavaa mallia varten johdetaan kahdeksan ulottuvuutta, joihin www-sijoittajasivujen katsotaan perustuvan. Ulottuvuudet ovat peräisin sijoittajaviestinnän yleisistä sisällöistä, Internetin ominaisuuksista sekä Internet-olosuhteiden vaatimuksista. Sijoittajaviestinnän käytänteistä nousevat malliin taloudellisen tiedon ulottuvuus, tulevaisuusulottuvuus, corporate governance -ulottuvuus ja rikastuttamisulottuvuus. Internetin ominaisuuksista mallia varten johdetut ulottuvuudet ovat multimediaulottuvuus ja käytettävyysulottuvuus. Internet-olosuhteilla tarkoitetaan tutkimuksessa tulkintaa olosuhteista, joissa yritysten nähdään nykyään yhä enemmän toimivan. Olosuhteita määrittävät uudet yhteisöt, läpinäkyvyys, lisääntynyt julkisuus ja muutosalttius. Internet-olosuhteiden vaatimuksista johdetaan malliin kaksisuuntaisuuden ja reaaliaikaisuuden ulottuvuudet. Rakennettu malli otetaan käyttöön empiirisessä osassa, jossa tutkitaan Aldata Solutionin, Comptelin, Elcoteq Networkin, Elisa Communicationsin, Instrumentariumin, Nokian, Perloksen, Soneran, Telesten ja Tietoenatorin www-sijoittajapalveluja. Sivuja tutkitaan laadullisen sisällön erittelyn menetelmällä, jota sovelletaan www-ympäristöön. Yritykset saavat jokaisen kahdeksan ulottuvuuden osalta vertailuluvun, joka kertoo, miten hyvin ulottuvuudet on sivuilla otettu huomioon. Kaikkien yritysten sijoittajapalvelua kuvataan lopuksi havaintokuvioilla, joiden kenttien koko määräytyy ulottuvuuksien vertailulukujen pohjalta. Tutkimuksessa onnistuttiin erityisesti mallin rakentamisen osalta. Sijoittajaviestinnän käsittäminen kohtaamisena www-sivuilla antaa hedelmällisen näkökulman sijoittajasuhteisiin perustuvan luottamuksen ja kaksisuuntaisen viestinnän kysymyksiin. Samalla huomioidaan kohtaamisten ja niistä syntyvien tulkintojen kautta rakentuva yrityksen maine. Empiirisessä osassa on eritelty sisällön erittelyn avulla tarkasteltujen yritysten www-sijoittajapalvelun sisältöä mallin ulottuvuuksien mukaan. Yritysten sijoittajasivuja on vertailtu ulottuvuuksien indeksilukuihin perustuvilla vertailuluvuilla. Saatujen tulosten perusteella näyttää siltä, että www-sijoittajasivuilla yritysten taloudellisesta asemasta kertova tieto on hyvin edustettu, kun taas multimedia- ja rikastuttamisulottuvuuden sisällöt ovat suppeampia. Pääsääntöisesti liikevaihdoltaan suuremmat yritykset näyttävät panostaneen sijoittajasivuihinsa pienempiä enemmän. Toki poikkeuksiakin löytyy.
  • Tamrakar, Byoma (2003)
    Development theories have undergone several changes over the decades. During the 50s and 60s industrialisation was the primary concept of development. This model of development accentuates on replanting the historical experiences of the developed countries to developing countries for the purposes of high economic growth. Therefore to promote growth, strategies directed towards industrialisation were perused intensely. It became evident in the 70s that industrialization largely failed to improve standard of living for majority of population and benefited a certain segment of a society that was already well off leaving the majority of the population behind in developing countries. Being heavily criticised for the approach of industrialisation, development scholars felt the need for more humanitarian and welfare oriented approach. Therefore, the concept ‘sustainable development’ was invented which is highly emphasised in all development strategies and programmes currently. Sustainable social development is the concept of this study and it is defined in terms of improved healthcare, education and overall social wellbeing. It also emphasises on participation in public domains and accessing recourses and services. The role of information and communication in development has always been highly emphasized however approaches of information and communication have been changing over the years. Today, more flexible and two-way information and communication approaches for development are highly emphasised in development strategies. In this context, Internet is perceived as a perfect tool for two-way information and communication. Internet is also seen as having great potentials to overcome the vast problems of developing countries and to enhance sustainable social development. The main objective of this study is to find out whether Internet serves as a tool for sustainable social development in a developing country like Nepal. The main theoretical assumption is that Internet provides it’s users with a gateway to improve their healthcare, education and social wellbeing. Furthermore, it also provides improved accessibility to resources and services, and to participate in decision making process. Therefore, the users should use Internet to have access to the above mentioned purposes. The main findings of this study suggests that there are a very few Internet users in Nepal and the users represent mainly rich and well educated elite class of the society. In general, majority of the users, do not use Internet for the purposes of social development in Nepal. In the Nepalese context, there are too many factors preventing Internet use in wider scope; high costs of access, high illiteracy rate, poor infrastructure, poor economy etc. Therefore, Internet is unlikely to serve as a tool of social development until the steps are taken to improve the preventing factors. The empirical data of this study was collected by field interviews in Nepal. The other sources are various literatures on development and communication.
  • Savola, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This article-based dissertation examines the involuntary role of Internet connectivity providers in copyright enforcement in the EU, and in particular injunctions ordering user-end providers to block access to websites facilitating infringement. The main method is doctrinal legal scholarship supplemented by a socio-legal study of legal policy, seeking answers to the why questions underlying the law. Copyright enforcement measures using providers include website blocking, disconnecting the website or the user, subscriber information disclosure, and notice or graduated response mechanisms. There are also dozens of other options for enforcement, and the IPR holder may select the optimal one(s). In international settings, this can be further optimised by the choice of jurisdiction, the applicable law, and characterisation of the infringement. These provide opportunities for gaming the system . Enforcement proceedings are problematic because typically only the copyright holder and possibly the provider are represented in court. Nobody is responsible for arguing for the users or website operators. The court should take their interests into account on its own motion. Unfortunately, many courts have not yet recognised this responsibility. Even this dual role as both the defender of unrepresented parties and judge is less than ideal and improvement is called for. All the enforcement mechanisms must be compatible with EU fundamental rights, as well as the national ones. A proportionality evaluation procedure is suggested, consisting of identifying the context, the interests of different parties, and applicable principles as well as formulating the evaluation criteria and applying them in a proportionality test. In the test, the legitimacy of the objective, suitability for the purpose, necessity and balancing need to be critically assessed. The underlying goal of copyright enforcement has implications for how the scale tilts. Ineffective enforcement mechanisms can be more easily accepted if the goal of symbolic, educational or politically motivated enforcement is deemed legitimate. However, if the goal is to decrease the impact of infringement, greater efficiency and economically quantifiable results may be required. A proportionate mechanism does not necessarily exist in any particular case. Current enforcement legislation is a product of heavy lobbying by the copyright industry. This has led to the legislators being inundated with copyright ideology and proprietarian bias. In consequence, the legislation fails to take the more general public policy interests and the rights of others into account adequately. The pressure is on rationalising rather than expanding the role of connectivity providers. This background context also calls for a critical approach to interpreting the law. Such an approach might help in achieving more rational and balanced justifications and conclusions.