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  • Hokka, Hanna-Maija (1972)
  • Idström, Anna (Suomalais-ugrilainen Seura, 2010)
    This study discusses the conceptual metaphors of Inari Saami, an endangered, indigenous, Finno-Ugrian language spoken in northern Finland. The research focuses on systematical mappings between source and target domains in conventional Inari Saami metaphors and metonymies. The research material consists of the Inarinsaamen idiomisanakirja [Inari Saami idiom dictionary] which has been compiled by the author in collaboration with an Inari Saami co-author; the Inarilappisches Wörterbuch; Inarinsaamelaista kansantietoutta [Inari Saami folk knowledge]; and Aanaarkiela čájttuzeh [Inari Saami sample texts]. The metaphors and metonymies found in these literary sources are divided into categories on the basis of the target domains and according to the classic model of Lakoff ja Johnson (1980). This method reveals the systematical recurrence of source domains inside each category and thus discovers the systematical patterns of metaphoric mapping, the conceptual metaphors . As a result 44 conceptual metaphors and 16 conceptual metonymies are presented through approximately 500 glossed examples. These findings are discussed against the background of what is known about the cognitive and neural processing of metaphors on the one hand, and what is known about Inari Saami culture on the other. This theoretical framework highlights culture as the underlying force behind conceptual metaphors. The recurring metonymies seem to follow a culturally salient indexicality. For example, the Inari Saami conceptual metonymy TIME IS NATURE reflects the seasonal changes in the year s cycle, which was the salient index of time in traditional Inari Saami culture. The recurring metaphors, for their part, follow a culturally salient iconicity. The conceptual metaphor PRIDE IS ANTLERS is based on an iconicity which is experienced and interpreted by the Inari Saami. A proud person is associated with a reindeer who shows off his impressive antlers. The conceptual metaphor/metonymy seems to be a reflection of culture rather than a cognitive means of understanding an abstract domain in terms of a concrete domain, as hypothesized by certain theoreticians. Repeating this study with other languages may lead to the possibility of typologizing the metaphorical systems of the world s languages and understanding the diversity of metaphor systems in the endangered languages of the world.
  • Taipale, Joona (2009)
    This work offers a systematic phenomenological investigation of the constitutive significance of embodiment. It provides detailed analyses of subjectivity in relation to itself, to others, and to objective reality, and it argues that these basic structures cannot be made intelligible unless one takes into account how they are correlated with an embodied subject. The methodological and conceptual starting point of the treatise is the philosophy of Edmund Husserl. The investigation employs the phenomenological method and uses the descriptions and analyses provided by Husserl and his successors. The treatise is motivated and outlined systematically, and textual exegesis serves as a means for the systematic phenomenological investigation. The structure of the work conforms to the basic relations of subjectivity. The first part of the thesis explores the intimate relation between lived-body and selfhood, analyzes the phenomena of localization, and argues that self-awareness is necessarily and fundamentally embodied self-awareness. The second part examines the intersubjective dimensions of embodiment, investigates the corporal foundations of empathy, and unravels the bodily aspects of transcendental intersubjectivity. The third part scrutinizes the role of embodiment in the constitution of the surrounding objective reality: it focuses on the complex relationship between transcendental subjectivity and transcendental intersubjectivity, carefully examines the normative aspects of genetic and generative self-constitution, and argues eventually that what Husserl calls the paradox of subjectivity originates in a tension between primordial and intersubjective normativity. The work thus reinterprets the paradox of subjectivity in terms of a normative tension, and claims that the paradox is ultimately rooted in the structures of embodiment. In this manner, as a whole, the work discloses the constitutive significance of embodiment, and argues that transcendental subjectivity must be fundamentally embodied.
  • Suvisaari, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Nisula, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome encompassing kidney damage from mild injury to total loss of function that seriously disturbs the homeostasis of fluid and electrolyte balances. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Finland, and to test the ability of two new biomarkers to predict AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 90-day mortality in ICU patients. A prospective, observational FINNAKI-study was conducted in 17 Finnish ICUs and all admitted patients were screened for eligibility during the study period of five months (2011-2012). All adult emergency admissions and elective admissions with an expected stay over 24 hours were included. AKI was defined with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Study I included all patients in the FINNAKI study and evaluated the incidence and risk factors for AKI and reported the 90-day mortality of patients with AKI. Of the 2901 patients 1141 (39%) developed AKI during the screening period of five days. The proportions of patients in the different stages of AKI were 499 (17%) in stage 1, 232 (8%) in stage 2, and 410 (14%) in stage 3. RRT was initiated for 272 (9%) patients. The population-based incidence of AKI was 746 per million adults per year. Patients that developed AKI were older and more severely ill, and had more chronic comorbidities than patients without AKI. Hypovolaemia prior to ICU admission, administration of diuretics or colloids (HES or gelatin) prior to ICU admission, and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. Of the 1141 AKI patients, 385 (34%) died within 90-days. In study II urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) was measured from 1042 patients. NGAL predicted AKI with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.733 (0.701 0.765), RRT with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.839 (0.797 0.880), and 90-day mortality with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.634 (0.593 0.675). In Study III urine interleukin-18 (IL-18) was analysed from 1439 patients. IL-18 predicted the development of AKI with an AUC (95%CI) of 0.586 (0.546 - 0.627), initiation of RRT with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.655 (0.572 - 0.739), and 90-day mortality with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.536 (0.497 - 0.574). Study IV included 1568 patients and evaluated the 6-month mortality and the survivors health-related quality of life (HRQol) at ICU admission and six-months later with the EQ-5D questionnaire. The EQ-5D index for AKI patients at six-months (0.676) was lower than for the age- and sex-matched general population (0.826) but equal to that of patients without AKI (0.690). There was no significant change in the EQ-5D over six-months for either patient group. Despite their measured lower HRQol, AKI patients evaluated their quality of life to be as good as that of the age- and sex-matched general population at six-months after the ICU treatment with the EQ-5D visual analogue scale. Of the 635 AKI patients in this study, 224 (35%) died within 6-months. Incidence of AKI among critically ill patients was high. Hypovolaemia, diuretics, and colloids prior to ICU admission were independently associated with the development of AKI. In this population, urine NGAL was statistically associated with the need to initiate RRT, but the transformation of this result into clinical practice is complicated. Urine NGAL lacks power to predict AKI or 90-day mortality. Urine IL-18 has no adequate power to predict AKI, RRT, or 90-Day mortality in critically ill adult patients. AKI was associated with significantly increased 90-day and 6-month mortality. The HRQol of all ICU patients was lower than that of the age- and sex-matched general population already before ICU treatment. This HRQol did not change during critical illness or during a six-month follow up. Despite their lower HRQol, AKI patients felt their health was equal to that of the general population.
  • Linko, Rita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the most common organ failure in critically ill patients. Up to 74% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) need some kind of ventilatory support. Additional organ failures are associated with higher mortality. High morbidity and mortality together with increased cost of mechanical ventilation, necessitates assessment of long-term outcome, and an analysis of cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients suffering from overall ARF, and a subset suffering from pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection, in Finnish ICUs. The predictive value of serum zinc in organ failure and mortality was studied in ARF patients. One-year outcome for ARF was assessed. Health related quality of life (HRQOL), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for one-year survivors, and cost for one QALY, was estimated. A total of 958 patients from 25 Finnish ICUs needed ventilatory support for more than 6 hours during an 8-week period in 2007. Serum zinc level was assessd in 551 patients. A total of 132 H1N1 patients were assessed for incidence, treatment, and short-term outcome during an outbreak between 11 October and 31 December 2009. The incidence of ARF, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the adult population were 149.5/100,000 and 5.0/100,000 per year, respectively. Median tidal volume per predicted body weight was 8.7 ml/kg and airway pressure was 19 cmH2O. The 90-day mortality of ARF was 31%, and one-year mortality was 35%. The incidence of H1N1 was 24.7 per million inhabitants. Corticosteroids were used frequently and their use was not associated with mortality in these patients. Rescue therapies, except prone positioning, were rarely used. Hospital mortality of H1N1 patients was 8%. The level of serum zinc decreased with increased severity of cardiovascular organ failure, but was not associated with 30-day mortality. HRQOL at one year after ARF was lower than population values of similar age and gender. The mean estimated cost for a hospital survivor was 20,739. The mean predicted lifetime QALYs were 11.3, and cost for one QALY for all ARF patients was 1,391. This study showed that the incidence of ARF was higher, while the incidence of ARDS was lower in Finland than reported from other countries. Tidal volumes were higher than recommended in the concept of lung protective ventilation. The short- and long term mortality was low. The incidence of H1N1 was similar to that previously reported. Corticosteroid treatment was frequently used. Hospital mortality of H1N1 was 8%. Serum zinc level was not useful in predicting 30-day mortality. Cost per hospital survivor, and lifetime cost-utility was reasonable.
  • Niemelä, Reko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Doctoral dissertation Inclusionary practices in a Finnish pre-primary school context has been made in the context of the five-year EU project Includ-Ed (2006- 2011), which has 14 European universities as partners. The aim of the research was to find out the most supportive practices and the most unsupportive practices from a perspective of inclusion experienced by agents (persons). Agents are children, parents, teachers and administration and organisation members who were interviewed by communicative open interview. There were a total of 54 interviews. Inclusion is examined through perspectives of transformation and critical communication. Critical communicative methodology assumes that people can interpret their own behaviour and modify their actions based on that. To be able to analyse interviews, theory-based categories were used. After this, clusters were created using open categorisation. Of the results, when answering types are separated, 212 quotations were from professionals (teachers, administrators, members of organisations) whilst 88 quotations were from family and children. Professionals did make their voices heard more often than parents and children. Professionals gave over four times more transformative quotations than parents/children. Parents/children gave slightly more exclusionary quotations than professionals. In the light of research findings, parents and children are still unable to make their voices heard as well as they could, and parents attitude and preconceptions are unsupportive of inclusion. Lack of resources was the most unsupportive practice to inclusion according to the professionals. For all the agents, the most supportive practice to inclusion was co-operation. Keywords: inclusion, educational science, critical communicative methodology, content analysis, agents, ATLAS.ti
  • Malinen, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This thesis studies the effect of income inequality on economic growth. This is done by analyzing panel data from several countries with both short and long time dimensions of the data. Two of the chapters study the direct effect of inequality on growth, and one chapter also looks at the possible indirect effect of inequality on growth by assessing the effect of inequality on savings. In Chapter two, the effect of inequality on growth is studied by using a panel of 70 countries and a new EHII2008 inequality measure. Chapter contributes on two problems that panel econometric studies on the economic effect of inequality have recently encountered: the comparability problem associated with the commonly used Deininger and Squire s Gini index, and the problem relating to the estimation of group-related elasticities in panel data. In this study, a simple way to 'bypass' vagueness related to the use of parametric methods to estimate group-related parameters is presented. The idea is to estimate the group-related elasticities implicitly using a set of group-related instrumental variables. The estimation results with new data and method indicate that the relationship between income inequality and growth is likely to be non-linear. Chapter three incorporates the EHII2.1 inequality measure and a panel with annual time series observations from 38 countries to test the existence of long-run equilibrium relation(s) between inequality and the level of GDP. Panel unit root tests indicate that both the logarithmic EHII2.1 inequality measure and the logarithmic GDP per capita series are I(1) nonstationary processes. They are also found to be cointegrated of order one, which implies that there is a long-run equilibrium relation between them. The long-run growth elasticity of inequality is found to be negative in the middle-income and rich economies, but the results for poor economies are inconclusive. In the fourth Chapter, macroeconomic data on nine developed economies spanning across four decades starting from the year 1960 is used to study the effect of the changes in the top income share to national and private savings. The income share of the top 1 % of population is used as proxy for the distribution of income. The effect of inequality on private savings is found to be positive in the Nordic and Central-European countries, but for the Anglo-Saxon countries the direction of the effect (positive vs. negative) remains somewhat ambiguous. Inequality is found to have an effect national savings only in the Nordic countries, where it is positive.
  • Salmivaara, Maikki (2013)
    Tiedekunta/Osasto – Fakultet/Sektion – Faculty Politiikan ja talouden tutkimuksen laitos Laitos – Institution – Department Kehitysmaatutkimus Tekijä – Författare – Author Maikki Salmivaara Työn nimi – Arbetets titel – Title Food security, livelihoods and rural development in Chrokkhlong-village: a local perspective to the food system change in Cambodia Oppiaine – Läroämne – Subject Kehitysmaatutkimus Työn laji – Arbetets art – Level pro-gradu-tutkielma Aika – Datum – Month and year Toukokuu 2013 Sivumäärä – Sidoantal – Number of pages 111 Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Food has featured in the global development agenda for several decades. However, increasing food prices and the global food crisis of 2007-2008, fuelled the debate around food security, which was also one the main thematic priorities of Finn Church Aid's strategy in 2009-2012. This thesis was commissioned by FCA in order to examine food security in the context of their development cooperation project in Cambodia. The purpose of the study is to support FCA and their local partner organization, the Lutheran World Federation Cambodia’s work on food security. The study has two objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the intertwined issues of rural development and food security, and to the understanding of the food security approach and intervention logics. Firstly, food reality is scrutinized in a Cambodian rural village. The focus is on the functioning of the food system at the local level, and as part of a wider food system reaching beyond the village boundaries and even the national level. In addition, the household level food security is analysed from the perspective of livelihoods - means of gaining a living - and different ways of commanding or accessing food. This level allows scrutinizing how village level changes in the food system affect different kinds of families. Secondly, the study analyses the food security approach of LWF, with regard to the village food reality and in the light of politicised international discourses on food security. The thesis is a contextual case study of the village of Chrokhlong, based on one month’s field work period in November and December 2010, as well as LWF Cambodia’s program documents and interviews with the staff. The field work material consists of 43 interviews with the villagers, 76 informal discussions and personal observation. Food security and general development themes in Cambodia are explored through literature and personal interviews. The study found that the local food security is affected by important changes of the wider food system. Population growth and economic liberalization increase pressures on land and natural resources in the village context. Accumulation and fragmentation of land and degradation of common resources are related to the increasing commoditization of the village food system. Food security has become an issue of purchasing power. Land for rice cultivation appears as the most important factor contributing to household food security. The most food insecure families lack land and means of generating incomes in order to purchase food, such as family members in working age and good health. The poorest families are the most affected by the depletion of common resources and the increasing food prices. At a strategic level, LWF has adopted a holistic approach to food security and defines their objective as “right to food” in line with a rights based approach to development. However, at the practical level the approach seems narrower, and the work on food security focuses on enhancing food production. This focus risks not taking into account the food insecurity of the land-poor families who do not benefit from increasing productivity. The centrality of the land issue and the specific situation of the most food insecure families is no considered sufficiently. Based on this case study, an integrated and holistic rural development approach would seem to provide relatively more benefits to households that are able to produce to markets, while the food security of the poorest families can be even further threatened by a greater dependence of markets. While LWF’s ideals seem to reflect a “food justice” discourse, their practical work is more in line with the hegemonic discourse labelled as “food security”, that does not aim at affecting the structural causes of food insecurity at different levels. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords ruokaturva, ruokajärjestelmä, ruokaturvadiskurssi, maaseutukehitys, kehitysyhteistyö, Kambodzha
  • Lindén, Greger (Helsingin yliopisto, 1993)
  • Suojanen, Matti K. (1971)
  • Löflund, Jan-Erik; Löflund, Jan-Erik (2013)
    XML-tietomallin käyttö on yleistynyt mm. rakenteisissa dokumenteissa, verkkosovellusten toteuttamisessa ja Internetissä tapahtuvassa tiedonsiirrossa. Tämän myötä tarve XML-muotoisen tiedon pysyvään säilyttämiseen on kasvanut. Tähän tarkoitukseen on kehitetty XML-tietomallia tiedonsäilytys- ja käsittelymuotonaan käyttäviä XML-pohjaisia tietokantoja. XML-muotoiset dokumentit ovat usein rakenteeltaan monimuotoisia ja kooltaan suuria. Tämän vuoksi XML-tietokannanhallintajärjestelmä on suunniteltava ja toteutettava tehokkaaksi, jotta sen avulla voidaan kohtuullisin laitteistoresurssein ja lyhyin vasteajoin suorittaa suuriakin määriä tietokantakyselyitä ja -päivityksiä, jotka voivat myös olla monipuolisia ja rinnakkaisia ja kohdistua suureen määrään tietoa kerrallaan. Tässä työssä esitetään, miten XML-tietokannanhallintajärjestelmän suorituskykyä voidaan merkittävästi parantaa dokumenttien indeksoinnilla. Indeksoinnissa XML-dokumenttien elementeille luodaan yksikäsitteiset tunnisteet, joihin perustuen luodaan erilaisia indeksihakemistoja. Indeksoinnin avulla tieto voidaan tehokkaasti paikantaa tietokannan tietosivuilta ja siirtää tietokannanhallintajärjestelmän tietosivujen ja puskurin välillä, mikä nopeuttaa tietokannanhallintajärjestelmän toimintaa ja lisää sen kykyä käsitellä rinnakkaisia luku- ja kirjoituspyyntöjä. Indeksoinnin avulla voidaan myös tehostaa tieto­kannan­hallinta­järjestelmän kyselynkäsittelyalgoritmien toimintaa mahdollistamalla niiden käyttämien joukkoliitosoperaatioiden tehokas toteutus. BaseX- ja eXist ovat XML-pohjaisia tietokannanhallintajärjestelmiä, joissa käytettävissä on useita erilaisia indeksejä. Indeksien toteutus näissä järjestelmissä kuvataan, ja näiden järjestelmien tehokkuutta XML-dokumentteihin tehtävien tietokantakyselyiden suorituksessa mitataan ja arvioidaan tätä varten kehitetyn XMark-koetinkuorman avulla.
  • Wahlroos, Mika (2013)
    Tiedonhallinnassa käytetään usein metatietona tiedon sisältöä kuvaavia avainsanoja parantamaan tiedon hallittavuutta tai löydettävyyttä. Sisällön kuvailua luonnollisen kielen termein tai käsittein kutsutaan indeksoinniksi. Yhdenmukaisuuden vuoksi voidaan käyttää tarkoitusta varten laadittua asiasanastoa, joka kattaa toimialan kannalta keskeisen termistön. Semanttisessa webissä ja yhdistetyssä tiedossa käytettävät ontologiat vievät ajatuksen pitemmälle määrittelemällä termit käsitteinä ja niiden välisinä merkityssuhteina. Metatiedon tuottamisen helpottamiseksi ja tehostamiseksi on kehitetty erilaisia menetelmiä, joilla sisältöä kuvailevia termejä voidaan tuottaa tekstiaineistosta automaattisesti. Tässä tutkielmassa keskitytään avaintermien automaattiseen eristämiseen tekstistä sekä metatiedon laatuun ja sen arvioinnin menetelmiin. Esimerkkitapauksena käsitellään ontologiaa hyödyntävän Maui-indeksointityökalun käyttöä asiakirjallisen tiedon automaattiseen asiasanoittamiseen. Automaattisesti eristetyn metatiedon laatua verrataan alkuperäiseen ihmisten määrittämään asiasanoitukseen käyttäen tarkkuus- ja saantimittauksia. Lisäksi evaluointia täydennetään aihealueen asiantuntijoiden esittämillä subjektiivisilla laatuarvioilla. Tulosten perusteella selvitetään tekstin esikäsittelyn ja sanaston hierarkian merkitystä automaattisen asiasanoituksen laadun kannalta sekä pohditaan keinoja annotointimenetelmän jatkokehittämiseksi.
  • Rekilä, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Indemnity-ehto on anglomamerikkalaisesta perinteestä Suomeen rantautunut ehtotyyppi, jota käytetään erityisesti muun muassa lisenssisopimuksissa. Indemnity-ehtojen sisältöä ja roolia osana suomalaista sopimusoikeutta on kuitenkin käsitelty oikeuskirjallisuudessa vain vähän. Oikeuskirjallisuutta, jossa olisi keskitytty indemnity-ehtoihin nimenomaisesti vain lisenssisopimuksissa, ei ole lainkaan. Tämä tutkielma pyrkii täyttämään kyseisen aukon. Tarkalleen ottaen tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, miten indemnity-ehto vaikuttaa lisenssisopimuksen osapuolten väliseen vastuuseen kolmannen immateriaalioikeudellisista oikeudenloukkausväitteistä. Kysymykseen vastaamiseksi tutkielmassa tarkastellaan indemnity-ehtojen käyttötarkoitusta, laajuutta ja sopimuksen osapuolia ensin yleisesti ja tämän jälkeen nimenomaan lisenssisopimuksiin sovellettuina. Ymmärrystä syvennetään analysoimalla vastuunjakoa lisenssisopimuksiin sisältyvien indemnity-ehtojen tyyppitilanteessa eli silloin, kun indemnity-sitoumuksen antaja on lisenssinantaja. Tämän jälkeen tarkastellaan vielä indemnity-ehtojen suhdetta muihin vastuuriskien hallintaehtoihin, indemnity-ehtojen tulkintaa sekä mahdollisia kohtuuttomuus- ja sitomattomuustilanteita. Indemnity-ehtoja voidaan yleisellä tasolla kuvata vastuuriskien hallintamekanismiksi. Lisenssisopimusten kontekstissa ehdoilla sovitaan tyypillisesti kysymyksestä, kumman sopijapuolen vastuulle mahdolliset kolmannen esittämät yksinoikeuden loukkausväitteet ja niistä aiheutuvat seuraamukset kuuluvat osapuolten keskinäisessä suhteessa. Kyse on siis pohjimmiltaan vastuunjakoehdosta, mutta ehto voi tilanteesta riippuen tarkentua osapuolten välillä muutoinkin vallitsevan vastuunjaon vahvistajaksi, vastuun rajoittajaksi tai vastuun siirtäjäksi yhdeltä osapuolelta toiselle. Mikä näistä ehtotyypeistä on käsillä määräytyy sen mukaan, miten vastuu olisi jakautunut ilman ehtoa. Ilman tätä tietohana ei voida määrittää, miten indemnity-ehto muuttaa vastuun jakautumista. Lisenssinantajan vastuun määräytymiseen ilman ehtoa ei ole muodostunut oikeuskirjallisuudessa vakiintunutta kantaa. Voidaan kuitenkin pitää selvänä, että lisenssinantajalla ei ole vastuuta kolmannen perusteettomista väitteistä aiheutuneista kustannuksista. Perusteettomilla väitteillä tarkoitetaan kolmannen vaateita, jotka tulevat oikeudenkäynnissä tai muussa riidanratkaisumenettelyssä hylätyiksi. Sen sijaan silloin, kun kolmannen vaatimukset menestyvät tai niistä sovitaan, vastuu on mahdollinen. Indemnity-ehdon funktio suhteessa näihin tilanteisiin on toimia vastuunjaon selventäjänä. Lisenssinantajalla on vastuu suoraan ehdon perusteella. Indemnity-ehtoa käytettäessäkin voi kuitenkin olla epäselvää, missä vaiheessa lisenssinantajan hyvitysvelvollisuus aktualisoituu ja voiko lisenssinantaja vapaasti sopia riidan kolmannen kanssa ilman, että menettää oikeuttaan saada hyvitystä lisenssinantajalta. Vastauksena todetaan, että lisenssinantajan mahdollinen velvollisuus huolehtia lisenssinsaajan puolustuskustannuksista heti kolmannen tehtyä väitteensä riippuu osapuolten päättämästä ehdon sisällöstä. Lisäksi tutkielmassa katsotaan, että lisenssinsaajalla on oikeus sopia riita kolmannen kanssa edellyttäen, että lisenssinsaaja pyytää lisenssinantajalta kantaa asiaan. On mahdollista, että indemnity-ehto on ristiriidassa esimerkiksi välilliset vahingot pois sulkevan vahingonrajoitusehdon kanssa. Näin ollen indemnity-ehtojen sisältö saattaa yksittäistapauksissa muokkautua muiden ehtojen vaikutuksen takia. Lisäksi indemnity-ehtojen sisältöön voi riitatilanteissa vaikuttaa niiden tulkinta. Ensisijainen ehtojen tulkintatapa on tulkita ehtoa sopijapuolten alkuperäisen yhteisen tarkoituksen mukaisesti. Mikäli se ei ole mahdollista, ehtoa on perusteltua tulkita sopimusvelvoitteiden tasapainoa tukevan tulkintatavan mukaisesti. Joissakin tilanteissa kyseeseen voi tulla myös ehdon suppea tai kaikkien ehtojen pätevyyttä painottava tulkinta. Ehtojen kohtuuttomuus- ja sitomattomuusriski sen sijaan on kohtuullisen matala. Lähinnä kyseeseen voi tulla ehdon sitomattomuus toisen osapuolen tahallisen tai törkeän tuottamuksen seurauksena tai vakioehtoja käyttävän osapuolen laiminlyötyä tuoda ehdot sopimuksen piiriin.
  • Aalto, Maria (2011)
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether trust in supervisor and trust in senior management enhance employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and whether trust mediates the relationship between perceived justice and these outcomes. Trust in supervisor was expected to mediate the effects of distributive justice and interactional justice, and trust in senior management was expected to mediate the effects of procedural justice. Theoretical background of the study is based on the framework for trust in leadership developed by Dirks and Ferrin (2002). According to the framework, perceived fairness of leaders' actions helps employees to draw inferences about the basis of the relationship and about leaders' characters. This allows trust formation. Reciprocation of care and concern in the relationship and confidence in leaders' characters are likely to enhance employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study was conducted with cross-sectional data (A/ = 960) of employees from social and health care sector. Hypotheses were studied using correlation analysis and several hierarchical regression analyses. Significances of the mediations were assessed using the Sobel test. Results partially supported the hypotheses. Trust in leadership was positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Trust in senior management mediated the relationship between procedural justice and the outcomes. Some support was also found for the mediating effect of trust in supervisor in the relationship between distributive justice and organizational commitment. Due to high correlation between trust in supervisor anil interactional justice, it wasn't possible to study the mediating e fleet of trust in supervisor in the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes. Against expectations, results indicated that trust in senior management had a mediating effect in the relationship between distributive justice and organizational commitment, and in the relationship between interactional justice and organizational commitment. Results also indicated that trust in supervisor had a mediating effect in the relationship between procedural justice and organizational commitment.
  • Lehtonen, Miro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    XML documents are becoming more and more common in various environments. In particular, enterprise-scale document management is commonly centred around XML, and desktop applications as well as online document collections are soon to follow. The growing number of XML documents increases the importance of appropriate indexing methods and search tools in keeping the information accessible. Therefore, we focus on content that is stored in XML format as we develop such indexing methods. Because XML is used for different kinds of content ranging all the way from records of data fields to narrative full-texts, the methods for Information Retrieval are facing a new challenge in identifying which content is subject to data queries and which should be indexed for full-text search. In response to this challenge, we analyse the relation of character content and XML tags in XML documents in order to separate the full-text from data. As a result, we are able to both reduce the size of the index by 5-6\% and improve the retrieval precision as we select the XML fragments to be indexed. Besides being challenging, XML comes with many unexplored opportunities which are not paid much attention in the literature. For example, authors often tag the content they want to emphasise by using a typeface that stands out. The tagged content constitutes phrases that are descriptive of the content and useful for full-text search. They are simple to detect in XML documents, but also possible to confuse with other inline-level text. Nonetheless, the search results seem to improve when the detected phrases are given additional weight in the index. Similar improvements are reported when related content is associated with the indexed full-text including titles, captions, and references. Experimental results show that for certain types of document collections, at least, the proposed methods help us find the relevant answers. Even when we know nothing about the document structure but the XML syntax, we are able to take advantage of the XML structure when the content is indexed for full-text search.