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  • Westerholm, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The tasks of this research are to identify different types of loneliness among academic students, clarify what kind of meaning loneliness is given in the students life and what kind of interpretation repertoires the student is using when talking about loneliness. In the study was identified social loneliness, emotional loneliness, fenomenological loneliness, normativ loneliness, existential loneliness and physical loneliness. Typestories were constructed on the basis of Gergen and Gergens (1988) categorization of development of the plot of the story in regressive, progressive and stable plots. Students used following interpretation repertoires talk about fighting, talk about beeing a looser, talk about isolateing herself and talk about beeing separeted. The data consists of online diskussions of loneliness on Nyytis website. Recommended measures are to improve affinity/fellowship among students and to develop activity which could prevent loneliness
  • Tian, Li (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Juurikkala, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The purpose of this study is to explore, interpret and describe Ghanaian home economics education. The data for the study were collected during my university exchange in Ghana in the spring 2014. The theoretical background focuses on learning and teaching and cultural relatedness in those two phenomena. It also sets Ghana in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa with the focus on Ghanaian education. This study describes the contents and the implementations of home economics education through a cultural perspective. Methods. The data were collected using three different methods. It consists of interviews of three local home economics teachers and a learning assignment for 22 pupils which was implemented in a home economics class. Also, the data were produced by observing home economics classes in two different junior high schools for six weeks. The data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the study, home economics appeared as a subject that increases well-being. From the teachers’ point of view home economics has far-reaching impacts for pupils’ futures. The teachers had an urge to make pupils learn. The role of a teacher was significant in the classes and the interaction between pupils and teacher quite one-sided. The inadequate resources for teaching made it difficult to teach with diverse teaching methods. The results of the learning assignment reflected the contents and the implementations of home economics education. The answers were many-sided but less creative. Culture was strongly present in everything. The study does not qualify for broad generalizations about Ghanaian home economics education. However, culture and its impacts on teaching and learning are important to take into consideration in every educational context.
  • Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sea ice, at its maximum extent, is one of the largest biomes on Earth. In addition to the polar oceans, it covers extensive sea areas at lower latitudes such as the Baltic Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk. During ice formation, organic and inorganic components in the parent seawater are concentrated into saline brines within the ice, which serve as a habitat for diverse auto- and heterotrophic organisms, including bacteria. Sea-ice bacteria are responsible for many biogeochemical processes, such as decomposition of particulate organic matter, recycling of dissolved organic matter and remineralization of nutrients, analogously to bacterially driven biogeochemical processes in the water column. Since bacterial groups vary by their metabolic traits and participation in biogeochemical processes, knowledge of the bacterial community structure and its seasonal variation is essential for an understanding of ice biogeochemistry. This thesis characterises sea-ice bacterial communities during ice formation and during the winter/spring transition phase when the community composition is poorly known. Bacterial communities in Arctic and Baltic sea ice during the winter/spring transition were studied and compared. In addition, the effect of the dissolved organic matter regime on bacterial community formation was investigated in an experimental sea-ice system with North Sea water. The main methods applied were terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or Illumina Miseq sequencing together with bacterial production and abundance measurements. During the early stages of sea-ice formation, the bacterial communities were similar to the parent water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the initial sea-ice bacterial community composition. After congealment of the sea ice, the bacterial communities changed towards communities typical of sea ice in spring. During the winter/spring transition, members of the classes Flavobacteriia (formerly Flavobacteria), Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were predominant both in Baltic and Arctic sea ice. The Baltic and Arctic sea-ice bacterial communities were significantly different; however, a few members of common sea-ice bacterial genera, such as Polaribacter and Shewanella, were closely related, pointing to similar selection in ice, regardless of differences in the prevailing environmental conditions. In the experimental system, the bacterial communities were able to respond to altered substrate availability immediately after ice formation. This indicates successful adaptation of sea-ice bacteria to major shifts in temperature and salinity during ice formation. The results of this thesis suggest that sea-ice bacterial community formation and dynamics is defined by a combination of changes in environmental conditions during sea-ice maturation and its associated substrate availability, as well as resource competition. The sea-ice habitat provides an example of the enormous capacity of bacteria to adapt to changing environments and how minor members of the bacterial community can become predominant when environmental conditions change.
  • Lüscher, Heidi (nykyisin Heidi Grahn) (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
  • Pankko, Emmi-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The literature review deals with the principles of Total Diet Studies (TDS) and the implementations of the method in scientific literature. In addition the TDS Exposure project and the role of the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira in that was introduced. Also the challenges set by TDS for trace element analytics was discussed. In the literature review the chemical and nutritional properties and quantities in foods of manganese, copper, zinc, selenium and cadmium were introduced. Mn, Cu and Se were included in the TDS Exposure project in Evira and Zn and Cd were interesting elements in the routine analysis in the Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit. The aim of the research was to reassure the reliability of the ICP-MS-method by revalidating the method and to examine the possibility for lowering the LODs and LOQs in the perspective of TDS. In this thesis the quantities of Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd in milk, meat and vegetable samples were analysed with validated inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on the analytical results values for trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ) and measurement uncertainties were calculated for each element and matrix. The measurement uncertainties were calculated with the MUKit-software which is uncertainty calculation software targeted for analytical laboratories. The trueness values for the examined elements were 86–115 %. The repeatability and reproducibility values were 2–10 % and 1–11%, respectively. Based on the revalidation the LODs and LOQs of Mn and Cd could be lowered and for Cu, Zn and Se the LODs and LOQs could be retained. The measurement uncertainties for Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd were 18–22 %, 32–46 %, 11–32 %, 29–35 % and 19–58 %, respectively. The uncertainties of Mn, Cu and Se could be used in reporting of the results. The uncertainties for Zn and Cd should be recalculated taking into account the realistic quantities of these elements in foods. Also more concurrent samples should be included. With the updated validation parameters and LOQs more compatible risk assessment can be performed based on the routine measurements of the laboratory. The results can also be used for a potential TDS project in the future.
  • Ristimäki, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Aims: The recent conversations about disappearing family meals, mental problems of the youngsters and family meals´ protective effect on youngsters problems have been the base of this study. The main aim of this study is to find out, what kind of position family meals do have in the youngsters´lives. Study questions are: 1. What kind of conceptions youngsters have of family meals? 2. What kind of hands-on experience youngsters have about family meals? 3. How youngsters feel family meals on a emotional level? a. Are meals positive moments with the family or do they just limit timetables? b. Do the youngsters need family meals if they do not have those in their families? Why? Why not? Methods: The data was collected using stimulated recall -interviews and basic themed interviews. The data was collected from thirteen 8th graders from Pirkanmaa and Kanta-Häme. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusion: The youngsters´ consepts of the meals and the family meals were quite traditional, assuming that those are warm, varied and eaten with company. The situation of the family meals was good and those were eaten nearly every day in the most of the families. The youngsters thought that the family meals were important social moments with the family and they were able to talk about important things with the family during the meals. They also felt that the daily eating rythm was good and they did not felt that the meals would have been somehow restrictive. Even so that the pupils felt the family meals were important, the pupil whose family did not eat family meals did not long those meals. He felt that he was able to share his thoughts and experiences also in other ways. It is important that youngsters have this channel of communication.
  • Nordgren, Hanna (2013)
    Tämä tutkimus sai alkunsa kiinnostuksesta selvittää, eroavatko suomalaisten ja ruotsalaisten käsitykset hyvästä johtajuudesta toisistaan ja jos, miten eroavaisuudet näkyvät johtajien itsensä omaa johtajuuttaan koskevissa kuvauksissa. Aluksi tutkimuksessa keskitytään kartoittamaan, millaisia eroja suomalaisessa ja ruotsalaisessa johtajuudessa on olemassa olevan tutkimusperinteen nojalla. Kirjallisuuden perusteella käy ilmi, että kulttuuri, viestintä ja johtajuus kietoutuvat toisiinsa niin olennaisesti, ettei yhdestä voi puhua ilman toista. Suomalaisessa ja ruotsalaisessa kulttuurissa on paljon yhteistä kuten matala valtaetäisyys, tasa-arvoisuus ja korkea tarve välttää tulevaisuutta koskevaa epävarmuutta. Viestintä on molemmissa kulttuureissa luonteeltaan kaksisuuntaista ja sanallisella viestinnällä on suurempi painoarvo kuin nonverbaalilla viestinnällä. Erojakin kuitenkin on: suomalaiset ovat tyypillisesti suoraviivaisempia, kun taas ruotsalaiset korostavat keskustelun merkitystä. Johtajuuden kontekstissa kulttuurierot voivat johtaa ristiriitoihin, sillä suomalainen johtajuus on luonteeltaan autoritäärisempää kuin ruotsalainen. Ruotsalaiset painottavat suomalaisia enemmän muodollisten sääntöjen ja käytäntöjen noudattamista ja konsensuksen merkitystä. Suomalaisten päätöksenteossa tyypillistä taas on kirjoittamattomien sääntöjen noudattaminen ja se, että etenkin ristiriitatilanteissa johtajan sana on ”laki”. Empiirinen tutkimusaineisto koostuu 120 suomalaisen ja 120 ruotsalaisen keskijohdon tehtävissä toimivan henkilön LinkedIn-profiileista. LinkedIn on verkossa toimiva rekrytointi- ja ammatillinen verkostoitumispaikka. Aineiston analyysimenetelmänä on käytetty etnografista sisällönanalyysiä, joka tähtää sekä kvantitatiivisiin että kuvaileviin tuloksiin. Vaikka aineiston koodaus pohjaa teoriasta nouseviin luokkiin kuten perinteisessäkin sisällönanalyysissä, etnografisessa lähestymistavassa olennaista on myös se, mikä jää etukäteen valittujen luokkien ulkopuolelle. Analyysin tuloksena syntyy siis myös uusia käsiteluokkia. Analyysin eoreettinen viitekehys perustuu GLOBE-tutkimusprojektin (House et al. 2004) mukaisiin kuuteen globaaliin johtajuuden ulottuvuuteen. Nämä ovat ulottuvuudet ovat 1. karismaattinen/arvopohjainen (charismatic/value-based) johtaminen, 2. tiimisuuntautunut (team oriented) johtaminen, 3. osallistava (participative) johtaminen, 4. ihmissuuntautunut (humane oriented) johtaminen, 5. autonominen (autonomous) johtaminen sekä 6. itsesuojeleva (self-protective) johtaminen. Teorian ulkopuolelta aineistosta hahmottuu myös neljä uutta johtajuuden ulottuvuutta. Nämä ovat monimuotoisuuteen suuntautunut (diversiteettisuuntautunut) johtajuus, valmentava johtajuus, muutosjohtajuus sekä käytäntökeskeinen (organisoiva) johtajuus. Yleisesti ottaen ruotsalaiset profiilit sisältävät enemmän kuvailua kuin suomalaiset. Myös kontakteja ja muiden antamia suosituksia on lukumääräisesti enemmän. Kuvien käytössä ei ole merkittävää eroa. Johtajuuden kuvailussa yhteistä molemmille on karismaattisen/arvopohjaisen johtajuuden sekä tiimisuuntautuneen johtamisen vahva korostaminen. Suurimmat eroavaisuudet liittyvät teoriapohjaisista ulottuvuuksista ihmissuuntautuneeseen johtamiseen ja teorian ulkopuolelta esiinnousseista kategorioista monimuotoisuuden johtamiseen, johtamiseen käytännöllisenä toimintana (organisointina), johtamiseen valmennuksena sekä johtajuuteen muutoksen liikkeelle panona ja hallitsemisena. Tulosten perusteella Suomessa ideaaleja johtajuuden ulottuvuuksia ovat karismaattinen/arvopohjainen johtajuus, tiimisuuntautunut johtajuus, monimuotoisuuden johtaminen sekä johtajuus mentorointina/valmennuksena. Johtajalta toivottuja ominaisuuksia ovat tehokkuus, suorituskeskeisyys, visionäärisyys ja päättäväisyys, kyky parantaa tiimin tehokkuutta ja tuloksia, kyky johtaa monimuotoisia, monikansallisia ja/tai maantieteellisesti hajanaisia tiimejä, kyky toimia alaisten valmentajana tai mentorina sekä taito hyödyntää muutosta organisaation kehittämisessä. Ruotsissa ideaaleja johtajuuden ulottuvuuksia taas ovat karismaattinen/arvopohjainen johtajuus, tiimisuuntautunut johtajuus, ihmissuuntautunut johtajuus sekä johtajuus käytännöllisenä toimintana. Hyvän johtajan ominaisuuksina pidetään innostavuutta, luovuutta, organisointitaitoa, visionäärisyyttä sekä ihmissuuntautuneisuutta ja hyviä sosiaalisia taitoja. Kaiken kaikkiaan empiiriset tutkimustulokset ovat linjassa aiemman tutkimusperinteen kanssa. Aineistossa kiehtovaa on se, että profiilit on tuotettu ”markkinointitarkoituksiin”. Aiemmin tällaiset tiedot olivat yksityisiä, ja lisäksi itsensä markkinoimista on perinteisesti pidetty erityisesti suomalaisille hankalana toimintana. Nyt tiedot ovat kenen tahansa helposti löydettävissä. Palvelun luonteen huomioiden voi olettaa, että profiilia kirjoittaessaan ainakin useimmat miettivät sisällön vetovoimaa työnantajan näkökulmasta, toisin sanoen markkinoivat itseään hyvinä työntekijöinä. Se, mitä ihmiset itsestään kertovat, kertonee jotain myös yhteiskunnallisista arvostuksista tai ainakin siitä, mitä ihmiset ajattelevat arvostettavan työelämässä. Mielenkiintoinen kysymys on myös se, mitä profiileissa jätetään sanomatta – esimerkiksi yli puolet suomalaisista ei tuonut millään tavoin esiin johtajan kykyjään eikä yhdessäkään analysoidussa profiilissa mainittu sanaa ”kunnianhimoinen”, vaikka kaikki tutkittavat henkilöt ovat ilmoittaneet olevansa kiinnostuneita uusista työtehtävistä.
  • Lahelma, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study examines the dynamics of the self and art in the context of the Symbolist art and aesthetics of the fin-de-siècle. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how the self and its relationship with the world were understood and experienced, and to explore how these conceptions of selfhood suggest parallels with questions of art and creativity in ways that continue to affect our perceptions of these issues even today. The decades around the turn of the twentieth century were a period of intensifying preoccupation with questions of subjectivity as the coherence and autonomy of the self were constantly being threatened in the rapidly modernizing world. This issue is examined through an analysis and discussions of artworks by the Finnish artists Pekka Halonen and Ellen Thesleff, the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, the Swedish author and artist August Strindberg, and the Danish artist Jens Ferdinand Willumsen. The artworks are considered as active participants in the discourses of the period and as sites of intellectual and artistic reflection. Self-portraits are the most obvious products of artistic self-examination, but the highly subjective attitude towards art indicates that in a way every work of art can be perceived as a self-portrait. Symbolism, therefore, constitutes a point in art history where old definitions of self-portraiture were no longer sufficient. Art came to be understood as a form of knowledge and a source of truth. Hence, the creative process turned into a method of self-exploration motivated by an attempt to transcend beyond everyday consciousness in order to achieve a heightened perception of the self and the world. At the same time, the focus of the artwork shifted towards an immaterial space of imagination. Hence, the work of art was no longer understood as a finite material object but rather as a revelation of an idea. The constant need for self-exploration was also related to an ever increasing questioning of traditional religiosity and a subsequent interest in religious syncretism, as well as in various mystical, spiritual, and occultist ideologies, which affected both the form and content of art. Subjectivity is often perceived as one of the defining features of Symbolist art. However, due to the content-oriented approach, which until recent years has dominated art historical research on Symbolism, the meaning of this subjective tendency has not been properly analysed. Although the emphasis on subjectivity obviously had a great impact on the content of the new art, which became increasingly concerned with mythological and fantastic material, it also worked on a more abstract level affecting the ways that the meaning and status of art were understood. The approach taken in this study is based on an idea of the interconnectedness of form and content. Through this critical perspective, this study takes part in an international current of research which seeks to redefine Symbolism and its relation to modernism.
  • Liikkanen, Karri-Jaakko (2013)
    Ideal observer theory is an attempt to solve the meta-ethical question: What does it mean that “x is right” or “x is good”? The starting point for the ideal observer theory can be dated to 1950s and to Roderick Firth’s article “Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer”. For example Adam Smith and David Hume can be seen as predecessors for this theory, but Firth was the first to address this theory fully. The answer to the meta-ethical question stated above is the following. We define a being that is omniscient with respect to non-ethical facts, he is omnipercipient, he is disinterested, he is dispassionate, he is consistent, and he is in other respects normal. Then we call this being the ideal observer. The ideal observer’s reactions or dispositions determine whether the ethical situation is right or wrong. My interpretation of the ideal observer is that it constitutes a thought experiment. As Firth states, it is not necessary for the ideal observer to actually exist. It is enough that we imagine him. A lot of the critique on Firth’s theory seems to have missed this point. For example Richard Brandt, Thomas Carson, and Jonathan Harrison put a lot of effort into trying to fix the problem that is caused by the impossibility of the existence of such a being as the ideal observer. Another part of the theory, which caused a lot of the critique to sound an alarm, was the claim that the ideal observer is normal. Normality is, of course, hard to define as anything else than as a statistical tendency. Simply put, the ideal observer is normal in other respects, meaning that he possesses superhuman characteristics, but is still otherwise a regular person. In a meta-ethical thesis one must also attend to epistemological issues. In this thesis I claim that the ideal observer needs what I call “high level intuitionism”. This means that the “moral skills” the ideal observer possesses are analogous to the skills possessed by highly trained professional in their fields of work. I use as an example the Japanese chicken sexers. They train for years to acquire a very specific skill: to be able to identify the sex of a chick when it is only one day old. Expert chicken sexers are extremely good at this, but they cannot tell how they do it. This is high level intuitionism. The ideal observer must possess something similar to this. And this is not something one acquires automatically. Therefore I added reason as one crucial element of the ideal observer’s characteristics. High level intuitionism can be acquired with the help of reason. In addition to the more ambitious part of my thesis that I just described, I also studied basics of ethics. One of my main observations is that meta-ethics needs to deal with epistemology and therefore the line between ethics and epistemology wavers. This is clear if we take another look at the main question of this thesis: What does it mean that “x is right”? It is both ethical and epistemological question.
  • Hassinen, Seija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This research is based on the problems in secondary school algebra I have noticed in my own work as a teacher of mathematics. Algebra does not touch the pupil, it remains knowledge that is not used or tested. Furthermore the performance level in algebra is quite low. This study presents a model for 7th grade algebra instruction in order to make algebra more natural and useful to students. I refer to the instruction model as the Idea-based Algebra (IDEAA). The basic ideas of this IDEAA model are 1) to combine children's own informal mathematics with scientific mathematics ("math math") and 2) to structure algebra content as a "map of big ideas", not as a traditional sequence of powers, polynomials, equations, and word problems. This research project is a kind of design process or design research. As such, this project has three, intertwined goals: research, design and pedagogical practice. I also assume three roles. As a researcher, I want to learn about learning and school algebra, its problems and possibilities. As a designer, I use research in the intervention to develop a shared artefact, the instruction model. In addition, I want to improve the practice through intervention and research. A design research like this is quite challenging. Its goals and means are intertwined and change in the research process. Theory emerges from the inquiry; it is not given a priori. The aim to improve instruction is normative, as one should take into account what "good" means in school algebra. An important part of my study is to work out these paradigmatic questions. The result of the study is threefold. The main result is the instruction model designed in the study. The second result is the theory that is developed of the teaching, learning and algebra. The third result is knowledge of the design process. The instruction model (IDEAA) is connected to four main features of good algebra education: 1) the situationality of learning, 2) learning as knowledge building, in which natural language and intuitive thinking work as "intermediaries", 3) the emergence and diversity of algebra, and 4) the development of high performance skills at any stage of instruction.
  • Niinivaara, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    Tutkielmassa esitellään idean kontekstin kuvaaminen keinona tehostaa ideoiden välittymistä. Kontekstitieto kuvataan dokumentteihin liittyvänä metatietona, jota hallitaan dokumenteista riippumattomissa metatietokannoissa. Päämääränä pidetään sellaista idean kontekstin kuvausta, joka on riittävän ilmaisuvoimainen, mutta jonka luominen ei aseta järjestelmän käyttäjille ylivoimaista työtaakkaa. Tiedon välittyminen nähdään prosessina, johon perustuen idean konteksti jaetaan tuottokontekstiin, julkaisukontekstiin ja käyttökontekstiin. Tähän jakoon perustuen käsitellään metatiedon muodostaminen ja sisältö yksityiskohtaisesti yksittäisten metatietotietueen attribuuttien tasolla. Kontekstitiedon käyttökohteista tarkastellaan kontekstin visualisointia informaation visualisoinnin tekniikoihin perustuen, idean arvon mittaamista bibliometrisiä menetelmiä kehittämällä ja automaattista ideoiden valintaa tiedon suodatuksen menetelmien ja digitaalisten assistenttien avulla.
  • Calleja, Marianela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis proposes temporal conceptions that stem from philosophical inquiry, such as linear time, cyclical time and branching time, to then find a connection with the way music is structured and with musical meaning. I consider ontological and phenomenological approaches to the problem of time and music in order to demonstrate this. The central aim of this investigation is to build bridges and dissolve the opposition between time taken (clock time) vs. time evoked (conceptual time) in studies on time and music. Lewis Rowell, Jonathan Kramer, Jos Kunst and Alan Marsden s contributions are going to be taken as the main references. I consider the ontological approach as extremely literal since linearity, circularity and branching time are not explored there as concepts defining the meaning of music, but as abstract orders in time for music being processed, viewed from an exclusively technical point of view. In turn, the phenomenological approach does not generally link music to philosophical developments, it just describes general cultural conceptions of time. This thesis interprets the temporal modes of the phenomenological approach as highly coincident with the temporal ontologies in the ontological approach, as seen through developments in temporal logic. Temporal logic, a branch of the classical logic, is used as a methodological trigger. Here the work of Arthur Prior is going to be taken as reference. Temporal logic first formalises, then clarifies, and finally validates assertions expressing temporal beliefs. The hypothesis of this thesis, that temporal conceptions are expressed through music, having in this case the power to explain at least its primary meaning, uses temporal logic as a bridging symbolism. In this sense, a comparison between music and language within a broader analysis is undertaken, before developing ideas of logic and temporal logic within musical practice. In particular, in my study of some works by the Argentinian composer Alberto Ginastera (1916 1983), I illustrate the idea of a multi-temporality, i.e. the same composer works with several time structures already available by a cumulative process in the history of ideas. The thesis finds there is a special type of time in music─neither an exclusive musical time as a totally separate time species; nor Time in music, in an abstract de-subjectified view. Thus, a cooperative, synthetic position is defended. Secondly, music represents by means of its distinct elements something inherent to itself, which links with concepts of time (ideas), and by using these elements in certain conventional ways, displays culturally conditioned temporal meanings. Thirdly, music displays a kind of temporal logic, although an extended view comparing it with the exclusively linear logic of music as conceived by the formalist tradition in musicology. It is also an aesthetically oriented approach different from the temporal logic as applied in literal representations of music in computing areas. Finally, I argue for a new musical temporal mode, the actual branched time in music (in the sense of parallel times), through the addition of a theoretical background for this mode in musicological studies.
  • Kinnunen, Joonas (2015)
    Tutkimus selvittää vammaisliikkeen syntyä Suomessa ja vammaisten ihmisten sekä vammaisaktivistien ajatuksia seuraavista teemoista: Liikkuminen ja kuljetuspalvelut, kulttuuri ja kulttuurituotteet, koulutus ja koulutuspolitiikka, vammaisten taloudellinen asema ja työmarkkinat, vammaisten seksuaalisuus, rakentaminen, asuminen ja rakennettu ympäristö, vammaisten oikeudet sekä poliittinen vaikuttaminen. Lisäksi tarkastellaan identiteetin muodostumista vammaisuus-käsitteen ymmärryksen kautta ja integraation keskeistä merkitystä. Työn lähestymistapa on mikrohistoriallinen. Vammaisten oman näkökulman esiin nostamisen ja normaalia pienemmän tutkimuksen skaalan avulla vastataan vammaisuuden historian kolmeen haasteeseen: Alkuperäislähteiden puutteeseen, vammaisten oman näkökulman puutteeseen sekä keskittymiseen yhteen tiettyyn vammaan tai vammaryhmään. Näin tutkimukseni kiinnittyy uuteen vammaisuuden historiaan. Aineistoa käydään läpi laadullisen sisällönanalyysin menetelmällä keskittyen erityisesti aineiston sisäiseen teemoitteluun. Aineistolle on kontekstualisoinnin avulla esitetty lähdekriittisiä kysymyksiä ja tuloksia on peilattu niin suomalaiseen vammaishistoriaan kuin kansainväliseen vammaistutkimukseen. Päälähteenä on käytetty Kynnys ry:n julkaisemaa Tiedotuskynnys-lehteä vuosilta 1975–1978. Vammaiset ihmiset näkivät tutkimusajankohdan suurimmiksi ongelmiksi tarpeidensa ja näkökulmansa sivuuttamisen. Valtion ja kuntien ei koettu tarjoavan vammaisille tarpeeksi palveluita. Vammattomien hallitsemassa yhteiskunnassa ei ollut tarpeeksi tietoa vammaisten kokemuksista. Ratkaisuksi ongelmiin tarjottiin kokonaisvaltaista integraatiota, joka nähtiin yhtä aikaa sekä keinona että päämääränä. Integraatioperiaatteen mukaisesti vastustettiin ennen kaikkea erityiskoulujärjestelmää. Vammaisuuden kokemus oli tyypillisesti kuvaus yksilön kasvusta sorron ja eriarvoisuuden keskellä. Tiedotuskynnykseen kirjoittaneet vammaiset eivät lopulta kuitenkaan mieltäneet vammaisia täysin yhdeksi ryhmäksi. Lisäksi tehtiin ero vammaisen ja vammattoman välille. Käsitteellisesti kysymyksessä ei ollut vammattoman ihmisen rinnastaminen terveeseen, vaan vammaisen ihmisen rinnastaminen sairaaseen. Vammaisten kokemuksia ja minäkuvaa värittivätkin eniten oman vamman laatu ja siitä seuranneet kokemukset sosiaalisessa kanssakäymisessä vammattomien kanssa.
  • Telivuo, Julius (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The thesis discusses the concept of the idea and the problem of the ground of experience in Gilles Deleuze s (1925-1995) Difference and Repetition and Immanuel Kant s (1724-1804) Critique of Pure Reason. Deleuze develops Kant s notion of problematic ideas further and formulates a critique of the Kantian conditions of the possibility of experience. The method of the work is a critical and comparative study of the source literature. The research interest is systematic: the historico-exegetical remarks serve to motivate Deleuze s theory and the interpretations implied by it. They are not to be understood as partaking in an interpretive discussion concerning the philosophical canon as such. The principal object of interest in the thesis is Deleuze s theory of ideas. Deleuze adopts Kant s definition of ideas as problems or problematic principles and he constructs his theory in close connection with the conceptual apparatus of the Critique of Pure Reason. The thesis begins with a short survey of Plato s concept of ideas, to which both Deleuze and Kant refer. Through a critical study, the thesis seeks to support Deleuze s claim of the ideas as concrete problems and as the genetic principles of the objects of experience. Deleuze criticises the Kantian conditions of the possibility of experience for their externality with regard to real experience: Kant s conceptual and sensible conditions of experience are the internal conditions only of possible experience. On the other hand, transcending all possible experience, the ideas are for Kant fundamentally problematic concepts, which preclude all concrete interpretations. However, they too lend themselves to a legitimate employment as regulative principles of knowledge and experience. According to Deleuze, the Kantian conceptual structures determine experience only externally and do not constitute the ground for real experience. He maintains that this ground is to be conceived as a problematic, genetic structure. He elaborates this problematic nature of the idea with the mathematical concept of the differential, which paves the way to the formulation of ideas as problematic, yet internally determined in differential relations and immanent in relation to objects of experience. Thus for Deleuze, ideas are concrete, completely determined problems, which experience manifests only in its partial solutions.
  • Toikka, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The objective of my thesis was to develop knitting instruction that would guide the whole process from an idea to a ready product. The main focus of the instruction is to facilitate the design process with the techniques that I have developed using the theory of design thinking and studies of knitwear design. The method of the instruction is based on ready patterns and knitter’s graph paper of the right gauge. With the use of the right graph paper is easy to see in which row to increase or decrease the stiches. The instruction includes base patterns for three most common types of sleeves in sweaters, each one in four different sizes. The adaptation of the patterns to user’s own personal measures is explained in the methods among with the other techniques needed to design and execute a ready knit. The research task of my thesis is to develop comprehensible and usable instruction for designing and producing knit wear. The development process of this study was made in three parts. The first part was to obtain background information of existing instructions and literature of knitting. To deepen the knowledge I gathered user information to create criteria for a good knitting instruction. I used these criteria to develop a prototype of my own instructions. The second part of the study was to evaluate the prototype by its usability. With user experience I developed the first version of the instructions. The last part of the study was to make an expert evaluation, which I used to make a final product out of the prototype. Both the user and expert evaluation showed that the instruction made in this study was considered useful and motivational. The knitters chosen for the user evaluation commented the instruction from their personal point of views and the information revealed, which parts of the instruction were still unclear. The experts commented the instruction more than the knitters of user evaluation. Most of the comments concerned the structure and the terms used.
  • Vatanen, Heini (2014)
    Kiinan omat energiavarat eivät tyydytä teollisuuden kasvavia tarpeita, varsinkaan öljyn ja kaasun osalta. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, miten Kiina turvaa energiaresurssien saantiaan tulevaisuudessa ja toimii kansainvälisessä yhteisössä. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, pohjautuuko Kiinan politiikka materialistisiin tavoitteisiin vai noudattaako se ideologisia lähtökohtia. Viitekehyksenä ovat materialistiset ja ideatiiviset teoriakokonaisuudet. Aineistona on Kiinan vapaakauppa- ja investointisopimukset Chilen ja Myanmarin kanssa. Mailla on samanlainen suhde Kiinaan sillä erotuksella, että Myanmarilla on keskeinen rooli energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Sopimuksilla tutkitaan, kuinka energian tarve heijastuu Kiinan talous- ja ulkopolitiikkaan. Menetelmänä on teorialähtöinen sisällönanalyysi, jossa hyödynnetään teorian pohjalta laadittuja kriteerejä. Tulokset osoittavat, että Kiinan politiikka on materialistista niissä sopimuksissa, jotka ovat keskeisiä energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Selkeimmin tämä näkyy Kiinan ja Myanmarin investointisopimuksessa. Kiinan politiikka oli ideatiivista niissä sopimuksissa, jotka eivät ole keskeisiä energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Selkeimmin tämä näkyy Kiinan ja Chilen vapaakauppasopimuksessa. Kuitenkin kaikissa sopimuksissa on sekä materialistisia että ideatiivisia puolia. Ideatiiviset puolet luovat kehykset maiden väliselle suhteelle ja korostavat Kiinan anti-hegemoniatavoitetta. Materialistiset ja rationaalista energiaturvallisuuspolitiikkaa korostavat puolet varmistavat Kiinan teollisuuden ja talouskasvun intressit. Ideatiiviset ja materialistiset puolet muodostavat yhdessä tilanteen, joka tukee Kiinan intressejä energiaresurssien saannissa mutta myös antihegemoniatavoitteessa. Siten Kiina liittää sopimuksiinsa sekä materialistisia että ideatiivisia puolia, mutta painottaa niitä sopimuskohtaisesti omien tavoitteidensa pohjalta.