Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 7343-7362 of 25407
  • Piippo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare, acquired type of intracranial arteriovenous malformation that typically causes disturbing pulsating bruit and sometimes hemorrhage. Population-based long-term outcome studies of DAVFs are scarce due to the rarity of DAVFs. Increased knowledge of their patophysiology and natural history, and advances in treatment modalities have changed the management of the DAVFs during the last decades. In this study we assessed the epidemiology, special characteristics and long-term outcome of DAVF patients, and presented the evolution of management and results of different treatment modalities, focusing on the current and future role of microsurgery in DAVF treatment. A group of 283 DAVF patients admitted in Helsinki and Kuopio Departments of Neurosurgery in Finland, between 1944 and 2010, is one of the largest reported series in the world. The overall long-term clinical outcome of patients admitted between 1944-2006 was assessed. Long-term excess mortality was estimated using the relative survival ratio (RSR), which provides a measure of the excess mortality experienced by the patients compared with the general Finnish population matched by age, sex and calendar time. The results of microsurgical treatment of DAVFs were analyzed in patients treated between 1980 and 2010. The advances in diagnostic methods have increased the detection rate of DAVFs. The incidence of DAVFs in a defined Southern Finnish population was 0.51 per 100,000 per year, and they represented 32% of all the brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), which is twice as much as in previous studies. The results of treatment and outcome of patients have markedly improved with the introduction of endovascular techniques and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Major hemorrhagic or ischemic complications were seen especially after surgical treatment of DAVFs. Currently, microsurgery is of limited use in those DAVFs where endovascular treatment and radiosurgery have failed to reduce the high risk of hemorrhage or relieve intolerable symptoms. During the first 12 months, there was excess mortality among the patients, mainly due to treatment complications. Thereafter, their overall long-term survival became similar to that of matched general population, except for those that were located elswhere than transverse and sigmoid sinuses or presented with cortical venous drainage. The patients had more cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths than would be expected in the general Finnish population, for an unknown reason.
  • Enright, Richard Ryan (2012)
    This is an analysis of the evolution of the policy process concerning the eastward expansion of 2004 into the Central and Eastern European countries and the potential implications this has for the Finnish labour market. Through a method of policy analysis using the policy process specifically, key documents that shaped the debate and issues around the topic are used. Labour market organisation reports and governmental reports, government drafts, parliamentary committee reports and parliamentary debates from 2004 and 2006 were used as the key primary sources. The two time periods studied are the 2004 process for imposing the restrictions in and the subsequent lifting of restrictions in 2006. Also relevant and crucial to the discussion is the 2002 SAK report that details many of their key predictions and positions towards the issue. Crucial background information concerning the topic of intra-EU labour migration in general, the Finnish context of intra-EU labour migration and the neo-corporatist nature of Finnish policy making is also given in order to usher the reader through an understanding of the important topics of concern before considering the analysis. lmportantly, throughout the policy analysis, specific issues are constantly discussed and debated that become reoccurring themes for the nature of the entire debate for both the imposition of restrictions and their subsequent lifting. Through the policy analysis, the framework of Europeanisation in Finnish labour market policy ushers through to documents and the key issues and debates discussed throughout the policy process. The most important results lie in the presentation of key issues that reoccur throughout the policy process. These issues shaped the core affects of the transition period onto the Finnish labour market, which had both positive and negative affects. Certain issues such as free movement of services not being limited in the initial transition period ultimately cause significant affects on the characteristics of the Finnish labour market. Furthermore, Europeanisation of Finnish labour market policy can be found as the focus of the policy has also moved in line with Finland's ties with the European Union and is not only based on negotiations with important labour market organisations.
  • Ropponen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common cholestatic liver disease during pregnancy. The reported incidence varies from 0.4 to 15% of full-term pregnancies. The etiology is heterogeneous but familial clustering is known to occur. Here we have studied the genetic background, epidemiology, and long-term hepatobiliary consequences of ICP. In a register-based nation-wide study (n=1 080 310) the incidence of ICP was 0.94% during 1987-2004. A slightly higher incidence, 1.3%, was found in a hospital-based series (n=5304) among women attending the University Hospital of Helsinki in 1992-1993. Of these 16% (11/69) were familial and showed a higher (92%) recurrence rate than the sporadic (40%) cases. In the register-based epidemiological study, advanced maternal age and, to a lesser degree, parity were identified as new risk factors for ICP. The risk was 3-fold higher in women >39 years of age compared to women <30 years. Multiple pregnancy also associated with an elevated risk. In a genetic study we found no association of ICP with the genes regulating bile salt transport (ABCB4, ABCB11 and ATP8B1). The livers of postmenopausal women with a history of ICP tolerated well the short-term exposure to oral and transdermal estradiol, although the doses used were higher than those in routine clinical use. The response of serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to oral estradiol was slightly reduced in the ICP group. Transdermal estradiol had no effect on C-reactive protein (CRP) or SHBG. A number of liver and biliary diseases were found to be associated with ICP. Women with a history of ICP showed elevated risks for non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis (8.2 CI 1.9-36), cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (3.7 CI 3.2-4.2), hepatitis C (3.5 CI 1.6-7.6) and non-alcoholic pancreatitis (3.2 CI 1.7-5.7). In conclusion, ICP complicates around 1% of all full-term pregnancies in Finland and its incidence has remained unchanged since 1987. It is familial in 16% of cases with a higher recurrence rate. Although the cause remains unknown, several risk factors, namely advanced maternal age, parity and multiple pregnancies, can be identified. Both oral and transdermal regimens of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) are safe for women with a history of ICP when liver function is considered. Some ICP patients are at risk of other liver and biliary diseases and, contrary to what has been thought, a follow-up is warranted.
  • Leponiemi, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Usability testing is a productive and reliable method for evaluating the usability of software. Planning and implementing the test and analyzing its results is typically considered time-consuming, whereas applying usability methods in general is considered difficult. Because of this, usability testing is often priorized lower than more concrete issues in software engineering projects. Intranet Alma is a web service, users of which consist of students and personnel of the University of Helsinki. Alma was published in 2004 at the opening ceremony of the university. It has 45 000 users, and it replaces several former university network services. In this thesis, the usability of intranet Alma is evaluated with usability testing. The testing method applied has been lightened to make its taking into use as easy as possible. In the test, six students each tried to solve nine test tasks with Alma. As a result concrete usability problems were described in the final test report. Goal-orientation was given less importance in the applied usability testing. In addition, the system was tested only with test users from the largest user group. Usability test found general usability problems that occurred no matter the task or the user. However, further evaluation needs to be done: in addition to the general usability problems, there are task-dependent problems, solving of which requires thorough gathering of users goals. In the basic structure and central functionality of Alma, for example in navigation, there are serious and often repeating usability problems. It would be of interest to verify the designed user interface solutions to these problems before taking them into use. In the long run, the goals of the users, that the software is planned to support, are worth gathering, and the software development should be based on these goals.
  • Heinsalo, Sanna (2000)
    Tietokoneet ja informaatioteknologia ovat tämän päivän sana yritysmaailmassa. Jopa “pehmeämmillä” aloilla, kuten henkilöstöhallinnossa, niiden käyttöä on lisätty huomattavasti. Myös akateeminen tutkimus on alkanut käsitellä intranetin ja muiden sähköisten viestintävälineiden käyttöä. Sosiaalipsykologiassa uuden teknologian ja sen käyttäjien asenteiden tutkimus on kuitenkin vielä lähes olematonta. Tämä tutkimus esittelee tärkeän ajankohtaisen käsitteen, intranetin, organisaatioviestinnän muotona, ja käsittelee sen käyttöä ja mahdollisuuksia henkilöstöasian viestinnän työkaluna sekä osana yleistä sisäistä viestintää. Tutkimus keskittyy selvittämään intranetin käytön ja intranet -asenteiden suhdetta, kohdistuen erityisesti henkilöstöasioiden viestintään ja HR intranet -sivuihin. Tärkeänä muuttujana tutkimuksessa on lisäksi kulttuuri. Sitä tutkitaan käyttäen apuna Hofsteden kulttuurisia ulottuvuuksia, maskuliinisuutta ja valtaetäisyyttä, tarkoituksena selvittää onko niiden ja intranetin käytön ja asenteiden välillä suhteita. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on auttaa yhtiötä kehittämään olemassa olevaa henkilöstöasioiden viestintää vastaamaan organisaation tarpeisiin. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena lomaketutkimuksena Neste Chemicals Oy:ssä, kansainvälisessä kemianalan yhtiössä. Tulokset on analysoitu käyttäen pääasiassa varianssianalyysia ja t-testiä selvittämään ryhmien välisiä eroja. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että intranetiä käytettiin varsin laajasti koko yhtiössä, vaikkakin henkilöstöryhmien ja maiden välillä oli merkittäviä eroja. Intranet –asenteiden ja intranetin käytön huomattiin olevan voimakkaasti yhteydessä toisiinsa, sekä yleisellä tasolla että henkilöstöasiain viestinnässä. Myös kulttuurin todettiin olevan yhteydessä intranetin käyttöön ja intranet –asenteisiin sekä viestinnän avoimuuteen. Tärkeä huomio oli myös se, että henkilöstön keskuudessa toivottiin intranetin lisäksi henkilökohtaisen palvelun saannin jatkuvan. Tärkeimmät lähteet: Hofstede, Geert. (1994).Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. London: Harper Collins Business. Hofstede, Geert. (1984). Culture’s Consequences. International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Heinsalo, Sanna (2000)
    Computers and new information technology are used excessively in today’s business world – even in the more “softer” areas such as Human Resources. Academic research on these areas has also increased remarkably. However, in social psychology research on new technologies and user attitudes is basically non-existent. This study introduces an important current topic, the intranet, as a form of organizational communication, and discusses its use and possibilities in Human Resources Department’s communication, as well as in communication in general. The study concentrates on finding out the relationships between intranet use and intranet attitudes, specifically studying use of Human Resources intranet pages and attitudes towards them. Another important factor in the research was culture. It was studied by using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, masculinity and power distance, to see whether they are related to intranet use and/or attitudes. The purpose of the study is to help the company to develop the existing HR communication systems to answer organization’s needs. The study was conducted by a quantitative questionnaire in Neste Chemicals Oy, an international, Finnish-based chemicals company. The results have been analyzed statistically using mainly ANOVA and t-test, concentrating on finding out the differences between groups. The study found that intranet was used frequently among all the personnel, although significant differences between positions and locations were found. Intranet attitudes and use were found to be strongly linked to one another, both on general level and regarding HR intranet pages. Culture was also found to be related to intranet use and attitudes as well as to openness of communication. However, a concern of many respondents regarding intranet use was that it should not be forgotten that personal service is still needed - and wanted. Most important references: Hofstede, Geert. (1994).Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. London: Harper Collins Business. Hofstede, Geert. (1984). Culture’s Consequences. International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Tanskanen, Henna (2006)
    Pro gradu -työssäni pyrin tutkimaan organisaation sisäisen viestinnän välinettä, intranetiä. Intranetin avulla organisaatio voi keskittää monia toimintojaan, käytäntöjään sekä tehtäviään verkkoon. Viestintäkanavana verkko on kuitenkin omanlaisensa ympäristö, joka voi myllertää organisaatiossa vallitsevia toiminta- ja työtapoja, kulttuuria sekä vaikuttaa myös muihin viestintäkanaviin. Se on myös muuttanut monella tapaa organisaation tiedonkulkua ja vuorovaikutusta. Tutkimukseni yleisenä kontekstina on sisäinen viestintä organisaatiossa. Käsittelen sisäistä viestintää muuttuvassa ympäristössä, jossa erityispiirteinä ovat muutos kohti verkkoyhteiskuntaa sekä itse työn muuttuminen yhä enemmän tietotyöksi. Erityisenä tarkastelun kohteena on intranet monenlaisine määrityksineen ja ulottuvuuksineen: mikä intranet on, mihin sitä käytetään, millä tavoin väline edistää sisäistä viestintää muiden kanavien rinnalla, millaisiksi intranetin palvelut on rakennettu sekä miltä sen tulevaisuus näyttää. Empiirisenä tutkimuskohteenani on Suomen Posti Oyj:n intranet, jossa tarkastellaan intranetiä käyttäjän näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessani yhdistyvät sekä laadullinen että määrällinen tutkimus. Olen kiinnostunut tutkimaan millaisen merkityksen intranet Postin organisaatiossa saa ja millaisia käyttötapoja heille on muodostunut. Lisäksi tutkin kuinka tyytyväisiä he ovat intranetiin, millainen rooli intranetillä on muiden sisäisen viestinnän kanavien rinnalla sekä mitä Postin organisaatio odottaa intranetiltä tulevaisuudessa. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on käytetty teemahaastatteluita, joita oli kuusi sekä strukturoitua kyselylomaketta. Haastattelut tehtiin tammi-helmikuussa 2005 ja niiden avulla rakentui kyselylomake. Kysely tehtiin saman vuoden kesäkuussa. Kyselylomakkeen tutkimus toteutettiin siten, että vastaajille lähettiin sähköpostitse linkki sähköiseen vastauslomakkeeseen. Perusjoukon koko oli 5523 vastaanottajaa. Tästä joukosta otettiin tasavälisenä otoksena joka kolmas, joten otoksen koko oli 1841 osoitetta. Sähköpostin lähettämisen jälkeen palautui 134, joten kysely meni 1707 vastaajalle. Kyselyyn vastasi 410 henkilöä. Tärkeimpinä menetelminä olen käyttänyt ristiintaulukointia sekä faktori- ja regressioanalyysiä. Postin intranetin ympärille syntyneet käytännöt osoittavat, että tietoa haetaan ajankohtaista seurantaa, työn tukemista, jonkin verran asioihin paneutumista sekä vähäisesti vuorovaikutusta varten. Intranet koettiin nopeaksi ja luotettavaksi tiedonlähteeksi, johon moni oli tyytyväinen. Käyttäjät olisivat valmiita hyödyntämään intranetiä vieläkin enemmän, varsinkin jos se sisältäisi enemmän kohdennettua tietoa käyttäjän näkökulmasta. Osa olisi jopa valmis luopumaan kokonaan paperiviestinnästä. Moni koki myös intranetin oivalliseksi välineeksi oppimiseen. Suurin osa toivoi intranetin kehittyvän sähköisen työpöydän suuntaan, josta löytyisivät työssä tarvittavat tiedot ja välineet, vaikka intranet ei kuitenkaan ole ainoa väline sisäisessä viestinnässä.
  • Haarala, Antti Juhani (2000)
    Tutkimus käsittelee intranetiä kansainvälisen organisaation viestintävälineenä. Tutkimuksen casena on käytetty Finnair Oyj:n Kansainvälisten toimintojen osastoa. Intranetit ovat osa laajaa viestintäteknologian ja tietotekniikan kehittymisen mukanaan tuomaa murrosta. Intranetien nähdään yleisesti olevan yksi kaupallisesti tärkeimmistä ja ihmisten arkielämään eniten vaikuttavista verkkoteknologian sovelluksista. Tämän vuoksi intranetien tutkiminen on tärkeää. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan käyttäjien suhtautumista intranetiin sekä intranetin käyttöä sekä käyttöön vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Käytön tutkiminen on tärkeää, sillä käyttäjät määrittelevät viime kädessä omalla toiminnallaan ja valinnoillaan, millaisia vaikutuksia viestintävälineellä on tiedonkulkuun sekä organisaation rakenteisiin sekä toimintaan. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on käytetty teemahaastatteluja. Kvalitatiivisella menetelmällä voidaan parhaiten selvittää käyttäjän näkökulmaa sekä saada laajasti tietoa tutkimuskohteesta. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin 17 Finnairin työntekijää 5 maassa. Intranetin käyttöä kuvataan mallilla, jossa käyttöön vaikuttavina tekijöinä ovat intranet-tarjonta, käyttömotivaatio sekä käyttövalmiudet. Intranet soveltuu hyvin kansainvälisen organisaation viestintävälineeksi. Intranetin suurimpia etuja ovat tiedonvälityksen nopeutuminen sekä saatavilla olevan tiedon määrän kasvu. Intranet vaikuttaa myös organisaation toimintaan ja rakenteeseen. Esimerkiksi esimiesten rooli tiedon välittäjinä on intranetin käytöönoton myötä vähentynyt. Erityisen hyödylliseksi intranet koettiin Euroopan ulkopuolella sijaitsevissa Finnairin toimistoissa. Vaikka intranetin edut kansainvälisen organisaation viestintävälineenä ovat kiistattomia, olivat useimmat haastatelluista sitä mieltä, ettei intranetillä voida täysin korvata muita sisäisen viestinnän välineitä.
  • Klemetti, Kristiina (2000)
  • Gonda, Abigél (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Brain size and architecture exhibit great evolutionary and ontogenetic variation. Yet, studies on population variation (within a single species) in brain size and architecture, or in brain plasticity induced by ecologically relevant biotic factors have been largely overlooked. Here, I address the following questions: (i) do locally adapted populations differ in brain size and architecture, (ii) can the biotic environment induce brain plasticity, and (iii) do locally adapted populations differ in levels of brain plasticity? In the first two chapters I report large variation in both absolute and relative brain size, as well as in the relative sizes of brain parts, among divergent nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations. Some traits show habitat-dependent divergence, implying natural selection being responsible for the observed patterns. Namely, marine sticklebacks have relatively larger bulbi olfactorii (chemosensory centre) and telencephala (involved in learning) than pond sticklebacks. Further, I demonstrate the importance of common garden studies in drawing firm evolutionary conclusions. In the following three chapters I show how the social environment and perceived predation risk shapes brain development. In common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles, I demonstrate that under the highest per capita predation risk, tadpoles develop smaller brains than in less risky situations, while high tadpole density results in enlarged tectum opticum (visual brain centre). Visual contact with conspecifics induces enlarged tecta optica in nine-spined sticklebacks, whereas when only olfactory cues from conspecifics are available, bulbus olfactorius become enlarged.Perceived predation risk results in smaller hypothalami (complex function) in sticklebacks. Further, group-living has a negative effect on relative brain size in the competition-adapted pond sticklebacks, but not in the predation-adapted marine sticklebacks. Perceived predation risk induces enlargement of bulbus olfactorius in pond sticklebacks, but not in marine sticklebacks who have larger bulbi olfactorii than pond fish regardless of predation. In sum, my studies demonstrate how applying a microevolutionary approach can help us to understand the enormous variation observed in the brains of wild animals a point-of-view which I high-light in the closing review chapter of my thesis.
  • Välimäki, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Understanding the causes and consequences of phenotypic divergence among natural populations is one of the fundamental goals of evolutionary biology. Phenotypic differentiation among populations can arise through divergent selection leading to local adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination thereof. Selection can also influence the expression of plasticity in different environments resulting in divergence in phenotypic plasticity. It is therefore essential to know how plasticity evolves under divergent ecological conditions when aiming to understand the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic differentiation. In this thesis I have explored the extent of variation in phenotypic plasticity across a range of locally adapted nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations from different habitats. Pond and marine populations have diverged in a suite of morphological, life-history and behavioural traits. This divergence has been thought to stem from the absence of piscine predators and interspecific competitors combined with the high intraspecific competition in pond habitats. My aims were to establish if and how predator cues and variation in resource levels induce phenotypic plasticity in the nine-spined stickleback, and whether phenotypic plasticity has also diverged as a response to divergent selective pressures in different environments and between sexes. I quantified phenotypic plasticity in a set of traits that form a continuum from very labile to developmentally fixed ones. The results show that plasticity was induced by both predator presence and food availability. Fish responded to perceived predation risk with reduced growth rates, decreased body condition and by behavioural changes. Food restriction resulted in slower growth and reduced investment in energy storage, but increased feeding activity and risk-taking. The results were largely in accordance with my predictions of increasing plasticity from morphology through life history traits to behaviour. The results also show that population divergence in phenotypic plasticity is habitat dependent. Pond populations responded more strongly to food treatment in terms of behaviour and growth, while marine fish exhibited stronger responses to predation treatment. However, in the case of brain size and lateral line system, predation-induced plastic responses were detected only in pond fish that had evolved in the absence of piscine predation. I also detected strong sexual dimorphism in both trait means and phenotypic plasticity, uncovering a very important determinant of within population variation in phenotypic plasticity. Taken together, the results of my thesis demonstrate how natural and sexual selection do not only affect phenotypic traits themselves, but also the plasticity of the traits. The resultant adaptive variation in phenotypic plasticity is present both between and within populations. In some traits, plasticity was greater whenever the selective pressure was stronger, while in other traits the increased plasticity was coupled with relaxed selection due to the lack of piscine predation in ponds. My thesis demonstrates that the response of phenotypic plasticity to natural selection is context dependent. The results also work to advance our knowledge on the maintenance of phenotypic variation.
  • Kaislasuo, Janina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The proportion of nulligravid and nulliparous women is increasing as women delay childbirth in developed countries. Simultaneously, contraceptive failure, unintended pregnancies and abortions, especially in women below the common childbearing age, are a global problem. By promoting intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal implants, referred to as long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), among these women, contraceptive failure caused by non-compliance of the user can be minimized, in addition to providing easy and efficient long-term contraception. However, the risk of difficulties at IUD insertion in nulligravid/nulliparous women, as well as small uterine size, have both been considered as barriers limiting the use of intrauterine contraception (IUC) in these women. The present studies were designed to study the barriers to IUC in nulligravid and nulliparous women. To compare both types of IUC available, we used the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper-releasing NovaT (TCu380Ag), with identical frames measuring 32 x 32 mm. To exclude any effect of prior pregnancy on the uterine cavity or the cervix, only nulligravid women were included. Difficulties at insertion, menstrual diaries kept after insertion (months 1 3) and at the end of the study (months 10 12) as well as adverse events were compared against uterine cavity measurements and pre-insertion menstrual characteristics reported by the women. In addition, as uterine perforation is mainly seen as a complication related to insertion, we retrospectively analysed women treated for this rare complication between 1996 and 2009 in our hospital district area. We gave 165 nulligravid women requesting their first IUD a free choice between the two IUDs after contraceptive counselling. The majority, 113 women (68.5%), chose the LNG-IUS and 52 women (31.5%) chose the copper IUD. Insertion was easy in 89% of the women. The women were satisfied, with only 17/135 women (12.6%) available for follow-up discontinuing because of adverse events. The reported numbers of days of bleeding and pain were similar to that in earlier reports on parous women. Severe pain at insertion was reported by 56.5% of the women and severe dysmenorrhoea the only factor predicting severe pain (OR 7.9, 95% CI 2.5 24.9, p less than 0.001). Dysmenorrhoea was also related to more pain during the first months with both devices. Baseline spontaneous bleeding predicted bleeding with the LNG-IUS, but not with the copper IUD. Among women using the LNG-IUS, scanty menstrual bleeding (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4 48.2, p=0.02) and smoking (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.8 38.6, p=0.007) predicted amenorrhoea at one year. Uterine measurements, particularly fundal cavity width, were small in comparison to the devices in a majority of the women. The odds of a difficult or failed insertion increased with shorter uterine length and a steeper flexion angle, but the great majority of insertions, even in small and more flexed uteri, were uneventful. Cervical tightness was the main reason for problems in cases of difficult insertion. No uterine threshold measurements predicting difficulties were found. Small uterine measurements were associated with both less bleeding and less pain among LNG-IUS users. Women with the widest fundal widths reported significantly more pain at the end of the one-year follow-up period compared with those with smaller widths. Uterine size did not affect bleeding in connection with the copper IUD, but there was a slight tendency towards more pain during long-term use among women with smaller uterine cavity measurements, although size groups were small with this device. Uterine size did not predict adverse events. We found 75 cases of surgically treated uterine perforation during the 15 year long study period. The incidence of perforation was low, 0.4/1000 insertions, and similar with both types of IUC. Postpartum insertion, earlier presented as the main risk factor of uterine perforation, was also common in this population (64%). The majority of cases, 71%, presented with complaints of abnormal bleeding or pain, but 29% were asymptomatic and diagnosed in connection with missing threads or pregnancy. Pregnancy was more common with a misplaced copper IUD, 33% vs. 7% with a misplaced LNG-IUS (p=0.009). We found no severe complications or intra-abdominal adhesions caused by the misplaced devices. Adhesions were local and more common in copper IUD users (58% vs. 20%, p=0.002). In conclusion, nulligravid women are satisfied users of modern IUC, with continuation rates and bleeding and pain profiles similar to those in parous women. Small uterine cavity measurements are not a barrier to IUC and pre-insertion ultrasonographic evaluation of uterine cavity size is unnecessary. As dysmenorrhoea predicts both severe insertion pain and pain during the first months of IUD use, analgesia and counselling for these women should be highlighted. Although rare, the risk of uterine perforation is increased during the postpartum period, probably reflecting uterine involution as the main reason for this complication. Neither symptoms nor surgical findings are severe in connection with current devices.
  • Vehka, Mika (2015)
    Tämän pro gradu -työn tarkoitus on tutkia intressiryhmien mukaan pääsyä (access) politiikkaprosessin valmisteluvaiheeseen eli lakeja valmisteleviin valtionhallinnon valmisteluelimiin. Tarkoitus on ensinnäkin testata poliittiseen taloustieteeseen nojaavaa vaihtosuhdeteoriaa (exchange theory) mukaan pääsyn selittäjänä ja tarkastella, vaikuttavatko teorian kannalta keskeiset tekijät intressiryhmien edustukseen politiikkaprosessin valmisteluvaiheen tapauksessa Suomessa. Lisäksi tutkielmassa ollaan kiinnostuneita eri tyyppisten intressiryhmien edustajien kokonaismääristä ja tiettyjen ympäristötekijöiden vaikutuksesta mukaan pääsyyn. Nämä ympäristötekijät voidaan nähdä paitsi vaihtosuhdeteoriaa haastavina, myös sitä täydentävinä selityksinä. Vaihtosuhdeteorian mukaan keskeiset intressiryhmien mukaan pääsyyn epätasa-arvoisuutta aiheuttavat tekijät ovat ryhmien intressien tyyppi ja ryhmien eriävät (taloudelliset) resurssit. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella sekä intressiryhmien intressien tyypillä että niiden taloudellisilla resursseilla (ja ryhmien tavalla käyttää niitä) näyttää olevan vaikutusta intressiryhmäkohtaiseen mukaan pääsyyn valmisteluelimiin. Palkansaaja- ja elinkeinoelämän järjestöillä, joiden voidaan katsoa edustavan erityisintressiryhmiä, näyttää olevan vahvempi organisaatiokohtainen edustus kuin kansalaisjärjestöillä, joiden voidaan katsoa edustavan yleisintressiryhmiä. Korkeammat taloudelliset resurssit ja niiden vahvempi suuntaaminen nimenomaan poliittiseen päätöksentekoon vaikuttamiseen näyttävät myös lisäävän intressiryhmien mukaan pääsyä. Myös tietynlaisilla ryhmien jäsenillä näyttää mahdollisesti olevan mukaan pääsyä lisäävä vaikutus. Tilanne näyttää kuitenkin erilaiselta, kun siirrytään intressiryhmätasolta eri tyyppisten ryhmien edustajien kokonaismäärien tarkasteluun. Kansalaisjärjestöillä näyttää olevan edustajien kokonaismäärien tasolla jotakuinkin yhtä vahva asema kuin erilaisilla erityisintressiryhmillä. Tämä johtuu siitä, että valmisteluelimissä on edustettuina enemmän kansalaisjärjestöjä kuin muun tyyppisiä intressiryhmiä. Kokonaismäärien tasolla havaitaan myös se, että pelkästään intressiryhmien ominaispiirteisiin liittyvät tekijät ovat mukaan pääsyn selittämisessä yksinään ainakin jossain määrin vajaita. Myös monet ympäristötekijät näyttävät vaikuttavan (yhtä aikaa intressiryhmäkohtaisten tekijöiden kanssa) mukaan pääsyyn päätöksentekoon. Esimerkiksi eri hallinnonaloilla on paljon eroa eri tyyppisten ryhmien edustuksessa. Palkansaaja- ja elinkeinoelämän järjestöillä esimerkiksi voidaan nähdä selvästi vahvempi kokonaisedustus niillä hallinnonaloilla, joilla käsitellään eniten näiden järjestöjen ”omia kysymyksiä”, kuten työhön, elinkeinoihin tai yrittämiseen liittyviä asioita. Toisaalta vertaamalla tässä tutkielmassa käytetyn aineiston antamia tuloksia muuhun alan tutkimukseen voidaan havaita vaihtelua myös eri instituutioiden välillä. Tulokset ovat tosin tältä osin alustavia, mutta näyttää siltä, että Suomen tapauksessa mukaan pääsy voi olla tasa-arvoisempaa valmisteluelimissä (hallinto) kuin esimerkiksi eduskunnan valiokunnissa (parlamentti), toisin kuin alaa koskeva teoriatausta yleensä olettaa.
  • Mustonen, Merja (2011)
    Drug induced liver injury is one of the frequent reasons for the drug removal from the market. During the recent years there has been a pressure to develop more cost efficient, faster and easier ways to investigate drug-induced toxicity in order to recognize hepatotoxic drugs in the earlier phases of drug development. High Content Screening (HCS) instrument is an automated microscope equipped with image analysis software. It makes the image analysis faster and decreases the risk for an error caused by a person by analyzing the images always in the same way. Because the amount of drug and time needed in the analysis are smaller and multiple parameters can be analyzed from the same cells, the method should be more sensitive, effective and cheaper than the conventional assays in cytotoxicity testing. Liver cells are rich in mitochondria and many drugs target their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria. Mitochondria produce the majority of the ATP in the cell through oxidative phosphorylation. They maintain biochemical homeostasis in the cell and participate in cell death. Mitochondria is divided into two compartments by inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The oxidative phosphorylation happens in the inner mitochondrial membrane. A part of the respiratory chain, a protein called cytochrome c, activates caspase cascades when released. This leads to apoptosis. The aim of this study was to implement, optimize and compare mitochondrial toxicity HCS assays in live cells and fixed cells in two cellular models: human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and rat primary hepatocytes. Three different hepato- and mitochondriatoxic drugs (staurosporine, rotenone and tolcapone) were used. Cells were treated with the drugs, incubated with the fluorescent probes and then the images were analyzed using Cellomics ArrayScan VTI reader. Finally the results obtained after optimizing methods were compared to each other and to the results of the conventional cytotoxicity assays, ATP and LDH measurements. After optimization the live cell method and rat primary hepatocytes were selected to be used in the experiments. Staurosporine was the most toxic of the three drugs and caused most damage to the cells most quickly. Rotenone was not that toxic, but the results were more reproducible and thus it would serve as a good positive control in the screening. Tolcapone was the least toxic. So far the conventional analysis of cytotoxicity worked better than the HCS methods. More optimization needs to be done to get the HCS method more sensitive. This was not possible in this study due to time limit.
  • Matilainen, Sirkka (1981)
  • Lamblin, Michel Alain (2012)
    This thesis aims to defend the use of intuitions and intuition-based philosophy in light of the recent negative conclusions from the field of experimental philosophy. First, an account of intuitions and intuition-based philosophy will be given that is continuous with four questions from past conceptions of intuitions regarding their features and uses. The four questions are drawn from analyses of intuitions in Kant and in Aristotle (Chapter 2). The questions are concerned with whether intuition is best understood as (1) a special faculty, or a product of some faculty or capacity; (2) an immediate and noncognitive episode, or a more mediate and reflected-upon episode of understanding and competence; (3) a particular judgment only, or a generalizable judgment; (4) only correct in light of an appropriate level of expertise, or with a minimal level of competence. Following this, analogies will be made to the sciences and scientific method (Chapter 3), and to linguistic intuitions (Chapter 4), which will bring the four previous questions into contemporary understanding of intuitions and intuition use in standard philosophical methodology. Chapter 3 will focus more on the third and fourth points, while Chapter 4 will focus more on the first and second points. The science analogy will benefit from a more recent account of philosophical intuitions provided by George Bealer (1998), as well as from considerations of reflective equilibrium’s role in the third point, and a discussion on moral and more general expertise in light of the fourth point. Chapter 4 will then focus on a contemporary account of philosophical intuitions by Jaakko Hintikka (1999), drawing on the analogy with linguistics and providing a negative foil from which to argue against. Chapter 4 will also benefit from discussion on experimental psychology’s insights and confusions in their subject of “intuitional thinking”, which will be contrasted with a more philosophical account of intuitions and reflective thinking drawing from Robert Audi (1996). Both chapters 3 and 4 will end with a recapitulation of the two-part features of each of the four questions from Chapter 2 in light of the contemporary discussions and respective analogies. Chapter 5 will introduce thought experiments as one of the best tools of intuition-based philosophy that makes use of a four-model taxonomy from Roy Sorensen (1992). The tripartite movement of experimental philosophy will be then be introduced, with a review of one of the first papers of the movement: Jonathan Weinberg, Shaun Nichols and Stephen Stich’s (2001) “Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions.” Criticisms and response will follow, based on the preliminary conclusions drawn by the divergences in intuitions across cultural and socio-economic divisions, as well as a criticism of the survey methodology employed by most experimental philosophers. Finally, the expertise defense from the armchair-ists will be made, in light of question 4 from Chapter 2, that also faces criticisms from the Experimental Restrictivists who attack intuition-based philosophy. With a broadened understanding of the prevalence of intuition in contemporary philosophy as provided in chapters 3 and 4, the attack will be seen as either premature, or as still allowing for progressive philosophical inquiry in the other camps of Experimental Descriptivism and Analysis.